WorldWideScience
 
 
1

External forcing of the early 20th century Arctic warming  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The observed Arctic warming during the early 20th century was comparable to present-day warming in terms of magnitude. The causes and mechanisms for the early 20th century Arctic warming are less clear and need to be better understood when considering projections of future climate change in the Arctic. The simulations using the Bergen Climate Model (BCM can reproduce the surface air temperature (SAT fluctuations in the Arctic during the 20th century reasonably well. The results presented here, based on the model simulations and observations, indicate that intensified solar radiation and a lull in volcanic activity during the 1920s–1950s can explain much of the early 20th century Arctic warming. The anthropogenic forcing could play a role in getting the timing of the peak warming correct. According to the model the local solar irradiation changes play a crucial role in driving the Arctic early 20th century warming. The SAT co-varied closely with local solar irradiation changes when natural external forcings are included in the model either alone or in combination with anthropogenic external forcings. The increased Barents Sea warm inflow and the anomalous atmosphere circulation patterns in the northern Europe and north Atlantic can also contribute to the warming. In summary, the early 20th century warming was largely externally forced.

Lingling Suo

2013-12-01

2

Early 20th century acoustics apparatus in Iowa  

Science.gov (United States)

In the first half of the 20th century G. W. Stewart was a physics faculty member at the University of Iowa (UI) with a distinguished record of research and teaching, especially in acoustics. Much of his research focused on the design and use of several types of acoustical filters. Some apparatus which he developed or utilized are still housed in the Department of Physics and Astronomy or are available in detailed diagrams. Demonstration apparatus (apparently homemade) from his era are still available for use. Carl E. Seashore, a renowned psychologist also at UI in the early 20th century, had interdisciplinary interests linking psychology, speech and hearing, music, and acoustics. He was responsible for obtaining an Henrici harmonic analyzer, a mechanical Fourier analyzer manufactured in Switzerland, a special grant from the state legislature during Depression conditions provided the funding. It resides in the Department of Speech Pathology and Audiology at UI. The Grinnell College Physics Historical Museum houses a set of 18 Helmholtz resonators and a Savart bell and resonator. Apparatus at Iowa State University, the University of Northern Iowa, and other Iowa institutions will also be described. Pictures and diagrams as well as some actual apparatus will be exhibited.

Hanson, Roger J.

2001-05-01

3

Festive Aprons in the Lithuanian Culture. 19th CenturyEarly 20th Century  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This doctoral dissertation analyses a part of the traditional folk costume – festive apron – which is presented not only as a garment, but also as a relatively independent and multidimensional cultural object, and a symbol of ethnic traditions and expressions of national identity. The research covers the period from the 19th century through the early 20th century. It is the first research systematically revealing the process of the apron losing its originally intended use and being given ...

Lebednykaite?, Migle?

2013-01-01

4

Globalization and Chinese Education in the Early 20th Century  

Science.gov (United States)

With China's growing significance in the global economy ever more evident, studies in recent years have highlighted multiple aspects of China's "Globalization" (or global connections) that predate the contemporary period. This article focuses on educational reform in the late Qing and early Republic as a way of illuminating a…

Bailey, Paul J.

2013-01-01

5

Extragalactic research in Europe and the United States in the early 20th century  

Science.gov (United States)

While the theoretical foundations of modern relativistic cosmology were laid, to a large extent, by European researchers like Einstein, de Sitter, Friedmann, Lemaître, and others, observational cosmology was (and to a large extent, still is) dominated by US astronomers, working at Lick and Mt. Wilson observatories. From today's viewpoint, Hubble appears to dwarf all his - national and international - peers. However, Keeler and Curtis, Fath and Slipher carried out pioneering work in the US, as did Wolf, Wirtz, Lundmark, de Sitter in Europe, both by observation and by statistical analysis of data. European extragalactic research during the early 20th century is outlined and compared with studies in the United States. Reasons for the small impact of European research are a mixture of deliberate and accidental neglect and suppression, as well as the lack of technical and organizational infrastructure, which was especially noticeable after World War I.

Duerbeck, H. W.

2002-07-01

6

Late 19th- and Early 20th-Century Asian Cities  

Science.gov (United States)

The map library at the University of Chicago has thousands of maps documenting everything from the growth of early cities in the Islamic world to the ethnographic breakdown of Chicago's neighborhoods. In the past several years, the library has been working to digitize some of its maps that document Asian cities in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The growth of some of these cities in the past century or so has been explosive; cities such as Beijing and Kolkata (Calcutta) would be unrecognizable to a time traveller deposited in their current urban form. Visitors will find two dozen maps here, which they can browse them as they see fit. The program used to look at the maps, Zoomify, allows visitors to zoom in quite closely to look at topographic and other details. Some of the highlights here include a 1922 planning map of Bangkok, a map of Bombay from 1919, and a tour guide map of Peshawar city from 1921.

7

Female Identity Problem in Lithuanina Women’s Creative Writings in the Late 19th – Early 20th Century  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ramun? Bleizgien?‘s dissertaiton Female Identity Problem in Lithuanian Women’s Creative Writing in the Late 19th – Early 20th Century analyses identity as a result of an interaction between a person and his/her socio-cultural context, by raising a question how the development of modern Lithuanian society influenced the forms of female identity. A heterogeneous methodological perspective introduces a shift in female identity as an inseparable part of the process of women becoming publi...

Bleizgiene?, Ramune?

2009-01-01

8

Views of Europe among Serbian political and cultural elite in late 20th and early 21st century  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

On the basis of his own previous research the author examines views of Europe held by the Serbian political and cultural elite in the late 20th and early 21st century. Unable to meet the challenges of the historical moment, this elite has brought Serbia into open conflict with its closest neighbors and exposed its citizens to international sanctions. War-mongering propaganda of the major state-controlled media was developing feelings of xenophobia and frustration among citizens. The collusion...

Jakši? Božidar

2006-01-01

9

Spanish Flu and Early 20th-Century Expansion of a Coronary Heart Disease–Prone Subpopulation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

According to Stephen Jay Gould, “we have a strong preference for seeing trends as entities moving somewhere.” However, trends may instead be the product of relative expansions and contractions of different subpopulations constituting the system. Variation in attributes of coronary heart disease cases during the decline in coronary heart disease mortality suggests a change in the primary source-subpopulation of cases over time. It is proposed that an early 20th-century expansion of a coron...

Azambuja, Maria Ine?s Reinert

2004-01-01

10

The controversial early brightening in the first half of 20th century: A contribution from pyrheliometer measurements in Madrid (Spain)  

Science.gov (United States)

A long-term decrease in downward surface solar radiation from the 1950s to the 1980s ("global dimming") followed by a multi-decadal increase up to the present ("brightening") has been detected in many regions worldwide. In addition, some researchers have suggested the existence of an "early brightening" period in the first half of the 20th century. However, this latter phenomenon is an open issue due to the opposite results found in literature and the scarcity of solar radiation data during this period. This paper contributes to this relevant discussion analyzing, for the first time in Southern Europe, the atmospheric column transparency derived from pyrheliometer measurements in Madrid (Spain) for the period 1911-1928. This time series is one of the three longest datasets during the first quarter of the 20th century in Europe. The results showed the great effects of the Katmai eruption (June 1912, Alaska) on transparency values during 1912-1913 with maximum relative anomalies around 8%. Outside the period affected by this volcano, the atmospheric transparency exhibited a stable behavior with a slight negative trend without any statistical significance on an annual and seasonal basis. Overall, there is no evidence of a possible early brightening period in direct solar radiation in Madrid. This phenomenon is currently an open issue and further research is needed using the few sites with available experimental records during the first half of the 20th century.

Antón, M.; Vaquero, J. M.; Aparicio, A. J. P.

2014-04-01

11

Roald Amundsen among the Magneticians: Polar Geophysics in the early 20th Century  

Science.gov (United States)

Roald Amundsen (1872-1928) is best known as a polar explorer, the first to lead a team to the South Pole in 1911. He did, however, have a serious interest in science, in particular, in geomagnetism. His expedition through the Northwest Passage above Canada in 1903 to 1906 and his Maud expedition through the Arctic ice in 1918 to 1925 included full complements of magnetic instrumentation. He and his magnetic researchers collaborated with the Carnegie Institution of Washington's Department of Terrestrial Magnetism and with the Prussian Geomagnetic Observatory in Potsdam for training, instruments, and research programs. Amundsen's expeditions provided magnetic and other geophysical data for important geographical regions, while gaining support for polar and geophysical research generally. His work is part of a broader 20th-century story that includes the International Polar Years and the International Geophysical Year.

Good, G. A.

2013-12-01

12

Exploring 20th Century London  

Science.gov (United States)

From the expansion of the Underground to the waves of new arrivals from the British colonies, London was greatly transformed through the 20th century. Recently, several London institutions, including the Museum of London, combed through their respective resources to create this interactive exhibit and archive that would tell visitors a bit about the city's evolution during those 100 years. The materials can be viewed through three sections: "Timeline", "Themes", and "Places". In the "Timeline" section, visitors can browse through featured objects and also learn about major events during the period. Moving on, the "Themes" area organizes the city's recent past into topical areas that focus on art and design, the built environment, ethnic communities, and leisure activities. The "Places" section features a clickable map of London's boroughs which reveals artifacts from each of these respective areas.

13

Research on iodine deficiency and goiter in the 19th and early 20th centuries.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1811, Courtois noted a violet vapor arising from burning seaweed ash and Gay-Lussac subsequently identified the vapor as iodine, a new element. The Swiss physician Coindet, in 1813, hypothesized the traditional treatment of goiter with seaweed was effective because of its iodine content and successfully treated goitrous patients with iodine. Two decades later, the French chemist Boussingault, working in the Andes Mountains, was the first to advocate prophylaxis with iodine-rich salt to prevent goiter. The French chemist Chatin was the first to publish, in 1851, the hypothesis that iodine deficiency was the cause of goiter. In 1883, Semon suggested myxedema was due to thyroid insufficiency and the link between goiter, myxedema, and iodine was established when, in 1896, Baumann and Roos discovered iodine in the thyroid. In the first 2 decades of the 20th century, pioneering studies by Swiss and American physicians demonstrated the efficacy of iodine prophylaxis in the prevention of goiter and cretinism. Switzerland's iodized salt program has been operating uninterrupted since 1922. Today, control of the iodine deficiency disorders is an integral part of most national nutrition strategies. PMID:18936198

Zimmermann, Michael B

2008-11-01

14

Exploring glacial change - flying in the tailwind of the early 20th century Greenland explorers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the early 1930s Greenlandic explorers and scientists began using airplanes as an effective mean of surveying and mapping the hitherto unknown and inaccessible lands. By replacing the dogsled and the drawing board with the seaplane and camera, huge areas could now be covered. Here in the 21st Century the photographs now serve as a snapshot of the state of the glaciers, and possess unique scientific value as they stand as the first testimony of hundreds of Greenlandic glaciers. In the summer of 2013, we flew in the paths of the early flights and captured the changes that occurred during the last 80 years. To revisit all the historic glaciers would be a near impossible, not to mention extremely expensive task, so we targeted the most important glaciers in terms of present mass loss as well as the most aesthetically appealing historical images. The result is a then-and-now comparison that vividly captures both the raw beauty of the land and the ongoing often dramatic glacial changes. As the historic flights covered nearly half the Greenlandic coast line, we capture both areas of massive retreat and areas of still stand and even advance.

Bjork, A. A.; Kjaer, K. H.

15

Views of Europe among Serbian political and cultural elite in late 20th and early 21st century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available On the basis of his own previous research the author examines views of Europe held by the Serbian political and cultural elite in the late 20th and early 21st century. Unable to meet the challenges of the historical moment, this elite has brought Serbia into open conflict with its closest neighbors and exposed its citizens to international sanctions. War-mongering propaganda of the major state-controlled media was developing feelings of xenophobia and frustration among citizens. The collusion between authoritarian government and war profiteers was systematically destroying the lives of Serbian citizens, bringing them to the brink of material impoverishment and spiritual misery. The process of dissolution of the common Yugoslav state is coming to its end in the first decade of this century. Just as it lacked wisdom political will or strength to prevent armed conflicts and crimes, the Serbian elite today is unable to condemn war crimes, to face disastrous consequences of its own policies, and to help Serbian citizens find their way to prosperity.

Jakši? Božidar

2006-01-01

16

Conservation of 19th and early 20th century oil paintings - in situ studies using the environmental scanning electron microscope  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Most 19th and early 20th century oil paintings suffer from fading, discolouration, pitting, cracking swelling or the loss of material due to the embrittlement or the extreme friability of the paint layers. As a consequence of this deterioration, they require special care by experienced conservators to ensure their continued preservation. These aging processes are a consequence of (i) chemical interactions between pigments, oils and binders used by the artist and (ii) the action of air, water and ultra-violet irradiation on these materials. The influence of chemical interactions is pertinent for paintings of this era as the industrial revolution brought forth new colourful chemicals that were quickly adopted as pigments with varying success. The conservation of oil paintings requires an understanding of the individual structure of each work of art and what mechanisms underlie its deterioration. This generally involves the need for (i) correct identification of the pigments used by the artist, (ii) a detailed knowledge of the chemical interaction between these pigments, (iii) an understanding of the artist's method of mixing colours and laying paint on the canvas and (iv) a detailed knowledge of the role of the atmosphere, moisture and UV irradiation on painting deterioration. In addition to dealing with the deterioration that occurs within the painting, conservators spend a large portion of their time correcting earlier failed conservation attempts. Most oilier failed conservation attempts. Most oil paintings from this era are valuable from an artistic or historic perspective and only an extremely small sample may be excised from the work, hence microscopy is an indispensable technique in art preservation. Optical microscopy is the core analysis technique used, however, in recent years a limited number of conservators have begun to use Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) technology to examine paint layers to take advantage of the accurate and rapid identification of elements present in layers of paints it allows. X-ray diffraction (XRD) can be used to ascertain pigments based on their crystal structure but this technique is generally ruled out due to the relatively large sample required for accurate identification. In this project techniques have been developed to examine the chemical interaction of pigments in oil paintings using the ESEM. The ultimate aim is to investigate these aging and degradation processes in situ under accelerated conditions using the controlled gas phase and temperature capabilities of this instrument. The ESEM also allows direct observation of the effects of sudden and slow changes in the relative humidity as well as the exposure to UV radiation on paint layers under controlled conditions. Other complementary techniques have been used to both characterise the pigments and linseed oils used in this work and to examine the chemical interactions in constructed paint layers. XRD has been used to characterise the dry pigments used in 19th and early 20th century oil paintings and GC-MS was used to characterize a range of linseed oils. Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Thermogravimetry have been used to study the drying kinetics of all the linseed oils used in this work on their own and in combination with pigments to establish the optimum conditions for ESEM analysis. Paint layers have been constructed using similar materials and methods as were used by oil painters in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Dry inorganic pigments of the type used in that era were obtained from an art supplier and chemical suppliers. Each pigment was ground in three types of linseed oil using the traditional muller and glass plate. These were applied in layers to glass slides to avoid influence from ground media or canvas and allowed to dry in the air and in an oven. Pigments that were known to interact strongly were placed in paint layers in direct contact with one another to encourage chemical interaction between the various pigments. In this paper, the key results to date of the present study

17

Structure of iron and steel rails produced in the 19th and early 20th century at Ural metallurgical works  

Science.gov (United States)

The structure of the metal of railway rails produced at Ural works in the period from 1878 to 1914 has been studied by a metallographic method. A comparative analysis of the quality of old Ural steel rails with modern analogs has been carried out. It has been shown that, by the beginning of the 20th century, the Ural rails, by their chemical composition, were close to the modern ones and corresponded to world specifications of that time.

Rodionov, D. P.; Schastlivtsev, V. M.; Tabatchikova, T. I.; Khlebnikova, Yu. V.

2009-09-01

18

Eigenvalue Computation in the 20th Century  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper sketches the main research developments in the area of computational meth­ ods for eigenvalue problems during the 20th century. The earliest of such methods dates back to work of Jacobi in the middle of the nineteenth century. Since computing eigenvalues and vectors is essentially more complicated than solving linear systems, it is not surprising that highly significant developments in this area started with the introduction of electronic computers around 1950....

Golub, G. H.; Vorst, H. A.

2000-01-01

19

On Serbian Slavic studies from the early 20th century from the perspective of the first volume of Južnoslovenski filolog  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper analyzes the articles published in the first volume of Južnoslovenski Filolog which gives the clear picture of Serbian Slavic studies from the early 20th century. The articles mostly delt with the research of the oldest Slavic written documents, Slavic dialects which preserve the characteristics of the mutual Slavic proto-language, and they also delt with the comparative analyses of the Slavic langu ages in order to be able to recreate proto-Slavic language. The main method of research was comparative historical one. It is noticable that some of the articles were more topical than others, that reviewers were very critical, and that it is possible to get a picture of everyday life in Serbia from early 20th century from those articles. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 178021: Opis i standardizacija savremenog srpskog jezika

Dragi?evi? Rajna M.

2013-01-01

20

On Serbian Slavic studies from the early 20th century from the perspective of the first volume of Južnoslovenski filolog  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper analyzes the articles published in the first volume of Južnoslovenski Filolog which gives the clear picture of Serbian Slavic studies from the early 20th century. The articles mostly delt with the research of the oldest Slavic written documents, Slavic dialects which preserve the characteristics of the mutual Slavic proto-language, and they also delt with the comparative analyses of the Slavic langu ages in order to be able to recreate proto-Sla...

Dragi?evi? Rajna M.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Musical instrument technology of the 20th century  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a brief history of the technical development of musical instruments during the 20th century. Starting with early electronic instruments (such as the Theremin-1917) invented prior to the organization of ASA, the history includes the development of electronic organs, synthesizers, and computer music. This paper provides an introduction to the session, giving a framework for the papers which follow in the session.

Wheeler, Paul

2001-05-01

22

Early 20th Century Education in the United States: The Role of the Brothers of Holy Cross  

Science.gov (United States)

The French Revolution bears an ironic responsibility for generating works of charity. To counteract the devastating social effects of that late 18th century uprising, numerous religious communities were founded in France, among them the Congregation of Holy Cross. The Congregation of Holy Cross, the founding religious community behind the…

Armstrong, Philip C.

2007-01-01

23

Dietary Changes in Sweden and Belgium During the Late 20th and Early 21st Century and Their Implications for Sustainability  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This dissertation focuses on the changing food consumption patterns in Sweden and Belgium during the latter half of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century and the implications as seen from a sustainability point of view, both from a qualitative and quantitative perspective. It is shown that changes in agriculture, food processing, distribution and consumption during the period under assessment were considerable and had a clear impact on the food consumption pattern in both cou...

Geeraert, Friedel

2011-01-01

24

The early vs the late 20th century Arctic warming: The role of energy and aerosol fluxes in reanalysis driven datasets  

Science.gov (United States)

During the last two decades, the Arctic was put into the scientific focus as one of the most impacted regions worldwide concerning anthropogenic global warming. However, the warming between 1920 and 1940 proofs the importance of internal variability on yearly and decadal scale. Therefore, it is important to further investigate the role of external and internal forcings on the Arctic climate attribute process and causes leading to changes in the Arctic climate regime (Serreze & Barry 2009). Although much research effort was spent to understand the links and influences of and on the Arctic climate, there is still a need for further insights concerning this topic. Especially the results and discussion about anthropogenic global warming and Arctic amplification put the Arctic into the public and academic focus (Serreze & Barry 2011). However, the early 20th century Arctic warming, although discovered immediately, was scientifically forgotten until recently (Delworth & Knutson 2000, Bengtsson et al 2004, Grant et al 2009, Bekryaev et al 2010). The comparison of this earlier Arctic warming and the recent warming period grants a chance to deepen knowledge about the drivers of Arctic climate and can be used to evaluate the anthropogenic impact. The authors use the Twentieth Century Reanalysis (20CR) dataset and a nudged, reanalysis-driven Aerosol Global Circulation Model (A-GCM) to investigate the impact of atmospheric energy and aerosol fluxes into the Arctic during the 20th century. The 20CR dataset covers the period of 1871 - 2010 with a temporal resolution of 6hr and a spatial resolution of 2° x 2°. For the first time, this dataset (and ist 56 ensemble member) is used to compute the atmospheric energy flux, consisting of sensble heat, latent heat, potential energy and kinetic energy. The values are integrated around 70° N and between 1000 - 100 hPa. Aerosol fluxes for the same domain but for the years 1957 - 2000 are calculated based on the A-GCM nudged to the ECMWF 40 year Re-analysis (ERA) and correlated to circulation patterns. Based on these dataset we analyze timeseries and patterns of several variables, with a focus on the temperature changes in the Arctic domain. We show that the 20CR can recreate recent sensible heat fluxes, meaning from the 1950s onward. Before this timeperiod 20CR exhibits a strong positive energy influx between 1920 and 1930, which is difficult to validate, however probably arises due to missrepresentation of local wind maxima, mostly over the Canadian Arctic. The authors highlight the impact of this flaw by investigating snow cover and atmospheric stability over the Arctic. Finally, the two datasets are compared and exemplary extreme events in aerosol fluxes are analysed in terms of warming impact and the related circulation patterns. Possible implications for the future use of 20CR are discussed, together with the impact of our findings for the interpretation of the early 20th warming in todays context.

Wegmann, Martin; Broennimann, Stefan

2014-05-01

25

The Marine Biological Laboratory (Woods Hole) and the Scientific Advancement of Women in the Early 20th Century: The Example of Mary Jane Hogue (1883-1962).  

Science.gov (United States)

The Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) in Woods Hole, MA provided opportunities for women to conduct research in the late 19th and early 20th century at a time when many barriers existed to their pursuit of a scientific career. One woman who benefited from the welcoming environment at the MBL was Mary Jane Hogue. Her remarkable career as an experimental biologist spanned over 55 years. Hogue was born into a Quaker family in 1883 and received her undergraduate degree from Goucher College. She went to Germany to obtain an advanced degree, and her research at the University of Würzburg with Theodor Boveri resulted in her Ph.D. (1909). Although her research interests included experimental embryology, and the use of tissue culture to study a variety of cell types, she is considered foremost a protozoologist. Her extraordinary demonstration of chromidia (multiple fission) in the life history of a new species of Flabellula associated with diseased oyster beds is as important as it is ignored. We discuss Hogue's career path and her science to highlight the importance of an informal network of teachers, research advisors, and other women scientists at the MBL all of whom contributed to her success as a woman scientist. PMID:25103622

Zottoli, Steven J; Seyfarth, Ernst-August

2014-08-01

26

Koeberg: SA's only 20th century nuclear station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article deals with the question of Koeberg being South Africa's only 20th century nuclear power station. According to Escom's chairman, Koeberg must be seen as a forerunner of a programme which will begin to mature in the next century. The cost of Koeberg is compared to the cost attached to a coal-fired power station

27

20th Century Accounts of American Citizenship  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Accounts of citizenship by Presidents of the American Political Science Association (APSA are examined through Mannheim’s sociology of knowledge. We use Marshall as a platform to reconceptualise the dynamics of Mannheim’s three incommensurable ‘thought styles’: one liberal; one conservative; and one dialectically social. We suggest on this basis that American political citizenship in the twentieth century entails three incompatible but concurrent ‘thought styles’, that involve a triple helix of political rationalities (see White and Donoghue 2003. The model is tested in a longitudinal study of ‘citizenship and democracy’ in regular social scientific usage. The empirical material comprises the presidential addresses to the American Political Science Association (APSA published in the American Political Science Review (APSR from 1906 to 1997. The findings suggest that the addresses by the presidents of the Political Science Association of America invoke intertwining rationalities that relate twentieth century citizenship to classical political discourses.

Jed Donoghue

2014-04-01

28

Rational Number Theory in the 20th Century  

CERN Document Server

The last one hundred years have seen many important achievements in the classical part of number theory. After the proof of the Prime Number Theorem in 1896, a quick development of analytical tools led to the invention of various new methods, like Brun's sieve method and the circle method of Hardy, Littlewood and Ramanujan; developments in topics such as prime and additive number theory, and the solution of Fermat's problem. "Rational Number Theory in the 20th Century: From PNT to FLT" offers a short survey of 20th century developments in classical number theory, documenting between

Narkiewicz, Wladyslaw

2012-01-01

29

Cardiology's 10 Greatest Discoveries of the 20th Century  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present a brief summary of the 10 greatest cardiologic developments and discoveries of the 20th century. Described are electrocardiography; preventive cardiology and the Framingham Study; “lipid hypotheses” and atherosclerosis; coronary care units; echocardiography; thrombolytic therapy; cardiac catheterization and coronary angiography; open-heart surgery; automatic implantable cardiac defibrillators; and coronary angioplasty. These topics are the personal choices of the authors. (Tex ...

Mehta, Nirav J.; Khan, Ijaz A.

2002-01-01

30

Nuclear tracks: A success story of the 20th century  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Starting with the observation of a few feeble trails of damage in a sheet of mica exposed to fission fragments some 40 years ago, the discipline based on their correct interpretation has emblazoned a resounding success story in the second half of the 20th century. The spectrum of information revealed by the technique extends from delineating the history of the cosmos over billions of years to observing exotic decays lasting from a minute to a fraction of a second. More, directly useful researches have included medical and biological uses as well as industrial applications. A topic of great current interest is the study of the environmental and health effects of the naturally occurring radon gas. These and other highlights of the track work over the past 40 odd years of the 20th century - with some tentative glimpses of things to come in the 21st - are presented and examined in this review paper

31

Nutrition and food commodities in the 20th century.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nutrition in the 20th century is examined with respect to changes in the American diet due to changes in the economy and evolution from an agrarian to an industrialized society. The American farm family diet from two regions of the United States during the 1930s is studied on the basis of overall availability of food commodities. A discussion of the diet staples and differences in farm family health is presented and related to nutritional deficiencies. Beginning in the 1920s through the early 1930s dietary deficiencies became a major focus of public health officials in the United States. Identification of the cause of these human nutritional deficiencies prompted significant research by government agencies such as the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Drug Administration, and National Institutes of Health. Medical schools, universities, pharmaceutical corporations, and private institutions directed their resources into basic chemical research and clinical trials to assess the role of vitamins, minerals, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nutrients for improving human health and nutrition. Chemists played an important role in the discovery of vitamins, minerals, and essential nutrients, validating the efficacy through tedious clinical trials. They developed synthetic vitamins affording food manufacturers and pharmaceutical companies the opportunity to capitalize upon fortifying foods for consumers. The American chemist was also responsible for the development of commodities to maximize crop yield through pesticides and fertilizers. PMID:19719130

Martini, Sharon A; Phillips, Marshall

2009-09-23

32

20th century precipitation trends in the Yangtze river catchment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The 1990´s Precipitation at 16 stations in the Yangtze River Catchment within the context of 20th century time-series has been analysed. Linear trends, decadal fluctuations, occurrence of extreme years, and inter-annual variability of annual precipitation have been examined with special focus on 90s precipitation. Changes in monthly precipitation were analysed by decadal comparison, analyses of inner-annual variabilities and Mann-Kendall trend tests. No general inc...

Becker, Stefan; Gemmer, Marco; Jiang, Tong; Ke, Chanqing

2003-01-01

33

Cardiology's 10 Greatest Discoveries of the 20th Century  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a brief summary of the 10 greatest cardiologic developments and discoveries of the 20th century. Described are electrocardiography; preventive cardiology and the Framingham Study; “lipid hypotheses” and atherosclerosis; coronary care units; echocardiography; thrombolytic therapy; cardiac catheterization and coronary angiography; open-heart surgery; automatic implantable cardiac defibrillators; and coronary angioplasty. These topics are the personal choices of the authors. (Tex Heart Inst J 2002;29:164–71) PMID:12224718

Mehta, Nirav J.; Khan, Ijaz A.

2002-01-01

34

ENTRE LO TRADICIONAL Y LO MODERNO BOGOTÁ A COMIENZOS DEL SIGLO XX / Between traditional and modern. Bogotá, in the early 20th century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El documento expone los procesos de transformación de Bogotá en las primeras tres décadas del siglo XX, centrando la mirada en tres factores específicos. 1) Las adecuaciones urbanísticas: servicios públicos; construcción de barrios para las élites y desarrollo de los denominados "barrios obreros". C [...] ivilización, modernización vs. tradición es lo que allí se establece como contradicción. 2) El desarrollo de la administración pública bogotana y los modos en que asume la modernización de la ciudad. 3) Los modos en que los habitantes de la ciudad comenzaban a sentir las experiencias de vida urbana a partir de la configuración de nuevos escenarios públicos, como parques, plazas, cine, entre otros. Finalmente, se presentan algunas conclusiones centradas en las tensiones entre tradición y modernidad para dar cuenta de un momento en el que se produce y se siente el tránsito entre la vida de pueblo y los elementos de ciudad. Abstract in english This document portrays the process of material and cultural transformation of Bogotá (Colombia) during the first three decades of 20th century from three points of view. First, the urban modifications: public services, development of elites and poor neighborhoods. The categories Civilization versus [...] Tradition are used to establish the central contradiction. Second, the development of public administration of de city and how is understood the modernization of the Bogotá by that public administration. Third, how the urban people started to feel the new experiences about the urban life from the configurations of new public scenarios such as parks, squares, cinemas, etc. Finally, this document offers some conclusions centered in the tensions between tradition and modernity with the purpose to depict the circumstances how the people in Bogotá started to feel the transition from the dynamic of a small town life to the city life.

Jorge Orlando, Blanco Suárez; Giovanny Francesco, Salcedo Cruz.

2012-07-15

35

Kitty Malloys and rebel girls: Representations of the woman worker in Vancouver’s early 20th century mainstream and radical labour newspapers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Vancouver’s early twentieth century mainstream newspapers captured a feminine culture of the young woman worker caught in a moral paradox of naïveté and willing impropriety. Through images and narratives, the tumultuous social and economic changes of the day were rendered “class-based girl problems.” By contrast, radical labour newspapers represented women workers as “rebel girls” and valiant helpmates to the working class movement. This examination of images and narratives prompt...

Schachtel, Kristin Michelle

2010-01-01

36

Development of Astronomy in Serbia in the 20th Century  

Science.gov (United States)

A short review of the developement of astronomy in Serbia from the foundation of Department of Astronomy and Meteorology in 1884 and of Belgrade Astronomical observatory in 1887 up to now is given. Certainly the central place within the history of Serbian astronomy in 20th century has the Belgrade Astronomical observatory, his history and development, as well as the foundation and development of studies of astronomy at the Belgrade University. The particular merit for the development of astronomy in Serbia has Milan Nedeljkovi?, whose contribution will be discussed. Moreover, the contribution of other astronomers as Djordje Stanojevi?, the first serbian astrophysicist, Milutin Milankovi? , who gave the astronomical solution to the quartenary ice ages problem and others will be considered as well as the development of Serbian Astronomical society and of amateur astronomy.

Dimitrijevi?, Milan S.

37

FRUIT GROWING IN ROMANIA IN THE 20TH CENTURY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Romania, fruit growing has an old and rich tradition. During the 20th century, the Romanian fruit growing witnessed dramatic changes. The acreage grown with fruit trees was 340,100 ha in 1927, 184,200 ha in 1950, 428,400 ha in 1970 and 239,900 ha in 1999. Total fruit yield varied during this period of time between 401,100 tons in 1950 and 2,183,000 tons in 1993. In spite of the fact that in 1993 was produced the highest total fruit yield, the average fruit consumption/capita was only of 35.7 kg which is significantly lower than that considered optimal for adult people in temperate zones (62 kg/capita. The main reason of this situation is the poor varietal structure of fruits in which plum trees represented more than 40% of all the fruit trees grown. Another reason would be the low yields/ha registered in all species and cultivars of fruit trees grown in Romania in the last 30-40 years. With a very serious shrink of acreages grown with fruit trees in 1999, the average consumption/capita is expected to become totally unfavorable. There are not many solutions to this problems and one of them certainly means the significant increase of average yields in all fruit species grown in Romania, at least to the level of those achieved in industrial orchards of Western Europe.

G ROPAN

2002-11-01

38

The dawning of the theory of equilibrium figures: a brief historical account from the 17th through the 20th century  

CERN Document Server

A brief but complete historical survey of the theory of equilibrium figures from its early origins, dating back to 17th-century, until the late 20th-century developments, with a view towards its applications, is carried out.

Iurato, Giuseppe

2014-01-01

39

Climate Variability in the Stratosphere during the 20th Century  

Science.gov (United States)

The stratosphere exhibits chemical and dynamical variability on different time scales, ranging from day-to-day variability to interdecadal variability and trends. Volcanic eruptions, solar variability, ozone depletion, or El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), affect both troposphere and stratosphere, and it is an open question to what extent the climate effect proceeds via the stratosphere. The current data records as well as model simulations addressing stratospheric chemical climate variability mostly cover the past few decades only, which often is not sufficient to address interannual-to-decadal variability. Here we present results of transient simulations with the chemistry-climate model (CCM) SOCOL, spanning the whole 20th century. SOCOL is a combination of the middle atmosphere version of ECHAM4 (MPI, Hamburg) and the chemistry-transport model MEZON (PMOD/WRC, Davos). The simulations are carried out in ensemble-mode (9 members) prescribing sea surface temperature, sea ice distribution, volcanic aerosols, solar variability, greenhouse gases, ozone depleting substances, land surface changes, and quasi-biennial oscillation. The model's performance in reproducing key dynamical and chemical characteristics is validated against various observational and (prior to 1957) reconstructed upper air datasets. It is shown that the amount of internal variability can be a dominating source of year-to-year variations. A multiple linear regression model was applied to zonally averaged fields in order to extract the contributions of different boundary conditions to the modeled variability. The ENSO signal in the northern hemispheric winter shows a deceleration of the zonal flow at high latitudes accompanied by an increase of vertically propagating planetary waves. In the presentation this signal is further compared to idealized model experiments simulating extreme phases of ENSO.

Fischer, A.; Brönnimann, S.; Rozanov, E.; Schraner, M.

2009-09-01

40

Global physical water scarcity trajectories for the 20th century  

Science.gov (United States)

Food security and the overall wellbeing of human kind are threatened by overexploitation of our freshwater resources. Water scarcity is not only a threat to people, but also to many of the planet's key ecosystems. Due to increasing population pressure, changing water consumption behaviour, and climate change, the threat is projected to become even worse in the future. Water can be physically scarce in two ways: population-driven water shortage occurs in areas where a large population has to depend on a limited resources (indicated by m3/capita/yr), while demand-driven water stress is related to the excessive use of otherwise sufficient water resources (indicated by demand/supply ratio). Although many studies have increased our understanding of current water scarcity and how this may increase in the future, the understanding of trajectories with the past development of the water scarcity is less well understood. To date, studies of past water resources have focused on either water shortage or water stress. We aim to calculate global water scarcity, both water stress and water shortage, for the period 1900-2005. We can thus provide, for the first time, continuous regional trends and local analyses of trajectories of water scarcity for the entire 20th century. By including both dimensions of water scarcity, we can increase the understanding of reasons behind the scarcity. We found that in year 1900 13% of the population (i.e. 0.22 billion people) was living in areas that suffer some kind of water scarcity (0.2), while in year 2005 this percentage has increased to 57% (3.80 billion). Especially the population suffering from both high water stress (ratio >0.4) and high water shortage (water shortage. We used WaterGAP model to simulate the water use and available water resources. WaterGAP was forced with WATCH data. For the past population, we used HYDE dataset. The water scarcity results are plotted in Falkenmark's water scarcity matrix, which combines water stress and water shortage, to illustrate trajectories of how water scarcity develops for different regions. Insights into these trajectories can help to understand possible measures to alleviate water scarcity for different regions and support macro-scale analysis and planning to tackle with the future challenges in terms of water scarcity.

Kummu, Matti; de Moel, Hans; Eisner, Stefanie; Flörke, Martina; Siebert, Stefan; Varis, Olli

2014-05-01

 
 
 
 
41

Cultura política e políticas para o ensino de história em Santa Catarina no início do século XX / Political culture and history teaching policies in early 20th-century Santa Catarina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O artigo apresenta análises das relações estabelecidas entre a produção historiográfica e a produção de uma história de Santa Catarina para o uso escolar, no início do século XX. A cultura política republicana era construída e se legitimava como parte de um fenômeno que precisava formular respostas [...] à sociedade sobre variados problemas 'herdados do Império' que impediam o progresso do Brasil. No caso dos catarinenses, era preciso enfrentar o desafio de uma educação cívico-patriótica num território em que o sistema escolar, precário, ainda lidava com o problema da língua, posto que em muitas escolas falava-se alemão ou italiano, por exemplo. Estas questões são problematizadas por meio da análise da produção sobre a história de Santa Catarina pelo Instituto Histórico e Geográfico Catarinense (criado em 1896), de manuais didáticos que circularam nesse período, programas e relatórios de ensino. O objetivo é contribuir para o estudo das relações entre ensino de História e cultura política, buscando compreender como o ensino de História participou, naquele período, de projeções simbólicas sobre o futuro do Brasil, a partir de leituras compartilhadas de seu passado. Abstract in english This article analyzes the relations weaved between historiographic production and the production of a history of Santa Catarina for school use in the early 20th century. Republican political culture was constructed and legitimated as part of a phenomenon which needed to formulate answers for society [...] regarding several 'Empire-inherited' issues holding back progress in Brazilian. In the case of Santa Catarina, one of the issues faced was the challenge of patriotic education in a territory where the precarious school system also had to deal with the issue of language, since in several schools the language spoken was German or Italian. These issues are analyzed through the production of the history of Santa Catarina history, consisting of the didactic material published at that time, such as teaching programs and reports, by the Instituto Histórico e Geográfico Catarinense (created in 1896). The objective is to contribute to discussions about the relation between history teaching and political culture, in the sense of understanding the ways in which the teaching of history participated, in the early 20th century, in symbolic projections of the future of Brazil through shared readings of their past.

Cristiani Bereta da, Silva; Ernesta, Zamboni.

42

Review of Science and American Literature in the 20th and 21st Centuries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Review of Maniez, Claire, Ronan Ludot-Vlasak, and Frederic Dumas, eds., Science and American Literature in the 20th and 21st Centuries: From Henry Adams to John Adams (Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2012)

Richard Moss

2014-01-01

43

Towards a 20th Century History of Relationships between Theatre and Neuroscience  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article considers some preliminary reflections in view of a 20th century theatre-and-neuroscience history. Up to now, the history of the 20th century theatre has been too fragmentary and irregular, missing out on the subterranean links which, either directly or indirectly, bound different experiences. The article aims to put in evidence the recurrent problems of these encounters. The hypothesis of the essay concerns the possibility of gathering and grouping a great part of the relationsh...

Gabriele Sofia

2014-01-01

44

Public Opinion, and Propaganda in 20th Century America: The Case of the Lippmann/Dewey Debate  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The nexus between the public, public opinion, and propaganda garnered scholarly attention not until the 18th century. In the United States, for instance, the debate between the journalist Walter Lippmann and the philosopher John Dewey in the early 20th century on the role of instrumental rationality was key. While the former argued that the opinions of the public are inchoate, and therefore less reliable in running the State, the latter insisted that such a position is anti-democratic, and un...

Wincharles Coker

2013-01-01

45

???????????? ?? ??????? ??????? ? ????????????? ????? ?? 20 ??? : The theology of the Divine energies in 20th century Orthodox thought  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The dissertation was part of an individual doctoral research program as an external scholar in the Faculty of Theology at Sofia University, Bulgaria. It suggests a comprehensive study of the concept of energy in Orthodox theology and physics. It consists of a historical, dogmatic and empirical component. The first chapter discusses the re-emergence of the distinction between Divine essence and energies in Orthodox theology by focusing on the sophiological controversy in the first half of 20th century with a specific emphasis on the theology of Fr. Georges Florovsky and Fr. Sergius Bulgakov. The analysis points out the role of Fr. G. Florovsky for the rediscovery of the teaching on the Divine essence and energies as one of his key theological contributions by focusing on some of his letters to Bulgakov that were written as early as 1925 and on his work Creature and creaturehood (1927). The analysis suggests that these early works have determined the main direction of Orthodox theological reflection in the 20thcentury. Chapter II of the dissertation focuses on a comparative analysis of the theological insights of three key Orthodox theologians: Metropolitan John Zizioulas (1931 ?), Fr. Dumitru Staniloae (1903 ? 1993) and Fr. John Romanides (1927?2001). Metropolitan John Zizioulas is a Greek theologian who is currently the main theological representative of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, New Rome. Fr. D. Staniloae is a Romanian theologian who provided one of the most comprehensive theological syntheses in the 20th century. Fr. Romanides is a Greek-born American theologian who returned to Greece and became one of the main drivers of the renewal of Greek Orthodox theology in the 20th century. These three theologians have significantly contributed to Orthodox theology in the 20th century and have addressed the teaching on the Divine energies in different ways. Fr. D. Staniloae and Fr. John Romanides included the teaching on the Divine energies as an integral part of their theological systems. Metr. John Zizioulas adopted a different approach trying to demonstrate that the teaching on the Divine energies is not essential in Orthodox theology. The dissertation suggests a comparative analysis of the three theologians to show that neglecting the teaching on the energies leads to a narrower understanding of both spiritual life and the Church. Chapter III provides a parallel study of the term energy in Orthodox theology and physics. Its intention is to build on existing works and established knowledge to provide a basis for the development of an interdisciplinary analytical framework in contribution to the ongoing contemporary dialogue between science and theology. The Chapter starts with a discussion of the methodological grounds for the parallel exploration of the concept of energy in Orthodox theology and physics by focusing on the ‘analogical isomorphism’ approach. Afterwards it provides a more detailed articulation of the ways the concept of energy is used in physics and Orthodox theology by concentrating on the history, content and major issues related to two debates, the first one, between two monks - Barlaam the Calabrian and St Gregory Palamas - in 14th century Byzantium, and, the second, between two great physicists - Niels Bohr and Albert Einstein - in the 20th century. The qualitative comparative analysis approach was found to be particularly fruitful. It builds on insights from Eastern Christian (Byzantine) theology, philosophy of science and philosophy of religion to suggest an analysis of the way of using language in theology and quantum mechanics. The Chapter concludes by summarizing the observations emerging from the analysis and a number of conclusions related to their potential value for the science-theology dialogue.

Tanev, Stoyan

2012-01-01

46

Effects of Irrigation on Global Climate During the 20th Century  

Science.gov (United States)

Various studies have documented the effects of modern ]day irrigation on regional and global climate, but none, to date, have considered the time ]varying impact of steadily increasing irrigation rates on climate during the 20th century. We investigate the impacts of observed irrigation changes over this century with two ensemble simulations using an atmosphere general circulation model. Both ensembles are forced with transient climate forcings and observed sea surface temperatures from 1902 to 2000; one ensemble includes irrigation specified by a time ]varying data set of irrigation water withdrawals. Early in the century, irrigation is primarily localized over southern and eastern Asia, leading to significant cooling in boreal summer (June.August) over these regions. This cooling spreads and intensifies by century fs end, following the rapid expansion of irrigation over North America, Europe, and Asia. Irrigation also leads to boreal winter (December.February) warming over parts of North America and Asia in the latter part of the century, due to enhanced downward longwave fluxes from increased near ]surface humidity. Precipitation increases occur primarily downwind of the major irrigation areas, although precipitation in parts of India decreases due to a weaker summer monsoon. Irrigation begins to significantly reduce temperatures and temperature trends during boreal summer over the Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes and tropics beginning around 1950; significant increases in precipitation occur in these same latitude bands. These trends reveal the varying importance of irrigation ]climate interactions and suggest that future climate studies should account for irrigation, especially in regions with unsustainable irrigation resources.

Puma, M. J.; Cook, B. I.

2010-01-01

47

Radiation legacy of the 20th century: Environmental restoration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a result of events in the twentieth century, mainly related to the development of nuclear energy, mankind has been forced to deal with the restoration of the environments which contain radioactive residues. The International Conference RADLEG-200 was particularly focused on the radioactive legacy of the countries of the former Soviet Union and eastern Europe. By means of reviews and case studies the conference assessed the overall situation with respect to the contaminated sites and sources of potential environmental contamination and evaluated the achievements of rehabilitation and remediation programmes as well as identifying future needs in this field. The Conference was attended by 266 participants from 16 countries and 6 international organizations with 49 papers presented orally and 64 presented as posters. This publication contains the 49 orally presented papers, each of them was indexed separately

48

Towards a 20th Century History of Relationships between Theatre and Neuroscience  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article considers some preliminary reflections in view of a 20th century theatre-and-neuroscience history. Up to now, the history of the 20th century theatre has been too fragmentary and irregular, missing out on the subterranean links which, either directly or indirectly, bound different experiences. The article aims to put in evidence the recurrent problems of these encounters. The hypothesis of the essay concerns the possibility of gathering and grouping a great part of the relationships between theatre and neuroscience around four trajectories: the physiology of action, the physiology of emotions, ethology, and studies on the spectator’s perception.

Gabriele Sofia

2014-05-01

49

Book of extremes why the 21st century isn’t like the 20th century  

CERN Document Server

What makes the 21st century different from the 20th century? This century is the century of extremes -- political, economic, social, and global black-swan events happening with increasing frequency and severity. Book of Extremes is a tour of the current reality as seen through the lens of complexity theory – the only theory capable of explaining why the Arab Spring happened and why it will happen again; why social networks in the virtual world behave like flashmobs in the physical world; why financial bubbles blow up in our faces and will grow and burst again; why the rich get richer and will continue to get richer regardless of governmental policies; why the future of economic wealth and national power lies in comparative advantage and global trade; why natural disasters will continue to get bigger and happen more frequently; and why the Internet – invented by the US -- is headed for a global monopoly controlled by a non-US corporation. It is also about the extreme innovations and heroic innovators yet t...

Lewis, Ted G

2014-01-01

50

A history of leprosy in Iran during the 19th and 20th centuries.  

Science.gov (United States)

From ancient time leprosy has been regarded as a terrifying, stigmatized disease; nevertheless, its cause remained unidentified up to the late 19th century. For centuries numerous leprosy victims worldwide suffered from its morbidity and were socially isolated. The afflicted individuals were segregated because they were considered 'unclean' and had to live in leper colonies, generally under very poor conditions. Physicians believed that leprosy was an incurable, highly contagious, and hereditary disease. In 1873 the Norwegian physician, Gerhard Armauer Hansen (1841-1912), ended the myth of leprosy and discovered its causative agent, known as Mycobacterium leprae. Hansen's discovery was a great triumph in the fight against leprosy. In the 1930's, the first effective antileprosy drug, dapsone, was introduced and in the early 1980's multi-drug therapy was popularized because of high efficacy in resistant cases. Here, we have presented a brief look at the history of leprosy in the world with special focus on the historical account of leprosy in Iran, particularly during the 19th and 20th centuries. PMID:22039850

Azizi, Mohammad Hossein; Bahadori, Moslem

2011-11-01

51

Serbian schools and teaching of Serbian language in Greece in the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The topic of this work is Serbian schools and the teaching of Serbian language in Greece in the 20th century. During the first half of the 20th century the existence of Serbian people in Turkey (later in Greece was acknowledged through school and church. Thanks to the Serbian schools, Serbs as an invisible minority became a visible one. In the second half of the 20th century there is primarily a teaching of Serbian language as a foreign language. During this period, Serbian was accepted primarily by Greeks at courses and private classes. At the beginning of the nineties in the 20th century because of the war in the territory of Yugoslavia, a large number of refugees went to Greece. Teaching of Serbian as a native language was organized only ten years later (at the beginning of 21st century. In some places, the schools are located in consular sections and have the assistance of the country of origin (Thessalonica, Katerini while in Hani (Crete immigrants organized them-selves without the assistance from the country of origin. By studying Serbian schools and the teaching of Serbian language, this work considers relation towards language as a symbol of ethnic identity - at the individual level, at the level of receiving country and at the level of country of origin.

Blagojevi? Gordana

2007-01-01

52

Late 20th Century increase in South Pole snow accumulation  

Science.gov (United States)

A compilation of the 37-year history of net accumulation at the South Pole [Mosley-Thompson et al., 1995] suggests an increase in net annual accumulation since 1965. This record is sporadic and its quality is compromised by spatially restricted observations and nonsystematic measurement procedures. Results from a new, spatially extensive network of 236 accumulation poles document that the current 5-year (1992-1997) average annual net accumulation at the South Pole is 84.5??8.9 mm water equivalent (w.e.). This accumulation rate reflects a 30% increase since the 1960s when the best, although not optimal, records indicate that it was 65 mm w.e. Identification of two prominent beta radioactivity horizons (1954/1955 and 1964/1965) in six firn cores confirms an increase in accumulation since 1965. Viewed from a longer perspective of accumulation provided by ice cores and a snow mine study, the net accumulation of the 30-year period, 1965-1994, is the highest 30-year average of this millennium. Limited data suggest this recent accumulation increase extends beyond the South Pole region and may be characteristic of the high East Antarctic Plateau. Enhanced accumulation over the polar ice sheets has been identified as a potential early indicator of warmer sea surface temperatures and may offset a portion of the current rise in global sea level. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

Mosley-Thompson, E.; Paskievitch, J.F.; Gow, A.J.; Thompson, L.G.

1999-01-01

53

From Generation to Generation: Oral Histories of Scientific Innovations from the 20th Century  

Science.gov (United States)

The 20th century saw some of the most important technological and scientific discoveries in the history of humankind. The space shuttle, the internet, and other modern advances changed society forever, and yet many students cannot imagine what life was like before these technologies existed. In the project described here, students take a firsthand…

Bedrossian, Mindy J.

2010-01-01

54

Educational Foundations Best Writings (20th Century): Biblio-Historical Essay.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper lists and discusses, in historical progression, books and other writings that are considered to cover the major developments of education in the United States in the 20th century. The paper is intended to help professional educators to know better the great ideas, themes, and books that laid the foundations of education in the United…

Parker, Franklin

55

Climate Change: Sources of Warming in the Late 20th Century  

CERN Document Server

The role of the North Atlantic Oscillation, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, volcanic and other aerosols, as well as the extraordinary solar activity of the late 20th century are discussed in the context of the warming since the mid-1970s. Much of that warming is found to be due to natural causes.

Marsh, Gerald E

2009-01-01

56

Trends in development of nuclear energetics in the 20th century (a review)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the work, the development and use of nuclear energy is analysed with regard to the second half of the 20th century. In 1996, the nuclear power plants produced 17%. Considered are factors favourable for development of nuclear energetics and those interfering with it. (author)

57

[Changes of medico-pharmaceutical profession and private practice from the late 19th century to the early 20th century: ebb and flow of western pharmacies and clinics attached to pharmacy].  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examined i) how traditional medico-pharmaceutical custom from the late 19th century influenced such changes, ii) how medical laws of Daehan Empire and early colonial period influenced the differentiation of medico-pharmaceutical profession, and iii) what the responses of medico-pharmaceutical professionals were like, and arrived at following conclusions. First, in late Chosun, there was a nationwide spread of pharmacies (medicine room, medicine store) as general medical institutions in charge of prescription and medication as well as diagnosis. Therefore, Koreans' perception of Western medicine was not very different from that of traditional pharmacy. Second, Western pharmacies were established by various entities including oriental doctors, Western doctors and drug manufacturers.Their business ranged from medical consultation, prescription, medication and drug manufacture. This was in a way the extension of traditional medico-pharmaceutical custom, which did not draw a sharp line between medical and pharmaceutical practices. Also, regulations on medical and pharmaceutical business of Daehan Empire did not distinguish oriental and Western medicine. Third, clinics attached to pharmacy began to emerge after 1908, as some Western pharmacies that had grown their business based on selling medicine began to hire doctors trained in Western medicine. This trend resulted from Government General's control over medico-pharmaceutical business that began in 1908, following a large-scale dismissal of army surgeons trained in medical schools in 1907. Fourth, as specialization increased within medico-pharmaceutical business following the colonial medical law in early 1910s, such comprehensive business practices as Western pharmacy disappeared and existing businesses were differentiated into dealers of medical ingredients, drug manufacturer, patent medicine businessmen and herbalists. And private practice gradually became the general trend by establishment of medical system with doctors at the pinnacle and spread of modern Western medicine, and support of capitalists. PMID:21330775

Lee, Heung-Ki

2010-12-31

58

Westernisation, Ideology and National Identity in 20th-Century Chinese Music  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The twentieth century saw the spread of Western art music across the world as Western ideology and values acquired increasing dominance in the global order. How did this process occur in China, what complexities does it display and what are its distinctive features? This thesis aims to provide a detailed and coherent understanding of the Westernisation of Chinese music in the 20th century, focusing on the ever-changing relationship between music and social ideology and the rise and evolution ...

Ouyang, Yiwen

2012-01-01

59

How in the 20th century physicists, chemists and biologists answered the question: what is life?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The most essential achievements in 20th century biology are analyzed and the question of how throughout the last century physicists, chemists and biologists answered the question 'What is life?' is considered. The most considerable scientific achievement of 20th century biology, and perhaps of all science, is considered by many to be the discovery by biologist J Watson and physicists F Crick and M Wilkins that resulted in establishing the DNA structure. The related work of well-known scientists of the USA and Europe, E Schroedinger, L Pauling, M Perutz, J Kendrew, and of the Russian scientists N K Koltsov, N V Timofeeff-Ressovsky, G A Gamow, A M Olovnikov, is analyzed. Presently, when the structure of DNA, the process of gene expression and even the genomes of human beings are already known, scientists realize that we still do not know many of the most important things. In our opinion, the 20th century studies of nucleic acids largely ignored the principle of the cyclic organisation of DNA. In this connection, we analyze the principle of cyclicity, which in its generality may well complement the concept of the atomic structure of matter. (from the history of physics)

60

Marxism's 'Communicative Crisis'? Mapping Debates over Leninist Print-Media Practices in the 20th Century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Despite the scholarly neglect of Marxism’s ‘communicative crisis’, it was a topic of concern that was addressed, debated and negotiated over by party leaders, intellectuals and activists on a continuous basis throughout the 20th century. These concerns revolved around three areas: first, the primary means of print communication, the party paper; second, the specialization of production, particularly around the role of writers and journalists; and third, the search for a popular rhetoric and writing style, which would appeal to the general public. This paper maps out the ‘communicative crisis’ of Marxism in the 20th century through an examination of key intersections of disputes over the correct approach to its practices of print communication, as a starting point for an historical analysis of the failures and successes of Marxist political praxis.

Herbert F. Pimlott

2006-09-01

 
 
 
 
61

Ibn Khaldun and Some Classic Views in 20th Century Linguistics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Muqaddimah of Ibn Khaldun or the Prolegomena (in Greek, is a book written by the Arab North African’s Ibn Khaldun who records an early view of universal history. We need to point out that some modern thinkers view it as the first work dealing with the: philosophy of history, or the social sciences of sociology, demography, historiography or cultural history, and economics. We need to add that the Muqaddimah also deals with Islamic theology, political theory and the natural sciences of biology and chemistry. Ibn Khaldun wrote the work in 1377 as the preface or first book of his planned world history, the Kitab al-Ibar (lit. Book of Advice, but already in his lifetime it became regarded as an independent work. The following article will try to make a comparison between Ibn Khaldun’s linguistic work in his Muqaddimah and some Western linguists i.e., Chomsky and Bloomfield. We have found that it is really mazing and interesting to show that there are some ideas, concepts, etc., discussed by Ibn Khaldun, appears again by some linguists who live in the 20th century.

Abdullah Yaqub Samarah

2011-11-01

62

Breve historia de la observación de aves en México en el siglo XX y principios del siglo XXI / A brief history of birdwatching in Mexico in the 20th and early 21st century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Un observador de aves es una persona que dedica tiempo a observar aves en el medio natural, principalmente con fines recreativos. La observación de aves en México ha aumentado significativamente en los últimos años; sin embargo, el contexto y el desarrollo histórico de la observación de aves en Méxi [...] co no han sido descritos. En este artículo, describimos brevemente la influencia del desarrollo inicial de la observación de aves en los Estados Unidos de América, los primeros observadores de aves que visitaron México, las circunstancias que inspiraron a los primeros observadores de aves mexicanos, y algunos adelantos recientes. Nuestros comentarios están enfocados al siglo XX, tratando con más detalle aspectos ocurridos antes de mediados de la década de los 1970s. Abstract in english A birdwatcher or birder is a person who spends time observing birds in the wild mainly for recreation. Birdwatching has increased significantly in Mexico in recent years, yet the context and history of birdwatching in Mexico have not been described. In this paper we briefly describe the influence of [...] the initial development of birdwatching in the United States, the first birdwatchers who visited Mexico, the circumstances that influenced the first Mexican birdwatchers to carry out this activity, and a few recent developments. Our comments focus on the 20th century, particularly on events prior to the mid-1970s.

Héctor, Gómez de Silva; Ernesto, Alvarado Reyes.

2010-06-01

63

Innovations in management accounting at the turn of the 20th and 21st century  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Diffusion of innovative management accounting methods constitutes an incredibly interesting and a widely presented subject in literature all over the world. In the context of significance of innovative management accounting methods diffusion, the following objective of the article has been formulated – the article aims to analyze the concept of innovations in management accounting and analyze their significance and diffusion at the turn of the 20th and 21st century. In order ...

Wnuk-pel, Tomasz

2011-01-01

64

Trends in coastal upwelling intensity during the late 20th century  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study presents linear trends of coastal upwelling intensity in the later part of the 20th century (1960–2001) employing various indices of upwelling, derived from meridional wind stress and sea surface temperature. The analysis was conducted in the four major coastal upwelling regions in the world, which are off North-West Africa, Lüderitz, California and Peru. The trends in meridional wind stress showed a steady increase of intensity from 1960–2001, which was also reflected in the ...

Narayan, N.; Paul, A.; Mulitza, S.; Schulz, M.

2010-01-01

65

Marxism's 'Communicative Crisis'? Mapping Debates over Leninist Print-Media Practices in the 20th Century  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Despite the scholarly neglect of Marxism’s ‘communicative crisis’, it was a topic of concern that was addressed, debated and negotiated over by party leaders, intellectuals and activists on a continuous basis throughout the 20th century. These concerns revolved around three areas: first, the primary means of print communication, the party paper; second, the specialization of production, particularly around the role of writers and journalists; and third, the search for a popular rhetoric...

Pimlott, Herbert F.

2006-01-01

66

Atlantic Entanglements: Narratives of Self and Other at the Turn of the 20th Century  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although the mobility of populations across the Atlantic has a long history, the decades around the turn of the 20th century witnessed an unprecedented movement of migrants from Europe to the Americas. This increased movement of peoples coincided with the overseas expansion of the United States, in the wake of the Spanish-American War (1898), which led to the acquisition of territories in Central America and the Pacific region. This period, then, is a turning point in the histo...

Tavares, Teresa

2005-01-01

67

[Anti-positivist inspiration in European medical historiography in the 20th century].  

Science.gov (United States)

The article presents the most important anti-positivist (the neo-romantic, socio-cultural and relativistic) currents in 20th century European medical historiography. The author discusses the genesis of the anti-positivist opposition in the medical historiography, starting with a presentation of the main points of the positivist programme, and shows the reasons behind the earlier broad reception of this programme by medical historians from the medical profession. The author attributes the emergence of an anti-positivist opposition in this milieu mainly to the medical progress which occurred in the first half of the 20th century and which induced some doctors, engaged in research into medical history, to reject the positivist model of teaching and replace it wit another. This factor played a leading role in the formation of the socio-cultural and relativist currents. According to the author, the second important factor in the birth of this opposition is the 20th century progress in the methodology of historical research, which freed itself from the constraints of positivist scientism as the only acceptable method of interpreting facts. The author also discusses the socio-cultural and political conditions which led to the formation and spread of the neo-romantic movement solely in Germany. The article presents the programme principles and the most important representatives of anti-positivist currents in European (mainly German) and the circumstances behind the reception of each current by the community of medical historians, and presents the development prospects of Polish medical historiography on the treshold of the 20th and 21st centuries, in connection with the research into this field of science undertaken by a large and continuously growing number of university-educated researchers. PMID:12934578

P?onka-Syroka, Bozena

2002-01-01

68

Language & authoritarianism in the 20th century: The cases of Estonia and Catalonia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The 20th century saw the Soviet and Francoist regimes enforce their respective ideologies in Estonia and the Catalan-speaking territories in Spain. In both cases, the autochthonous language suffered under the stringent control of the mechanisms of censorship and repression. In fact, Soviet and Spanish leaders—representing both extremes of the political spectrum—tried to replace the use of the autochthonous language in many sociolinguistic domains with their own—Russian and (Castilian...

Delaney Michael Skerrett

2010-01-01

69

The process of Danish nurses' professionalization and patterns of thought in the 20th century.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article,we address how the professionalization process is reflected in the way Danish nursing textbooks present 'nursing' to new members of the profession during the 20th century. The discussion is based on a discourse analysis of seven Danish textbooks on basic nursing published between 1904 and 1996. The analysis was inspired by the work of Michel Foucault, in particular the concepts of rupture and rules of formation. First, we explain how the dominating role of the human body in nursing textbooks disappears in the mid-20th century. This transformation can of course be attributed to changes in tasks and responsibilities for nurses or to the implementation of increasing amounts of knowledge and theories from other disciplines than medicine into the nurses' knowledge base. However, inspired by Foucault, we consider these historical changes to be the conditions of possibilities and not causes. The second part of the analysis shows that along with 'the disappearance of the body', a second discursive change appears: the role of doctors and medicine changes fundamentally from about mid-20th century. Finally, we argue that this discursive reorganization enabling new patterns of thought to emerge was driven by a professional interest in describing nursing as an independent profession. PMID:25238323

Beedholm, Kirsten; Frederiksen, Kirsten

2014-09-19

70

Advances in stability theory at the end of the 20th century  

CERN Document Server

This volume presents surveys and research papers on various aspects of modern stability theory, including discussions on modern applications of the theory, all contributed by experts in the field. The volume consists of four sections that explore the following directions in the development of stability theory: progress in stability theory by first approximation; contemporary developments in Lyapunov''s idea of the direct method; the stability of solutions to periodic differential systems; and selected applications. Advances in Stability Theory at the End of the 20th Century will interest postgraduates and researchers in engineering fields as well as those in mathematics.

Martynyuk, AA

2003-01-01

71

Nelson Lichtenstein vs. Nelson Lichtenstein and the 20th Century Labor Question  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As Nelson Lichtenstein writes, State of the Union explores the relationship between 20th century U.S. unions and the “labor question,” i.e., the condition of workers, notably marked by social injustice, industrial strife and dislocation. Why, he asks, did labor stand far closer to the center of the nation’s political and moral consciousness than it does today and what role has institutional unionism played here? In other words, why have labor’s “larger ambitions” failed?In this paper, I hope ...

Donna Kesselman

2006-03-01

72

From waste to opportunity : ethanol in Sweden during the first half of the 20th century  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

At the beginning of the 20th century the pulp industry in Sweden faced major problems with waste. Pine and spruce contain at the best 40 % cellulose. The remainder was released into the air and water, causing major environmental problems. In 1909 two Swedish engineers patented a method to ferment sulphite lye into alcohol. Apart for consumption, the alcohol could be used as fuel. The rest of the lye, reduced of it’s saccariferous contents, was expected to become the basis of a new chemical ...

Sundin, Bo

2007-01-01

73

Changes in variability and persistence of climate in Switzerland: Exploring 20th century observations and 21st century simulations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper investigates the shift in variance under conditions of atmospheric warming, under the paradigm that a warmer climate induces greater variability, as has been suggested by a number of other studies. Based upon observational data since 1900 at both a low and a high elevation site in Switzerland it is shown that, at least for these locations, the inter-annual and decadal variability of both maximumand minimumdaily temperatures has in fact decreased over the course of the 20th century ...

Beniston, Martin; Goyette, Ste?phane

2007-01-01

74

Public Opinion, and Propaganda in 20th Century America: The Case of the Lippmann/Dewey Debate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The nexus between the public, public opinion, and propaganda garnered scholarly attention not until the 18th century. In the United States, for instance, the debate between the journalist Walter Lippmann and the philosopher John Dewey in the early 20th century on the role of instrumental rationality was key. While the former argued that the opinions of the public are inchoate, and therefore less reliable in running the State, the latter insisted that such a position is anti-democratic, and undermines the sovereign will of the people and their participation in civic discourse. The authors’ respective rhetoric bears implications for the conduct of the mass media in relation to propaganda and manufacture of consent in liberal democracies.

Wincharles Coker

2013-04-01

75

Modelling the 20th and 21st century evolution of Hoffellsjökull glacier, SE-Vatnajökull, Iceland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Little Ice Age maximum extent of glaciers in Iceland was reached about 1890 AD and most glaciers in the country have retreated during the 20th century. A model for the surface mass balance and the flow of glaciers is used to reconstruct the 20th century retreat history of Hoffellsjökull, a south-flowing outlet glacier of the ice cap Vatnajökull, which is located close to the southeastern coast of Iceland. The bedrock topography was surveyed with radio-echo soundings in 2001. A wealth of data are available to force and constrain the model, e.g. surface elevation maps from ~1890, 1936, 1946, 1989, 2001, 2008 and 2010, mass balance observations conducted in 1936–1938 and after 2001, energy balance measurements after 2001, and glacier surface velocity derived by kinematic and differential GPS surveys and correlation of SPOT5 images. The approximately 20% volume loss of this glacier in the period 1895–2010 is realistically simulated with the model. After calibration of the model with past observations, it is used to simulate the future response of the glacier during the 21st century. The mass balance model was forced with an ensemble of temperature and precipitation scenarios derived from 10 global and 3 regional climate model simulations using the A1B emission scenario. If the average climate of 2000–2009 is maintained into the future, the volume of the glacier is projected to be reduced by 30% with respect to the present at the end of this century. If the climate warms, as suggested by most of the climate change scenarios, the model projects this glacier to almost disappear by the end of the 21st century. Runoff from the glacier is predicted to increase for the next 30–40 yr and decrease after that as a consequence of the diminishing ice-covered area.

G. Aðalgeirsdóttir

2011-11-01

76

20th century atmospheric deposition and acidification trends in lakes of the Sierra Nevada, California, USA.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated multiple lines of evidence to determine if observed and paleo-reconstructed changes in acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) in Sierra Nevada lakes were the result of changes in 20th century atmospheric deposition. Spheroidal carbonaceous particles (SCPs) (indicator of anthropogenic atmospheric deposition) and biogenic silica and ?(13)C (productivity proxies) in lake sediments, nitrogen and sulfur emission inventories, climate variables, and long-term hydrochemistry records were compared to reconstructed ANC trends in Moat Lake. The initial decline in ANC at Moat Lake occurred between 1920 and 1930, when hydrogen ion deposition was approximately 74 eq ha(-1) yr(-1), and ANC recovered between 1970 and 2005. Reconstructed ANC in Moat Lake was negatively correlated with SCPs and sulfur dioxide emissions (p = 0.031 and p = 0.009). Reconstructed ANC patterns were not correlated with climate, productivity, or nitrogen oxide emissions. Late 20th century recovery of ANC at Moat Lake is supported by increasing ANC and decreasing sulfate in Emerald Lake between 1983 and 2011 (p < 0.0001). We conclude that ANC depletion at Moat and Emerald lakes was principally caused by acid deposition, and recovery in ANC after 1970 can be attributed to the United States Clean Air Act. PMID:25078969

Heard, Andrea M; Sickman, James O; Rose, Neil L; Bennett, Danuta M; Lucero, Delores M; Melack, John M; Curtis, Jason H

2014-09-01

77

Evaluation of CMIP5 20th century climate simulations for the Pacific Northwest USA  

Science.gov (United States)

temperature and precipitation data from 41 global climate models (GCMs) of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) were compared to observations for the 20th century, with a focus on the United States Pacific Northwest (PNW) and surrounding region. A suite of statistics, or metrics, was calculated, that included correlation and variance of mean seasonal spatial patterns, amplitude of seasonal cycle, diurnal temperature range, annual- to decadal-scale variance, long-term persistence, and regional teleconnections to El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Performance, or credibility, was assessed based on the GCMs' abilities to reproduce the observed metrics. GCMs were ranked in their credibility using two methods. The first simply treated all metrics equally. The second method considered two properties of the metrics: (1) redundancy of information (dependence) among metrics, and (2) confidence in the reliability of an individual metric for accurately ranking models. Confidence was related to how robust the estimate of the metric was to ensemble size, given that for most of the models only a small number of ensemble members (i.e., realizations of the 20th century) were available. A cursory comparison with 24 CMIP3 models revealed few differences between the two generations of models with respect to the statistics analyzed.

Rupp, David E.; Abatzoglou, John T.; Hegewisch, Katherine C.; Mote, Philip W.

2013-10-01

78

The Evolution of Spine Surgery in Greece in the Second Half of the 20th Century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Spine Surgery began its evolution in the beginning of the 19th century in order to reach nowadays the point of being considered an important subspecialty of Neurosurgery and Orthopaedics. The purpose of this historical review is the search and evaluation of the progress in spine surgery in the second half of the 20th century. This review concerns the evolution of this field in Greece. Special references are made to the achievements of this field, to the departments that practised it, to physicians and surgeons (orthopaedic surgeons, neurosurgeons, radiologists and rheumatologists who developed this subspecialty and to clinical and scientific work of this time period. Eventually, the progress of medicine and technology who led to the first achievements of this subspecialty are shown and also that this progress followed the development of the National Healthcare System. In Greece, with small exceptions, the new techniques emerged with a certain delay.

Konstantinos Markatos

2014-08-01

79

[Psychiatry at the turn of the 20th and 21st centuries].  

Science.gov (United States)

The author makes an attempt at considering the most important achievements in psychiatry which have taken place in the global scale during the passing century, and the direction taken up by the development of global psychiatry in the coming century. The 20th century was characterised not only by the impressive development of science, thanks to which completely new possibilities opened up for global psychiatry, but also by the presence of extreme events that took place as a result of false ideologies such as fascism and communism. In the 20th century concepts like homicide, holocaust, the extermination of the mentally ill, experiments on people that are prohibited by the ethics of medicine and the elementary rules of humanity, etc. The paper includes the achievements of diagnosis and therapy of psychiatric disorders and the latest organisational solutions as well as the perspectives for further development of psychiatry. The author also implies the aims that psychiatry has to take up due to the numerous threats from our civilization: the technical-technological development, pollution of the natural environment, the negative changes in human values, the rising brutality in interhuman relations due to racial, national and religious conflicts and terrorism, the disappearing feeling of being safe in society, vision of hunger and poverty in many countries on a few continents, the danger of an epidemic outbreak of new unknown diseases caused by viral mutations, or genetics--the possible negative effects of genetic engineering (cloning of humans), etc. The author tries to define the role of psychiatry in preventing the threats of civilization. PMID:9920993

Bilikiewicz, A

1998-01-01

80

High resolution sedimentary record of dinoflagellate cysts reflects decadal variability and 20th century warming in the Santa Barbara Basin  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a continuous record of dinoflagellate cysts from a core of laminated sediments collected in the Santa Barbara Basin (SBB), off Southern California. The core spans the last ?260 years and is analysed at biennial (two-year) resolution. Variations in dinoflagellate cyst assemblages are compared with 20th century historical changes, and are used to examine changes in primary productivity and species composition, which are bound to the variability in upwelling and sea-surface temperature (SST) in the region. Cysts produced by heterotrophic dinoflagellates dominate the assemblages. In particular, Brigantedinium spp. (on average 64.2% of the assemblages) are commonly associated with high levels of primary productivity, typically observed under active upwelling conditions, when nutrient supply is higher. Other heterotrophic taxa such as cysts of Protoperidinium americanum, Protoperidinium fukuyoi, Protoperidinium minutum and Archaeperidinium saanichi, all Echinidinium species, Quinquecuspis concreta and Selenopemphix undulata are more abundant in the early part of the record (?1750s-1870s). These taxa are generally associated with high primary productivity and are observed predominantly during intervals marked by relatively variable conditions of SST, stratification and nutrient loading. The 20th century is marked by an increase in several species of autotrophic affinity, primarily Lingulodinium machaerophorum and Spiniferites ramosus. In recent surface sediments from the region, these species are more abundant in the Southern California Bight, and they are associated with conditions of relaxed upwelling in the SBB (typically observed during summer and fall), when SST is higher and nutrient supply is moderate. Their increasing concentrations since the early 20th century reflect warmer SST and possibly stronger stratification during the warmest season. Taken together, the changes in cyst assemblages provide further evidence that persistently warmer conditions in the SBB began affecting marine populations by the late 1920s. Decadal-scale variations in primary productivity are encoded in the heterotrophic dinoflagellate cyst record, with higher (lower) concentrations of heterotrophic taxa occurring during "cool" ("warm") phases of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) index. Wavelet analysis of heterotrophic taxa concentrations suggests a weaker influence of the PDO on biota of the region during the 19th century.

Bringué, Manuel; Pospelova, Vera; Field, David B.

2014-12-01

 
 
 
 
81

Croatian Chemistry in the 20th Century. III. From the Establishment of the Republic of Croatia on June 25th, 1991 to the End of the Century  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this last part of our attempt to present briefly the history of Croatian chemistry in the 20th century, the development of chemistry in the Republic of Croatia, established as an independent state on June 25th, 1991 is outlined. The last 10 years of the 20th century are characterized first by defense of the country by arms until 1995, and then until the end of century, and after the constructive building of ...

Trinajstic?, N.; Kas?telan-macan, M.; Paus?ek-baz?dar, S.; Vanc?ik, H.

2012-01-01

82

1900 ?zmir ve 1901 ?stanbul Salg?nlar? Ba?lam?nda Veban?n XX. Yüzy?l Ba?lar?nda Osmanl? ?mparatorlu?u’nda Devam Eden Etkisi///The Ongoing ?mpact Of The Most Dreadful Disease Of World History Plague In The Ottoman Empire In The Early 20th Century Within The Contexts Of 1900 Izmir And 1901 Istanbul Epidemics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available At the beginning of the 20th century plague had almost become a local, demographically ineffective and even an ordinary disease. However, even at such a late period, in the epidemics occured in any part of the ottoman territories, plague continued to cause economy based troubles similar to the ones in the previous centuries, due to the quarantines.

Mesut AYAR

2010-07-01

83

Anthropogenic aerosols may have increased upper tropospheric humidity in the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent simulations of deep convection with a spectral microphysics cloud model show that an increase in aerosol concentration can have a significant effect on the nature of convection with more ice precipitation and less warm rain in polluted air. The cloud lifetime and the area covered by cloud anvils of deep convection are also larger for polluted air. Therefore, it is possible that the increase of anthropogenic aerosols in most of the 20th century has increased humidity and perhaps also cloudiness in the mid- to upper troposphere. Satellite data of upper tropospheric relative humidity in 1979–1997 and observed changes in cloudiness support this hypothesis. As changes in upper tropospheric humidity strongly affect longwave radiation, it is possible that anthropogenic aerosols have had a significant warming effect in addition to their other known effects on radiation.

M. Bister

2011-05-01

84

Interpreting mathematics in physics: Charting the applications of SU(2) in 20th century physics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The role mathematics plays within physics has been of sustained interest for physicists as well as for philosophers and historians of science. We explore this topic by tracing the role the mathematical structure associated with SU(2) has played in three key episodes in 20th century physics - intrinsic spin, isospin, and gauge theory and electroweak unification. We also briefly consider its role in loop quantum gravity. Each episode has led to profound and new physical notions of a space other than the traditional ones of space and spacetime, and each has had associated with it a complex and in places, contested history. The episodes also reveal ways mathematical structures provide resources for new physical theorizing and we propose our study as a contribution to a need Roger Penrose has identified to develop a 'profoundly sensitive aesthetic' sense for locating physically relevant mathematics

85

["W. Bölsche's precious book". Freud and German evolutionism in the beginning of the 20th century].  

Science.gov (United States)

Wilhelm Bölsche (1861-1939) is the author of a poetic history of the evolution of love entitled Das Liebesleben in der Natur (1898-1903). This work, inspired by the writings of biologist Ernst Haeckel, was greatly successful in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century. Freud kept a copy of the three volumes in his London library and cites the text in his lectures on an Introduction to psychoanalysis. Bölsche develops an Entwicklungsgeschichte (history of evolution) of the distinguishing sexuality of several types of love (oral, anal and urinary). In addition, he describes the "zoological reactionary" homosexual and ties this sexual behaviour to the history of the development of anal sexuality. This paper will address an excerpt on this topic from Bölsche's text that has been translated for the occasion. The task at hand is to prepare the ground for a study of German evolutionism, both popular and scientific, and its ties to psychoanalysis. PMID:15368944

Amouroux, Rémy

2004-01-01

86

Corpus methods and their reflection in linguistic theories of the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the 20th century structuralism established itself as the central linguistic theory, in the first half mainly through its originator Ferdinand de Saussure, and in the second half with the figure of Noam Chomsky. The latter consistently refused to acknowledge analysis of extensive quantity of texts as a valuable method, and favoured linguistic intuition of a native speaker instead. In parallel with structuralism other trends in linguistics emerged which pointed to the inadequateness of the prevailing linguistic paradigm and to theoretical insights which were only possible after the systematic analysis of large quantities of texts. The paper discusses some of the dilemmas stemming from this dichotomy and places corpus linguistics in a broader linguistic context.

Simon Krek

2013-05-01

87

Standing Up to Giants: Thailand’s Exit from 20th Century War Partnerships  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article examines the U.S.-Thai relationship through various changes, paying close attention to strategic military operations within the Kingdom and into neighbouring countries. Multifaceted impacts of American outsourcing and corporate expansion are discussed. Thailand’s role in the War on Terror amid domestic political turmoil and global economic uncertainty draw questions of the value of the 20th century relationship model. Controversy about undeclared wars within the United States supports argument that Thailand should further remove itself from American-led foreign wars. As the ASEAN partnership continues to play a more dominant role in Thai government policy, with regional concerns more relevant than transpacific issues, Thailand is urged to revise legislation to protect its own security and interests. Such a focus is expected to reestablish Thailand as a regional leader.

Palapan Kampan

2014-07-01

88

Medieval Warm Period, Little Ice Age and 20th century temperature variability from Chesapeake Bay  

Science.gov (United States)

We present paleoclimate evidence for rapid (Ice Age (???1400-1900 AD) and the Medieval Warm Period (???800-1300 AD) possibly related to changes in the strength of North Atlantic thermohaline circulation (THC). Evidence is presented for a long period of sustained regional and North Atlantic-wide warmth with low-amplitude temperature variability between ???450 and 1000 AD. In addition to centennial-scale temperature shifts, the existence of numerous temperature maxima between 2200 and 250 years BP (average ???70 years) suggests that multi-decadal processes typical of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) are an inherent feature of late Holocene climate. However, late 19th and 20th century temperature extremes in Chesapeake Bay associated with NAO climate variability exceeded those of the prior 2000 years, including the interval 450-1000 AD, by 2-3??C, suggesting anomalous recent behavior of the climate system. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Cronin, T. M.; Dwyer, G.S.; Kamiya, T.; Schwede, S.; Willard, D.A.

2003-01-01

89

RTG's for space exploration at the end of the 20th century  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG's) are the only type of energy conversion devices that are available for spacecraft designed for environments where sunlight is weak. The two upcoming missions Galileo and Ulysses will both use General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) RTG's. Two other missions that are planned for mid nineties and will carry RTG's on board are: Comet Rendezvous Astroid Flyby (CRAF) and Cassini. Another mission that might become a program start in the last decade of the 20th century is Solarprobe. Solarprobe is most likely to use Modular RTG's. Several other missions that are in different planning stages are in need of RTG's to meet their power requirements: Mars Rover Sample Return, planetary penetrators, microspacecraft and Mars Egg. The paper briefly describes all of these missions stressing their RTG requirements

90

Atomic Pioneers Book 3 From the Late 19th to the Mid-20th Century  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book tells the story of the atom by presenting a brief account of the lives and work of 24 atomic scientists who brought the world into the complex Age of the Atom by mid-20th century. The 24 are: Albert Einstein, James Franck, Max Born, Peter J.W. Debye, Niels Bohr, George von Hevesy, Henry G.J. Moseley, Gustav Hertz, Erwin Schrodinger, Otto Stern, James Chadwick, Arthur H. Compton, Louis Victor de Broglie, Harold C. Urey, John D. Cockcroft, Patrick M.S. Blackett, Isidor I. Rabi, Leo Szilard, Jean Frederic Joliot-Curie, Irene Joliot-Curie, Wolfgang Pauli, Ernest O. Lawrence, Enrico Fermi, and Robert J. Van de Graaff.

Hiebert, Ray [University of Maryland; Hiebert, Roselyn

1973-01-01

91

The Decline of Smoking among Female Birth Cohorts in China in the 20th Century: A Case of Arrested Diffusion?  

Science.gov (United States)

The smoking prevalence by age of women in China is distinct from most other countries in showing more frequent smoking among older women than younger. Using newly developed birth cohort histories of smoking, the authors demonstrate that although over one quarter of women born 1908–1912 smoked, levels of smoking declined across successive cohorts. This occurred despite high rates of smoking by men and the wide availability of cigarettes. The analysis shows how this pattern is counter to that predicted by the leading theoretical perspectives on the diffusion of smoking and suggests that it arose out of a mix of Confucian traditions relating to gender and the socio-economic and political events early in the 20th century which placed emerging women's identities in conflict with national identities. That a similar pattern of smoking is evident in Japan and Korea, two countries with strong cultural affinities to China, is used to buttress the argument. PMID:22904585

Hermalin, Albert I.; Lowry, Deborah S.

2012-01-01

92

Reproduction in cold water: paradigm changes in the 20th century and a role for cidaroid sea urchins  

Science.gov (United States)

At the beginning of the 20th century, powerful ideas about the biology of marine animals in cold waters (polar and deep sea) were in early stages of development. (1) General similarities between some Arctic and Antarctic species suggested a past or present continuity between the poles, possibly through tropical submergence. (2) The discovery of subantarctic species brooding their offspring suggested that supposedly harsh polar conditions select against species with pelagic, dispersive larvae. (3) The linkage between seasonal temperature changes and seasonal reproduction suggested that where temperatures were constant, as in polar and deep seas, reproduction would be aseasonal or continuous throughout the year. (4) Recognition of the phenomenon of metabolic temperature adaptation suggested that animals living in cold water should exhibit rates of physiological processes similar to rates in warmer environments. Observations and experiments throughout the first half of the 20th century generally supported and reinforced these ideas. During the second half of the 20th century, however, the generality of these paradigms broke down. Detailed analyses of fuller data indicated that Arctic, Antarctic, and deep-sea faunas are not the same and probably have different phylogenies reflecting different vicariant histories. Moreover, many species in these habitats have pelagic larvae, they generally spawn seasonally, and their physiological processes (respiration, gametogenesis, development, feeding, growth) are slow, showing little evidence of the expected temperature adaptation. Nevertheless, entering the 21st century, we are challenged by important exceptions that do support many of the earlier ideas. Bipolarity in some groups does indicate relict distributions, and other groups show equatorial submergence. Moreover, major species-rich clades in the Antarctic (unlike the Arctic) do brood their young. Most species with pelagic larvae produce non-feeding (lecithotrophic) larvae rather than feeding (planktotrophic) larvae, and these, along with brooding species, generally do reproduce throughout the year. Yet brooding is almost certainly not an adaptation to low temperatures and low larval food supply, as supposed earlier; instead, the species-rich clades of brooders probably reflect enhanced speciation under unique conditions in the Antarctic. In addition, despite recent evidence of constraints on metabolic flexibility, low metabolic rates may themselves be adaptations to Antarctic conditions. Just as a growing body of "exceptions" to the early 20th century paradigms led to their breakdown, these persisting exceptions to current ideas demand that our existing paradigms be re-examined for further insight into the biology of marine animals in cold water. Cidaroid echinoids, in particular, appear to support some of the earlier ideas. The group consists of one or possibly two clades that make up over 80% of the species of regular sea urchins in the Antarctic; several species extend into the deep sea. One putative species is nearly bipolar, extending from the Antarctic shelf into the deep sea and then north in the eastern Pacific to Alaska. All the species appear to brood embryos, but development in the brood might be facultative. Reproduction seems to be aseasonal, albeit infrequent. Growth rates are probably very slow and longevity very long. Current work begun with ANDEEP is directed at resolving the phylogenetic history of this group to better understand unusual reproductive and other features in cold-water marine animals.

Pearse, John S.; Lockhart, Susanne J.

2004-07-01

93

Regional-scale land-cover change during the 20th century and its consequences for biodiversity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Extensive changes in land cover during the 20th century are known to have had detrimental effects on biodiversity in rural landscapes, but the magnitude of change and their ecological effects are not well known on regional scales. We digitized historical maps from the beginning of the 20th century over a 1652 km2 study area in southeastern Sweden, comparing it to modern-day land cover with a focus on valuable habitat types. Semi-natural grassland cover decreased by over 96 % in the study ar...

Cousins, Sara A. O.; Auffret, Alistair G.; Lindgren, Jessica; Tra?nk, Louise

2015-01-01

94

[Pollock, Warhol, Basquiat, Haring 20th century American painters from a psychological perspective].  

Science.gov (United States)

Pollock, Warhol, Basquiat and Haring made an international reputation for themselves with their art foremost of the American artists of the 20th century, and became pop cultural icons for the man in the street and for the media as well. Accordingly to the habits of the consumer society their art and even themselves become product and consumer's goods. Their not mistaken, individual style - which also became their trademark - makes that possible. The connection between the four artists is that each of them had a dependent personality, their fine art activity was arguable in their period, and after all themselves and his artworks get into the increased attention of the media. These four artists embody the brand-new artist type, who steps into a star status. Besides the artworks the artist also get into the focus of interest. Through psychological aspect their artworks tell a lot about their way of life, their personality, and the social estate around them. Four of them were catalysts, they set new art trends. The influence of Basquiat and Haring stretched over to the 21st century, and keeps going in the graffiti street-art which gets into the "high art" at last, and captivates the art galleries and critics as well. PMID:20938058

Petôvári, Csaba

2010-01-01

95

Santorini Volcano's 20th Century Eruptions: A Combined Petrogenetical, Volcanological, Sociological and Environmental Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Santorini, the famous stratovolcano in the Aegean Sea, erupted three time periods during the 20th century (1925-1928, 1939-1941, 1950) and since then remains dormant. This study tried to combine and evaluate new and published volcanological, petrological, geochemical, environmental and sociological data of these three phases of Santorini's activity, which practically restricted to the caldera center on the Nea Kameni Islet. After field work on the formed dacite flows, pyroclastics and domes, representative rock samples and enclaves were collected and investigated for their texture, physical parameters, mineralogy and chemical composition by polarizing light microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDS), XRD, Raman spectroscopy and ICP-MS. The petrogenetic evaluation of the data obtained suggests slight but significant changes in the solid and aerial phases produced during the three explosion stages, which can be attributed to minor variations in the magmatic differentiation and magma chamber physicochemical conditions. These variations were also expressed by decrease of duration and intensity of the eruptions, as well as in their volume of ejecta and lava. Probably, the subsequent relatively long dormant period of the volcano is also related to this tension of decrease. The first compared results were collected from scientific literature, old photos as well as local and regional press and state documents from the different periods of volcanism, record the past hazard case scenarios and civil defense planning of the individual eruptions. As part of the disaster management a pilot survey, in which personal interviews with aged local islanders that were eye-witnesses of the events and elderly people or tourists that they indirectly experienced or have heard about them, was also conducted. This event-tracing, along with air pollution software models using volcanological data have shown the social impacts and the environmental consequences of the volcanic activities seem generally to follow the same way of reduction with time as above. Conclusively, this integrated comparison of the three successive per decade eruption periods within the 20th century, which had followed a long dormant period of about 60 years, provide worthy hazard and risk assessment for Santorini volcano future waking up.

Drymoni, Kyriaki; Magganas, Andreas; Pomonis, Panagiotis

2014-05-01

96

AN ANALYSIS OF THE DIFFERENTIATION STRATEGIES OF RURAL FOUNDRIES IN THE BEGINNING OF THE 20TH CENTURY IN THE PROVINCE OF QUEBEC  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The business model and strategic position of Quebec's rural foundries at the beginning of the 20th century is virtually unknown. Inferences have been made based on pictorial and oral data sources. This data reveals that successful rural foundries were, in essence, confined to producing and selling agricultural tools to local farmers on an as-needed basis, because large urban foundries were already mass-producing domestic and industrial objects. In contrast, use of detailed accounting records and advertising publications of three rural foundries over the 1900 to 1914 period provides a clearer picture of the production and of the clientele of those rural foundries. Analysis of these sources suggests that the strategic business model of rural foundries was much more elaborate than the existing literature posits. Rural owner-managers of the early 20th century were sophisticated strategists, marketers, and operators.

Lisa Baillargeon

2009-01-01

97

POLISH ANTHROPOLOGY TOWARDS THE END OF THE 20th CENTURY - DIRECTIONS AND TRENDS OF DEVELOPMENT OF ITS SOCIAL FUNCTIONS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

POLISH ANTHROPOLOGY TOWARDS THE END OF THE 20th CENTURY - DIRECTIONS AND TRENDS OF DEVELOPMENT OF ITS SOCIAL FUNCTIONS. Major trends of development of Polish anthropology were presented and its social functions with regard to the transformations of the Polish population.

Drozdowski, Zbigniew

1988-01-01

98

Trends in coastal upwelling intensity during the late 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study presents linear trends of coastal upwelling intensity in the later part of the 20th century (1960–2001 employing various indices of upwelling, derived from meridional wind stress and sea surface temperature. The analysis was conducted in the four major coastal upwelling regions in the world, which are off North-West Africa, Lüderitz, California and Peru. The trends in meridional wind stress showed a steady increase of intensity from 1960–2001, which was also reflected in the SST index calculated for the same time period. The steady cooling observed in the instrumental records of SST off California substantiated this observation further. It was also noted that the trends in meridional wind stress obtained from different datasets differ substantially from each other. Correlation analysis showed that basin-scale oscillations like the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO could not be directly linked to the observed increase of upwelling intensity off NW Africa and California respectively. The relationship of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO with coastal upwelling off NW Africa turned out to be ambiguous due to a negative correlation between the NAO index and the meridional wind stress and a lack of correlation with the SST index. Our results give additional support to the hypothesis that the coastal upwelling intensity increases globally because of raising greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere and an associated increase of the land-sea pressure gradient and meridional wind stress.

N. Narayan

2010-09-01

99

Trends in coastal upwelling intensity during the late 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study presents linear trends of coastal upwelling intensity in the later part of the 20th century (1960–2001 employing various indices of upwelling, derived from meridional wind stress and sea surface temperature. The analysis was conducted in the four major coastal upwelling regions in the world, which are off North-West Africa, Lüderitz, California and Peru respectively. The trends in meridional wind stress showed a steady increase of intensity from 1960–2001, which was also reflected in the SST index calculated for the same time period. The steady cooling observed in the instrumental records of SST off California substantiated this observation further. Correlation analysis showed that basin-scale oscillations like the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO could not be directly linked to the observed increase of upwelling intensity off NW Africa and California respectively. The relationship of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO with coastal upwelling off NW Africa turned out to be ambiguous due to a negative correlation between the NAO index and the meridional wind stress and a lack of correlation with the SST index. Our results give additional support to the hypothesis that the coastal upwelling intensity increases globally because of raising greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere and an associated increase of the land-sea pressure gradient and meridional wind stress.

N. Narayan

2010-02-01

100

Patterns of Coherent Climate Signals in the Indian Ocean during the 20th Century  

Science.gov (United States)

QBO, ENSO, and BDO fluctuations are identified in the Indian Ocean from a joint frequency domain analysis of sea surface temperature (SST) and sea level pressure (SLP) conducted over the 20th Century. Within the ENSO band (3- to 7-year period), local fractional variance (LFV) is maximum near 3.4-year period, revealing spatially coherent SST and SLP variability propagating eastward from the Horn of Africa and southwest Indian Ocean respectively, toward the eastern tropical Indian Ocean. Within the QBO band (2.1- to 2.8- year period), LFV is maximum near 2.2-year period revealing spatially coherent SST and SLP variability propagating northward and eastward from Southwestern Ocean, toward the South China Sea. The 3.4-year period ENSO signal diminished in intensity in the 1920s and 1950s, whilst the 2.2-year period QBO signal diminished in the 1910s, 1940s, and 1950s, as observed for the global QBO and ENSO signals [White and Tourre, 2003].

Tourre, Yves M.; White, Warren B.

2003-12-01

 
 
 
 
101

Observed Abrupt Changes in Minimum and Maximum Temperatures in Jordan in the 20th Century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examines changes in annual and seasonal mean (minimum and maximum temperatures variations in Jordan during the 20th century. The analyses focus on the time series records at the Amman Airport Meteorological (AAM station. The occurrence of abrupt changes and trends were examined using cumulative sum charts (CUSUM and bootstrapping and the Mann-Kendall rank test. Statistically significant abrupt changes and trends have been detected. Major change points in the mean minimum (night-time and mean maximum (day-time temperatures occurred in 1957 and 1967, respectively. A minor change point in the annual mean maximum temperature also occurred in 1954, which is essential agreement with the detected change in minimum temperature. The analysis showed a significant warming trend after the years 1957 and 1967 for the minimum and maximum temperatures, respectively. The analysis of maximum temperatures shows a significant warming trend after the year 1967 for the summer season with a rate of temperature increase of 0.038°C/year. The analysis of minimum temperatures shows a significant warming trend after the year 1957 for all seasons. Temperature and rainfall data from other stations in the country have been considered and showed similar changes.

Mohammad M.  samdi

2006-01-01

102

Language & authoritarianism in the 20th century: The cases of Estonia and Catalonia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The 20th century saw the Soviet and Francoist regimes enforce their respective ideologies in Estonia and the Catalan-speaking territories in Spain. In both cases, the autochthonous language suffered under the stringent control of the mechanisms of censorship and repression. In fact, Soviet and Spanish leaders—representing both extremes of the political spectrum—tried to replace the use of the autochthonous language in many sociolinguistic domains with their own—Russian and (Castilian Spanish—as these languages embodied the ideologies and the new orders that they wished to establish. This paper compares and contrasts the diverse methods of control over language carried out in Estonia and the Catalan-speaking areas of Spain in order to demonstrate that highly centralised multilingual states—whatever their political ideology—can make use of surprisingly similar means of control, ultimately depriving local linguistic communities of the ability to use and develop their own language.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5128/ERYa6.16

Delaney Michael Skerrett

2010-05-01

103

High-resolution record of pyrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon deposition during the 20th century.  

Science.gov (United States)

A high-resolution record of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) deposition in Rhode Island over the past approximately 180 years was constructed using a sediment core from the anoxic Pettaquamscutt River basin. The record showed significantly more structure than has hitherto been reported and revealed four distinct maxima in PAH flux. The characteristic increase in PAH flux at the turn of the 20th century was captured in detail, leading to an initial maximum prior to the Great Depression. The overall peak in PAH flux in the 1950s was followed by a maximum that immediately preceded the 1973 Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) oil embargo. During the most recent portion of the record, an abrupt increase in PAH flux between 1996 and 1999 has been found to follow a period of near constant fluxes. Because source-diagnostic ratios indicate that petrogenic inputs are minor throughout the record, these trends are interpreted in terms of past variations in the magnitude and type of combustion processes. For the most recent PAH maximum, energy consumption data suggest that diesel fuel combustion, and hence traffic of heavier vehicles, is the most probable cause for the increase in PAH flux. Systematic variations in the relative abundance of individual PAHs in conjunction with the above changes in flux are interpreted in relation to the evolution of combustion processes. Coronene, retene, and perylene are notable exceptions, exhibiting unique down-core profiles. PMID:12542290

Lima, Ana Lúcia C; Eglinton, Timothy I; Reddy, Christopher M

2003-01-01

104

The Akashi Kaikyo Bridge and the Storebælt Bridge : The two greatest suspension bridges of the 20th century  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

With the completion of the Akashi Kaikyo Bridge and the Storebælt East Bridge the development of the suspension bridge technology in the 20th century has manifested itself in two impressive structures. With the present echnology may bridges of similar (and also more modest) dimensions will undoubtedly be built far into the next century. For bridges going beyond the spans of existing bridges it is, however, likely that new concepts will be developed.

Gimsing, Niels JØrgen

1999-01-01

105

Ochres and earths: Matrix and chromophores characterization of 19th and 20th century artist materials  

Science.gov (United States)

The present paper describes the main results obtained from the characterization of a wide range of natural and synthetic ochre samples used in Portugal from the 19th to the 20th century, including powder and oil painting samples. The powder ochre samples came from several commercial distributors and from the collection of Joaquim Rodrigo (1912-1997), a leading Portuguese artist, particularly active during the sixties and seventies. The micro-samples of oil painting tubes came from the Museu Nacional de Arte Contemporânea-Museu do Chiado (National Museum of Contemporary Art-Chiado Museum) in Lisbon and were used by Columbano Bordalo Pinheiro (1857-1929), one of the most prominent naturalist Portuguese painters. These tubes were produced by the main 19th century colourmen: Winsor & Newton, Morin et Janet, Maison Merlin, and Lefranc. The samples have been studied using ?-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (?-FTIR), Raman microscopy, ?-Energy Dispersive X-ray fluorescence (?-EDXRF), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The analyzed ochres were found to be a mixture of several components: iron oxides and hydroxides in matrixes with kaolinite, gypsum and chalk. The results obtained allowed to identify and characterize the ochres according to their matrix and chromophores. The main chromophores where identified by Raman microscopy as being hematite, goethite and magnetite. The infrared analysis of the ochre samples allowed to divide them into groups, according to the composition of the matrix. It was possible to separate ochres containing kaolinite matrix and/or sulfate matrix from ochres where only iron oxides and/or hydroxides were detected. ?-EDXRF and Raman were the best techniques to identify umber, since the presence of elements such as manganese is characteristic of these pigments. ?-EDXRF also revealed the presence of significant amounts of arsenic in all Sienna tube paints.

Montagner, Cristina; Sanches, Diogo; Pedroso, Joana; Melo, Maria João; Vilarigues, Márcia

2013-02-01

106

P values are only an index to evidence: 20th- vs. 21st-century statistical science.  

Science.gov (United States)

Early statistical methods focused on pre-data probability statements (i.e., data as random variables) such as P values; these are not really inferences nor are P values evidential. Statistical science clung to these principles throughout much of the 20th century as a wide variety of methods were developed for special cases. Looking back, it is clear that the underlying paradigm (i.e., testing and P values) was weak. As Kuhn (1970) suggests, new paradigms have taken the place of earlier ones: this is a goal of good science. New methods have been developed and older methods extended and these allow proper measures of strength of evidence and multimodel inference. It is time to move forward with sound theory and practice for the difficult practical problems that lie ahead. Given data the useful foundation shifts to post-data probability statements such as model probabilities (Akaike weights) or related quantities such as odds ratios and likelihood intervals. These new methods allow formal inference from multiple models in the a prior set. These quantities are properly evidential. The past century was aimed at finding the "best" model and making inferences from it. The goal in the 21st century is to base inference on all the models weighted by their model probabilities (model averaging). Estimates of precision can include model selection uncertainty leading to variances conditional on the model set. The 21st century will be about the quantification of information, proper measures of evidence, and multi-model inference. Nelder (1999:261) concludes, "The most important task before us in developing statistical science is to demolish the P-value culture, which has taken root to a frightening extent in many areas of both pure and applied science and technology". PMID:24804444

Burnham, K P; Anderson, D R

2014-03-01

107

Croatian Chemistry in the 20th Century. III. From the Establishment of the Republic of Croatia on June 25th, 1991 to the End of the Century  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this last part of our attempt to present briefly the history of Croatian chemistry in the 20th century, the development of chemistry in the Republic of Croatia, established as an independent state on June 25th, 1991 is outlined. The last 10 years of the 20th century are characterized first by defense of the country by arms until 1995, and then until the end of century, and after the constructive building of the foundations of Croatia. In these turbulent times, scientists could not be just ...

Trinajstic?, Nenad; Kas?telan-macan, Marija; Paus?ek-baz?dar, Snjez?ana; Vanc?ik, Hrvoje

2012-01-01

108

Fundamental contributions of the solar eclipse observations to solar physics in the second half of the 20th century.  

Science.gov (United States)

Astrophysical observations of solar eclipses began in the middle of the 19th century. The most important observations for the 100 years from 1851 to 1952 have been listed in well-known compilations by S. A. Mitchell, complemented by H. C. van de Hulst. The second half of the 20th century is also marked by a number of important scientific findings from eclipse observations. The author is compiling a review of major observations, extending the list by Mitchell up to the end of the 20th century. In this paper two results of particular concern to the author are discussed: (1) Spectral observations during the eclipses of 1970 and 1973 showed that coronal material penetrates very deeply into the chromosphere. (2) The eclipse of 1991 yielded direct observational evidence identifying a coronal streamer belt and the base of the heliospheric current sheet.

Gulyaev, R. A.

109

Conceptual Revolution of the 20th Century Leading to One Grand Unified Concept -- The Quantum Vacuum  

Science.gov (United States)

Concepts and the relations between concepts are the basis for all our scientific understanding and explanation of the wide variety of constituents and phenomena in nature. Some of the fundamental concepts like space, time, matter, radiation, causality, etc. had remained unchanged for almost four hundred years from the time of the dawn of science. However all these underwent a drastic transformation in the 20th century because of two reasons. One, in the light of certain experimental findings two radical theories namely theory of relativity and theory of quantum mechanics replaced the classical theory that had dominated since Newton's time. Secondly, the science-technology spiral resulted in the discovery of very many new features of the universe both on the micro scale and on the mega scale. There was an exponential increase in our knowledge. These new facts could not be fitted into the old concepts. Apart from drastic revision, many new concepts had to be brought in. Despite all this, one very encouraging trend has been to discern a holistic synthesis and unification of the different concepts -- an endeavor that has been helped by experiments over a wide scale of energy and distances and most importantly from theoretical insights triggered by mathematical underpinnings. These developments in physics and astrophysics are pointing to one grand concept, namely, the "quantum vacuum" endowed with certain special properties, as the substratum from which all the constituents of the universe as well as the processes of the universe emerge, including the creation of the universe itself. This is the view, at least of some of the scientists. In this brief article the essence of these approaches toward unification is highlighted. Maybe life sciences can take a clue from these developments in physical sciences.

Sreekantan, B. V.

2014-07-01

110

Influence of temperature and precipitation on decadal Baltic Sea level variations in the 20th century  

Science.gov (United States)

It is known that interannual Baltic Sea level variations in the 20th century can be partially, but not totally, explained by the wind forcing linked to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and other atmospheric circulation patterns. Using regression analysis linking sea level variations (as predictand) and sea level pressure (SLP), precipitation and air temperature (included stepwise as predictors) it is investigated to what extent precipitation and temperature variations can also contribute to explain Baltic sea level variability, in addition to SLP. In wintertime, their additional contribution is small compared to that of SLP (of the order of additional 15% of variance), but it is statistically significant and their inclusion as predictors help to explain past deviations in the evolution of sea level, with higher than normal temperatures and precipitation values linked to a positive contribution to sea level anomalies. In summer, temperature and precipitation explain a substantial part of the sea level variability except in the Kattegat region. In summer positive sea level anomalies are linked to higher than normal rainfall but to lower than normal temperatures, suggesting that the statistical link between sea level and temperature may artificially arise by the observed negative correlation between temperature and rainfall. For some stations, temperature and precipitation can explain, in addition to the variance explained by SLP alone, 35% of the total variability. Since part of influence of temperature and precipitation might be already contained in SLP, this value represents a lower limit for the influence of these additional factors on sea level variability. However, recent trends of winter sea level in the last 20 yr cannot be described by a linear model with any of the predictors used in this study.

Hünicke, Birgit; Zorita, Eduardo

2006-01-01

111

MINING ENTREPRENEURS IN CROATIA FROM THE MID-19TH TO THE MID-20TH CENTURY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The masters, or owners, of mining rights for the exploration of ores were prospectors and free or independent prospectors. Concession books and registers were kept about the proprietors of ore fields or mines. In them was entered, among other things, which ore was planned to be exploited. The possessor of a licence, permits for exploration and exploitation of ores, paid a certain fee every year. He could also sell his mining righis. in the shape of permits, partially or, more frequently, totally, as was recorded in the books. If he did not pay taxes, he could lose all his rights, which were then deleted, or crossed out of the mining books. Those who possessed mining permits had to solve the questions of compensation to the owners of the lands where they intended to do detailed explorations, and to exploit the ore, even to the extent of leasing or buying the land. The mining activity in Croatia between the mid-19th and mid-20th centuries is richly documented in the (Imperial and Royal mining captaincies in Zagreb, Zadar and Split. The basic mining law was the General Austrian Mining Law of 1854, with its amendments of 1911 (Legal Article VI about mineral oil substances and natural gases.In Croatia, mining enterpreneurs were individuals or companies (including the slate with the proviso that at the beginning there were more foreigners. However, Croatian traders, industrialists, magnates, officials, bankers, various companies, engineers, artists, retired persons, peasants, officers and others soon became involved in mining. Among the entrepreneurs there were various noblemen.It has been ascertained in this research that in individual periods between 1855 and 1945 there was a dominance of individuals (mainly 81%-85% while today (1990-1995 it is quite the opposite (86% are companies, because this is the end of the long term control of the socially owned companies. Thes same situation obtains today with respect to exploitation licenses, where companies predominate (84%.

Berislav Šebe?i?

1996-12-01

112

Variation in surface air temperature of China during the 20th century  

Science.gov (United States)

The 20th century surface air temperature (SAT) records of China from various sources are analyzed using data which include the recently released Twentieth Century Reanalysis Project dataset. Two key features of the Chinese records are confirmed: (1) significant 1920s and 1940s warming in the temperature records, and (2) evidence for a persistent multidecadal modulation of the Chinese surface temperature records in co-variations with both incoming solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere as well as the modulated solar radiation reaching ground surface. New evidence is presented for this Sun-climate link for the instrumental record from 1880 to 2002. Additionally, two non-local physical aspects of solar radiation-induced modulation of the Chinese SAT record are documented and discussed.Teleconnections that provide a persistent and systematic modulation of the temperature response of the Tibetan Plateau and/or the tropospheric air column above the Eurasian continent (e.g., 30°N-70°N; 0°-120°E) are described. These teleconnections may originate from the solar irradiance-Arctic-North Atlantic overturning circulation mechanism proposed by Soon (2009). Also considered is the modulation of large-scale land-sea thermal contrasts both in terms of meridional and zonal gradients between the subtropical western Pacific and mid-latitude North Pacific and the continental landmass of China. The Circum-global teleconnection (CGT) pattern of summer circulation of Ding and Wang (2005) provides a physical framework for study of the Sun-climate connection over East Asia. Our results highlight the importance of solar radiation reaching the ground and the concomitant importance of changes in atmospheric transparency or cloudiness or both in motivating a true physical explanation of any Sun-climate connection. We conclude that ground surface solar radiation is an important modulating factor for Chinese SAT changes on multidecadal to centennial timescales. Therefore, a comprehensive view of local and remote factors of climate change in China must take account of this as well as other natural and anthropogenic forcings.

Soon, Willie; Dutta, Koushik; Legates, David R.; Velasco, Victor; Zhang, Weijia

2011-10-01

113

Enhanced 20th century heat transfer to the Arctic simulated in the context of climate variations over the last millennium  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Oceanic heat transport variations, carried by the northward flowing Atlantic Water, strongly influence Arctic sea-ice distribution, ocean–atmosphere exchanges, and pan-Arctic temperatures. Paleoceanographic reconstructions from marine sediments near Fram Strait have documented a dramatic increase in Atlantic Water temperatures over the 20th century, unprecedented in the last millennium. Here we present results from Earth system model simulations over the last millennium that reproduce and explain reconstructed integrated quantities such as pan-Arctic temperature evolution during the pre-industrial millennium as well as the exceptional Atlantic Water warming in Fram Strait in the 20th century. The associated increase in ocean heat transfer to the Arctic can be traced back to changes in the ocean circulation in the sub-polar North Atlantic. An interplay between a weakening overturning circulation and a strengthening sub-polar gyre as a consequence of 20th century global warming is identified as driving mechanism for the pronounced warming along the Atlantic Water path toward the Arctic. Simulations covering the late Holocene provide a reference frame that allows us to conclude that the changes during the last century are unprecedented in the last 1150 years and that they cannot be explained by internal variability or natural forcing alone.

J. H. Jungclaus

2014-07-01

114

[Occult medicine in the 20th century: pharmacotherapy by Demeter Georgievitz-Weitzer, known as Surya (1873 - 1949)].  

Science.gov (United States)

Demeter Georgievitz-Weitzer (1873-1949), called "Surya", Sanskrit for "sun", was an important representative of medical occultism in the first half of the 20th century. He worked as a journal editor and published a 13-volume book series about occult medicine, mainly written by himself. His hypotheses were closely related to the "Lebensreform" movement around 1900. Regarding diagnostics, he relied on astrology, cheiromancy, and clairvoyance, while therapeutics were dominated by diet and spagyric remedies according to Cesare Mattei (1809-1896) and Carl-Friedrich Zimpel (1801-1879). In his later years, he developed his own healing system, initially comprising eight, later only two preparations. Surya remedies were commercially available until the end of the 20th century, PMID:22822609

Helmstädter, Axel

2011-01-01

115

Agrarian Peasant Question as a Reflection of Ukrainian Parties Ideology at the Beginning of the 20th Century: Historiographic Discourse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The keenness and acuity of the agrarian and peasant question, which should be conceived as conscious problem of land scarcity, legal status of peasant social stratum, of peasant agrarians and peasant labourers made political parties at the beginning of the 20th century to work out their visions of crisis situation overcoming in the countryside. The necessity to be armed with own opinion on this matter concerned both Russian and national parties in the Russian Empire. The author suggests reviewing agrarian concepts of various parties as the measure of their referring to either to left wing or liberal political parties. Such concept statement is investigated in frames of historiographic discourse with involvement of original documents, which permits to make sense of the stated issue. The participants of the historiographic dialogue are mostly represented by contemporary scientists, who study the agrarian components of Ukrainian parties platforms at the beginning of the 20th century.

Dmytro Kudinov

2014-08-01

116

[Recent fauna of ground-nesting birds in Transvolga steppes and its dynamics in the 20th century].  

Science.gov (United States)

It is shown that the structure of the ground-nesting bird fauna in Transvolga steppes has changed during the 20th century. The complex of lark species characteristic of true and dry steppe has disappeared because of climate change and impact of economic activity (the establishment of windbreak and roadside forest strips), which has provided for a sharp increase in the abundance of corvid birds. PMID:18771034

Oparin, M L

2008-01-01

117

Climate-change impact on the 20th-century relationship between the Southern Annular Mode and global mean temperature  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The positive phase of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) increases global mean temperature, and contributes to a negative phase of the Southern Annular Mode (SAM), the dominant mode of climate variability in the Southern Hemisphere. This interannual relationship of a high global mean temperature associated with a negative SAM, however, is opposite to the relationship between their trends under greenhouse warming. We show that over much of the 20th century this relationship undergoes mul...

Wang, Guojian; Cai, Wenju

2013-01-01

118

Lessons Learned and Present Day Challenges of Addressing 20th Century Radiation Legacies of Russia and the United States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The decommissioning of nuclear submarines, disposal of highly-enriched uranium and weapons-grade plutonium, and processing of high-level radioactive wastes represent the most challenging issues facing the cleanup of 20th century radiation legacy wastes and facilities. The US and Russia are the two primary countries dealing with these challenges, because most of the world's fissile inventory is being processed and stored at multiple industrial sites and nuclear weapons production facilities in these countries

119

The Uncertainty in 20th Century Carbon Budget due to Land Use Change Emissions  

Science.gov (United States)

The uncertainty in 20th century carbon budget due to land use change (LUC) emissions is assessed using the Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis (CCCma) first generation Earth System Model (CanESM1). CanESM1 is based on CCCma third generation coupled general circulation model and includes terrestrial and oceanic carbon cycle components. LUC emissions are modelled interactively on the basis of specified changes in land cover that determine the amount of deforestation as well as the corresponding albedo changes at the land surface. Eight fully coupled climate-carbon cycle simulations are performed using different reconstructions of the 1850-2000 land cover that are based on historical data sets of increase in cropland and pasture area. The reconstructions of 1850-2000 land cover are based on two approaches: in the linear approach the changes in fractional coverage of natural plant functional types (PFTs) are in proportion to changes in cropland and/or pasture area and in the rule-based approach the natural PFTs are deforested in a specified order. These simulations allow to estimate implied LUC emissions, the contribution of increase in cropland versus pasture area on LUC emissions, the uncertainty associated with using different historical data sets of crop area as well as the manner in which the historical land cover is reconstructed. The amount of deforested biomass for the 1850-2000 period ranges from 63 Pg C for the case where only increase in cropland area is taken into account following the rule-based approach to 145 Pg C where increases in cropland and pasture area are both taken into account following the linear approach. In absence of historical LUC the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere is about 20 ppm below the observation-based value of ~370 ppm in the year 2000. Inclusion of increase in pasture area although increases the amount of deforested biomass it does not change the atmospheric CO2 substantially because pastures also sequester CO2 in soil carbon. Overall the atmospheric CO2 in most simulations with LUC varies between 370±4.5 ppm depending on the cropland/pasture data set used and the manner in which historical land cover is reconstructed.

Arora, V. K.; Boer, G. J.

2009-05-01

120

See no evil, hear no evil: the rise and fall of child sexual abuse in the 20th century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This paper examines the development of a medical perspective on child sexual abuse during the course of the 20th century and argues that such a perspective has not served the best interests of sexually abused children. An alternate social perspective is outlined, which would appear to have the poten [...] tial to adequately address the needs of sexually abused children in the 21st century. The paper concludes by arguing that, despite its merits, the social perspective is likely to be of little value unless we can learn to more effectively see and hear the voices of child survivors.

Steven J, Collings.

 
 
 
 
121

Effects of breeding activity on durum wheat traits breed in Italy during the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Italy is the first world producer of pasta from durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. and an intense breeding activity has been conducted over the last century to support the long tradition of pasta making. This manuscript reviews the results achieved through the Italian breeding programs over last century. The analysis of data allows to appreciate the selective pressure imposed by the breeders on plant height and phenology to select cultivars well adapted to the Italian semi-arid conditions, where early maturity allows to escape the drought season. The annual genetic gain in terms of yield ranged from 17 to 24.6 kg ha-1 year-1 and it was most clearly associated with a higher kernels number m-2 indicating a larger grain-sink size and a higher number of spikes m-2. Regarding the quality traits, the grain protein concentration showed a decreasing trend over time of release of about 0.02% per year, confirming the negative relationship with grain yield.The progressive incorporation into recent cultivars of favourable alleles (7+8 glutenin subunit composition coding for superior quality subunits reflects the improvement in pasta making quality of the recent genotypes.

Luigi Cattivelli

2007-12-01

122

Effects of breeding activity on durum wheat traits breed in Italy during the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Italy is the first world producer of pasta from durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. and an intense breeding activity has been conducted over the last century to support the long tradition of pasta making. This manuscript reviews the results achieved through the Italian breeding programs over last century. The analysis of data allows to appreciate the selective pressure imposed by the breeders on plant height and phenology to select cultivars well adapted to the Italian semi-arid conditions, where early maturity allows to escape the drought season. The annual genetic gain in terms of yield ranged from 17 to 24.6 kg ha-1 year-1 and it was most clearly associated with a higher kernels number m-2 indicating a larger grain-sink size and a higher number of spikes m-2. Regarding the quality traits, the grain protein concentration showed a decreasing trend over time of release of about 0.02% per year, confirming the negative relationship with grain yield.The progressive incorporation into recent cultivars of favourable alleles (7+8 glutenin subunit composition coding for superior quality subunits reflects the improvement in pasta making quality of the recent genotypes.

Luigi Cattivelli

2011-02-01

123

A obra de Euclides da Cunha e os debates sobre mestiçagem no Brasil no início do século xx: Os sertões e a medicina- antropologia do Museu Nacional / The work of Euclides da Cunha and debates on racial admixture in Brazil in the early 20th century: Os sertões and the field of medicine- anthropology at the Museu Nacional  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho aborda certas interfaces entre a obra de Euclides da Cunha, e Os sertões em particular, e a medicina-antropologia no Brasil no início do século XX. Aponta-se que à obra euclidiana podem ser vinculadas duas vertentes médico-antropológicas que construíram explicações divergentes acerca d [...] as conseqüências da composição racial brasileira, em especial quanto à viabilidade de uma nação mestiça. Uma primeira, cujo expoente foi Raimundo Nina Rodrigues, esteve alinhada com uma perspectiva mais próxima de um fatalismo racial. Uma outra, representada por Edgard Roquette-Pinto, ligado ao Museu Nacional, argumentava que os mestiços não seriam orgânica ou racialmente inviáveis. No texto é analisada sobretudo a interpretação que a medicina-antropologia do Museu Nacional realizou da obra euclidiana. Abstract in english The article addresses certain interfaces between Euclides da Cunha’s work - particularly Os sertões - and medicine-anthropology in Brazil in the early 20th century. Cunha’s work can be tied in with two lines of thought in the field of medicine-anthropology, each of which constructed its own view of [...] the consequences of Brazil’s racial make-up, especially regarding the viability of a mestizo nation. One of these lines, supported by Raimundo Nina Rodrigues, among others, leaned more towards racial fatalism. The other, represented by Edgard Roquette-Pinto of the Museu Nacional, argued that mestizos were neither organically nor racially inviable. The text is concerned above all with the interpretation of Cunha’s work proposed by those in the field of medicine- anthropology at the Museu Nacional.

Ricardo Ventura, Santos.

1998-07-01

124

North Atlantic 20th century multidecadal variability in coupled climate models: sea surface temperature and ocean overturning circulation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Output from a total of 24 state-of-the-art Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models is analyzed. The models were integrated with observed forcing for the period 1850–2000 as part of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC Fourth Assessment Report. All models show enhanced variability at multi-decadal time scales in the North Atlantic sector similar to the observations, but with a large intermodel spread in amplitudes and frequencies for both the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO and the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC. The models, in general, are able to reproduce the observed geographical patterns of warm and cold episodes, but not the phasing such as the early warming (1930s–1950s and the following colder period (1960s–1980s. This indicates that the observed 20th century extreme in temperatures are due to primarily a fortuitous phasing of intrinsic climate variability and not dominated by external forcing. Most models show a realistic structure in the overturning circulation, where more than half of the available models have a mean overturning transport within the observed estimated range of 13–24 Sverdrup. Associated with a stronger than normal AMOC, the surface temperature is increased and the sea ice extent slightly reduced in the North Atlantic. Individual models show potential for decadal prediction based on the relationship between the AMO and AMOC, but the models strongly disagree both in phasing and strength of the covariability. This makes it difficult to identify common mechanisms and to assess the applicability for predictions.

I. Medhaug

2011-06-01

125

North Atlantic 20th century multidecadal variability in coupled climate models: sea surface temperature and ocean overturning circulation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Output from a total of 24 state-of-the-art Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models is analyzed. The models were integrated with observed forcing for the period 1850–2000 as part of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC Fourth Assessment Report. All models show enhanced variability at multi-decadal time scales in the North Atlantic sector similar to the observations, but with a large intermodel spread in amplitudes and frequencies for both the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO and the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC. The models, in general, are able to reproduce the observed geographical patterns of warm and cold episodes, but not the phasing such as the early warming (1930s–50s and the following colder period (1960s–80s. This indicates that the observed 20th century extreme in temperatures are due to primarily a fortuitous phasing of intrinsic climate variability and not dominated by external forcing. Most models show a realistic structure in the overturning circulation, where more than half of the available models have a mean overturning transport within the observed estimated range of 13–24 Sverdrup. Associated with a stronger than normal AMOC, the surface temperature is increased and the sea ice extent slightly reduced in the North Atlantic. Individual models show potential for decadal prediction based on the relationship between the AMO and AMOC, but the models strongly disagree both in phasing and strength of the covariability. This makes it difficult to identify common mechanisms and to assess the applicability for predictions.

I. Medhaug

2011-02-01

126

Terrestrial gravity instrumentation in the 20th Century: A brief review  

Science.gov (United States)

At the turn of the century, only pendulum apparatuses and torsion balances were available for general exploration work. Both of these early techniques were cumbersome and time-consuming. It was no wonder that the development of the gravity meter was welcomed with a universal sigh of relief. By 1935 potential field measurements with gravity meters supplanted gradient measurements with torsion balances. Potential field measurements are generally characterized by three types: absolute - measurements are made in fundamental units, traceable to national standards of length and time at each observation site; relative with absolute scale - differences in gravity are measured in fundamental units traceable to national standards of length and time; and relative - differences in gravity are measured with arbitrary scale. Improvements in the design of gravity meters since their introduction has led to a significant reduction in size and greatly increased precision. As the precision increased, applications expanded to include the measurement of crustal motion, the search for non-Newtonian forces, archeology, and civil engineering. Apart from enhancements to the astatic gravity meter, few developments in hardware were achieved. One of these was the vibrating string gravity meter which was developed in the 1950s and was employed briefly for marine and borehole applications. Another is the cryogenic gravity meter which utilizes the stability of superconducting current to achieve a relative instrument with extremely low drift suitable for tidal and secular gravity measurements. An advance in performing measurements from a moving platform was achieved with the development of the straight-line gravity meter. The latter part of the century also saw the rebirth of gradient measurements which offers advantages for observations from a moving platform. Definitive testing of the Bell gradiometer was recently reported.

Valliant, H. D.

1989-01-01

127

On modelling of peasants' lease in Russia at the end of the 19th - beginning of the 20th centuries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

'An alalysis of the character of the land lease in Russia at the end of the 19th - beginning of the 20th centuries is presented. The problem is studied on the basis of mass statistic data of the Zemstvo (local administration of Empire Russia). This source had not been used before for this purpose. Using correlation and factor analysis the structure of peasant economy is investigated. An attempt is made to determine the leases' place in Russia's economy and reveal the character of the consumer...

Moissenko, Tatjana L.

1991-01-01

128

L’effet de présence : entre image fixe et image animée, les représentations de la Passion (fin XIXe-début XXe siècle In search of presence: Representations of the Passion between the fixed and moving image (late 19th, early 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Les représentations de la Passion et de la Vie de Jésus ont figuré parmi les premiers titres des débuts du cinéma. A posteriori, la critique des films religieux, notamment dans les années soixante, a été sévère pour ces tentatives jugées plus commerciales que très inspirées. L’intérêt pour le cinéma des premiers temps s’est approfondi dans les dernières décennies et favorise une autre approche de ces productions des années 1895-1920. Restituer l’univers visuel dans lequel ces films ont pris naissance permet de préciser les modalités de représentation des sujets biblique, en lien avec l’historicisme et l’orientalisme. Outre les liens étroits avec la peinture et la photographie, ces premiers films retrouvent certains effets narratifs des jeux de la Passion ou des projections d’images fixes encore abondantes au tournant du XXe siècle. S’attacher à la conception de la figuration contribue à cerner le « désir de voir » et l’effet de présence christique qui se manifestent dans ces premières Passion filmées.Representations of the Passion and the Life of Jesus Christ were a popular topic in early cinema. Retrospective criticism, especially in the 1960’s, was judgmental towards the first religious films, insofar as they were regarded more as commercially driven reenactments than inspired works. Interest in early cinema deepened in recent decades, and has led to a different reading of productions from the period 1895-1920. By restoring the universe of visual references in which these films arose, we are able to relate representations of biblical subjects to movements in historicism and Orientalism. Beyond their close relationship with painting and photography, these early films also reproduced the narrative effects of Passion plays or projections of fixed images that were still widespread at the turn of the 20th century. A focus on figurative conception will help us reconnect with the "need to see" and the effect of christic presence that were manifest in the first filmed Passions.

Isabelle Saint-Martin

2008-06-01

129

A representação da deficiência em livros infantis: séculos XIX e XX / The representation of disability in children's literature: 19th and 20th centuries  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente artigo analisa a representação de personagens deficientes em livros britânicos e norte-americanos do século XIX ao início do século XXI. São analisados tanto os assim chamados clássicos infantis quanto livros fora de edição ou não tão disponíveis. Uma das conclusões é que a representação [...] de personagens deficientes geralmente é mais complexa e variada nos livros mais antigos. Além disso, segundo a visão de muitos autores do século XIX e início do século XX, é necessário aceitar infortúnios como uma forma de obediência a Deus, mas também porque, em última análise, eles são considerados um bem. Portanto, em muitos livros, a deficiência e sua cura, quando ocorre, estão associadas com o caráter. Abstract in english This article examines the treatment of disabled characters in British and North-American children's classics and in books that are out-of-print or less available to children from the 19th century to early 20th century. One of the main findings of this article is that the treatment of disabled charac [...] ters is often more complex and varied in the latter than in the former. Moreover, the prevailing view of many 19th century and some early 20th century authors was that one should submit to misfortunes, both as a form of obedience to God's will, and because these seeming misfortunes are ultimately intended for one's own good. Therefore, in many books, disability, where it occurs, and its cure are associated with character.

Ann, Dowker.

1053-10-01

130

On the stationarity of annual flood peaks in the continental United States during the 20th century  

Science.gov (United States)

Annual peak discharge records from 50 stations in the continental United States with at least 100 years of record are used to investigate stationarity of flood peaks during the 20th century. We examine temporal trends in flood peaks and abrupt changes in the mean and/or variance of flood peak distributions. Change point analysis for detecting abrupt changes in flood distributions is performed using the nonparametric Pettitt test. Two nonparametric (Mann-Kendall and Spearman) tests and one parametric (Pearson) test are used to detect the presence of temporal trends. Generalized additive models for location, scale, and shape (GAMLSS) are also used to parametrically model the annual peak data, exploiting their flexibility to account for abrupt changes and temporal trends in the parameters of the distribution functions. Additionally, the presence of long-term persistence is investigated through estimation of the Hurst exponent, and an alternative interpretation of the results in terms of long-term persistence is provided. Many of the drainage basins represented in this study have been affected by regulation through systems of reservoirs, and all of the drainage basins have experienced significant land use changes during the 20th century. Despite the profound changes that have occurred to drainage basins throughout the continental United States and the recognition that elements of the hydrologic cycle are being altered by human-induced climate change, it is easier to proclaim the demise of stationarity of flood peaks than to prove it through analyses of annual flood peak data.

Villarini, Gabriele; Serinaldi, Francesco; Smith, James A.; Krajewski, Witold F.

2009-08-01

131

A review of the History of Spine Surgery in Greece until the Middle of the 20th Century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Spine Surgery began its evolution in the beginning of the 19th century in order to reach nowadays the point of being considered an important subspecialty of Neurosurgery and Orthopaedics. The purpose of this historical review is the search and evaluation of the progress in spine surgery until the middle of the 20th century. This review concerns the inauguration and evolution of this field in Greece. Special references are made to the first achievements of this field, to the pioneers physicians and surgeons (general surgeons, orthopaedic surgeons and neurosurgeons who inaugurated this subspecialty and to clinical and scientific work of that era. Eventually, the progress of medicine and technology who led to the first achievements of this subspecialty are shown and also the difficulties (both social and scientific that the pioneers of this field faced are demonstrated. In Greece, with small exceptions, the new techniques emerged with a certain delay.

Konstantinos Markatos

2014-05-01

132

French engineers and social thought, 18–20th centuries: An archeology of technocratic ideals.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

During the second half of the twentieth century, at the time of the foundation of the Fifth Republic, French engineers endorsed enthusiastically technocratic ideals. Their attitude was not only the product of a specific context. It was rooted in a long tradition of connection between French engineering and social preoccupations. This connection emerged at the time of the creation of the first corps of State engineers in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Indeed, State engineers were fr...

Picon, Antoine

2007-01-01

133

EL POSITIVISMO EN EL DERECHO PENAL CHILENO: ANÁLISIS SINCRÓNICO Y DIACRÓNICO DE UNA DOCTRINA DE PRINCIPIOS DEL SIGLO XX QUE SE MANTIENE VIGENTE / Positivism in chilean criminal law: A synchronic and diachronic analysis of an early 20th century doctrine still in use  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El artículo describe, contra la opinión mayoritaria, cómo el positivismo penal se desarrolló en Chile desde principios del siglo XX, a partir de la influencia de Valentín Letelier y Raimundo del Río en la enseñanza universitaria. Da cuenta del impacto de las ideas positivistas en otros autores de la [...] época, en los proyectos de Código penal de Erazo-Fontecilla (1929) y Silva-Labatut (1938), y las leyes sobre Estados Antisociales (Nº 11.265) y Remisión Condicional de la Pena (Nº 7.821); sustentando la hipótesis, contraria a la opinión dominante, de que las tesis positivistas permanecen vigentes en nuestro ordenamiento punitivo y especialmente en la práctica procesal, al punto de que nuestro actual sistema de penas, incluyendo las salidas alternativas ("suspensión condicional del procedimiento"), las "sanciones" de la Ley de Responsabilidad Adolescente Nº 20.084 y las medidas de la Ley Nº 18.216 ("remisión condicional" y "libertad vigilada"), puede ser descrito en clave "positivista", al determinarse la duración y clase las medidas efectivamente a imponer principalmente por criterios relativos a la "peligrosidad" del imputado. Abstract in english Against the predominant opinion, this article describes how Criminal Positivism developed in Chile since the early 20th Century, starting from the influences of Valentín Letelier and Raimundo del Río in their university teachings. This work acknowledges the impact positivist ideas had on other conte [...] mporary authors, on the Erazo-Fontecilla (1929) and Silva-Labatut (1938) Criminal Code projects, on the Antisocial States Act (11.265) and on the Conditional Remission of Punishment Act (7.821); contrary to the dominant view, the author sustains the hypothesis that positivist theses remain effective in our criminal law system, especially in criminal procedural practices, to the extent that our actual punitive system, including alternative sentencing (conditional suspension of procedure), the "sanctions" contemplated in the Teenage Responsibility Law Number 20.084 and the measures of Law Number 18.216 (conditional remission and parole), can be described as positivist, because the length and type of effectively imposed measures are mostly determined on the basis of criteria regarding the accused’s dangerousness.

Jean Pierre, Matus Acuña.

2007-07-01

134

EL POSITIVISMO EN EL DERECHO PENAL CHILENO: ANÁLISIS SINCRÓNICO Y DIACRÓNICO DE UNA DOCTRINA DE PRINCIPIOS DEL SIGLO XX QUE SE MANTIENE VIGENTE Positivism in chilean criminal law: A synchronic and diachronic analysis of an early 20th century doctrine still in use  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El artículo describe, contra la opinión mayoritaria, cómo el positivismo penal se desarrolló en Chile desde principios del siglo XX, a partir de la influencia de Valentín Letelier y Raimundo del Río en la enseñanza universitaria. Da cuenta del impacto de las ideas positivistas en otros autores de la época, en los proyectos de Código penal de Erazo-Fontecilla (1929 y Silva-Labatut (1938, y las leyes sobre Estados Antisociales (Nº 11.265 y Remisión Condicional de la Pena (Nº 7.821; sustentando la hipótesis, contraria a la opinión dominante, de que las tesis positivistas permanecen vigentes en nuestro ordenamiento punitivo y especialmente en la práctica procesal, al punto de que nuestro actual sistema de penas, incluyendo las salidas alternativas ("suspensión condicional del procedimiento", las "sanciones" de la Ley de Responsabilidad Adolescente Nº 20.084 y las medidas de la Ley Nº 18.216 ("remisión condicional" y "libertad vigilada", puede ser descrito en clave "positivista", al determinarse la duración y clase las medidas efectivamente a imponer principalmente por criterios relativos a la "peligrosidad" del imputado.Against the predominant opinion, this article describes how Criminal Positivism developed in Chile since the early 20th Century, starting from the influences of Valentín Letelier and Raimundo del Río in their university teachings. This work acknowledges the impact positivist ideas had on other contemporary authors, on the Erazo-Fontecilla (1929 and Silva-Labatut (1938 Criminal Code projects, on the Antisocial States Act (11.265 and on the Conditional Remission of Punishment Act (7.821; contrary to the dominant view, the author sustains the hypothesis that positivist theses remain effective in our criminal law system, especially in criminal procedural practices, to the extent that our actual punitive system, including alternative sentencing (conditional suspension of procedure, the "sanctions" contemplated in the Teenage Responsibility Law Number 20.084 and the measures of Law Number 18.216 (conditional remission and parole, can be described as positivist, because the length and type of effectively imposed measures are mostly determined on the basis of criteria regarding the accused’s dangerousness.

Jean Pierre Matus Acuña

2007-07-01

135

Aspects in the religious life of Romanians from the Balkan Peninsula – the end of the 19th century – the beginning of of the 20th century. Archive Documents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article presents on the basis of the archive documents aspects related to the religious life of Romanians from the Balkan Peninsula between the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. It also presents the position which the Patriarchy in Constantinople had during all this period of time concerning the actions of Romanians. These were not successful but the situation changed after the issue of the imperial resolution of 1905 which ensured the use of the Romanian language and of the A-romanian dialect in church.

Adina Berciu-Dr?ghicescu

2010-01-01

136

On the long term change in the geomagnetic activity during the 20th century  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The analysis of the aa index series presented in this paper clearly shows that during the last century (1900 to 2000) the number of quiet days (Aa<20 nT) drastically diminished from a mean annual value greater than 270 days per year at the end of the nineteenth century to a mean value of 160 quiet days per year one hundred years later. This decrease is mainly due to the decrease of the number of very quiet days (Aa<13 nT). We show that the so-evidenced decrease in the number of ...

Ouattara, F.; Amory-mazaudier, C.; Menvielle, M.; Simon, P.; -p Legrand, J.

2009-01-01

137

Connections: can the 20th century coronary heart disease epidemic reveal something about the 1918 influenza lethality?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This essay proposes that the ecologic association shown between the 20th century coronary heart disease epidemic and the 1918 influenza pandemic could shed light on the mechanism associated with the high lethality of the latter. It suggests that an autoimmune interference at the apoB-LDL interface c [...] ould explain both hypercholesterolemia and inflammation (through interference with the cellular metabolism of arachidonic acid). Autoimmune inflammation, then, would explain the 1950s-60s acute coronary events (coronary thrombosis upon influenza re-infection) and the respiratory failure seen among young adults in 1918. This hypothesis also argues that the lethality of the 1918 pandemic may have not depended so much on the 1918 virus as on an immune vulnerability to it, possibly resulting from an earlier priming of cohorts born around 1890 by the 1890 influenza pandemic virus.

M.I, Azambuja.

2008-01-01

138

Evidence for 20th century climate warming and wetland drying in the North American Prairie Pothole Region.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America is a globally important resource that provides abundant and valuable ecosystem goods and services in the form of biodiversity, groundwater recharge, water purification, flood attenuation, and water and forage for agriculture. Numerous studies have found these wetlands, which number in the millions, to be highly sensitive to climate variability. Here, we compare wetland conditions between two 30-year periods (1946-1975; 1976-2005) using a hindcast simulation approach to determine if recent climate warming in the region has already resulted in changes in wetland condition. Simulations using the WETLANDSCAPE model show that 20th century climate change may have been sufficient to have a significant impact on wetland cover cycling. Modeled wetlands in the PPR's western Canadian prairies show the most dramatic effects: a recent trend toward shorter hydroperiods and less dynamic vegetation cycles, which already may have reduced the productivity of hundreds of wetland-dependent species. PMID:24223283

Werner, Brett A; Johnson, W Carter; Guntenspergen, Glenn R

2013-09-01

139

Evaluation of Continental Precipitation in 20th-Century Climate Simulations: The Utility of Multi-Model Statistics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At the request of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), simulations of 20th-century climate have been performed recently with some 20 global coupled ocean-atmosphere models. In view of its central importance for biological and socio-economic systems, model-simulated continental precipitation is evaluated relative to three observational estimates at both global and regional scales. Many models are found to display systematic biases, deviating markedly from the observed spatial variability and amplitude/phase of the seasonal cycle. However, the point-wise ensemble mean of all the models usually shows better statistical agreement with the observations than does any single model. Deficiencies of current models that may be responsible for the simulated precipitation biases as well as possible reasons for the improved estimate afforded by the multi-model ensemble mean are discussed. Implications of these results for water-resource managers also are briefly addressed.

Phillips, T J; Gleckler, P J

2005-11-01

140

The role of atmospheric nuclear explosions on the stagnation of global warming in the mid 20th century  

Science.gov (United States)

This study suggests that the cause of the stagnation in global warming in the mid 20th century was the atmospheric nuclear explosions detonated between 1945 and 1980. The estimated GST drop due to fine dust from the actual atmospheric nuclear explosions based on the published simulation results by other researchers (a single column model and Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Model) has served to explain the stagnation in global warming. Atmospheric nuclear explosions can be regarded as full-scale in situ tests for nuclear winter. The non-negligible amount of GST drop from the actual atmospheric explosions suggests that nuclear winter is not just a theory but has actually occurred, albeit on a small scale. The accuracy of the simulations of GST by IPCC would also be improved significantly by introducing the influence of fine dust from the actual atmospheric nuclear explosions into their climate models; thus, global warming behavior could be more accurately predicted.

Fujii, Yoshiaki

2011-04-01

 
 
 
 
141

Geologic and hydrologic hazards in glacierized basins in North America resulting from 19th and 20th century global warming  

Science.gov (United States)

Alpine glacier retreat resulting from global warming since the close of the Little Ice Age in the 19th and 20th centuries has increased the risk and incidence of some geologic and hydrologic hazards in mountainous alpine regions of North America. Abundant loose debris in recently deglaciated areas at the toe of alpine glaciers provides a ready source of sediment during rainstorms or outburst floods. This sediment can cause debris flows and sedimentation problems in downstream areas. Moraines built during the Little Ice Age can trap and store large volumes of water. These natural dams have no controlled outlets and can fail without warning. Many glacier-dammed lakes have grown in size, while ice dams have shrunk, resulting in greater risks of ice-dam failure. The retreat and thinning of glacier ice has left oversteepened, unstable valley walls and has led to increased incidence of rock and debris avalanches. ?? 1993 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

O'Connor, J. E.; Costa, J.E.

1993-01-01

142

Evolution of National Nobel Prize Shares in the 20th Century  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We analyze the evolution of cumulative national shares of Nobel Prizes since 1901, properly taking into account that most prizes were divided among several laureates. We rank by citizenship at the moment of the award, and by country of birth. Surprisingly, graphs of this type have not been published before, even though they powerfully illustrate the century's migration patterns (brain drains and gains) in the sciences and other fields.

Schmidhuber, Juergen

2010-01-01

143

Social disorder and diagnostic order: the US Mental Hygiene Movement, the Midtown Manhattan study and the development of psychiatric epidemiology in the 20th century.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent scholarship regarding psychiatric epidemiology has focused on shifting notions of mental disorders. In psychiatric epidemiology in the last decades of the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st century, mental disorders have been perceived and treated largely as discrete categories denoting an individual's mental functioning as either pathological or normal. In the USA, this grew partly out of evolving modern epidemiological work responding to the State's commitment to measure the national social and economic burdens of psychiatric disorders and subsequently to determine the need for mental health services and to survey these needs over time. Notably absent in these decades have been environmentally oriented approaches to cultivating normal, healthy mental states, approaches initially present after World War II. We focus here on a set of community studies conducted in the 1950s, particularly the Midtown Manhattan study, which grew out of a holistic conception of mental health that depended on social context and had a strong historical affiliation with: the Mental Hygiene Movement and the philosophy of its founder, Adolf Meyer; the epidemiological formation of field studies and population surveys beginning early in the 20th century, often with a health policy agenda; the recognition of increasing chronic disease in the USA; and the radical change in orientation within psychiatry around World War II. We place the Midtown Manhattan study in historical context--a complex narrative of social institutions, professional formation and scientific norms in psychiatry and epidemiology, and social welfare theory that begins during the Progressive era (1890-1920) in the USA. PMID:25031047

March, Dana; Oppenheimer, Gerald M

2014-08-01

144

Transition of wind power utilization technology in the 20th century; 20 seiki ni okeru furyoku riyo gijutsu no hensen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Windmills are one of the oldest prime movers and have been used for more than 700 years in Europe. The transition from low speed windmills for grain grinding and water pumping to high speed wind turbines for electric power generation had occurred at the end of 19{sup th} century. This paper, at first, reviews the windmill technologies and the researchers before 20th century. Then describes the back ground of how the wind power generator has existed and how the four pioneers developed their wind power generator. The historical developments of windmills to wind turbines in this century are studied focusing mainly on Danish activities. Then, the effort of the development of large wind turbine such as Smith-Putnum's first MW machine in U.S.A. and other mammoth machine concept are introduced. The new concept machines such as Savonius and Darrieus wind turbines in 1920s to 1930s are also explained. Finally, the novel technologies of wind turbine covering larger machines, variable speed generators, special wing sections for wind turbines, theoretical analysis method of wind turbine performance, offshore wind turbines, and wind turbine control technologies are stated. (author)

Ushiyama, I. [Ashikaga Inst. of Tech., Tochigi (Japan)

2000-04-01

145

Mean reversion in international stock markets: an empirical analysis of the 20th century  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper analyzes mean reversion in international stock markets during the period 1900-2008, using annual data. Our panel of stock indexes in seventeen developed countries, covering a time span of more than a century, allows us to analyze in detail the dynamics of the mean-reversion process. In the period 1900-2008 it takes stock prices about 13.8 years, on average, to absorb half of a shock. However, using a rolling-window approach we establish large fluctuations in the speed of mean rever...

Spierdijk, Laura; Bikker, J. A.; Hoek, Pieter Den

2010-01-01

146

Development of the Structure of Lithuanian Gardens and Parks from the 16th to the 20th Centuries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The historical development of Lithuanian parks cannot be separated from the historical evolution of our cities and towns and formation of their urbanistic structure. The beginnings of creating garden art in Lithuania, the same as in West Europe, are mentioned in medieval castles and monasteries. A strong influence on the developement of the history of Renaissance gardens was exerted by new models of garden theory, which were formed and formulated by famous European architects, artists, scientists, philosophers. The traditions of antique art were revived, new scientific inventions had an influence on garden art. During the 17th–18th centuries a lot of residences and manors were built, and they played an important role in the urbanisation of the country. In the 17th–18th centuries the tendencies in the Italian art of garden parks in West Europe were taken over by French baroque. In the junction of the 18th and 19th centuries the planning of cities and towns and urbanistic development in the territories of Lithuania and East Europe took place due to bizarre and geometralised influence of the baroque epoch. In the 19th century scenery parks were created next to mansions in Lithuanian towns by famous scenery specialists of that time from West Europe. In the junction of 19th and 20th centuries important geopolitical processes in Lithuania and Europe took place not only in the urbanisation of cities, but also in the planning of parks and their art tendencies. Due to the growth of cities, their urbanised territories and strengthening of social attitude towards a surrounding environment, the boundaries of park art spread into the public areas of cities. At the end of the paper there is a scheme which summarises the development and influence of park structure on city development and formation .Article in Lithuanian

Albinas Mocevi?ius

2011-04-01

147

Franco-Serbian relations in the 19th and 20th centuries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper the authors deals with the evolution of the Franco-Serbian relations in European, regional and local contexts during the last two centuries. Two nations are characterized by material disproportion, geographic distance and cultural differences. Hence, the relations have been observed in their complexity and variations of intensity. Special attention is paid to versatile perceptions of the two nations, which have been influenced by the combination of political, ideological, economical and cultural factors in a given time. The author's conclusion is that due to reach tradition of the French-Serbian relations, the Serbs poses spiritual capital in France that is the base for further development of good relations between the two countries and two nations in the context of Serbia's European integrations. .

Sretenovi? Stanislav

2009-01-01

148

Dead Men Do Tell Tales: The Apotheosis of Celebrities in 20th Century America  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ecological-evolutionary theory (EET argues, and anecdotal evidence suggests, that with the advancement of industrial technology, there is a decline in the scope and influence of theistic ideologies and a corresponding increase in that of secular ideologies, especially hedonism (Nolan and Lenski 2009: Chapter 11. Using a measure we develop, we explore the quantitative dimensions of this cultural shift by examining a sample of more than a century of obituaries published in the New York Times. As suspected, we find a substantial decline in the proportion of obituaries of religious figures and an increase in those of individuals associated with entertainment and sports. We conclude with a discussion of the theoretical import and implications of this trend, and compare it with trends in employment in religious and entertainment and sports occupations over this period.

Timothy J. Bertoni

2012-06-01

149

Drivers of decadal hiatus periods in the 20th and 21st centuries  

Science.gov (United States)

The latest generation of climate model simulations are used to investigate the occurrence of hiatus periods in global surface air temperature in the past and under two future warming scenarios. Hiatus periods are identified in three categories: (i) those due to volcanic eruptions, (ii) those associated with negative phases of the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO), and (iii) those affected by anthropogenically released aerosols in the mid-twentieth century. The likelihood of future hiatus periods is found to be sensitive to the rate of change of anthropogenic forcing. Under high rates of greenhouse gas emissions there is little chance of a hiatus decade occurring beyond 2030, even in the event of a large volcanic eruption. We further demonstrate that most nonvolcanic hiatuses across Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) models are associated with enhanced cooling in the equatorial Pacific linked to the transition to a negative IPO phase.

Maher, Nicola; Gupta, Alexander Sen; England, Matthew H.

2014-08-01

150

Morphological evolution of athletes over the 20th century: causes and consequences.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the course of the past century it has become increasingly difficult to find athletes of the size and shape required to compete successfully at the highest level. Sport is Darwinian in that only the 'fittest' reach the highest level of participation. Not every physical characteristic could be expected to play a role in this selection process, but two that are important and for which substantial data assemblies exist, are height and mass. Measurements of elite athlete sizes were obtained from a variety of sources as far back as records allowed. We charted the shift in these anthropometric characteristics of elite sportspeople over time, against a backdrop of secular changes in the general population. Athletes in many sports have been getting taller and more massive over time; the rates of rise outstripping those of the secular trend. In open-ended sports, more massive players have an advantage. Larger players average longer careers and obtain greater financial rewards. In some sports it is equally difficult to find athletes small enough to compete. In contrast, there are sports that demand a narrow range of morphological characteristics. In these sports the size of the most successful athletes over the century has remained constant, despite the drift in the population characteristics from which they are drawn. A number of social factors both drive and are driven by the search for athletes of increasingly rare morphology. These include globalisation and international recruitment, greater financial and social incentives, and the use of special training methods and artificial growth stimuli. In many sports the demand for a specific range in body size reinforces the need to adopt questionable and illegal behaviours to reach the required size and shape to compete at the top level. Future scenarios also include 'gene-farming' through assortative mating and athlete gamete banks. PMID:11583103

Norton, K; Olds, T

2001-01-01

151

La Historia del Derecho y la Historiografía jurídica alemana del siglo XX The History of Law and the German Juridical Historiography in the 20th Century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La escuela histórico-jurídica alemana del siglo XX ha contribuido de un modo significativo en la ampliación del objeto de estudio al incorporar en las investigaciones histórico-jurídicas temas específicos del Derecho público. Desde esta perspectiva la escuela histórica jurídica alemana es parte de la revolución científica del siglo XX.The German history-law school in the 20th century has contributed in a significant way to broaden the subject matter when it incorporated specific topics regarding Public Law in the historical-juridical research. From this perspective, the German history and law school is part of the scientific revolution of the 20th century.

Patricio Hernán Carvajal Aravena

2010-01-01

152

Changing climatic and anthropogenic influences on the Bermejo wetland, through archival documents – Mendoza, Argentina, 16th–20th centuries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The wrong management of watering in the highest zones of the Mendoza northern oasis, the topography of the terrain and the deficient drainage, together with neotectonics phenomena, but mostly a dramatic and progressive increase of the Rio Mendoza flow volume originated the expansion of the wetlands area at the NE of the city of Mendoza at the turn of the 18th century, while in previous centuries it had retracted to a minimum. The area grew until reaching the dimension of large wetlands in the lowest oasis zones, resulting from a larger runoff and soil saturation by the rise of the phreatic layers. This situation remained throughout the 19th century, affecting the extension and use of the available land for human activity. The purpose of this study was to research this process that culminated in 1930 with the partial desiccation of the area. We have given particular importance to the influence of the climatic fluctuations in the Cordillera de los Andes and to the consequent variations of the Rio Mendoza flow volume in this process. For the analysis we used snowfall series at the cordillera and flow volume of the Rio Mendoza, built by Prieto (2009 with documental data. We analyzed which were the mediate and immediate consequences of the growth and later desiccation of the wetlands over the environment and its present repercussion on the ecosystem (salinization, poor soil drainage, soil alkalinization, sedimentation. In addition, we have also worked over georeferenced historic charts that partially reflect the behavior of the Cienaga del Bermejo during the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. This behavior characterized by "growth pulses" and retraction moments is reflected in the analyzed charts, where those moments of major growth coincide with cycles of bigger snowstorms and larger flow volume in the Rio Mendoza.

M. R. Prieto

2011-11-01

153

Changing climatic and anthropogenic influences on the Bermejo wetland, through archival documents - Mendoza, Argentina, 16th-20th centuries  

Science.gov (United States)

The wrong management of watering in the highest zones of the Mendoza northern oasis, the topography of the terrain and the deficient drainage, together with neotectonics phenomena, but mostly a dramatic and progressive increase of the Rio Mendoza flow volume originated the expansion of the wetlands area at the NE of the city of Mendoza at the turn of the 18th century, while in previous centuries it had retracted to a minimum. The area grew until reaching the dimension of large wetlands in the lowest oasis zones, resulting from a larger runoff and soil saturation by the rise of the phreatic layers. This situation remained throughout the 19th century, affecting the extension and use of the available land for human activity. The purpose of this study was to research this process that culminated in 1930 with the partial desiccation of the area. We have given particular importance to the influence of the climatic fluctuations in the Cordillera de los Andes and to the consequent variations of the Rio Mendoza flow volume in this process. For the analysis we used snowfall series at the cordillera and flow volume of the Rio Mendoza, built by Prieto (2009) with documental data. We analyzed which were the mediate and immediate consequences of the growth and later desiccation of the wetlands over the environment and its present repercussion on the ecosystem (salinization, poor soil drainage, soil alkalinization, sedimentation). In addition, we have also worked over georeferenced historic charts that partially reflect the behavior of the Cienaga del Bermejo during the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. This behavior characterized by "growth pulses" and retraction moments is reflected in the analyzed charts, where those moments of major growth coincide with cycles of bigger snowstorms and larger flow volume in the Rio Mendoza.

Prieto, M. R.; Rojas, F.

2011-11-01

154

Response of the ice cap Hardangerjøkulen in southern Norway to the 20th and 21st century climates  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Glaciers respond to mass balance changes by adjusting their surface elevation and area. These properties in their turn affect the local and area-averaged mass balance. To incorporate this interdependence in the response of glaciers to climate change, models should include an interactive scheme coupling mass balance and ice dynamics. In this study, a spatially distributed mass balance model, comprising surface energy balance calculations, was coupled to a vertically integrated ice-flow model based on the shallow ice approximation. The coupled model was applied to the ice cap Hardangerjøkulen in southern Norway. The available glacio-meteorological records, mass balance and glacier length change measurements were utilized for model calibration and validation. Forced with meteorological data from nearby synoptic weather stations, the coupled model realistically simulated the observed mass balance and glacier length changes during the 20th century. The mean climate for the period 1961–1990, computed from local meteorological data, was used as a basis to prescribe climate projections for the 21st century at Hardangerjøkulen. For a linear temperature increase of 3 °C from 1961–1990 to 2071–2100, the modelled net mass balance soon becomes negative at all altitudes and Hardangerjøkulen disappears around the year 2100. The projected changes in the other meteorological variables could at most partly compensate for the effect of the projected warming.

R. H. Giesen

2010-05-01

155

Response of the ice cap Hardangerjøkulen in southern Norway to the 20th and 21st century climates  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Glacier mass balance changes lead to geometry changes and vice versa. To include this interdependence in the response of glaciers to climate change, models should include an interactive scheme coupling mass balance and ice dynamics. In this study, we couple a spatially distributed mass balance model to a two-dimensional ice-flow model and apply this coupled model to the ice cap Hardangerjøkulen in southern Norway. The available glacio-meteorological records, mass balance and glacier length change measurements were utilized for model calibration and validation. Driven with meteorological data from nearby synoptic weather stations, the coupled model realistically simulated the observed mass balance and glacier length changes during the 20th century. The mean climate for the period 1961–1990, computed from local meteorological data, was used as a basis to prescribe climate projections for the 21st century at Hardangerjøkulen. For a projected temperature increase of 3°C from 1961–1990 to 2071–2100, the modelled net mass balance soon becomes negative at all altitudes and Hardangerjøkulen disappears around the year 2100. The projected changes in the other meteorological variables could at most partly compensate for the effect of the projected warming.

R. H. Giesen

2009-11-01

156

TOPOGRAPHIC MAPPING SUPPORT IN THE SOUTH AFRICAN MILITARY DURING THE 20TH CENTURY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Maps provide a base for all intelligence operations and strategic and tactical decisions, supporting the planning and execution of all battlefield functions. The development of military mapping support in South Africa, related closely to the development of aerial photography, may be divided into five, sometimes overlapping, phases. The first of these phases spans the years from 1840 to 1930 and is characterised by the gradual recognition that aerial photographs could be used for mapping. Two major conflicts – the Anglo Boer War and the First World War – marked this development. The Second World War is the key event of the second phase (1930–1950, which witnessed a rapid expansion of aerial photo coverage. The third phase (1945–1960 saw the overemphasising of interpretation techniques rather than the analytical use of results, which was rectified during the fourth phase (1955–1962 when the focus shifted to the applied uses of air-photo interpretation. During the third and fourth phases the topographic mapping support ability of the South African military was expanded. The fifth phase (since 1960 commenced with the expansion of data gathering and analysis into portions of the electromagnetic spectrum beyond the small visible sector. During this period the protracted nature of the conflict on the northern border of Namibia (formerly South West Africa and the war in Angola focused attention on the South African military mapping system. The National Service system allowed for the expansion of mapping units and the thorough mapping of large areas adjoining our borders. Through all five phases, mapping in the South African military has advanced from hand-produced maps to the utilisation of complex equipment that satisfies the sophisticated mapping needs of a modern defence force.This paper presents a brief history of both mapping support and the mapping units that have served within the South African theatre during the twentieth century. In doing so, the operational importance of topographic maps is also highlighted.

Hennie Smit

2012-02-01

157

Borehole temperatures reveal details of 20th century warming at Bruce Plateau, Antarctic Peninsula  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two ice core boreholes of 143.74 m and 447.65 m (bedrock were drilled during the 2009–2010 austral summer on the Bruce Plateau at a location named LARISSA Site Beta (66°02' S, 64°04' W, 1975.5 m a.s.l.. Both boreholes were logged with thermistors shortly after drilling. The shallow borehole was instrumented for 4 months with a series of resistance thermometers with satellite uplink. Surface temperature proxy data derived from an inversion of the borehole temperature profiles are compared to available multi-decadal records from weather stations and ice cores located along a latitudinal transect of the Antarctic Peninsula to West Antarctica. The LARISSA Site Beta profiles show temperatures decreasing from the surface downward through the upper third of the ice, and warming thereafter to the bed. The average temperature for the most recent year is ?14.78 °C (measured at 15 m depth, abbreviated T15. A minimum temperature of ?15.8 °C is measured at 173 m depth and basal temperature is estimated to be ?10.2 °C. Current mean annual temperature and the gradient in the lower part of the measured temperature profile have a best fit with an accumulation rate of 1.9 × 103 kg m?2 a?1 and basal heat flux (q of 88 mW m?2, if steady-state conditions are assumed. However, the mid-level temperature variations show that recent temperature has varied significantly. Reconstructed surface temperatures (Ts=T15 over the last 200 yr are derived by an inversion technique. From this, we find that cold temperatures (minimum Ts=?16.2 °C prevailed from ~1920 to ~1940, followed by a gradual rise of temperature to ?14.2 °C around 1995, then cooling over the following decade and warming in the last few years. The coldest period was preceded by a relatively warm 19th century at T15 ? ?15 °C. To facilitate regional comparisons of the surface temperature history, we use our T15 data and nearby weather station records to refine estimates of lapse rates (altitudinal, adjusted for latitude: ?a(l. Good temporal and spatial consistency of ?a(l over the last 35 yr are observed, implying that the climate trends observed here are regional and consistent over a broad altitude range.

V. Zagorodnov

2011-11-01

158

Breiðamerkurjökull, SE - Iceland, its maximum extent in the late 19th century and volume loss estimation during the 20th century  

Science.gov (United States)

Breiðamerkurjökull is one of the largest outlet glaciers of the Vatnajökull ice cap, SE-Iceland. This maritime temperate glacier has recessed dramatically since the end of the 19th century, which was the Little Ice Age maximum (LIAmax).We reconstruct a model of the geometry of the outlet during its highstand about 120 years ago. The reconstruction is derived from geomorphological in-field evidences of the glacier margins and supported by the 1904 topographical maps, published by the Danish General Staff, aerial photos and the Army Map Service (AMS) maps of 1945 and written historical documents. We estimate the volume loss since its 1890 Little Ice Age maximum (LIAmax). Area decrease of 115 km2 or 12 % is depicted. With a recent LiDAR based high resolution digital elevation model from 2010-2011 we revise the mid - 20th century AMS maps to constrain its accuracy and estimate the volume loss since 1945.

Gudmundsson, Snaevarr; Björnsson, Helgi

2014-05-01

159

The Rise and Fall of Political Movements in the Late 19th Century and First Half of 20th Century Kurdistan (an Organisational Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Kurdological literature has been mainly limited to mere historical descriptive discussions characterized by descriptive story telling about personal/private aspects of Kurdish political chiefs. This study tries to provide a new sociological analysis based on synthetic organizational model to examine the process and structure of political movement-making and the causes of their failure in all around Kurdistan in the late 19th century and first half of 20th century. Four organizational theories are employed in this paper: contingency, institutional, population ecology and resource dependency theories. In order to analyse the rise and demise of political movement-making in the late 19th century and first half of 20th century Kurdistan Macro level factors including exogenous factors i.e. the super-powers and central governments, Meso level factors containing socio-economic factors such as tribal-feudalism, regionalism and religion, and Micro Level factors composed of illiteracy and cultural poverty were analysed through aforementioned organizational theories. Our fundamental finding is that the endogenous and exogenous factors have mutually caused the rise and demise of political movement-making. But exogenous factors were the final determinant in shaping, reshaping, directing and finally collapsing on Kurdish movements. Finally it should be asserted that neither exogenous factors nor Endogenous factors were able to meet Kurdish political requirements; exogenous forces were temporal determinants that played their role according to their own economic and political logic and endogenous forces such as tribal-feudalism, regionalism and religion wasted political potential in challenging with the central governments.

Ahmad Mohammadpur

2014-12-01

160

Educating about Social Issues in the 20th and 21st Centuries: A Critical Annotated Bibliography. Research in Curriculum and Instruction. Volume 1  

Science.gov (United States)

Educating About Social Issues in the 20th and 21st Centuries: A Critical Annotated Bibliography, is comprised of critical essays accompanied by annotated bibliographies on a host of programs, models, strategies and concerns vis-a-vis teaching and learning about social issues facing society. The primary goal of the book is to provide undergraduate…

Totten, Samuel, Ed.; Pedersen, Jon, Ed.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Sediment accumulation in San Leandro Bay, Alameda County, California, during the 20th century - A preliminary report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Major changes made in the configuration of San Leandro Bay, Alameda County, California, during the 20th century have caused rapid sedimentation within parts of the Bay. Comparison of bathymetric surveys indicates that sedimentation in the vicinity of the San Leandro Bay channel averaged 0.7 cm/annum between 1856 and 1984. Lead-210 data collected at four shallow water sites east of the San Leandro Bay channel indicated that sedimentation rates have averaged between 0.06 and 0.28 cm/annum. Because bioturbation of bottom sediments cannot be discounted, better definition of this range in sedimentation rates would require measuring the activity of lead-210 on incoming sediments. In addition to sediment deposited in the vicinity of the San Leandro Bay channel and open, shallow areas to the east, 850,740 cu m of sediment was deposited between 1948 and 1983 in an area dredged at the mouth of San Leandro Creek. All available data indicate that between 1,213,000 and 1,364,000 cu m of sediment was deposited in San Leandro Bay between 1948 and 1983. Sediment yield data from an adjacent drainage basin, when combined with inventories of lead-210 and cesium-137, indicate that most of the sediment deposited in San Leandro Bay is coming from resuspension of bottom sediments or from erosion of marshes or shorelines of San Leandro or San Francisco Bay. 31 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

162

Extreme sea storm in the Mediterranean Sea. Trends during the 2nd half of the 20th century.  

Science.gov (United States)

Extreme sea storm in the Mediterranean Sea. Trends during the 2nd half of the 20th century Piero Lionello, University of Salento, piero.lionello@unisalento.it Maria Barbara Galati, University of Salento, mariabarbara.galati@unisalento.it Cosimo Pino, University of Salento, pino@le.infn.it The analysis of extreme Significant Wave Height (SWH) values and their trend is crucial for planning and managing coastal defences and off-shore activities. The analysis provided by this study covers a 44-year long period (1958-2001). First the WW3 (Wave Watch 3) model forced with the REMO-Hipocas regional model wind fields has been used for the hindcast of extreme SWH values over the Mediterranean basin with a 0.25 deg lat-lon resolution. Subsequently, the model results have been processed with an ad hoc software to detect storms. GEV analysis has been perfomed and a set of indicators for extreme SWH have been computed, using the Mann Kendall test for assessing statistical significance of trends for different parameter such as the number of extreme events, their duration and their intensity. Results suggest a transition towards weaker extremes and a milder climate over most of the Mediterranean Sea.

Pino, C.; Lionello, P.; Galati, M. B.

2009-04-01

163

Kharkov Locomotive Plant in the Late 19th – the 20s of the 20th Century and Tractor Industry Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article is devoted to the study of the history of Kharkov Locomotive Plant (KLP from the moment of its establishment till the start of implementing tractor industry. The author highlights the special role of KLP in the formation of tractor building as a separate industry in USSR. The article includes some organizational, technical, economic and general political analysis of tractor industry, as well as some statistical indicators of the plant’s activity at the beginning of the 20th century. The article is based on archival documents that reveal the activity of KLP and Southern Machine-Building Trust in that period. The plant was seriously damaged during the First World War and the Civil War, and during these periods of foreign intervention, the revival of KLP activity was extremely difficult and slow due to many reasons. Only with the introduction of NEP there was a real possibility to restart the production activity. Thus, in 1925 and 1926 operational years KLP came to its prewar levels. The revival of the plant contributed to the creation of new industries including tractor construction. The author concluded that the selection of KLP as one of the first companies that manufacture tractors in Ukraine was justified and quite successful. The subsequent retooling of KLP production with the imported equipment and instruments in the period of 1927–1930 created new possibilities. This allowed releasing “Communar” as the first Soviet crawler tractor.

KRIVOKON A.G.

2014-06-01

164

FROM BECKMANN TO BASELITZ – TOWARDS AN IMPROVED MICRO-IDENTIFICATION OF ORGANIC PIGMENTS IN PAINTINGS OF 20th CENTURY ART  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Today, synthetic organic pigments play a major role as colorantsof excellent light-fastness in artists' paints. Theiranalytical determination in paintings gains steady importancewith respect to attribution and studio practice of certainartists as well as dating and authentication. Syntheticorganic pigments have extremely varied chemical structuresand properties such as colouring strength, solubilityor thermal stability. Therefore, it is a challenging task tofully identify all organic as well as inorganic colorants andfillers in a micro-sample taken from a painting. A complementarysampling and analytical approach is suggested,that combines micro-chemical and solubility tests, Ramanmicroscopy, pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry,thin layer chromatography and/or high-performanceliquid chromatography on a case-to-case basis. This paperpresents results and discusses practical experiences withRaman microscopy as a rapid and minimally invasive techniquefor the identification of organic pigments in paintsamples. Case studies from 20th century German artworksby Max Beckmann, Georg Baselitz, A.R. Penck and MarkusLüpertz illustrate the potential and limitations of Ramanmicroscopy and the need for complementary techniques,especially in the case of mixtures. Selected organic pigments,especially Pigment Green 7, Pigment Violet 23 orPigment Yellow 83, are briefly discussed with respect totheir use in artists' paints.

Karin Lutzenberger

2009-01-01

165

19th-20th century rainfall patterns reconstructed from sediment provenance in a Santa Barbara Basin box core  

Science.gov (United States)

Rainfall patterns in Southern California directly affect the availability of water resources and induce hazards in this highly populated and water stressed region. Extreme weather consists of heavy rainfall events in winter associated with atmospheric rivers, and drought conditions when winter rains do not arrive. Water availability has a significant societal impact in Southern California. Here we reconstruct 19th-20th century precipitation history of river catchments draining into Santa Barbara Basin (SBB) through a combination of high-resolution elemental and mineralogical analyses. The deep center of the SBB features suboxic bottom waters and high sedimentation rates resulting in minimal bioturbation of annual sedimentation, which enables high-resolution paleoclimate research. Scanning XRF analysis at a 200 ?m resolution of box core SPR0901-04BC from SBB was used to determine annual changes in sediment composition. Samples at 1 cm resolution from the same box core were analyzed for a more extensive suite of elements by ICP-MS, while mineralogy in each sample was determined from whole rock and clay fraction (Santa Ynez Mountain streams and Ventura and Santa Clara River catchments derives mostly from Cenozoic sedimentary units, except the Santa Clara River catchment, which contains metamorphic and igneous units. As river runoff is responsible for a significant portion of the terrigenous input into SBB, and is primarily the result of precipitation events, characteristic mineralogy and elemental signatures are a direct recorder of catchment precipitation, and therefore storms and/or atmospheric rivers.

Napier, T.; Hendy, I. L.; Schimmelmann, A.

2013-12-01

166

Time with or without death: Researching death in Serbian ethnology during the second half of the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Topics of ethnological research, as well as scientific discourse in general often represent the mirror of social reality. This paper researches the ways in which dealing with death and current ethnological approaches in Serbian ethnology during the second half of the 20th century, reflect the Zeitgeist. The intensity and the quality of interests for this important anthropological theme varied during the researched period, wherefore it is possible to differentiate two types of works and authors: those who write about funeral rituals, and those who 'read' them. From 1980s until nowadays there are three subgroups of contributions to this theme that reflect critical moments of the contemporary Serbian history. The issues raised in this paper are the following: The way in which state/society regards death the way in which it structures death, the way in which it gives meaning to death, as well as the usage of death for political purpose and the constant effort of civilization to repress it into oblivion.

Pavi?evi? Aleksandra

2008-01-01

167

Snow cover and permafrost evolution in Siberia as simulated by the MGO regional climate model in the 20th and 21st centuries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An approach to ground thermodynamics description using a coupled system of atmospheric regional climate and ground heat transfer models is improved by accounting for the time varying snow density. The simulations are compared to available observational analyses, and the sensitivity of the ground thermal regime to variable snow density is analysed. Projected changes of the ground thermal regime in the 21st century relative to the late 20th century are shown and compared to earlier estimates.

168

Using the PDSI to Estimate Summer Stream Discharge in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem: Implications for 20th Century Riparian Habitat Variability  

Science.gov (United States)

Small streams at lower elevations in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) create riparian habitat in an otherwise dry environment. Riparian area can be expanded by beaver damming, which increases channel wetted area and local water tables, and allows fine-grained organic-rich sediment to accumulate. However, increases can be countered by severe drought. The loss of riparian area is potentially greatest in small basins dependent on snowpack for base flow, where prolonged severe drought may reduce base flow to zero. Discharge records are often lacking for basins ten year droughts (AD 1150-1151 and 805-796, respectively) during the Medieval Climatic Anomaly (MCA). The MCA is a period of high climate variability and widespread drought in the GYE. Significant correlations between stream discharge and the PDSI occur during the late summer and early fall and the strongest correlation between discharge and the PDSI occurs for the 3-month PDSI average centered on August. Stream-gauge records with bootstrapped correlation values greater than 0.65 were chosen for regression analyses. To estimate stream flows for ungauged stream reaches, stepwise multiple regression analyses were performed using measured stream flows and independent basin characteristics. Basin area and mean elevation are significant predictors of discharge (? < 0.05). The 1930s Dust Bowl drought was one of the most severe droughts in the past 300 years; from 1934-1935, average August discharge was reduced by 25-40% with respect to the anomalously wet early 20th century pluvial. Discharge estimates using reconstructed PDSI values for the 2- and 10-year MCA droughts (PDSI = -6 and -5, respectively) indicate that 60% of stream reaches where beaver were active in the late Holocene became ephemeral in these droughts. This analysis is supported by observations during the extreme drought of the 2000s, when ephemeral flow occurred along streams with known historical beaver activity in northern Yellowstone. Model predictions indicate that by 2030-2039 the GYE will endure persistent severe drought (mean annual PDSI = -4 to -6) (Dai, 2011), thus riparian area is likely to decrease in the coming decades. The early 20th century has been suggested to be an ideal reference for riparian habitat restoration despite anomalously wet conditions unlike current or likely future climate. Future efforts to restore riparian habitat by reducing elk browsing and increasing beaver damming will be hampered by reduced flows on small streams.

Persico, L.; Meyer, G. A.

2013-12-01

169

Impacts of the EA and SCA patterns on the 20th century NAO-winter precipitation relationship in Europe  

Science.gov (United States)

Much of the 20th century multi-decadal variability in the NAO-winter precipitation relationship over the N. Atlantic / European sector can be ascribed to the combined effects of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and either the East Atlantic pattern (EA) or the Scandinavian pattern (SCA). The NAO, EA and SCA indices employed here are defined as the three leading vectors of the cross-correlation matrix calculated from monthly sea-level pressure anomalies for 138 complete winters from the 20CRv2 dataset (Compo et al., 2011). Winter precipitation data over Europe for the entire 20th century is derived from the high resolution CRU-TS3.1 climate dataset (Mitchell and Jones, 2005). Here we document for the first time, that different NAO/EA and NAO/SCA combinations systematically influence winter precipitation conditions in Europe as a consequence of NAO dipole migrations. We find that the zero-correlated line of the NAO-winter precipitation relationship migrates southwards when the EA is in the opposite phase to the NAO. This can be related to a south-westwards migration of the NAO dipole under these conditions, as shown by teleconnectivity maps. Similarly, a clockwise movement of the NAO-winter climate correlated areas occurs when the phase of the SCA is opposite to that of the NAO, reflecting a clockwise movement of the NAO dipole under these conditions. An important implication of these migrations is that they influence the spatial and temporal stationarity of climate-NAO relationships. As a result, the link between winter precipitation patterns and the NAO is not straightforward in some regions such as the southern UK, Ireland and France. For instance, much of the inter-annual variability in the N-S winter precipitation gradient in the UK, originally attributed to inter-annual and inter-decadal variability of the NAO, reflects the migration of the NAO dipole, linked to linear combinations of the NAO and the EA. Our results indicate that when the N-S winter precipitation gradient is accentuated by the occurrence of a positive EA during positive NAO winters, drier conditions than normal are found in the southern UK. This is consistent, for example, with the severe winter drought of 1976, when computed NAO and EA indices were both positive (0.97 and 1.87, respectively), illustrating the modulating effect of NAO/EA combinations on winter precipitation patterns in the southern UK. References: Compo GP et al. 2011. The Twentieth Century Reanalysis Project. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 137 (654), 1-28. Mitchell TD, Jones PD. 2005. An improved method for constructing a database of monthly climate observations and associated high-resolution grids. International Journal of Climatology, 25, 693-712.

Comas-Bru, Laia; McDermott, Frank

2013-04-01

170

Medicina, educação e psiquiatria para a infância: o Pavilhão-Escola Bourneville no início do século XX / Médicine, éducation et psychiatrie de l'enfance: le Pavillon-École Bourneville au début du XXe siècle / Child medicine, education and psychiatry: the Bourneville Pavilion-School in the early 20th century / Medicina, educación y psiquiatría para la infancia: el Pabellón Escuela Bourneville en el inicio del siglo XX  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho analisa a criação do Pavilhão-Escola Bourneville do Hospício Nacional de Alienados no início do século XX, primeira instituição brasileira para a assistência a crianças anormais. Destaca o conhecimento então produzido sobre os diagnósticos relativos à infância e sobre o método médico-p [...] edagógico empregado no Pavilhão. Busca-se assim perceber as vias pelas quais a criança se constituiu em objeto da ciência psiquiátrica e das políticas públicas a ela relacionada naquele período. Abstract in spanish Este artículo tiene como objetivo analizar la creación del Pabellón Escuela Bourneville del Hospicio Nacional en el principio del siglo XX, primera institución brasileña para asistencia de los niños anormales. Se destaca el conocimiento producido sobre diagnósticos relativos a la infancia y el métod [...] o médico-pedagógico usado en el pabellón. Se busca con ello comprender las formas en las que el niño se constituyó en objeto de la ciencia psiquiátrica y de las políticas públicas en aquel período. Abstract in english This paper has the objective of analyzing the first Brazilian institution for working with abnormal children, the Bourneville Pavilion-School, at the National Asylum, which operated during the early 20th century. The knowledge at the time regarding diagnoses of children is summarized, together with [...] the medical-pedagogical methods applied at that institution. The manner in which children became the object of psychiatric science and public policies during that period is also treated.

Renata Prudencio da, Silva.

2009-03-01

171

Catolicismo y condición femenina: representaciones de género sobre la maternidad y la domesticidad en la prensa del suroeste bonaerense argentino a principios del siglo XX / Catholicism and the Female Condition: Gender Representations of Motherhood and Domesticity in the Southwest Argentinean Buenos Aires Press in the Early 20th Century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En el presente artículo se identifican y describen los significados atribuidos a la maternidad y a la domesticidad analizando las representaciones de género en el discurso de la prensa confesional que aparece en Bahía Blanca y circula por su zona de influencia en las tres primeras décadas del siglo [...] XX. Se sostiene que los(as) católicos(as) que escriben en la prensa comparten el concepto de diferencia sexual dominante y abordan el problema de la condición femenina centrándose en las nociones de domesticidad y maternidad, que aluden al papel de reproducción material y biológica de la sociedad en el marco de la división sexual del trabajo. Sin embargo, algunos de ellos las reformulan frente a las transformaciones de la época que impactan sobre la familia, como resultado de lo cual expresan ideas que, si bien no tienen en sí mismas la intención de subvertir las relaciones de género, avalan ciertas mutaciones de signo moderno. Abstract in english This paper identifies and describes the meanings ascribed to motherhood and domesticity by analyzing gender representations in the discourse of the confessional press that appears in Bahía Blanca and travels through its zone of influence during the first three decades of the 20th century. It is argu [...] ed that Catholic men and women who write in the press share the concept of dominant sexual difference and address the problem of the female condition by focusing on the notions of domesticity and motherhood, which refer to the role of the biological and material reproduction of society in the context of the sexual division of labor. However, some of them reformulate them in response to the epochal changes that have impacted the family, as a result of which they express ideas which, while not in themselves intended to subvert gender relations, endorse certain modern mutations.

Lucía, Bracamonte.

2014-04-01

172

The 20th century carbon budget simulated with the CCCma earth system model CanESM1  

Science.gov (United States)

The atmosphere-land-ocean CO2 exchange for the 1850-2000 period, as simulated with the Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis Earth System Model (CanESM1), is assessed. Land use change (LUC) emissions are estimated interactively on the basis of changes in crop area. In its default configuration, the terrestrial CO2 uptake in the model is higher and atmospheric CO2 concentration lower than observed for the 1850-2000 period. This is likely due to lower simulated LUC emissions in the model because LUC due to changes in pasture area and forest harvesting are not taken into account, although LUC emissions are highly uncertain (± 50% uncertainty). Down-regulation of photosynthesis is observed in many experimental studies that grow plants at ambient and elevated CO2. However, the role of down- regulation of terrestrial photosynthesis in the carbon cycle has not yet been explored. We examine the effect of photosynthesis down-regulation by implementing an empirical down-regulation mechanism based on experimental studies of plant growth under conditions of increased CO2. The rate of increase of terrestrial net primary productivity with CO2 in the model, after down-regulation, is consistent with that inferred from an independent study. When down-regulation is implemented, the 20th century land and ocean carbon uptake and atmospheric CO2 concentration are in good agreement with observation-based estimates. Our results show that down-regulation of terrestrial photosynthesis may play a role in terrestrial carbon uptake similar in magnitude to the uncertainty in LUC emissions. The empirical approach used here also offers a reasonable method of implementing down-regulation for coupled carbon-climate simulations in the absence of a more explicit biogeochemical representation in models.

Arora, V. K.; Boer, G. J.; Curry, C. L.; Christian, J. R.; Zahariev, K.; Denman, K. L.; Flato, G. M.; Scinocca, J. F.; Merryfield, W. J.; Lee, W. G.

2008-12-01

173

Lessons learned and present day challenges of addressing 20th century radiation legacies of Russia and the United States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Decommissioning of nuclear submarines, disposal of highly enriched uranium and defense plutonium as well as processing of high-level wastes are among the most challenging issues of addressing radiation legacy of the 20th century. USA and Russia are the two primary countries that have to deal with the challenge and where most of the fissile materials to be processed are concentrated, nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste are stored, and multiple industrial sites and nuclear weapons production facilities are located. In the US, CH2M HILL is managing two of the most important nuclear projects being conducted by the US Department of Energy at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site and at the DOE Hanford Site (177 underground tanks at this site contain 60 percent of the United States' high-level radioactive wastes). Within the framework of the Russian Federal special program 'Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Materials Management, Utilization and Disposal for 1996-2005' works were carried out on the Karachai lake covering with soil, highly active radwaste vitrification and fractionation at the 'Mayak' combine. Currently there is a discussion of launching joint Russian-American initiatives including comparative studies of environmental and public health impacts from high-level waste vitrification and plutonium stabilization processes in Russia and high-level waste removal from tanks in the USA and of continuing comprehensive research with the RADSITE project (USA, European Union, Japan, China and India) using coordinated approaches in 2000-2003. This paper presents comparative studies, technical approaches, and regulatory strategies to address the challenges of managing and closing highly enriched uranium, plutonium, and high level waste sites. (author)

174

Anthropic disturbances in the sedimentological characteristics of a Northern Patagonian lake: evidencing the impacts of the 20th century settlement  

Science.gov (United States)

Traditionally Patagonia has been seen as a very pristine area, being an important reserve of wildlife and clean waters. Nonetheless it was dramatically affected by the first settlers at the beginning of the 20th century, that generated large fires for clearing the land originally covered by native forest. Those fires produced a dramatic impact left behind thousands of dead trees, increasing soil erosion, altering nutrient inputs in the aquatic ecosystems, which in turn affected the aquatic biota. However those impacts have been barely asses, then through the study of the sediment record of lake La Esponja (45°S) we want to evaluate the magnitude of the changes produced by the fires and to determine the resilience capacity of the lake. We analyzed magnetic susceptibility, organic content, charcoal, total phosphorous and a biological proxy (Chironomidae) in a sediment sequence of 60 cm long. Magnetic susceptibility shows a very variable behavior along the profile, being possible to identify a decreasing trend since the bottom, up to the most recent part of the record. An opposite behavior describes the organic content, showing a noticeable increase toward the surficial sediments. The number of charcoal particles -a direct indicator of fires occurrence, shows a peak of fires approximately at seven cm depth, diminishing toward the recent part. Total phosphorous also follow the trend recognized by charcoal, which allow inferring a probable trophic increase of the lake. This trend is partially recognized by chironomid assemblages through the increasing of some taxa typical of a higher nutrient status. Acknowledgements: Fondecyt projects 1120765 and 1120807.

Araneda, A.; Muñoz, V.; Valenzuela, B.; Alvarez, D.; Torrejon, F.; Pedreros, P.; Urrutia, R.

2013-12-01

175

Coral-based history of lead and lead isotopes of the surface Indian Ocean since the mid-20th century  

Science.gov (United States)

Anthropogenic lead (Pb) from industrial activities has greatly altered the distribution of Pb in the present-day oceans, but no continuous temporal Pb evolution record is available for the Indian Ocean despite rapidly emerging industries around the region. Here, we present the coral-inferred annual history of Pb concentration and isotope ratios in the surface Indian Ocean since the mid-20th century (1945-2010). We analyzed Pb in corals from the Chagos Archipelago, western Sumatra and Strait of Singapore - which represent the central Indian Ocean via nearshore sites. Overall, coral Pb/Ca increased in the mid-1970s at all the sites. However, coral Pb isotope ratios evolve distinctively at each site, suggesting Pb contamination arises from different sources in each case. The major source of Pb in the Chagos coral appears to be India's Pb emission from leaded gasoline combustion and coal burning, whereas Pb in western Sumatra seems to be largely affected by Indonesia's gasoline Pb emission with additional Pb inputs from other sources. Pb in the Strait of Singapore has complex sources and its isotopic composition does not reflect Pb from leaded gasoline combustion. Higher 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb ratios found at this site may reflect the contribution of Pb from coals and ores from southern China, Indonesia, and Australia, and local Pb sources in the Strait of Singapore. It is also possible that the Pb isotope ratios of Singapore seawater were elevated through isotope exchange with natural fluvial particles considering its delta setting.

Lee, Jong-Mi; Boyle, Edward A.; Suci Nurhati, Intan; Pfeiffer, Miriam; Meltzner, Aron J.; Suwargadi, Bambang

2014-07-01

176

[Effects of physics on development of optometry in the United States from the late 19th to the mid 20th century].  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, it was studied how physics affected development of optometry in the United States, from aspects of formation and academization of optometry. It was also revealed that history of optometry was analogous to history of engineering. Optics in the 19th century was divided into electromagnetic study of light and visual optics. Development of the visual optics promoted professionalization of ophthalmology that had already started in the 18th century. The visual optics also stimulated formation of optometry and optometrists body in the late 19th century of the United States. The American optometrists body were originated from opticians who had studied visual optics. Publication of several English academic textbooks on visual optics induced appearance of educated opticians (and jewelers). They acquired a right to do the eye examination in the early 20th century after C. F. Prentice's trial in 1897, evolving into optometrists. The opticians could be considered as craftsmen, and they were divided into (dispensing) opticians and optometrists. Such history of American optometrists body is analogous to that of engineers body in the viewpoints of craftsmen origin and separation from craftsmen. Engineers were also originated from educated craftsmen, but were separated from craftsmen when engineering was built up. Education system and academization of optometry was strongly influenced by physics, too. When college education of optometry started at American universities, it was not belonged to medical school but to physics department. Physics and optics were of great importance in curriculum, and early faculty members were mostly physicists. Optometry was academized in the 1920s by the college education, standardization of curriculum, and formation of the American Academy of Optometry. This is also analogous to history of engineering, which was academized by natural sciences, especially by mathematics and physics. The reason why optometry was academized not by medicine but by physics is because ophthalmologists did not have conciliatory attitudes to optometry education. Optometry became independent of physics from the 1930s to the 1940s. Optometric researches concentrated on binocular vision that is not included to discipline of physics, and faculty members who majored in optometry increased, so that optometry departments and graduate schools were established around 1940. Such independence from natural sciences after academization also resembles history of engineering. On the contrary, history of optometry was different from history of ophthalmology in several aspects. Ophthalmology had already been formed in the 18th century before development of visual optics, and was not academized by visual optics. Ophthalmologists body were not originated from craftsmen, and were not separated from craftsmen. History of optometry in the United States from the late 19th to the mid 20th century is analogous to history of engineering rather than history of medicine, though optometry is a medical discipline. PMID:25223224

Kim, Dal-Young

2014-08-01

177

Human Genome : A Gift of 20th Century and Challenge for 21st Century(Review paper  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Completion of the human genome sequencing has stirred the whole scientific community in many ways. Apart from deciphering the biological meaning of sequence-language written in three billion letters, which may take a century, scientists are essentially confronted with many challenges. It will not only revolutionise the field of genetics in terms of knowing ourselves better but also help us tremendously in identifying genetic diseases and preventing them by predicting and finding cure for them. Integration of medicine and molecular biology is expected to lead to better health care systems by preventing people from becoming sick by following a suggested way of life based on individual genetic makeup. Recently developed technologies are helping scientists to analyse the genome at an unprecedented scale and understand the function of various genes, influence of environmental factors on them and their correlation with human behaviour. Availability of human genome sequence has raised several ethical and moral questions regarding the confidentiality of the sharing of genomic information as well as whether society is ready for this. Real challenge, after knowing functions of all the genes, would be to make use of this knowledge for the welfare of human beings with the aim to enhance the quality of human life.

M.W. Pandit

2012-04-01

178

Enhanced 20th-century heat transfer to the Arctic simulated in the context of climate variations over the last millennium  

Science.gov (United States)

Oceanic heat transport variations, carried by the northward-flowing Atlantic Water, strongly influence Arctic sea-ice distribution, ocean-atmosphere exchanges, and pan-Arctic temperatures. Palaeoceanographic reconstructions from marine sediments near Fram Strait have documented a dramatic increase in Atlantic Water temperatures over the 20th century, unprecedented in the last millennium. Here we present results from Earth system model simulations that reproduce and explain the reconstructed exceptional Atlantic Water warming in Fram Strait in the 20th century in the context of natural variability during the last millennium. The associated increase in ocean heat transfer to the Arctic can be traced back to changes in the ocean circulation in the subpolar North Atlantic. An interplay between a weakening overturning circulation and a strengthening subpolar gyre as a consequence of 20th-century global warming is identified as the driving mechanism for the pronounced warming along the Atlantic Water path toward the Arctic. Simulations covering the late Holocene provide a reference frame that allows us to conclude that the changes during the last century are unprecedented in the last 1150 years and that they cannot be explained by internal variability or natural forcing alone.

Jungclaus, J. H.; Lohmann, K.; Zanchettin, D.

2014-12-01

179

ON ETREPRENUERSHIP AT MAIN CLAY PITS AND BRICKYARDS OF CENTRAL CROATIA AT THE END OF 19TH AND BEGINNING OF 20TH CENTURIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In central Croatia at the beginning of 20th century, clay pits were mostly managed by individual entrepreneurs, and less by joint stock companies and municipal or district local authorities. Majority of clay pit met the local and regional requirements i.e. demands, and quality products were exported. Exploitation of brickwork clay was carried out from open pits, while potter's, stove-maker's and porcelain clays were exploited from mining shafts and tunnels. From the clay raw material, annual production of minor brickyards amounted to 200-300,000 bricks, and that of major ones was 1-2,000,000 pieces of bricks or roofing-tiles. The number of workers in brickyards and cement works was growing in the first decade of 20th century, while that of potter's and stove-maker's crafts was decreasing. Pottery became a secondary trade in the majority of Croatian and Slavonian counties.

Berislav Šebe?i?

2003-12-01

180

Multi-decadal modulations in the Aleutian-Icelandic Low seesaw and the axial symmetry of the Arctic Oscillation signature, as revealed in the 20th century reanalysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Seesaw relationship in intensity between the surface Aleutian and Icelandic Lows (AIS) is a manifestation of atmospheric teleconnection that bridges the interannual variability over the Pacific and Atlantic in particular winter months. Analysis of the 20th Century Reanalysis data reveals that the strength and timing of AIS have undergone multi-decadal modulations in conjunction with those in structure of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) signature, extracted in the leading mode of interannual sea-l...

Ning Shi; Hisashi Nakamura

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Forming intelligentsia in Moravia and Silesia in the second half of the 19th and at the beginning of the 20th century  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

'The study reports on the conclusions of a fundamental research devoted to the formation of the intelligentsia (doctors, attorneys, lawyers, engineers, secondary school professors, teachers, state, municipal and company clerks) in Moravia and Silesia in the 2nd half of the 19th and at the beginning of the 20th century. The project was carried out in selected locations: Moravian Ostrava (a new administrative centre of an industrial region), Opava (regional capital city of Austrian Silesia), Ol...

Pokludova?, Andrea

2008-01-01

182

ON ETREPRENUERSHIP AT MAIN CLAY PITS AND BRICKYARDS OF CENTRAL CROATIA AT THE END OF 19TH AND BEGINNING OF 20TH CENTURIES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In central Croatia at the beginning of 20th century, clay pits were mostly managed by individual entrepreneurs, and less by joint stock companies and municipal or district local authorities. Majority of clay pit met the local and regional requirements i.e. demands, and quality products were exported. Exploitation of brickwork clay was carried out from open pits, while potter's, stove-maker's and porcelain clays were exploited from mining shafts and tunnels. From the clay raw material, annual ...

Berislav Šebe?i?

2003-01-01

183

Atmospheric circulation influence on the interannual variability of snow pack in the Spanish Pyrenees during the second half of the 20th century  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Large areas in the Spanish Pyrenees are covered by snow between December and April, especially above 1650 m a.s.l., the location of the cold season 0°C isotherm. However, a significant negative trend in Pyrenean snow pack was detected during the second half of the 20th century. This paper analyses the interannual evolution of snow accumulation in these mountains in relation to the variability of atmospheric circulation. The study considers two spatial scales, from weather types over the Iber...

Lo?pez-moreno, Juan I.; Vicente Serrano, Sergio M.

2007-01-01

184

High-resolution Polar Ice Cores Provide a Multi-century Perspective on 20th Century Climate Changes and 'Global Warming'  

Science.gov (United States)

Ice cores provide unique histories of the Earth's climate and environment ranging from changes in the atmosphere's chemistry and temperature to global-scale volcanism. Six cores (>100 m depth) drilled since 1995 in Greenland were annually dated using seasonal variations in dust, isotopic ratios and major ion chemistry. The ?18O records show little enrichment in Greenland snowfall over the last 50 years during which the globally averaged surface temperatures warmed 0.6°C. The cores show a modest warming since the 1920s that is stronger over southern Greenland. Just prior to the shift to warmer mean temperatures there is a widespread, strong but brief (1917 to 1920) cold event. This cold snap appears in other North Atlantic records and is unrelated to volcanic activity. The ?18O record from a new ice core on Windy Dome in Franz Josef Land contains this abrupt 1920 transition, but the subsequent shift to warmer conditions is much larger. Greenland ice core records are strongly dominated by North Atlantic climate and do not provide an Arctic wide snapshot of the 20th century warming. Fewer comparably dated multi-century cores are available from Antarctica. The isotopic records from East Antarctica do not record a 20th century warming, consistent with meteorological observations. In contrast, the Antarctic Peninsula region is experiencing one of the strongest warming trends across the globe. In the last 40 years near-surface temperatures have risen roughly 0.02°C annually throughout the Peninsula region and temperatures in the lower- and mid-troposphere have warmed at a similar rate. An annually resolved isotopic record from Dyer Plateau on the spine of the Peninsula reveals this strong warming as well as an increase in net annual accumulation. The warming in the Peninsula is also evident in recent changes in the distribution and persistence of coastal fast ice, the reduction in the extent and integrity of most ice shelves, and changes in the range and size of sea bird populations. The stable isotope records in Antarctic ice cores appear to provide a climate history consistent with contemporaneous meteorological observations.

Mosley-Thompson, E. S.; Thompson, L. G.; Henderson, K. A.; Lin, P.

2002-12-01

185

High Resolution Analysis of Sub-fossil Midges from the Great Basin, United States Provides Evidence of 20th Century Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

High-resolution chironomid stratigraphies were developed for six sub-alpine lakes in the Great Basin of the western United States to assess whether high elevation lakes in this region have been affected by recent climate change. Detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) of the chironomid faunal assemblages indicates that these lakes experienced similar unidirectional change in community composition during the 20th century with pronounced changes occurring post-1980. A robust midge-based transfer function for summer surface water temperature (SSWT) was developed using a regional calibration set consisting of 108 lakes. Application of this inference model to the chironomid assemblages preserved in these lakes provided quantitative temperature estimates of SSWT spanning the 20th century. These data indicate that the sites experienced above average water temperatures during the late 20th century and below average surface water temperatures between A.D. 1910 and 1980. Close correspondence exists between the chironomid-inferred temperature profiles and mean July temperatures measured at nearby sites for which long-term NCEP re-analysis data is available. It appears that climate change has an overriding influence on the composition of the chironomid communities within these lakes. This study demonstrates that sub-fossil chironomid analysis can provide detailed records of community response to regional climatic changes at sub-decadal time scales, and also reveals that the midge communities in sub-alpine lakes in the Great Basin of the western United States have already been affected by recent climate change.

Porinchu, D. F.; Potito, A.; MacDonald, G.; Moser, K.; Munroe, J.

2006-12-01

186

Impacts of 20th century aerosol emissions on the South Asian monsoon in the CMIP5 models  

Science.gov (United States)

Comparison of single-forcing varieties of 20th century historical experiments in a subset of models from the Fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) reveals that South Asian summer monsoon rainfall increases towards the present day in Greenhouse Gas (GHG)-only experiments with respect to pre-industrial levels, while it decreases in anthropogenic aerosol-only experiments. Comparison of these single-forcing experiments with the all-forcings historical experiment suggests aerosol emissions have dominated South Asian monsoon rainfall trends in recent decades, especially during the 1950s to 1970s. The variations in South Asian monsoon rainfall in these experiments follows approximately the time-evolution of inter-hemispheric temperature gradient over the same period, suggesting a contribution from the large-scale background state relating to the asymmetric distribution of aerosol emissions about the equator. By examining the twenty-five available all-forcings historical experiments, we show that models including aerosol indirect effects dominate the negative rainfall trend. Indeed, models including only the direct radiative effect of aerosol show an increase in monsoon rainfall, consistent with the dominance of increasing greenhouse gas emissions and planetary warming on monsoon rainfall in those models. For South Asia, reduced rainfall in the models with indirect effects is related to decreased evaporation at the land surface rather than from anomalies in horizontal moisture flux, suggesting the impact of indirect effects on local aerosol emissions. This is confirmed by examination of aerosol loading and cloud droplet number trends over the South Asia region. Thus while remote aerosols and their asymmetric distribution about the equator play a role in setting the inter-hemispheric temperature distribution on which the South Asian monsoon, as one of the global monsoons, operates, the addition of indirect aerosol effects acting on very local aerosol emissions also plays a role in declining monsoon rainfall. The disparity between the response of monsoon rainfall to increasing aerosol emissions in models containing direct aerosol effects only and those also containing indirect effects needs to be urgently investigated since the suggested future decline in Asian anthropogenic aerosol emissions inherent to the representative concentration pathways (RCPs) used for future climate projection may turn out to be optimistic. In addition, both groups of models show declining rainfall over China, also relating to local aerosol mechanisms. We hypothesize that aerosol emissions over China are large enough, in the CMIP5 models, to cause declining monsoon rainfall even in the absence of indirect aerosol effects. The same is not true for India.

Guo, L.; Turner, A. G.; Highwood, E. J.

2014-12-01

187

The Ambivalence of a Port-City. The Jews of Trieste from the 19th to the 20th Century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article stems from a key question: was Habsburg Trieste truly a cosmopolitan and tolerant city? Building upon the interpretative category of "port Jews", established by David Sorkin and Lois C. Dubin, this study examines the social, economic and political behaviour of the Triestine Jews in the nineteenth- and early twentieth-centuries, and conducts a comparison with the other religious minorities present in the Adriatic port during this period: Greeks, Protestants, Serbians and Armenians. The picture which emerges allows for the proposition of a new interpretative model, that of the "port-merchant." The second part of the article focuses on the second half of the nineteenth-century, when the model of Trieste as a tolerant city was challenged by the nationalist fights between Italians and Slovenians, and by the political antisemitism. The city lost its capacity to include the 'Other', and was rapidly transformed into a genuine breeding-ground of Italian racism.

Tullia Catalan

2011-10-01

188

?Czech-Slovene? musicians?: On the question of national identity in Slovene music at the turn of the 19th to the 20th century  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this article, the author observes and discusses the questions of national identity in the context of Czech and Slovenian music at the turn of the 19th to the 20th century. The Italian and German influences dominating Slovenian music in the past began from the mid 19th century onward to be replaced by predominantly Czech elements as the consequence of the numerous Czech musical immigration in Slovenia. Many of Czech musicians were naturalized in Slovenia and can therefore be included among ...

Vajs Jernej

2007-01-01

189

Changes in duration of developmental phases of durum wheat caused by breeding in Spain and Italy during the 20th century and its impact on yield  

Science.gov (United States)

Background and Aims Although the apical development of wheat has been widely described, studies analysing how genetic breeding over the 20th century influenced the developmental phases and its consequences on yield generation are lacking, especially for durum wheat under field conditions in Mediterranean environments. The aims of this study were to analyse the effects of breeding in Spain and Italy on crop development during the last century, to determine whether or not breeding significantly altered the developmental phases between sowing and maturity, and to evaluate the importance of each phase in determining the number of grains per spike of durum wheat (Triticum durum) cultivars representing the germplasm grown throughout the 20th century in Spain and Italy. Methods Eight field experiments were carried out during 4 years in two contrasting latitudes (Lleida and Granada, Spain). Plant material consisted of 24 durum wheat cultivars (12 Italian and 12 Spanish) grown throughout the 20th century in Spain and Italy. Key Results In Spanish materials, breeding reduced the duration of the period from sowing to anthesis, placing the grain-filling period in better conditions. In those cultivars, the sub-phase sowing–terminal spikelet formation was reduced while the duration of the period from booting to anthesis was increased. The number of grains per spike increased by 23 % from old to modern cultivars, by changes in the number of grains per spikelet in both Spanish and Italian cultivars. Floral abortion from booting to anthesis diminished by 24 % from old to modern cultivars, and grain setting increased by 13 %. Conclusions The results suggest that breeding reduced not only plant height, but also the time to anthesis. By extending the duration of the phase from booting to anthesis, which was associated with an increase in spike dry weight and grains per spike, it suggests that future increases in spike fertility could be achieved by enlarging that phase. PMID:21444337

Isidro, Julio; Álvaro, Fanny; Royo, Conxita; Villegas, Dolors; Miralles, Daniel J.; García del Moral, Luis F.

2011-01-01

190

The 20th century retreat of ice caps in Iceland derived from airborne SAR : W-Vatnajökull and N-Myrdalsjökull  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We present observations of the long-term recession of surging outlets of Icelandic ice caps in response to 20th century climate. In August 1998, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data, covering the western part of Vatnajokull and the northern part of Myrdalsjokull in southern Iceland, were acquired with the Danish airborne EMISAR radar system. Polarimetric and interferometric SAR data reveal the margins of the present ice caps as well as a series of terminal moraines in the fore field. These moraines date back to the maximum Neoglacial extent at the end of the 19th century and the outermost allow reconstruction of the margin at that time. The data offer a unique opportunity to estimate the area decrease of these ice caps in the 20th century. The influence of the fluctuations of the surge type outlets, constituting most of W-Vatnajokull area and a good part of N-Myrdalsjokull area, is minimal, since they had all recently surged in 1998 as was presumably the case when the outermost moraines were formed. The major contributor to the area decrease is therefore climate changes in the 20th century even though the glacier retreat has been interrupted by short-lived surges. Moraines associated with most of the surges in W-Vatnajokull in the 20th century are observed in the SAR data including the most recent surges in the 1990s. Interestingly no push moraines were observed in front of the surge advance, but the moraines appear when the glaciers start retreating. We estimate that the collective decrease of the outlets of western Vatnajokull since maximum Neoglacial extent of each outlet, is log km(2) (6.7%) corresponding to an average retreat of 850 in over a 130 km long margin. In the same period the outlet Slettjokull, in N-Myrdalsjokull, has decreased by 33 km(2) (20%) corresponding to an average retreat of 1500 in over a 20 kin long margin. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Magnússon, Eyjólfur; Björnsson, Helgi

2005-01-01

191

Infancia y salud mental pública en España: siglo XX y actualidad / Children and mental health in spain: 20th century and today  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este trabajo aborda una revisión histórica de la infancia en nuestro país en su vertiente educativa, social y sanitaria, profundizando en la historia y características particulares de la atención pública a la salud mental de nuestros menores. Como en cualquier reflexión histórica, en este trabajo su [...] byace una concepción teórica sobre el fenómeno estudiado, considerando que una asistencia digna al menor es fundamental para la prevención en la salud mental del adulto. Pese a los diferentes aspectos mejorables como el desigual desarrollo autonómico, la insuficiente dotación presupuestaria o la falta de implementación efectiva de los proyectos legales, se puede concluir que la situación de práctica desprotección del niño con trastorno mental a principios del siglo XX ha dado paso a una red asistencial que proporciona atención integral y gratuita a toda la población. Abstract in english This work deals with a historical review of children in our country in its educational, social and sanitary side, deeper into the history and characteristics of the public attention to the mental health of our children. As in any historical reflection in this work underlyes a theoretical conception [...] on the phenomenon under study, whereas a worthy assistance to minors is essential for prevention in mental health of the adult. Despite the different areas for improvement (unequal regional development, insufficient staffing budget, lack of effective implementation of law...), one can conclude that the situation of practical vulnerability of children with mental disorder in the early 20th century has given way to a health care network that gives a comprehensive and free care to the entire population.

Pilar, López Fraile; Sergio, Herrera López.

2013-03-01

192

Selected pioneering works on humus in soils and sediments during the 20th century: A retrospective look from the International Humic Substances Society view  

Science.gov (United States)

Organic matter in general, and humic substances (HS) in particular, are involved in many processes in soils, sediments, rocks and natural waters. These include rock weathering, plant nutrition, pH buffering, trace metal mobility and toxicity, bioavailability, degradation and transport of hydrophobic organic chemicals, formation of disinfection by-products during water treatment, heterotrophic production in blackwater ecosystems and, more generally, the global carbon cycle. Before the 1970s, natural organic matter of different ecosystem pools ( i.e., soils, sediments, and natural waters) was often studied in isolation, although many similarities exist between them. This is particularly so for HS. In this historical context, a need appeared at the international level for bringing together environmental chemists, soil scientists, hydrologists, and geologists who were interested in HS to provide a forum for the exchange of ideas, to standardize analytical procedures and agree on definitions of HS. The International Humic Substances Society (IHSS) was founded in Denver, Colorado (USA) in 1981 with several objectives among them “to bring together scientists in the coal, soil, and water sciences with interests in humic substances” (home page of the IHSS web site: http://ihss.gatech.edu/ihss2/index.html). This paper presents selected pioneering works on humus in soils and sediments during the 20th century with a special focus on the links between the studies of soil HS and the formation, during early diagenesis, of the precursors of kerogens. Temporal coverage includes key contributions preceding the founding of the IHSS, and a brief history of the organization is presented.

Feller, Christian; Brossard, Michel; Chen, Yona; Landa, Edward R.; Trichet, Jean

193

FORESTS AND AGRICULTURE: AN OVERVIEW OF THE HISTORICAL LIMITS OF SUSTAINABILITY OF ARGENTINEAN FORESTS WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF 20TH CENTURY CAPITALIST EXPLOITATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available At the end of the 19th century, there were in Argentina 160 million hectares of natural forests, mountains and original jungles. In less than half a century, the country lost more than two—thirds of its aboriginal forests. Currently, the country has less than 33 million hectares of native forests. The exploitation of this extraordinary Argentinean forest wealth is the starting point of this historical analysis that intends to study, from an environmental history perspective, the evolution of forest exploitation in the 20th century and its relation to the expansion of the capitalist agricultural model. The main objective of the text is centered on the study of the deforestation process within the context of its participation in the market and the relation between said phenomenon and the agricultural frontier expansion, its artificial transformation, conflicts, specialization levels, rationality, interaction and the deterioration of forest resources.

Adrián Zarrilli

2008-08-01

194

20th Century Groundwater in the Northeast United States: A case study quantifying the impact of groundwater policies in New Jersey  

Science.gov (United States)

Groundwater is a vital resource throughout the Northeast corridor and is an important water source for domestic, industrial and irrigation purposes. During the 20th century, suburban groundwater withdrawals intensified with increasing population growth, the advent of rural electrification and sophisticated pumping technologies, thus, the need for effective groundwater management becomes increasingly important in the region. Data from the Unites States Geological Survey National Water-Use Information Program documents this concentrated use of groundwater in suburban areas, and is particularly prominent across the majority of New Jersey. Focusing on New Jersey as an area of significant groundwater use and increasing demand, this project investigates total groundwater withdrawals in conjunction with a policy-based framework, facilitating an awareness of groundwater impacts as informed through existing policy during the 20th century. The objectives of this study are to identify the relevant federal, statewide and municipal policies that evolved in the state of New Jersey during the 20th century, and examine the groundwater withdrawal trends for the state of New Jersey between 1950 - 2005. Preliminary results revealed that increased restrictions on groundwater policy between 1982 and 1997 had an observable affect on reducing total groundwater withdrawals. Multivariate regression analyses using indicator variables, i.e. mixed effects model, will be used to explore relationships between county specific withdrawals and significant policy that may have influenced groundwater usage. It is anticipated to observe a strong correlation between groundwater withdrawals and the effectiveness of the implemented groundwater policies. Future collaborative work will further investigate the effectiveness of policy as hydrologically evidenced by alterations in baseflow contribution to streamflow, and groundwater persistence.

Kanwar, P. S.; Arrigo, J. S.; Thomas, B.; Vogel, R. M.; Hoover, J. H.

2010-12-01

195

Quantifying the role of fire in the Earth system - Part 2: Impact on the net carbon balance of global terrestrial ecosystems for the 20th century  

Science.gov (United States)

Fire is the primary form of terrestrial ecosystem disturbance on a global scale. It affects the net carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems by emitting carbon directly and immediately into the atmosphere from biomass burning (the fire direct effect), and by changing net ecosystem productivity and land-use carbon loss in post-fire regions due to biomass burning and fire-induced vegetation mortality (the fire indirect effect). Here, we provide the first quantitative assessment of the impact of fire on the net carbon balance of global terrestrial ecosystems during the 20th century, and investigate the roles of fire's direct and indirect effects. This is done by quantifying the difference between the 20th century fire-on and fire-off simulations with the NCAR Community Land Model CLM4.5 (prescribed vegetation cover and uncoupled from the atmospheric model) as a model platform. Results show that fire decreases the net carbon gain of global terrestrial ecosystems by 1.0 Pg C yr-1 averaged across the 20th century, as a result of the fire direct effect (1.9 Pg C yr-1) partly offset by the indirect effect (-0.9 Pg C yr-1). Post-fire regions generally experience decreased carbon gains, which is significant over tropical savannas and some North American and East Asian forests. This decrease is due to the direct effect usually exceeding the indirect effect, while they have similar spatial patterns and opposite sign. The effect of fire on the net carbon balance significantly declines until ?1970 with a trend of 8 Tg C yr-1 due to an increasing indirect effect, and increases subsequently with a trend of 18 Tg C yr-1 due to an increasing direct effect. These results help constrain the global-scale dynamics of fire and the terrestrial carbon cycle.

Li, F.; Bond-Lamberty, B.; Levis, S.

2014-03-01

196

Natural stones and types of tombstones in National cemetery in Martin from half of the 19th to half of the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available About 500 tombstones from National cemetery in Martin were carried out. The cemetery represents section through sepulchral architecture in the 19th and 20th centuries and records history of natural stones use and tombstone evolution. From c. 1850, classicistic steles were produced from Gerecse marble and Banská Bystrica sandstone. Historicist steles of Silesian marble were imported from 1870s. End of 1880s years, variability of tombstone appearance began to grow. Outlined text, carved text fields, ornaments and new typefaces were emerged. In 90s years Carrara marble is imported. Real variousness of tombstone face is typical for first 20 years of the 20th century, when hard natural stones (Silesian granite, Swedish dolerite, and Norwegian larvikite are widely used. Besides them domestic Cenozoic conglomerates, Banská Bystrica sandstone and Bohemian Ho?ice sandstone were utilized. From 20s years to half of the century, variability of natural stones decreased at the expense of Swedish dolerite. Variety of tombstone shapes grew from decorated secession steles, through geometric functionalistic compositions, to simple tabular tombstones.

Daniel Pivko

2013-12-01

197

Mudança em dois períodos do século XX: inter-relacionando análises em tempo aparente / Linguistic change in two periods of the 20th century: interrelating apparent time analyses  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese À luz da sociolinguística variacionista, tomo os conectores E, AÍ, DAÍ e ENTÃO como variantes da variável dependente "sequenciação retroativo-propulsora". Os dados são oriundos das seguintes fontes: (i) As vinhas da ira, romance escrito por John Steinbeck em 1939, cuja tradução brasileira, datada de [...] 1940, apresenta marcas da fala de classes populares do Rio Grande do Sul; (ii) 48 entrevistas provenientes do Banco de Dados VARSUL de Florianópolis, que foram coletadas ao longo da última década do século XX. Tenho por objetivos: (i) buscar indícios de mudança em tempo real; (ii) buscar indícios de mudança em tempo aparente através do controle da variável social idade; (iii) inter-relacionar os resultados referentes à variável idade nos dois períodos de tempo considerados. Obtive indícios de mudança em tempo real e de mudança em tempo aparente. Além disso, fiz uma inter-relação entre os resultados referentes à variável idade no final da primeira metade do século XX e no final da segunda metade do século XX. Baseada nessa inter-relação, consegui traçar um panorama mais detalhado das mudanças possivelmente sofridas por E, AÍ, DAÍ e ENTÃO ao longo do século XX. Abstract in english Under the light of Labovian Sociolinguistics, I take the Brazilian Portuguese connectors E, AÍ, DAÍ, and ENTÃO as variants of the dependent variable "retroactive-propeller sequenciation". The data come from the following sources: (i) "The grapes of wrath", an novel written by John Steinbeck in 1939, [...] the 1940 Brazilian Portuguese translation of which is marked by spoken language traits of the working classes from Rio Grande do Sul (RS), the most southern Brazil State; (ii) 48 interviews from the VARSUL Data Base of Florianópolis (the capital of Santa Catarina State), which were collected during the last decade of the 20th century. My goal are: (i) to seek evidence of change in real time, (ii) to seek evidence of change in apparent time by controlling the social variable 'age', (iii) to interrelate the results regarding the variable 'age' in both periods of time. The results present evidences of change in both real time and apparent time. Moreover, I set up an inter-relationship between the results regarding the variable 'age' at the end of the first half of the 20th century and at the end of the second half of the 20th century. Based on this inter-relationship, I was able to trace a more detailed picture of the changes the connectors E, AÍ, DAÍ, and ENTÃO possibly underwent throughout the 20th century.

Maria Alice, Tavares.

2011-12-01

198

Fsiles de novela: paleontologa y literatura en la argentina de fines del siglo XIX y principios del siglo Fossils as fictional characters: Argentine paleontology and literature in the late 19th century and the beginnings of the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La literatura argentina de la segunda mitad del siglo XIX y comienzos del siglo XX refiri la presencia de mamferos fsiles cenozoicos en las pampas. Gliptodontes y megaterios devinieron en personajes de los textos de Eduardo Ladislao Holmberg, William Henry Hudson, Eduarda y Lucio Victorio Mansilla, Leopoldo Lugones, Geoffroy Franois Daireux, Horacio Quiroga, Hugo Wast, Ezequiel Martnez Estrada, Leopoldo Marechal y Manuel Mujica Lainez. Estos autores contextualizaron a los vertebrados fsiles en escenas humorsticas o realistas, como iconos de la grandeza de la Pampa y la nacin o parodia de estereotipos culturales locales.Argentine literature from the second half of the 19th century and the early 20th century referred to the presence of Cenozoic fossil mammals in the pampas. Glyptodons and megatheriums became characters in the texts of Eduardo Ladislao Holmberg, William Henry Hudson, Eduarda y Lucio Victorio Mansilla, Leopoldo Lugones, Geoffroy Franois Daireux, Horacio Quiroga, Hugo Wast, Ezequiel Martnez Estrada, Leopoldo Marechal and Manuel Mujica Lainez. These authors contextualize the fossil vertebrates in humoristic or realistic scenes, as icons of the greatness of the nation and the Pampa, or as a parody of local cultural stereotypes.

Eduardo G. Ottone

2011-09-01

199

Fsiles de novela: paleontologa y literatura en la argentina de fines del siglo XIX y principios del siglo / Fossils as fictional characters: Argentine paleontology and literature in the late 19th century and the beginnings of the 20th century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La literatura argentina de la segunda mitad del siglo XIX y comienzos del siglo XX refiri la presencia de mamferos fsiles cenozoicos en las pampas. Gliptodontes y megaterios devinieron en personajes de los textos de Eduardo Ladislao Holmberg, William Henry Hudson, Eduarda y Lucio Victorio Mansilla, [...] Leopoldo Lugones, Geoffroy Franois Daireux, Horacio Quiroga, Hugo Wast, Ezequiel Martnez Estrada, Leopoldo Marechal y Manuel Mujica Lainez. Estos autores contextualizaron a los vertebrados fsiles en escenas humorsticas o realistas, como iconos de la grandeza de la Pampa y la nacin o parodia de estereotipos culturales locales. Abstract in english Argentine literature from the second half of the 19th century and the early 20th century referred to the presence of Cenozoic fossil mammals in the pampas. Glyptodons and megatheriums became characters in the texts of Eduardo Ladislao Holmberg, William Henry Hudson, Eduarda y Lucio Victorio Mansilla [...] , Leopoldo Lugones, Geoffroy Franois Daireux, Horacio Quiroga, Hugo Wast, Ezequiel Martnez Estrada, Leopoldo Marechal and Manuel Mujica Lainez. These authors contextualize the fossil vertebrates in humoristic or realistic scenes, as icons of the greatness of the nation and the Pampa, or as a parody of local cultural stereotypes.

Eduardo G., Ottone.

2011-09-01

200

Tree-ring stable carbon isotope-based May-July temperature reconstruction over Nanwutai, China, for the past century and its record of 20th century warming  

Science.gov (United States)

Growth anomaly of trees in some regions was detected under current episode of rapid warming. This raises a dilemma for temperature reconstructions by using tree-ring width which is believed to be the most important proxy on inter-annual temperature reconstruction during the past millenniums. Here we employed the tree-ring ?13C to reconstruct temperature variations for exploring their potential on capturing signals of rapid warming, and to test how its difference with the tree-ring width based reconstruction. In this study the mean May-July temperature (TM-J) was reconstructed over the past century by tree-ring ?13C of Chinese pine trees growing in the Nanwutai region. The explained variance of the reconstruction was 43.3% (42.1% after adjusting the degrees of freedom). Compared to a ring-width temperature reconstruction (May-July) from the same site, the tree-ring ?13C-based temperature reconstruction offered two distinct advantages: 1) it captured a wider range of temperature variability, i.e., at least May-July, even over a longer part of the year, January-September; and 2) the reconstruction preserved more low-frequency climate information than that of ring width did. The 20th century warming was well represented in the Nanwutai tree-ring ?13C temperature reconstruction, which implied that stable carbon isotope of tree rings potentially represents temperature variations during historical episodes of rapid warming. A spatial correlation analysis showed that our temperature reconstruction represented climate variations over the entire Loess Plateau in north-central China. Significant positive correlations (p < 0.1) were found between the temperature reconstruction and ENSO, as well as SSTs in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. The reconstruction showed the periodicities of 22.78-, 4.16-, 3.45-3.97- and 2.04-2.83-year quasi-cycles at a 95% confidence level. Our results suggested that temperature variability in the Nanwutai region may be linked to Pacific and Indian Ocean SST variations and solar activity.

Liu, Yu; Wang, Yanchao; Li, Qiang; Song, Huiming; Linderhlom, Hans W.; Leavitt, Steven W.; Wang, Ruiyuan; An, Zhisheng

2014-06-01

 
 
 
 
201

São Paulo e a Ideologia Higienista entre os séculos XIX e XX: a utopia da civilidade / Hygienism in Sao Paulo between 19th and 20th centuries: the civilizing utopia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese No contexto da modernidade, situamos o período entre o final do Século XIX e início do XX, em São Paulo, mais precisamente nos primórdios da República, quando houve um processo de higiene e limpeza social, associado à pobreza e, ao mesmo tempo, a um desejo utópico de uma cidade limpa e saudável, com [...] o ideologia elitista. Abstract in english In this paper, we analyze, within the context of modernity, the period between the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century in São Paulo. More precisely, the early days of the Republic, when a process of hygiene and 'social cleansing' took place, which was associated with povert [...] y, and, at the same time, with a utopian desire for a clean and healthy city as an ideology of elites.

Afonso Soares de, Oliveira Sobrinho.

2013-04-01

202

???????????????????????????? (Bulldozing Pudian Street: Destruction or Renewal? Ambiguities in Big City Novels in Late 20th Century Chinese Literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is little doubt that the most cogent literary representation of the experience of modernity has been realised in big city fiction and cinematographic masterpieces such as Fritz Lang's Metropolis (1926. Despite the formal and aesthetic incompatability of early twentieth century (predominantly Western works of this literary genre and more recent ones, East and West, the underlying dialectic tension between progressive optimism and disorientation, existential up-rootedness, alienation and angst (Rilke's loss of soul as archetypal manifestation of mega-city reality and its social structure and organisation, constitutes a generic hallmark, regardless of time and place. Significantly, the relevance of this problem is reinforced, theoretically and practically, by the eminent scholar and architect Rem Koolhaas whose reflections have China as a principal reference point of the global "out-of-control process of modernisation". This paper focuses on the literary representation of the complexity and universality of the problem and the social implications of the blurred and ambiguous vision of urban reality with particular reference to contemporary Chinese literature.

Xia Li

2007-01-01

203

Can't a mother sing the blues? Postpartum depression and the construction of motherhood in late 20th-century America.  

Science.gov (United States)

Popular depictions of 20th-century American motherhood have typically emphasized the joy and fulfillment that a new mother can expect to experience on her child's arrival. But starting in the 1950s, discussions of the "baby blues" began to appear in the popular press. How did articles about the baby blues, and then postpartum depression, challenge these rosy depictions? In this article, we examine portrayals of postpartum distress in popular magazines and advice books during the second half of the 20th century to examine how the unsettling pairing of distress and motherhood was culturally negotiated in these decades. We show that these portrayals revealed a persistent reluctance to situate motherhood itself as the cause of serious emotional distress and a consistent focus on changing mothers to adapt to their role rather than changing the parameters of the role itself. Regardless of whether these messages actually helped or hindered new mothers themselves, we suggest that they reflected the rarely challenged assumption that motherhood and distress should not mix. PMID:22849002

Held, Lisa; Rutherford, Alexandra

2012-05-01

204

Development and Restoration of Sacral Objects in Vilnius at the End of the 19th and the Beginning of the 20th Century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available At the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century, due to the initiative of Russian government and Orthodox Church, several grand churches were built in Vilnius. The development and restoration of Catholic sacral objects were practically restricted until the end of Russian rule in 1915, but at the beginning of the 20th century, this restriction was slightly defused. The Catholic community of Vilnius seized this opportunity and began an action of sav-ing sacral objects. The churches of St. Ann and St. Michel and the interior of St. Peter and Paul’s church were restored. The development of new churches in Vilnius was enabled after revolution-ary events in 1905–1907 when tsarist authorities were forced to make some abatements for the people of the enslaved country. A small Catholic church in the actual Gerosios Vilties street and the church of St. Kasimir in Naujoji Vilnia were built, the construction of Blessed Virgin Mary church was started in Žv?rynas and a modern church of Holy Heart of Jesus was not completed. Article in Lithuanian

Henryka Ilgiewicz

2011-04-01

205

?Czech-Slovene? musicians?: On the question of national identity in Slovene music at the turn of the 19th to the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article, the author observes and discusses the questions of national identity in the context of Czech and Slovenian music at the turn of the 19th to the 20th century. The Italian and German influences dominating Slovenian music in the past began from the mid 19th century onward to be replaced by predominantly Czech elements as the consequence of the numerous Czech musical immigration in Slovenia. Many of Czech musicians were naturalized in Slovenia and can therefore be included among Slovenian musicians. Although they actively supported the building of a Slovenian national style, they did not feel the need for the repeated ?esthetic evaluation of traditional frames.

Vajs Jernej

2007-01-01

206

Documentary evidence for changing climatic and anthropogenic influences on the Bermejo Wetland in Mendoza, Argentina, during the 16th-20th century  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines the processes underlying changes to the once-extensive Bermejo Wetland, east of the city of Mendoza, Argentina (32°55' S, 68°51' W). Historical documents and maps from the 16th to 20th century are used to reconstruct environmental shifts. Historical documents indicate periods of increased snowfall in the adjacent Andes mountains, as well as high flow volumes in the Mendoza River. Data from georeferenced maps, the first from 1802 and the last from 1903, reflect the changes in the surface area of the wetland. The combined data sets show pulses of growth and retraction, in which major expansions coincided with more intense snowstorms and increased flow in the Mendoza River, which in turn influenced socio-economic activities. The wetland became progressively drier during the 19th century, before drying up completely around 1930, due in part to the construction of drainages and channels.

Prieto, M. R.; Rojas, F.

2012-05-01

207

Documentary evidence for changing climatic and anthropogenic influences on the Bermejo Wetland in Mendoza, Argentina, during the 16th–20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper examines the processes underlying changes to the once-extensive Bermejo Wetland, east of the city of Mendoza, Argentina (32°55' S, 68°51' W. Historical documents and maps from the 16th to 20th century are used to reconstruct environmental shifts. Historical documents indicate periods of increased snowfall in the adjacent Andes mountains, as well as high flow volumes in the Mendoza River. Data from georeferenced maps, the first from 1802 and the last from 1903, reflect the changes in the surface area of the wetland. The combined data sets show pulses of growth and retraction, in which major expansions coincided with more intense snowstorms and increased flow in the Mendoza River, which in turn influenced socio-economic activities. The wetland became progressively drier during the 19th century, before drying up completely around 1930, due in part to the construction of drainages and channels.

F. Rojas

2012-05-01

208

Trace elements in South America aerosol during 20th century inferred from a Nevado Illimani ice core, Eastern Bolivian Andes (6350 m a.s.l.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 137 m ice core drilled in 1999 from Eastern Bolivian Andes at the summit of Nevado Illimani (16° 37' S, 67° 46' W, 6350 m a.s.l. was analyzed at high temporal resolution, allowing a characterization of trace elements in Andean aerosol trapped in the ice during the 20th century. The upper 50 m of the ice core were dated by multi-proxy analysis of stable isotopes (d18O and d2H, 137Cs and Ca+2 content, electrical conductivity, and insoluble microparticle content, together with reference historical horizons from atmospheric nuclear tests and known volcanic eruptions. This 50 m section corresponds to a record of environmental variations spanning about 80 years from 1919 to 1999. It was cut in 744 sub-samples under laminar flow in a clean bench, which were analyzed by Ion Chromatography for major ionic concentration, by a particle counter for insoluble aerosol content, and by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS for the concentration of 45 chemical species from Li to U. This paper focuses on results of trace element concentrations measured by ICP-MS. The high temporal resolution used in the analyses allowed classifying samples as belonging to dry or wet seasons. During wet season elemental concentrations are low and samples show high crustal enrichment factors. During dry seasons the situation is opposite, with high elemental concentrations and low crustal enrichments. For example, with salt lakes as main sources in the region, average Li concentration during the 20th century is 0.035 and 0.90 ng g?1 for wet and dry seasons, respectively. Illimani average seasonal concentration ranges cover the spectrum of elemental concentration measurements at another Andean ice core site (Sajama for most soil-related elements. Regional crustal dust load in the deposits was found to be overwhelming during dry season, obfuscating the contribution of biomass burning material. Marked temporal trends from the onset of 20th century to more recent years were identified for the concentrations of several trace species of anthropic origin, especially for Cu, As, Zn, Cd, Co, Ni and Cr. Among these elements, Cu shows average wet season crustal enrichment factors above 103, while the others range between 102 to about 5×102. P and K show moderate average wet season enrichment factors, suggesting an impact of natural biogenic emissions from the Amazon Basin. Pb has multiple anthropic sources in the region, from mining activities in the beginning of 20th century to automotive fuel after 1950's. From the large number of samples analyzed from Illimani, it was possible to derive an effective chemical characterization of the deposited background Andean soil dust aerosol during 20th century.

J.-D. Taupin

2003-05-01

209

Trace elements in South America aerosol during 20th century inferred from a Nevado Illimani ice core, Eastern Bolivian Andes (6350 m asl  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 137 m ice core drilled in 1999 from Eastern Bolivian Andes at the summit of Nevado Illimani (16º 37' S, 67º 46' W, 6350 m asl was analyzed at high temporal resolution, allowing a characterization of trace elements in Andean aerosol trapped in the ice during the 20th century. The upper 50 m of the ice core were dated by multi-proxy analysis of stable isotopes (d18O and d2H, 137Cs and Ca+2 content, electrical conductivity, and insoluble microparticle content, together with reference historical horizons from atmospheric nuclear tests and known volcanic eruptions. This 50 m section corresponds to a record of environmental variations spanning about 80 years from 1919 to 1999. It was cut in 744 sub-samples under laminar flow in a clean bench, which were analyzed by Ion Chromatography for major ionic concentration, by a particle counter for insoluble aerosol content, and by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS for the concentration of 45 chemical species from Li to U. This paper focuses on results of trace element concentrations measured by ICP-MS. The high temporal resolution used in the analyses allowed classifying samples as belonging to dry or wet seasons. During wet season elemental concentrations are low and samples show high crustal enrichment factors. During dry seasons the situation is opposite, with high elemental concentrations and low crustal enrichments. For example, with salt lakes as main sources in the region, average Li concentration during the 20th century is 0.035 and 0.90 ng g-1 for wet and dry seasons, respectively. Illimani average seasonal concentration ranges cover the spectrum of elemental concentration measurements at another Andean ice core site (Sajama for most soil-related elements. Regional crustal dust load in the deposits was found to be overwhelming during dry season, obfuscating the contribution of biomass burning material. Marked temporal trends from the onset of 20th century to more recent years were identified for the concentrations of several trace species of anthropic origin, especially for Cu, As, Zn, Cd, Co, Ni and Cr. Among these elements, Cu shows average wet season crustal enrichment factors above 103, while the others range between 102 to about 5x102. P and K show moderate average wet season enrichment factors, suggesting an impact of natural biogenic emissions from the Amazon Basin. Pb has multiple anthropic sources in the region, from mining activities in the beginning of 20th century to automotive fuel after 1950s. From the large number of samples analyzed from Illimani, it was possible to derive an effective chemical characterization of the deposited background Andean soil dust aerosol during 20th century.

A. Correia

2003-01-01

210

Nueva localidad en Chile para Menodora linoides Phil. (Oleaceae, especie considerada extinta en el siglo XX New locality in Chile for Menodora Linoides Phil. (Oleaceae, species considered extint in the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An area in the Andes of the Valparaíso Region is indicated as a new locality for the species Menodora linoides Phil., an endemic and unique representative of the Oleaceae family in Chile. The plant described in 1863, was considered extinct in the 20th century, but has been collected twice in the present century

Mélica Muñoz-Schick

2006-12-01

211

Nueva localidad en Chile para Menodora linoides Phil. (Oleaceae), especie considerada extinta en el siglo XX New locality in Chile for Menodora Linoides Phil. (Oleaceae), species considered extint in the 20th century  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An area in the Andes of the Valparaíso Region is indicated as a new locality for the species Menodora linoides Phil., an endemic and unique representative of the Oleaceae family in Chile. The plant described in 1863, was considered extinct in the 20th century, but has been collected twice in the present century

Mélica Muñoz-Schick; Andrés Moreira-Muñoz; Pedro León-Lobos

2006-01-01

212

[Elements for an history of the therapeutic community in Western psychiatry of the 2nd half of the 20th century].  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on a critique of the traditional ruling of mental hospital, therapeutic community is an innovative model elaborated in Great Britain during World War II. According to this approach, all the relationships at work inside the institution have a big impact on the patients' state. One of the favoured tools of the therapeutic community lies in regular meetings common to patients and staff, but also reserved to professionals. During these sessions small and big problems are intended to be discussed and resolved collectively. The constitution of this approach as a model and its diffusion in continental European psychiatry during the second half of the 20th century is described in this paper. Four stages are distinguished: the genesis, the constitution of a distinct approach and diffusion in Continental Europe, the radicalisation and criticism by the antipsychiatric movement, the institutionalisation and decline. PMID:21425658

Fussinger, Catherine

2010-01-01

213

Using Angle calculations to demonstrate vowel shifts : A diachronic investigation of the short vowel system in 20th Century RP (UK)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper gives an overview of the long-term trends of diachronic changes evident within the short vowel system of RP during the 20th century. more specifically, it focusses on changing juxtapositions of the TRAP, STRUT and LOT, FOOT vowel centroid positions. The paper uses geometric calculations to give precise and replicable representations of the vowel system and the generational changes apparent in the data. While FOOT-fronting is well known in British English (Torgersen 1997), less is known about the historical trajectory of the STRUT vowel in response to the encroachment of the TRAP vowel whose lowering and backing are also well-documented (Wells 1982). The discussion draws out differences between 'phonetic' and 'sociolinguistic' stances on the interpretation of acoustic vowel data in formant plots

Fabricius, Anne

2008-01-01

214

Important theories of the 20th century. Relativity, cosmology, quantum mechanics and chaos theory. 3. corr. ed.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The past century changed the classical, scientific way of view enormously. The quantum theory broke with the imagination of continuity of all dynamical processes and gave space to completely new, nearly revolutionary approaches of thinking. Einstein's relativity theory put the absoluteness of time and space as well as the general validity of the Euclidean geometry in question. The absolute calculability, as it was formulated by Laplace, was by the influence of chaos theory proven as illusion. Computers made by the Mandelbrot set the presentation of new esthetic and never seen structures. Hilbert's century program of a complete formalization of mathematics failed because of the famous law of Goedel. It is the demand of this book to present all these theories and conclusions easily understandably and entertainingly.

215

Geochemical response of a closed-lake basin to 20th century recurring droughts/wet intervals in the subtropical Pampean Plains of South America  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Laguna Mar Chiquita is a highly variable closed saline lake located in the Pampean Plains of central Argentina. Presently is the largest saline lake in South America (? 6,000 km2 and also one of the largest in the world. During the 20th century the hydrological balance of the region was characterized by contrasting scenarios. Well-defined wet or dry climatic phases had ruled the lake level fluctuations and the rivers discharge, mainly controlling the geochemical composition of sediments. Sediments accumulated during positive hydrological balances (i.e., high lake level are mainly composed of allogenic mineral due to higher riverine inputs into the lake. This fluvial-dominated lake phases are recorded as sediments enriched in Al2O3, SiO2, K2O, Fe2O3 and TiO2 and in trace elements such as Co, Cr, Cs, Rb, Sc, Hf, Ta, Th as well as rare earth elements (REE. Sediments accumulated during dry phases (i.e., low lake levels and high salinity are evaporite mineral-rich with elevated concentrations of CaO, MnO, MgO, and P2O5. High contents of As and U are probably due to a co-precitation during high evaporative phases. The calibration of the sediment chemical composition of Laguna Mar Chiquita to well-defined water-level fluctuations of the 20th century shows that elemental geochemistry can be a useful proxy to study former lake-water fluctuations. It may further provide a comparative model to evaluate past environmental conditions in other saline lacustrine basins.

Daniel ARIZTEGUI

2004-02-01

216

The role of deep processes in late 20th century subsidence of New Orleans and coastal areas of southern Louisiana and Mississippi  

Science.gov (United States)

Geodetic leveling observations from Biloxi, MS, to New Orleans, LA, and water level gauge measurements in the New Orleans-Lake Pontchartrain area were analyzed to infer late 20th century vertical motions. These data were used to test the validity of previous subsidence rate measurements and the models that predict the location and causes of subsidence. Water gauges attached to bridge foundations and benchmarks affixed to deep rods that penetrate Holocene strata subsided as much as 0.8 m locally between 1955 and 1995. The observed deep-seated subsidence far exceeds model predictions and demonstrates that shallow processes such as compaction and consolidation of Holocene sediments are inadequate by themselves to explain late 20th century subsidence. Deep-seated subsidence occurring east and north of the normal faults marking the Gulf of Mexico basin margin can be explained by local groundwater withdrawal, and regional tectonic loading of the lithosphere by the modern Mississippi River delta (MRD). Sharp changes in subsidence coincide with strands of the basin margin normal faults. Displacements are consistent with activity and show motions consonant with fault creep. Deep subsidence of the region to the south, including New Orleans, can be explained by a combination of groundwater withdrawal from shallow upper Pleistocene aquifers, the aforementioned lithospheric loading, and perhaps, nongroundwater-related faulting. Subsidence due to groundwater extraction from aquifers ˜160 to 200 m deep dominated urbanized areas and is likely responsible for helping to lower local flood protection structures and bridges by as much as ˜0.8 m.

Dokka, Roy K.

2011-06-01

217

Exílio massivo, inclusão e exclusão política no século XX / Exils massifs, inclusion et exclusion politique au XXe siècle / Mass exile and political inclusion and exclusion in 20th century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english Due to the strategies implemented by post-Independence Ibero-American states to curtail political participation, exile was mainly reserved as a privilege for ostracized members of the elite, who drew on their support networks in the process. The late 19th and early 20th centuries witnessed a process [...] of "mass exile", expressed by a growing number of exiles from different social classes, excluded due to their participation in politics and public spheres. The expansion of institutional exclusion spawned solidarity networks and increasing attention by the international community towards politics in the exiles' home countries. Old domestic political issues found a transnational echo, based on a growing concern over human rights violations and political persecution. This process produced a radical transformation in the structure, impact, and functioning of political exile from Ibero-American countries.

Luis, Roniger.

218

War, Peace and Security in the 20th Century. A Contemporary Reading of the Just War Theory  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available War, in its various forms, still represents even in the XXI century a common manner for states as well as for ethnic, political and religious groups to settle disputes. The geopolitical context, marked by the al Qaeda attacks on the USA, and the multiple world events they determined lead to major changes for the armed violence character and simultaneously for its moral implications. Therefore, the present analysis subjects the relevance of the just war theory for the new international realities, the degree to which the theory needs a revision of its classical categories ius ad bellum and ius in bello or, on the contrary, an abandonment.

Roxana Alexandra Costinescu

2012-08-01

219

DIAGNOSIS OF 20TH CENTURY LAKE ONTARIO LAKE TROUT POPULATION TRENDS IN A CONSTANTLY CHANGING, MULTI-STRESSOR ENVIRONMENT  

Science.gov (United States)

Early mortality syndrome (EMS) in Great Lakes salmonids is thought to reduce recruitment through a thiamine deficiency in embryos that is related to dietary input of thiaminase by the female. This may be complicated......

220

The Welfare Culture. Poetics of Comfort in Architecture of the 19th and 20th-centuries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AbstractArchitectural history of the last two centuries shows that welfare, far from being a purely technical issue – a balance between weather and the physiological human constants – is a culturally constructed idea concerning diverse factors, such as the relationship between space and human body or the ways of conceiving nature in architecture. However, the notion of comfort has not received the historiographical attention it deserves, hence the need for a new perspective, aesthetic and multidisciplinary in nature. Such a view is discussed in this article through a brief and partial history of comfort that addresses the different meanings assigned to the concept over the past two centuries, in accordance with a kind of 'poetics': the longstanding poetics of fire, linked the regenerative comfort; the poetics of hygiene and habitat, developed during modernity as a scientifistic dogma and as an aesthetic alibi, and, finally, the poetics of atmospheres, which accounts for contemporary concerns about perception, memory and sociability. From this historical review we can conclude that welfare is not an objectifiable concept, nor an idea synthesized in the technician or scientist test tubes, but a complex notion consisting of several intertwined layers: physiological, constructive, aesthetic, existential, social. The history of comfort is, thus, a sort of small version of the history of culture.Key wordscomfort, architecture, hygiene, habitat, atmosphere

Eduardo Prieto González

2013-10-01

 
 
 
 
221

Pit women: coal communities in Northern England in the early twentieth century  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The book begins with a brief history of the development affecting the coal industry in the early 20th century in Northern England with emphasis on the social rather than the economic aspects of mining. It focuses on family life and the coal communities of Yorkshire and the North East. The author finds similarities and contrasts between the role of women in the early 20th century and during the miners strike of 1994-5. The book provides interesting perspectives on how girls grew up, and on women's lives in the time running up to the nationalisation of the coal industry.

Carr, G.

2001-07-01

222

Applied environmental technology development at the Savannah River Site: A retrospective on the last half of the 20th century  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fifty years ago, the Savannah River Site (SRS) was built to produce nuclear materials. These operations impacted air, soil, groundwater, ecology and the local environment. Throughout its history, SRS has addressed these contamination issues directly and has maintained a strong commitment to environmental stewardship. The site boasts many environmental firsts. Notably, SRS was the first major DOE facility to perform a baseline ecological assessment. This pioneering effort, by Ruth Patrick and the Philadelphia Academy of Sciences, was performed during SRS planning and construction in the early 1950's. This unique early example sets the stage for subsequent efforts. Since that time, the scientists and engineers at SRS have proactively identified environmental problems as they occurred and have skillfully developed elegant and efficient solutions

223

The climate of Carpathian Region in the 20th century based on the original and modified Holdridge life zone system  

Science.gov (United States)

The Holdridge life zone system has already been used a number of times for analysing the effects of climate change on vegetation. But a criticism against the method was formulated that it cannot interpret the ecotones (e.g. forest steppe). Thus, in this paper transitional life zones were also determined in the model. Then, both the original and modified life zone systems were applied for the climatic fields of database CRU TS 1.2. Life zone maps were defined in the Carpathian Region (43.5-50.5° N, 15.5-28° E) for each of five 20-year periods between 1901 and 2000. We estimated correctness of the result maps with another vegetation map using Cohen's Kappa statistic. Finally, temporal changes in horizontal and vertical distribution of life zones were investigated. The coverage of boreal region decreased with 59.46% during the last century, while the warm temperate region became almost two and a half larger (257.36%). The mean centres of those life zones, which were not related to mountains, shifted northward during the investigation period. In case of the most abundant life zone types, the average distribution elevation increased. Using the modified model, the potential distribution of forest steppe could be also identified.

Szelepcsényi, Zoltán; Breuer, Hajnalka; Sümegi, Pál

2014-09-01

224

Reconstructing the population dynamics of sprat (Sprattus sprattus balticus) in the Baltic Sea in the 20th century  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Long time-series of population dynamics are increasingly needed in order to understand human impacts on marine ecosystems and support their sustainable management. In this study, the estimates of sprat (Sprattus sprattus balticus) biomass in the Baltic Sea were extended back from the beginning of ICES stock assessments in 1974 to the early 1900s. The analyses identified peaks in sprat spawner biomass in the beginning of the 1930s, 1960s, and 1970s at ?900 kt. Only a half of that biomass was estimated for the late 1930s, for the period from the late 1940s to the mid-1950s, and for the mid-1960s. For the 1900s, fisheries landings suggest a relatively high biomass, similar to the early 1930s. The exploitation rate of sprat was low until the development of pelagic fisheries in the 1960s. Spatially resolved analyses from the 1960s onwards demonstrate changes in the distribution of sprat biomass over time. The average body weight of sprat by age in the 1950s to 1970s was higher than at present, but lower than during the 1980s to 1990s. The results of this study facilitate new analyses of the effects of climate, predation, and anthropogenic drivers on sprat, and contribute to setting long-term management strategies for the Baltic Sea.

Eero, Margit

2012-01-01

225

Establishment and evolution of the radiation risk concept for the man and human population in the 20th century  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concept of radiation risk (RR) is the main basis for human protection from the harmful effect of ionizing radiation. It concerns the expected unfavorable health effects upon the irradiated person and probably upon his/her progeny. The early period of the history of RR evaluation was grounded on the assessment of acute skin reactions (erythema, epilation, dermatitis, ulceration) and on the measures (erythema dose) taken to diminish them. The second period covers the appraisal, based on estimation of different somatic effects and expected heredity ( genetic effects). They could be avoided if irradiation does not exceed the maximum permissible dose - the concept of zero RR. The current (third) period estimates both irradiation effects: deterministic effects that have a dose-related threshold and stochastic non-threshold effects. The ultimate goal of radiation protection is to exclude all deterministic effects and to diminish probability of stochastic effects (carcinogenesis and heredity effects) down to an acceptable level. Seven postulates describe the modern concept of RR for the man and human population: globalization irreversibility, accumulation, non-threshold harm, stochastic, non-specificity and acceptance of the risk

226

Socio-metabolic transitions during the 20th century and their impacts on the scale of human resource use  

Science.gov (United States)

By talking about socio-metabolic transitions, we focus on changes in the energetic base of socio-economic systems, leading to fundamental changes in social and environmental relations. This refers to the historical shift from a biomass-based (agrarian) economy to a fossil fuel based (industrial) economy just as much as to a future shift from fossil fuels to renewable energy carriers. The classic example for the historical transition is the United Kingdom, where the increasing use of fossil fuels over the last 250 years follows a perfectly S-shaped curve, with a declining importance of biomass over the same period. In the course of this transition, population increased seven-fold, energy and materials use per capita tripled and income rose by a factor of 19. Today the UK, as other mature industrial economies, has reached a certain metabolic saturation - which indicates that it has finished its transition into the fossil fuel based economy. In our presentation, • We will first show that this pattern of a socio-metabolic transition can be identified for most high income industrial countries: the later the transition started, the faster it proceeded. The turning point for the stabilization of metabolic rates in all of them happened in the early 1970ies. • Next, we will show that this was not just a "historical" transition, however. Currently, a substantial number of countries comprising more than half of the world's population are following a similar transitional pathway at an accelerating pace. Based on empirical data on physical resource use we can show that these so-called emerging economies are currently in the take-off or acceleration phase of the very same transition. • Finally, we will show how the currently observed global trend of increasing annual resource extraction (biomass, fossil fuels, metals and minerals) is a result of a superposition of processes in countries which are in the stabilization and in the acceleration phase of this transition process, while the next transition (away from fossil fuels) is yet barely visible. A continuation on this global pathway, by recent UNEP scenarios, would lead to a tripling of annual resource extraction by 2050. This urgently calls for a next socio-metabolic transition away from fossil fuels and away from wastefully high metabolic rates - a transition on a par with the grand transitions between socio-metabolic regimes in human history.

Fischer Kowalski, M.; Haas, W.; Wiedenhofer, D.; Krausmann, F.

2012-04-01

227

Between Egyptian "national purity" and "local flexibility": prostitution in al-Mahalla al-Kubra in the first half of the 20th century.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article traces prostitution in al-Mahalla in the first half of the 20th century as a regulated urban practice until the trade was outlawed in Egypt in 1949. Studying prostitution during this period of exceptionally rapid growth and transformation not only provides a window on a particular type of illicit sexuality and public morality in a colonial context, it also gives us a hint as to gender relations and inter-communal relations on the invisible marginalized part of a provincial local community, and how it was socially transformed. I argue that the regulation of prostitution in Egypt in 1882 and 1905 created a sphere for a power contest between the colonial state and the local community, between nationalist discourse and the local way of life, and between public morality and private space. While nationalist discourse constructed one virtuous nation, the local community accepted the licensed prostitution quarter, and resisted secret prostitution. The people of the town actively and continually shifted boundaries on what was public and what was private, what was the state's responsibility and what was communal liability. PMID:21850793

Hammad, Hanan

2011-01-01

228

Energy feedbacks of northern high-latitude ecosystems to the climate system due to reduced snow cover during 20th century warming  

Science.gov (United States)

The warming associated with changes in snow cover in northern high-latitude terrestrial regions represents an important energy feedback to the climate system. Here, we simulate snow cover-climate feedbacks (i.e. changes in snow cover on atmospheric heating) across the Pan-arctic over two distinct warming periods during the 20th century, 1910-1940 and 1970-2000. We offer evidence that increases in snow cover-climate feedbacks during 1970-2000 were nearly three times larger than during 1910-1940 because the recent snow-cover change occurred in spring, when radiation load is highest, rather than in autumn. Based on linear regression analysis, we also detected a greater sensitivity of snow cover-climate feedbacks to temperature trends during the more recent time period. Pan-arctic vegetation types differed substantially in snow cover-climate feedbacks. Those with a high seasonal contrast in albedo, such as tundra, showed much larger changes in atmospheric heating than did those with a low seasonal contrast in albedo, such as forests, even if the changes in snow-cover duration were similar across the vegetation types. These changes in energy exchange warrant careful consideration in studies of climate change, particularly with respect to associated shifts in vegetation between forests, grasslands, and tundra. ?? 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Euskirchen, E.S.; McGuire, A.D.; Chapin, F.S.

2007-01-01

229

Rethinking Constitutionalism in Late 19th and Early 20th Century China  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the tenets of Western political science, “limited government” is usually seen as the touchstone of modern constitutionalism. Yet significant issues can arise when one applies this framework to East Asia. By studying the origin of constitutionalism in China and Japan, my dissertation reexamines the idea that “limited government” is the core of modern constitutionalism. I argue that constitutionalism, as it was introduced in Meiji Japan and late Qing China, focused on strengthening t...

Zhao, Hui

2012-01-01

230

Estonian Manor Interiors in Late 19th and Early 20th Century  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Balti mõisakultuuri ja -arhitektuuri mõistmiseks tuleb vaadata kaugemale 19. sajandist. Maavilla on pelgupaiga sümbolina arhitektuuris aegajalt esile kerkinud juba üle kahe tuhande aasta. Villakultuuri uuestiavastamine läbi Andrea Palladio loomingu tõi maavilla uuesti huvikeskmesse Inglismaal ning siinse aadelkonna sarnane positsioon muutis pinnase sobivaks selle juurdumisele Balti mõisades. Villa rustica pakkus oma härrasmehest omanikule kultuurilist oaasi maalilises, ent rustikaalse...

Vabama?e, Eva-kaia; Tartu Ülikool. Filosoofiateaduskond

2012-01-01

231

Emplacement of ideas. The development of geographical thought in Brazil in the early 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper looks at the circulation of modern geographical ideas in Brazil. The focus is on the relationship between geographical source models and the target model of domestic modernization. Three corresponding "mechanisms" provided the translation from one to the other: gradualism, adaptation and essentialism.

Lia Osorio Machado

1998-06-01

232

Research on iodine deficiency and goiter in the 19th and early 20th centuries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In 1811, Courtois noted a violet vapor arising from burning seaweed ash and Gay-Lussac subsequently identified the vapor as iodine, a new element. The Swiss physician Coindet, in 1813, hypothesized the traditional treatment of goiter with seaweed was effective because of its iodine content and successfully treated goitrous patients with iodine. Two decades later, the French chemist Boussingault, working in the Andes Mountains, was the first to advocate prophylaxis with iodine-rich salt to pre...

Zimmermann, M. B.

2008-01-01

233

Principles, exemplars, and uses of history in early 20th century genetics.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper is concerned with the uses of history in science. It focuses in particular on Anglo-American genetics and on university textbooks--where the canon of a science is consolidated, as the heterogeneous approaches and controversies of its practice are rendered unified for its reproduction. Tracing the emergence and eventual standardization of geneticists' use of a case-based method of teaching in the 1920s-1950s, this paper argues that geneticists created historical environments in their textbooks-spaces in which students developed an understanding of the laws of genetics through simulations of their discovery and use. Witnessing the unfolding of Mendel's and Morgan's experiments and performing genetic crosses on paper, students learned not only the rules that were explicitly taught as such, but also the experientially-based, tacit skills needed to find and follow these rules. This didactic system taught them how to go on when confronting new situations, and in doing so, provided geneticists with an important disciplinary tool, freeing the first steps of their student's enculturation from the physical infrastructure of the laboratory. PMID:21486660

Skopek, Jeffrey M

2011-06-01

234

Hyperdisease in the late Pleistocene: validation of an early 20th century hypothesis  

Science.gov (United States)

The hypothesis of disease-related large mammal extinction has new support. A unique pathologic zone of resorption was first noticed in a Hiscock Mammut americanum metacarpal. The pathognomonic zone of resorption was present in fifty-nine (52%) of 113 skeletons with feet available for examination. Metacarpals and metatarsals were most commonly affected. Associated rib periosteal reaction is highly suggestive of tuberculosis and the foot lesions were identical to that documented in Bison as pathognomonic for tuberculosis. Recognizing that only a portion of animals infected by infectious tuberculosis develop bone involvement, the high frequency of the pathology in M. americanum suggests that tuberculosis was not simply endemic, but actually pandemic, a hyperdisease. Pandemic tuberculosis was one of several probable factors contributing to mastodon extinction.

Rothschild, Bruce M.; Laub, Richard

2006-11-01

235

Nueva localidad en Chile para Menodora linoides Phil. (Oleaceae), especie considerada extinta en el siglo XX / New locality in Chile for Menodora Linoides Phil. (Oleaceae), species considered extint in the 20th century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english An area in the Andes of the Valparaíso Region is indicated as a new locality for the species Menodora linoides Phil., an endemic and unique representative of the Oleaceae family in Chile. The plant described in 1863, was considered extinct in the 20th century, but has been collected twice in the pre [...] sent century

Mélica, Muñoz-Schick; Andrés, Moreira-Muñoz; Pedro, León-Lobos.

2006-12-01

236

The relative contributions of radiative forcing and internal climate variability to the late 20th Century winter drying of the Mediterranean region  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The roles of anthropogenic climate change and internal climate variability in causing the Mediterranean region's late 20th Century extended winter drying trend are examined using 19 coupled models from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report. The observed drying was influenced by the robust positive trend in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) from the 1960s to the 1990s. Model simulations and observations are used to assess the probable relative roles of radiative forcing, and internal variability in explaining the circulation trend that drove much of the precipitation change. Using the multi-model ensemble we assess how well the models can produce multidecadal trends of realistic magnitude, and apply signal-to-noise maximizing EOF analysis to obtain a best estimate of the models' (mean) sea-level pressure (SLP) and precipitation responses to changes in radiative forcing. The observed SLP and Mediterranean precipitation fields are regressed onto the timeseries associated with the models' externally forced pattern and the implied linear trends in both fields between 1960 and 1999 are calculated. It is concluded that the radiatively forced trends are a small fraction of the total observed trends. Instead it is argued that the robust trends in the observed NAO and Mediterranean rainfall during this period were largely due to multidecadal internal variability with a small contribution from the external forcing. Differences between the observed and NAO-associated precipitation trends are consistent with those expected as a response to radiative forcing. The radiatively forced trends in circulation and precipitation are expected to strengthen in the current century and this study highlights the importance of their contribution to future precipitation changes in the region. (orig.)

Kelley, Colin; Ting, Mingfang; Seager, Richard; Kushnir, Yochanan [Columbia University' s Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Palisades, NY (United States)

2012-05-15

237

Interannual-to-decadal variability of the stratosphere during the 20th century: ensemble simulations with a chemistry-climate model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Interannual-to-decadal variability in stratospheric ozone and climate have a number of common sources, such as variations in solar irradiance, stratospheric aerosol loading due to volcanic eruptions, El Niño Southern Oscillation variability and the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO. Currently available data records as well as model simulations addressing stratospheric chemical climate variability mostly cover only the past few decades, which is often insufficient to address natural interannual-to-decadal variability. Here we make use of recently reconstructed and re-evaluated data products to force and validate transient ensemble model simulations (nine members across the twentieth century computed by means of the chemistry-climate model SOCOL (SOlar Climate Ozone Links. The forcings include sea surface temperatures, sea ice, solar irradiance, stratospheric aerosols, QBO, changes in land properties, greenhouse gases, ozone depleting substances, and emissions of carbon monoxides, and nitrogen oxides. The transient simulations are in good agreement with observations, reconstructions and reanalyses and allow quantification of interannual-to-decadal variability during the 20th century. All ensemble members are able to capture the low-frequency variability in tropical and mid-latitude total ozone as well as in the strength of the subtropical jet, suggesting a realistic response to external forcings in this area. The region of the northern polar vortex exhibits a large internal variability that is found in the frequency, seasonality, and strength of major warmings as well as in the strength of the modeled polar vortex. Results from process-oriented analysis, such as correlation between the vertical Eliassen Palm flux (EP flux component and polar variables as well as stratospheric ozone trends, are of comparable magnitude to those observed and are consistent in all analysed ensemble members. Yet, trend estimates of the vertical EP flux component vary greatly among ensemble members precluding any robust conclusions. This suggests that internal variability in models must be accounted for in order to quantify the atmospheric model response in wave energy upon external forcings.

A. M. Fischer

2008-12-01

238

Interannual-to-decadal variability of the stratosphere during the 20th century: ensemble simulations with a chemistry-climate model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Interannual-to-decadal variability in stratospheric ozone and climate have a number of common sources, such as variations in solar irradiance, stratospheric aerosol loading due to volcanic eruptions, El Niño Southern Oscillation variability and the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO. Currently available data records as well as model simulations addressing stratospheric chemical climate variability mostly cover only the past few decades, which is often insufficient to address natural interannual-to-decadal variability. Here we make use of recently reconstructed and re-evaluated data products to force and validate transient ensemble model simulations (nine members across the twentieth century computed by means of the chemistry-climate model SOCOL. The forcings included sea surface temperatures, sea ice, solar irradiance, stratospheric aerosols, QBO, changes in land properties, greenhouse gases, ozone depleting substances, and emissions of carbon monoxides, and nitrogen oxides. The transient simulations are in good agreement with observations, reconstructions and reanalyses and allow quantification of interannual-to-decadal variability during the 20th century. All ensemble members are able to capture the low-frequency variability in tropical and mid-latitudinal total ozone as well as in the strength of the subtropical jet, suggesting a realistic response to external forcings in this area. The region of the northern polar vortex exhibits a large internal model variability that is found in the frequency, seasonality, and strength of major warmings as well as in the strength of the modeled polar vortex. Results from process-oriented analysis, such as correlation between the vertical Eliassen Palm flux (EP flux component and polar variables as well as stratospheric ozone trends, are of comparable magnitude to those observed and are consistent in all analysed ensemble members. Yet, trend estimates of the vertical EP flux component vary greatly among ensemble members precluding any robust conclusions. This suggests that internal variability in models must be accounted for in order to quantify the atmospheric model response in wave energy upon external forcings.

A. M. Fischer

2008-07-01

239

A doença meningocócica em São Paulo, Brasil, no século XX: características epidemiológicas Meningococcal disease in São Paulo, Brazil, in the 20th century: epidemiological characteristics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este estudo analisa o comportamento epidemiológico da doença meningocócica na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil, ao longo do século XX. Utilizando dados de prontuários, atestados de óbito e do sistema de vigilância epidemiológica os autores descrevem a tendência secular da doença, sua variação sazonal, a distribuição espacial e por idade e sexo. A tendência secular mostra incidência constante nos períodos endêmicos, interrompida pela presença de epidemias. As quatro epidemias registradas durante o século XX ocorreram em momentos de graves perturbações sociais e foram produzidas pelos sorogrupos A, A e C, e B e C. A variação sazonal com exacerbação no outono/inverno mantém-se constante durante todo o século. A distribuição espacial acompanha os deslocamentos da população pobre no espaço urbano. A distribuição por idade e sexo mantém-se inalterada em todos os períodos endêmicos, mostrando maior risco entre os menores de um ano e decréscimos acentuados à proporção que aumenta a idade. Os períodos epidêmicos, com exceção do último, mostram alteração significante na distribuição etária, com aumento do risco entre jovens e adultos jovens, e ocorrência de casos em todas as faixas etárias.This study analyzes the epidemiological behavior of meningococcal disease in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, over the course of the 20th century. Applying data from patient records, death certificates, and epidemiological surveillance, the authors describe trends in the disease throughout the century, seasonal variations, and incidence distribution by area, age, and gender. The temporal trends show constant incidence during endemic periods, interrupted by epidemic events. Four epidemic events during the last century occurred in circumstances of serious social disturbances and were caused by serogroups A (the first two, A and C, and B and C, respectively. Seasonal variations involved aggravation during autumn and winter throughout the entire century. Geographic distribution followed the displacement of the poor population in the urban territory. Age and gender distribution remained unaltered during all the endemic periods, showing an increased risk associated with younger age. The epidemic periods (except for the last showed major alterations in age and gender distribution, with an increased risk among young people and youth adults and occurrence in all age brackets.

José Cássio de Moraes

2005-10-01

240

Población, actividad y paro en la segunda mitad del siglo XX en Extremadura / Population, activity and unemployment in the second half of the 20th century in Extremadura  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Resumen: A lo largo de la segunda mitad del siglo XX se han producido las más profundas transformaciones de la historia regional, impulsadas tanto por factores exógenos como endógenos de toda índole. Se ha pasado de una economía agraria de subsistencia a una economía competitiva de los servicios y del conocimiento, lo que ha supuesto enormes excedentes de mano de obra agraria hasta el final de siglo. Excedentes que fueron engrosando la intensa sangría emigratoria de los sesenta y setenta, que arrastró al 40% de la población regional. Sin embargo, desde comienzos de los ochenta, la población ha tendido a estabilizarse. Pero la emigración ya había provocado un estrangulamiento irreparable en las edades activas y de procreación, un fuerte descenso de la natalidad acentuado por la caída de la fecundidad posteriormente y un profundo envejecimiento. Por otra parte, la retención de los efectivos jóvenes y adultos en sus lugares de origen, junto a otros factores, incrementaron el paro hasta niveles desconocidos, si bien es un fenómeno que se ha conseguido paliar en buena medida en los últimos años del siglo. El futuro se presenta incierto, pues aunque no existe ningún núcleo abandonado, el envejecimiento, la baja natalidad y el paro están hipotecando el desarrollo endógeno de los núcleos rurales de la región.Summary: Along the second half of the 20th century the deepest transformations of the regional history have been produced so much by factors exogenous as endogenous of every kind. It has passed of an agrarian economy of subsistence to a competitive economy of the services and of the knowledge, what has supposed enormous excesses of agrarian unemployment to the end of century. Surplus that enlarged the great volume of emigrant population of the sixties and seventy that supposed the 40% of the regional population. Nevertheless, from beginnings of the eighty, the population is being stabilized. But the emigration already had caused an irreparable strangulation in the active ages and of procreation and a strong descent of the birthrate accentuated by the fall of the fertility and a deep aging. On the other hand, the retention of the young and adult population in its places of origin, next to other factors, it has increased the unemployment to unknown levels, though is a phenomenon that has managed to alleviate itself in good measure in recent years of the century. The future is presented uncertain, therefore although no nucleus abandoned exists, the aging, the low birthrate and the unemployment are mortgaging the endogenous development of the rural nuclei of the region.

Ana Mª Hernández Carretero

2009-09-01

 
 
 
 
241

Statistical peculiarities of climatic characteristics behavior of Siberia in the second half of 20th century: Reanalysis and in-situ data  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigation of climate processes has become one of the most important research issues over last decades. Studying of Siberian climate is of particular interest, because Siberian territory as a huge part of Eurasian continent features various combinations of climate-forming factors. The paper presents results of analysis of dynamics of surface air temperature and precipitation in Siberia for the second half of 20th century. The ECMWF ERA-40 and Interim Reanalysis data, APHRO_RU_V1003 data of APHRODITE's water resources and observations of meteorological stations were used in this study. Climatic characteristics in terms of averaged values, climate extreme indices and characteristics controlling forest ecosystems dynamics are presented. Trends were calculated and statistical significance was estimated to determine climate change dynamics. Results obtained based on different datasets have also been compared. At the first stage of investigation of averaged meteorological parameters it was determined air temperature and precipitation change dynamics for the second half of 20th century. In particular, trends of annual mean temperature based on ERA-40 Reanalysis data and station observations have shown increase of air temperature on the most part of Siberian territory, equal to 0.4 - 0.6 °C/ 10 years and 0.8 °C/ 10 years - for some regions. Analysis of seasonal and monthly air temperatures has shown that temperature changes in winter (0.7 - 0.9 °C/ 10 years) and spring (0.5 - 0.6 °C/ 10 years) seasons make the main contribution, while contribution of temperature changes in summer and autumn are much less. Annual total precipitation weakly decreases in the central part of Siberia, while it increases by 13 - 17 mm/ 10 years in the northern part of Siberia. Precipitation behavior estimated for cold and warm periods of year separately has heterogeneous structure for Siberian territory. Along with averaged climatic characteristics analysis extreme behavior of air temperature and precipitation has been investigated. Trend of “Number of frost days” index shows statistically significant decrease of number of days with daily minimum temperature 25 °C. Climate change impacts on biological processes, especially to forest productivity that play important role in global carbon balance forming. Climatic characteristics such as duration of warm and growing season, number of thaw days have been calculated. Analysis of duration of warm and growing periods has shown an increase of number of days with daily mean temperature exceeding 0 °C and 5 °C, respectively, by 2-3 days/10 years in average. An increase of number of thaw (daily mean temperature > -2 °C) days by 2-4 days/10 years for the Western Siberia territory was also revealed. The work was partially supported by RFBR (grant No.10-07-00547), SB RAS Program (projects 4.31.1.5 and 4.31.2.7) and Integration projects Nos. 4, 50 and 66.

Shulgina, T. M.; Gordov, E. P.; Genina, E. Y.

2010-12-01

242

Conformando uma Argentina leitora: educação pública, bibliotecas e mercado editorial entre fins do século XIX e meados do século XX / Building a reading Argentina: state schools, libraries and the publishing market in late -19th century and in the first half of 20th century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo pretende lançar luz sobre políticas públicas de promoção da leitura que tiveram lugar na Argentina de fins do século XIX e primeira metade do XX, e sobre a forma como essas interagiram com o mercado editorial em desenvolvimento no país. A preocupação em cultivar e orientar desde cedo nos [...] cidadãos a prática da leitura fez das crianças alvo privilegiado de iniciativas educacionais e editoriais, às quais dedicarei particular atenção. Abstract in english This article aims at shedding light on public policies of reading practices’ promotion, that took place in Argentina in late 19th century and in the first half of 20th century, and on the way they affected the country’s developing publishing market. The purpose of motivating reading practices since [...] the citizens’ early years turned children into an important goal of educational and publishing initiatives, which shall here receive special focus.

Gabriela Pellegrino, Soares.

243

Environmental changes in Chaohu Lake (southeast, China) since the mid 20th century : The interactive impacts of nutrients, hydrology and climate  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Chaohu Lake, the fifth largest freshwater lake in the Yangtze floodplain, is faced with multiple stresses from anthropogenic disturbances and climate change. To explore the ecological changes in Chaohu Lake since the mid 20th century, we examined diatoms, geochemical indicators and particle size in Pb-210-dated sediment core from the lake. Diatom succession revealed that the lake had switched to a eutrophic state since the late 1970s. Redundancy analysis using limnological data, hydrological and meteorological variables showed that sedimentary total phosphorus (TP) and total organic carbon (TOC), annual mean temperature, annual mean wind velocity, and water-level amplitude (WLA) were five significant factors influencing diatom succession. Diatom assemblages from 1950 till 1978 were driven by WLA and wind. The establishment of Chaohu Dam baffled hydrological connectivity between the lake and the Yangtze River in 1962, and reducing water exchange-induced flow. Meanwhile, weak wind velocity reduced the wind-induced flow in the 1960s. Due to the weak hydrodynamic intensity, the dominant species (Aulacoseira granulata, a species with high sinking rate) became less important during this period. From 1979 till 2006, diatom assemblages were mainly driven by TP, TOC and temperature, which were highly correlative. Increasing nutrient loading promoted the blooms of eutrophic species (e.g., Cyclostephanos dubius). In addition, rising temperature would indirectly influence diatom assemblages by mediating nutrient release process. As a consequence, multiple stresses in concert have caused the lake switch to a further eutrophic state indicated by prominent increases in more eutrophic species (e.g., Stephanodiscus parvus) since 2000. This study provided information on complex trajectories of aquatic ecosystem shifts driven by increasing nutrient loading, hydrological alteration and climate warming in the Yangtze floodplain lake. (C) 2012 Published by Elsevier GmbH.

Chen, Xu; Yang, Xiangdong

2013-01-01

244

Multi-decadal modulations in the Aleutian-Icelandic Low seesaw and the axial symmetry of the Arctic Oscillation signature, as revealed in the 20th century reanalysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Seesaw relationship in intensity between the surface Aleutian and Icelandic Lows (AIS is a manifestation of atmospheric teleconnection that bridges the interannual variability over the Pacific and Atlantic in particular winter months. Analysis of the 20th Century Reanalysis data reveals that the strength and timing of AIS have undergone multi-decadal modulations in conjunction with those in structure of the Arctic Oscillation (AO signature, extracted in the leading mode of interannual sea-level pressure (SLP variability over the extratropical Northern Hemisphere. Specifically, events of what may be called ‘pure AO’, in which SLP anomalies exhibit a high degree of axial symmetry in association with in-phase SLP variability between the midlatitude Atlantic and Pacific, tended to occur during multi-decadal periods in which the inter-basin teleconnection through AIS was active under the enhanced interannual variability of the Aleutian Low. In contrast, the axial symmetry of the AO pattern was apparently reduced during a multi-decadal period in which the AIS teleconnection was inactive under the weakened interannual variability of the Aleutian Low. In this period, the leading mode of interannual SLP variability represented a meridional seesaw between the Atlantic and Arctic, which resembles SLP anomaly pattern associated with the cold-ocean/warm-land (COWL temperature pattern. These multi-decadal modulations in interannual AIS signal and the axial symmetry of the interannual AO pattern occurred under multi-decadal changes in the background state that also represented the polarity changes of the COWL-like anomaly pattern.

Ning Shi

2014-08-01

245

A reversão do hiato de gênero na educação brasileira no século XX Reversal of the gender gap in Brazilian education in the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A redução do hiato de gênero e o maior acesso das mulheres à educação são objetivos explícitos da IV Conferência da Mulher (1995, do Fórum Mundial de Educação (2000 e da Cúpula do Milênio (2000. As conferências internacionais promovidas pela Organização das Nações Unidas recomendam ações para eliminar as discriminações contra o sexo feminino em todos os campos de atividade, especialmente na educação. O hiato de gênero e o déficit educacional das mulheres sempre fizeram parte da realidade brasileira. Contudo, as mulheres conseguiram eliminar e reverter esse hiato ao longo do século XX. Este artigo tem como objetivo principal analisar quando se deu a reversão do hiato de gênero na educação no Brasil. Para isso, apresentaremos as informações educacionais dos censos demográficos de 1960 a 2000, segundo níveis de escolaridade, desagregadas por sexo e por coortes de nascimento. Essa metodologia nos permitirá acompanhar a evolução do hiato de gênero das coortes nascidas após 1890 até o ano 1995.The reduction of the gender gap and the improvement in female access to education were explicit objectives of the IV Conference on Women (1995, of the World Education Forum (2000 and of the Millennium Summit (2000. All International Conferences promoted by the United Nations Organization (UN recommend actions to eradicate discrimination against women in all fields of activity, especially education. The gender gap and the education deficit among women have always been part of the Brazilian reality. However, women have been able to eliminate and reverse this gap throughout the 20th century. The main purpose of this article is to analyze when the reversion of the gender gap in Brazilian education occurred. In order to do so, we will present information obtained from demographic censuses from 1960 to 2000, based on schooling levels disaggregated by gender and birth cohorts. This methodology will allow us to track the evolution of the gender gap in birth cohorts after 1890 until 1995.

Kaizô Iwakami Beltrão

2009-04-01

246

Variability of extreme temperature events in south-central Europe during the 20th century and its relationship with large-scale circulation  

Science.gov (United States)

The variability of winter extreme low-temperature events and summer extreme high-temperature events was investigated using daily temperature series (1901-98) from 11 sites in central and southern Europe. An extreme temperature event (EXTE) is defined by various threshold values of daily temperature or daily temperature anomaly. Systematic changes in the frequencies of EXTEs are investigated by the Mann-Kendall test and a method based on the Wilcoxon test. The catalogue of macrocirculation types over central Europe (the Hess-Brezowsky classification) is applied to investigate the connections between EXTEs and large-scale circulation. Circulation classes (HBC) are defined, and mostly spatial averages of EXTEs are examined.There were large long-term fluctuations in the frequencies of both winter extreme cold events (EXCEs) and summer extreme warm events (EXWEs) during the 20th century. The systematic changes referring to the entire period indicate a slight warming tendency, but only a few of the changes, mostly in the northernmost sites, are statistically significant. Strong connections are present between the frequencies of EXTEs and the large-scale circulation on various time scales, particularly for EXCEs. The spatial differences of EXTE fluctuations and EXTE-HBC connections are small within the study area. Northerlies and easterlies, as well as meridional and anticyclonic situations, are favourable for EXCEs, whereas southerlies and persistent anticyclonic situations are favourable for EXWE occurrences. In the latest decades, a decline in the frequency of EXCEs and a sharp increase in the frequency of EXWEs happened, and the residence times of the circulation patterns over central Europe became longer both in winter and summer.

Domonkos, Peter; Kyselý, Jan; Piotrowicz, Katarzyna; Petrovic, Predrag; Likso, Tanja

2003-07-01

247

A bicicleta, o ciclismo e as mulheres na transição dos séculos XIX e XX / Bicycle, cycling and women in the 19th to 20th centuries' transition  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo tem por objetivo discutir as relações entre a nova configuração da presença social das mulheres (e nesse cenário as posições de líderes dos movimentos por direitos civis femininos), a nova dinâmica social marcada pela valorização das atividades públicas de lazer (da qual o ciclismo é um [...] exemplo privilegiado) e um novo invento (a bicicleta) na transição dos séculos XIX e XX. Inicialmente abordaremos os casos específicos da Europa (com destaque para a França) e dos Estados Unidos, buscando recuperar as pioneiras discussões e ocorrências acerca do envolvimento de mulheres com o ciclismo. Posteriormente, discutiremos o caso específico do Rio de Janeiro, a maior cidade e a capital do país à época, cujos dirigentes tinham aspirações de constituí-la na metrópole moderna brasileira. Abstract in english This article aims to discuss the relationships between the new configuration of the women social presence (and, in this scenario, the positions of leaders of feminine civil rights' movements), the new social dynamics marked by the valorization of public leisure activities (of which cycling is a rema [...] rkable example) and a new invention (the bicycle) in the 19th to 20th centuries' transition. Initially, we discuss specific cases of Europe (mainly those of France) and United States, searching to recover the pioneer discussions and occurrences concerning the involvement of women with cycling. Later, we discuss the specific case of Rio de Janeiro, the biggest city and capital of the country at that time, whose leaders had aspirations to constitute in the Brazilian modern metropolis.

Victor Andrade de, Melo; André, Schetino.

2009-04-01

248

Construction and Operation of Railway Bridges and Ferries in the Lower Volga Streamflow (End of 19th – First Half of 20th Century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article deals with the history of operation of Russia’s first railway ferry and the process of bridge construction across the lower Volga streamflows at Ryazan-Ural (now Volga railway line in Saratov, Stalingrad (Volgograd and Astrakhan. River railway ferries “Saratovskaya pereprava” and “Saratovsky ledokol” were built in 1894 in England and water crafts “Vtoraya pereprava” (1909 and “Stalin” (1926 were floated out in Volga in Nizhny Novgorod, from the Sormov plant. As a rule, the organization of transportations by means of steam locomotives and waggons through Volga during the first half of the 20th century preceded the construction of capital metal railway bridges, such as Astrakhan (1909 and Saratov (1935, and also a combined railway-automobile bridge through the Volga (Stalingrad Hydro-Electric Power Station (1961. The article is devoted not only to the technical features of ferries, bridges, but their efficient use in peace time and war time. So, the carrying capacity of the Saratov railway ferry increased in more than three times from 1907 to 1916. The Ryazan-Ural railway ferries were actively used by new Bolshevist regime. After the railroad construction on the left bank of Volga in autumn and winter of 1941, railway ferries “Stalin” and “Saratovskaya pereprava” were used for the carriage of military trains and population evacuation from the western bank of Volga. The author describes one of the most heroic and tragic facts in the history of Stalingrad battle using the example of the special operation railway ferry flooding and its consequent reconstruction.

OPALEV M.N.

2014-06-01

249

Psicanálise e psiquiatria nos inícios do século XX: a apropriação do conceito de esquizofrenia no trabalho de Hermelino Lopes Rodrigues / Psychanalyse et psychiatrie au début du XX siècle: l'assimilation du concept de schizophrénie dans le travail de Hermelino Lopes Rodrigues / Psychoanalysis and psychiatry in the early 20th century: appropriation of the concept of schizophrenia in the work of Hermelino Lopes Rodrigues / Psicoanálisis y psiquiatría en inicio del siglo XX: a apropriación del concepto de esquizofrenia en el trabajo de Hermelino Lopes Rodrigues  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O trabalho tem como principal objetivo descrever e analisar as contribuições do médico psiquiatra Hermelino Lopes Rodrigues (18991971), na apropriação do conceito de esquizofrenia no Brasil, nas primeiras décadas do século XX. Suas contribuições possuem clara influência das ideias do psiquiatra suíç [...] o Eugen Bleuler (1857-1939), na transição entre o conceito de demência precoce e esquizofrenia. O trabalho também procura destacar a inédita leitura que Lopes Rodrigues fez do texto de Eugen Bleuler, ressaltando a influência de aspectos psicológicos e biográficos no estudo do doente esquizofrênico. Abstract in spanish El trabajo tiene como principal objetivo describir y analizar las contribuciones del médico psiquiatra Hermelino Lopes Rodrigues (1899-1971) en la apropiación del concepto de esquizofrenia en Brasil, en las primeras décadas del siglo XX. Sus contribuciones tienen claramente la influencia de las idea [...] s del psiquiatra suizo Eugen Bleuler (1857-1939), en la transición entre el concepto de demencia precoz y el de esquizofrenia. El trabajo también trata de destacar la lectura poco común que Lopes Rodrigues hizo del texto de Eugen Bleuler, resaltando la influencia de los aspectos biográficos y psicológicos en el estudio de los pacientes esquizofrénicos. Abstract in english The main objective of this article is to describe and analyze the contributions of the psychiatrist Hermelino Lopes Rodrigues (1899-1971) in appropriating the concept of schizophrenia in Brazil in the early decades of the 20th century. His thinking was clearly influenced by the Swiss psychiatrist Eu [...] gen Bleuler (1857-1939) regarding the transition from the concept of dementia praecox to that of schizophrenia. The article also seeks to highlight the unprecedented reading that Lopes Rodrigues made of Bleuler's texts and highlights the influence of biographical and psychological aspects in schizophrenic patients.

Renato Diniz, Silveira.

2009-09-01

250

Paul Hamilton Wood (1907-1962): El máximo exponente de la cardiología clínica Británica del siglo XX / Paul Hamilton Wood: The foremost British clinical cardiologist of the 20th century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english In the United Kingdom, during the mid-20th century, Paul Wood appears as the new leader of European cardiology. He introduced rigorous bed-side diagnostic methods and the confirmation of these clinical findings by cardiac catheterization, in an effort to demonstrate the pathophysiological causes of [...] cardiac disease. In his search for the correct diagnosis, his comments, which could be caustic, both impressed and offended many. He had a strong commanding personality and was intensely honest in his appreciations. His showmanship and diagnostic ability became renown. In 1950, the publishing of the first edition of his textbook "Diseases of the Heart and Circulation" brought him worldwide recognition. In this book, Wood introduces his personal fresh style of narrative and his physiologic approach to cardiology. His intense professional activity, teaching, lecturing and preparing the third edition of his book, plus the fact that he was a heavy smoker, must have been the factors that lead to a myocardial infarction and death at the early age of 54. As Paul Dudley White and Ignacio Chávez in America, Paul Wood in Europe will be remembered as the emblematic figure leading the transition of cardiology into the modern era.

Juan D, Humphreys; Pablo, Young.

2012-01-01

251

Paul Hamilton Wood (1907-1962: El máximo exponente de la cardiología clínica Británica del siglo XX Paul Hamilton Wood: The foremost British clinical cardiologist of the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the United Kingdom, during the mid-20th century, Paul Wood appears as the new leader of European cardiology. He introduced rigorous bed-side diagnostic methods and the confirmation of these clinical findings by cardiac catheterization, in an effort to demonstrate the pathophysiological causes of cardiac disease. In his search for the correct diagnosis, his comments, which could be caustic, both impressed and offended many. He had a strong commanding personality and was intensely honest in his appreciations. His showmanship and diagnostic ability became renown. In 1950, the publishing of the first edition of his textbook "Diseases of the Heart and Circulation" brought him worldwide recognition. In this book, Wood introduces his personal fresh style of narrative and his physiologic approach to cardiology. His intense professional activity, teaching, lecturing and preparing the third edition of his book, plus the fact that he was a heavy smoker, must have been the factors that lead to a myocardial infarction and death at the early age of 54. As Paul Dudley White and Ignacio Chávez in America, Paul Wood in Europe will be remembered as the emblematic figure leading the transition of cardiology into the modern era.

Juan D Humphreys

2012-01-01

252

The shift to the subject in 20th century philosophy of science: A liberating move? / Die skuif na die subjek in die 20ste eeuse wetenskapsfilosofie: 'n Bevrydende verskuiwing?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english During the 20th century, the 'subject' of knowledge (i.e. the individual scientist or a scientific community) was attributed an increasingly relevant role in (the philosophy of) science. Anchoring scientific knowledge to the subject (rather than to the object, as in early positivism) was proposed as [...] a 'liberating' move, leading to a less authoritarian and rationalistic view of science. This article provides a reformational point of view on the topic. A historical documentation of the shift to the subject is provided by visiting the philosophies of Popper, Kuhn, Collins and others. It is argued that the promise of a more libertarian or emancipating conception of science was challenged by several problems. In particular, the conflict between an individual and a communal understanding of the subject is highlighted. Furthermore, it is argued that the roots of the phenomenon in most cases remain hidden. An interpretation of the shift and the sketch of an alternative approach conclude the article.

Renato, Coletto.

2014-01-01

253

APPROACH TO THE VILLAGE IN RUSSIAN AND TURKISH LITERATURE IN THE SECOND HALF OF THE 20TH CENTURY
20.YÜZYILIN ?K?NC? YARISINDA RUS EDEB?YATINDA VE TÜRK EDEB?YATINDA KÖYE YAKLA?IM
 

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In world literature, some subjects are formed according to the society, culture and geographical factors. The village subjects in Turkish and Russian literature also based on these basics. ‘ Village literature’ which became very considerable in both countries for a period in the past occurred in the second half of the 20th century. It cannot be considered as a coincidence, it has been actually the result of the literacy interaction and socialism which became effective in most of the coun...

C?eli?k, Reyhan

2009-01-01

254

Noor-Eesti enesekoloniseerimisprojekt. Teine osa Olulised kirjandusmõtteviisid . The Self-Colonization Project of Young Estonia. Part II. Modes of Literary Thinking and Relations with Colonialism in Estonian Literature of the beginning of the 20th century  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The topic of this article is the literary discourse of Young Estonia; its relations with other important Estonian literary discourses from the beginning of the 20th century, and its relations with colonial cultural discourse. First, I give an overview of the basic positions of the Young Estonians’ literary discourse, the main shapers of which were Friedebert Tuglas, Gustav Suits, later on Johannes Semper as well. Next, I present the basic principles of three Estonian literary discourses fro...

Tiit Hennoste

2012-01-01

255

THE NATIONAL ADYGHE INTELLECTUALS, AGITATION AND PROPAGANDA ACTIVITY OF THE SOVIET POWER IN THE BLACK SEA AREA IN THE 20TH. XX CENTURY. (TO THE INCORPORATION PROBLEM IN THE RUSSIAN SOCIAL AND CULTURAL SPACE)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Questions, which are considered in the article, are connected with participation of the national Adyghe intellectuals in functioning of agitation and propaganda structures of the Soviet power in the Black Sea area in the 20th of the XX century. The article is made in the framework of regional competition: «North Caucasus: tradition and modernity» 2014. – Krasnodar region. 14-11-23007 the type of project «A (P)» The topic is «The role of national intelligence in the incorporation of the...

Bochkareva A. S.; Khotina Y. V.

2014-01-01

256

Migration in the Swiss Alps and Swiss Jura from the Middle Ages to the mid-20th century: a brief review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aims at retracing the important phases of migrations in the alpine regions and the Jura from the Middle Ages up to the middle of the 20th century. Migration has always functioned as a necessary complement to the resources of the inhabitants of the upland regions and it increases when the economic disparity with the lowlands becomes more marked. A striking characteristic of such migration is the great diversity that can be observed, since not only the destinations of the migrants varied from community to community, but also different forms of mobility coexisted within the same territory. Migration might be seasonal, pluriannual, lifelong or even definitive. It is also notable that the various types of migration can be observed to be part of a plurisecular tradition, apart from some significant exceptions, such as the emigration of the Walser, enforced migrations and the new types of migration as from the second half of the nineteenth century. The mobility of part of the population was also a consequence of modifications deriving from changes in the prevalent type of production (animal husbandry instead of the cultivation of cereals, as well as from demographic factors. In addition to these factors one can observe the role played by political institutions throughout the period under study: seigneurial power in the Middle Ages, the communal and cantonal instances until the second half of the nineteenth century, and afterwards the federal authorities.Cette contribution vise à montrer les grandes phases des mouvements migratoires du Moyen Age au milieu du XXe siècle dans les mondes alpin et jurassien suisses. La migration a toujours été une complémentarité nécessaire aux ressources de la montagne, et elle s'amplifie lorsque les disparités économiques avec le plat pays s'accroissent. Elle se caractérise par une forte diversité, puisque non seulement les destinations et les aires d'établissement des migrants peuvent varier fortement d'une commune à l'autre, mais aussi parce qu'au sein d'un même territoire ont toujours coexisté des formes différentes de mobilité, saisonnières, pluriannuelles, viagères ou définitives. Un aspect remarquable de ces types de migration est qu’ils s'inscrivent dans une très longue tradition pluriséculaire, avec quelques exceptions notables, ainsi les migrations des Walser, les migrations forcées et les nouvelles formes de la migration dès la seconde moitié du XIXe siècle. La mobilité est imposée aussi par les modifications des formes prévalantes de production (élevage plutôt qu'emblavures, de même que par les facteurs démographiques. A ces facteurs s'ajoute celui du rôle des institutions politiques tout au long de la période étudiée, seigneuriales au Moyen Age, communales et cantonales jusque dans la seconde moitié du XIXe siècle, puis fédérales.

Anne-Lise Head-König

2011-05-01

257

As influências da psicanálise na educação brasileira no início do século XX The influences of psychoanalysis on Brazilian education in the beginning of the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O presente artigo tem por objetivo discutir, a partir de um vértice histórico, a relação entre educação e psicanálise no Brasil. Partindo de um estudo qualitativo, fundamentado na análise bibliográfica relativa à produção psicanalítica dedicada à educação produzida no país nas primeiras décadas do século XX, são discutidas as contribuições da psicanálise na transformação das práticas educacionais. Os resultados indicam que a psicanálise esteve presente na educação de duas formas: inicialmente, pela divulgação de informações teóricas relativas aos conceitos psicanalíticos e às características do desenvolvimento emocional da criança, por intermédio de livros e cursos destinados a educadores, e, posteriormente, através da criação de uma prática de assistência ao escolar com problemas de aprendizagem ou comportamento, desenvolvida em clínicas de orientação infantil, que consistia na avaliação da criança e na orientação de pais e professores. Conclui-se que a psicanálise, enquanto fundamento teórico e prático, forneceu elementos que contribuíram para a sustentação dos pressupostos filosóficos da "Escola Nova", que surgiu, a partir da década de 1920, como alternativa ao ensino tradicional.The present article aims at discussing, from a historical point of view, the relationship between education and psychoanalysis in Brazil. Starting from a qualitative study, based on the bibliographical analysis relative to the psychoanalytic production dedicated to education produced in this country in the first decades of the 20th century, the contributions of psychoanalysis in the transformation of the educational practices are discussed. The results show that psychoanalysis was present in education in two ways: firstly by turning public the theoretical information related to psychoanalytic concepts and to the characteristics of child emotional development, through books and courses designed for educators and, afterwards, through the creation of an assistance practice to scholars with learning or behavior problems, developed in child orientation clinics, which consisted on child evaluation and parents and teachers orientation. We conclude that psychoanalysis, while a theoretical and practical fundament, supplied elements which contributed to the support of the philosophic presumptions of a new educational model that came up as from 1920 as an alternative to traditional teaching.

Jorge Luís Ferreira Abrão

2006-08-01

258

Evaluation of the ability of the Chinese stalagmite ?18O to record the variation in atmospheric circulation during the second half of the 20th century  

Science.gov (United States)

The Chinese stalagmite ?18O (?18Ocs) has provoked debate worldwide over the past few years due to its lack of quantitative calibration, leading us to questions of whether ?18Ocs records a local or large-scale signal and whether ?18Ocs records the signal of a single remote water vapor source or multiple water vapor sources. In this study, we observe all of the ?18Ocs trends within the instrumental period to verify whether they possess a common trend, which could be used as a basis to determine whether the trends reflect the large-scale signal together or whether each trend reflects the local signal. The results show that most of the ?18Ocs experienced a linear increase from 1960 to 1994, which may indicate that the ?18Ocs could record a trend occurring in large-scale atmosphere circulations. We then quantitatively describe the proportion of water vapor transport (WVT) from different source regions. Using the NCEP/NCAR (National Centers for Environmental Protection/National Center for Atmospheric Research) reanalysis data from 1960 to 1994, the ratios of the intensities of three WVTs from the Bay of Bengal, the South China Sea, and the western North Pacific during the summer are calculated. We define RSCS/BOB as the ratio of the WVT intensities from the South China Sea to those from the Bay of Bengal, RWNP/BOB as the ratio of the WVT intensities from the western North Pacific to those from the Bay of Bengal, and RWNP/SCS as the ratio of the WVT intensities from the western North Pacific to those from the South China Sea. The significant decadal increase occurs in the time series of RWNP/BOB and RWNP/SCS, most likely resulting from the strengthening of the WVT from the western North Pacific in the late 1970s due to the western Pacific subtropical high that extended westward. Further analysis indicates that when the equatorial central and eastern Pacific is in the El Niño phase, the sea surface temperature (SST) in the tropical Indian Ocean, the Bay of Bengal, and the South China Sea is high, and the SST at the middle latitudes in the North Pacific is low, then the RWNP/BOB and RWNP/SCS values tend to be high. After the late 1970s, the equatorial central and eastern Pacific have often been in the El Niño phase. Therefore, we confirm that the ?18Ocs primarily records the variation in atmospheric circulation during the second half of the 20th century.

Nan, S.; Tan, M.; Zhao, P.

2014-05-01

259

A reversão do hiato de gênero na educação brasileira no século XX / Reversal of the gender gap in Brazilian education in the 20th century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A redução do hiato de gênero e o maior acesso das mulheres à educação são objetivos explícitos da IV Conferência da Mulher (1995), do Fórum Mundial de Educação (2000) e da Cúpula do Milênio (2000). As conferências internacionais promovidas pela Organização das Nações Unidas recomendam ações para eli [...] minar as discriminações contra o sexo feminino em todos os campos de atividade, especialmente na educação. O hiato de gênero e o déficit educacional das mulheres sempre fizeram parte da realidade brasileira. Contudo, as mulheres conseguiram eliminar e reverter esse hiato ao longo do século XX. Este artigo tem como objetivo principal analisar quando se deu a reversão do hiato de gênero na educação no Brasil. Para isso, apresentaremos as informações educacionais dos censos demográficos de 1960 a 2000, segundo níveis de escolaridade, desagregadas por sexo e por coortes de nascimento. Essa metodologia nos permitirá acompanhar a evolução do hiato de gênero das coortes nascidas após 1890 até o ano 1995. Abstract in english The reduction of the gender gap and the improvement in female access to education were explicit objectives of the IV Conference on Women (1995), of the World Education Forum (2000) and of the Millennium Summit (2000). All International Conferences promoted by the United Nations Organization (UN) rec [...] ommend actions to eradicate discrimination against women in all fields of activity, especially education. The gender gap and the education deficit among women have always been part of the Brazilian reality. However, women have been able to eliminate and reverse this gap throughout the 20th century. The main purpose of this article is to analyze when the reversion of the gender gap in Brazilian education occurred. In order to do so, we will present information obtained from demographic censuses from 1960 to 2000, based on schooling levels disaggregated by gender and birth cohorts. This methodology will allow us to track the evolution of the gender gap in birth cohorts after 1890 until 1995.

Kaizô Iwakami, Beltrão; José Eustáquio Diniz, Alves.

2009-04-01

260

Tree-ring reconstruction of seasonal mean minimum temperature at Mt. Yaoshan, China, since 1873 and its relevance to 20th-century warming  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is very important to comprehend the climate variations in the vast regions of Central Plains of China. Current knowledge about climate changes of the past few hundred years in this region is primarily based on historical documents, and lack of evidences from the natural archives. However, these documents had somewhat artificially effects caused by the recorders, and not sufficient to fully understand natural climatic changes. In this paper, based on a significant correlation between the tree-ring width of Chinese Pine and observed instrumental data in the Mt. Yaoshan, China, we formulated a transfer function to reconstruct the mean minimum temperature (MMinT from the previous December to the current June (Tmin_DJ for the period 1873–2011. The reconstruction explained 39.8% of the instrumental variance during the calibration period of 1958–2011. High Tmin_DJ intervals with values greater than the 139 year average occurred in 1932–1965 and 1976–2006. The intervals 1878–1894 and 1906–1931 experienced a Tmin_DJ lower than the 139 year average. The ten highest Tmin_DJ years occurred after the 1950s, especially after 1996. A distinct upward trend in the Tmin_DJ series beginning in the 1910s was apparent, and the highest value occurred around 2000. The 20th-century warming signal was captured well by the Yaoshan Tmin_DJ temperature reconstruction, indicating that the temperature rise in the sensitive Central Plains of China region reflected the global temperature change. The Tmin_DJ reconstruction also matched several other temperature series in China with similar warm-cold patterns. The distinct spatial correlation between both observed and reconstructed series and CRU TS3.10 grid data indicates that our results may represent Tmin_DJ changes on a larger scale. The spatial correlation with sea surface temperature (SST indicated that observed and reconstructed Tmin_DJ temperatures in the Mt. Yaoshan are closely linked to the West Pacific, Indian and North Atlantic Oceans as well as El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO.

Y. Liu

2014-03-01

 
 
 
 
261

THE NATIONAL ADYGHE INTELLECTUALS, AGITATION AND PROPAGANDA ACTIVITY OF THE SOVIET POWER IN THE BLACK SEA AREA IN THE 20TH. XX CENTURY. (TO THE INCORPORATION PROBLEM IN THE RUSSIAN SOCIAL AND CULTURAL SPACE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Questions, which are considered in the article, are connected with participation of the national Adyghe intellectuals in functioning of agitation and propaganda structures of the Soviet power in the Black Sea area in the 20th of the XX century. The article is made in the framework of regional competition: «North Caucasus: tradition and modernity» 2014. – Krasnodar region. 14-11-23007 the type of project «A (P» The topic is «The role of national intelligence in the incorporation of the North Caucasus in the Russian geopolitical space at the end of XIX century – the 1920s (by materials of Adyghe people»

Bochkareva A. S.

2014-06-01

262

Agricultural Genetics and Plant Breeding in Early Twentieth-Century Italy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis is about plant breeding in Early 20th-Century Italy. The stories of the two most prominent Italian plant-breeders of the time, Nazareno Strampelli and Francesco Todaro, are used to explore a fragment of the often-neglected history of Italian agricultural research. While Italy was not at the forefront of agricultural innovation, research programs aimed at varietal innovation did emerge in the country, along with an early diffusion of Mendelism. Using philosophical as well as histor...

Iori, Luca

2013-01-01

263

The place occupied by early measurement (20th minute) of the thyroid uptake of sup(99m)Tc pertechnetate in thyroid pathology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The place occupied by early measurement (20th minute) of the thyroid uptake of sup(99m)Tc pertechnetate is situated for different types of thyroid condition (hypo-, normo- and hyperthyroidism). The use of technetium is simple in practice because only the cervical and crural radioactivity measurements are required. Like all simplified methods it involves risks of errors but lends itself to systematic routine use. The practical advantages of this isotope, which in view of its short half-life appears with iodine 123 as the nearly ideal tracer for thyroid exploration at present are outlined. The thyroid gland can be studied both functionally and scintigraphically at the cost of minimum irradiation, which is a great advantage. The fact that a number of data may be obtained in less than an hour (including scintigraphy) is a particularly valuable asset. However the method has its limits. For example a diagnosis of hyper or hypothyroidism based on the technetium uptake at the 20th minute alone is out of the question. A zero uptake may be observed in the presence of Basedow's disease or conversely a high uptake in hypo- or euthyroid cases. Discrimination is satisfactory between hyper and euthyroid but not between eu- and hypothyroid subjects. Technological progress however promises a routine use of 123 I and 99mTc together, the two isotopes serving to explore two different phases of the thyroid metabolism

264

Lietuvi? muzikos tautiškumo problema. Pietry?i? Lietuvos liaudies melodijos XX a. I pus?s fonografo ?rašuose | The problem of the national style in Lithuanian music. South Eastern Lithuanian folk melodics in phonograph recordings from the 1st half of the 20th century  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this article, several issues are discussed and related, namely, the phonograph recordings that have recently started being released with Lithuanian folk music from the first half of the 20th century; the folk melodies of the South Eastern Lithuania and the impact from the melodies of the eastern neighbors observed; the formation of professional Lithuanian music, a considerable part of which comprised harmonized folksongs in the beginning of the 20th century. According to the author, the fi...

Aust? Nakien?

2006-01-01

265

European Tips on Tourism development in the Caucasus in Early ?? Century  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article presents tips, recommendations, advice by the Europeans. Their consideration was important for further development of tourism in the Caucasus. Namely, for the development of the organization, established in early 20th century “Caucasus Tourism Promotion Committee" and its relation with the countries with well-developed tourism, such as: Austria, Hungary, Germany, France, Bosnia and Herzegovina and etc. Using archive sources, we can consider the issues, concerning foreign tourism...

Tamar Tamarashvili

2013-01-01

266

As contribuições de Charcot e de Marsden para o desenvolvimento dos distúrbios do movimento nos séculos XIX e XX Contributions of Charcot and Marsden to the development of movement disorders in the 19th and 20th centuries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Charcot contribuiu significativamente no século XIX na descrição de várias enfermidades neurológicas, em particular na área dos distúrbios do movimento. Charcot contribuiu de forma exponencial na descrição clínica minuciosa da doença de Parkinson, além de introduzir o primeiro tratamento farmacológico. Na área das hipercinesias realizou estudos sobre a síndrome de Tourette, o diagnóstico diferencial dos tremores, das coréias e o estudo inicial sobre startle. Marsden, recentemente falecido, destacou-se no século XX com inúmeras publicações na área dos movimentos anormais.São contribuições seminais os estudos sobre a doença de Parkinson, distonias, mioclonias , tremor essencial, a descrição das síndromes " Painful Legs Moving Toes ", "Gait Ignition Failure" e o "Tremor Primário da Escrita". As contribuições de Charcot no século XIX e de Marsden no século XX na área dos distúrbios do movimento permitem concluir que ambos foram as figuras mais representativas desta área nos últimos dois séculos.Charcot described many neurological diseases in the 19th century, particularly in movement disorders.Charcot contributed in the clinical description of Parkinson's disease, and introduced its first pharmacological treatment. He also studied the hyperkinesias, e.g. of Tourette syndrome, differential diagnosis of tremors, dystonias, choreas and startle disease. Marsden, who died recently, was an exponent in the study of Movement Disorders, with many publications in this field in the 20th century. His most important contributions are definitions and classifications of movement disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, dystonia, myoclonus, essential tremor, the description of the syndromes "Painful Legs Moving Toes", "Gait Ignition Failure" and "Primary Writing Tremor". The contributions of Charcot in the 19th century and Marsden in the 20th century to the movement disorders allow us to conclude that both of them were the most representative icons in this field in the past two centuries.

Hélio A.G. Teive

2001-09-01

267

As contribuições de Charcot e de Marsden para o desenvolvimento dos distúrbios do movimento nos séculos XIX e XX / Contributions of Charcot and Marsden to the development of movement disorders in the 19th and 20th centuries  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Charcot contribuiu significativamente no século XIX na descrição de várias enfermidades neurológicas, em particular na área dos distúrbios do movimento. Charcot contribuiu de forma exponencial na descrição clínica minuciosa da doença de Parkinson, além de introduzir o primeiro tratamento farmacológi [...] co. Na área das hipercinesias realizou estudos sobre a síndrome de Tourette, o diagnóstico diferencial dos tremores, das coréias e o estudo inicial sobre startle. Marsden, recentemente falecido, destacou-se no século XX com inúmeras publicações na área dos movimentos anormais.São contribuições seminais os estudos sobre a doença de Parkinson, distonias, mioclonias , tremor essencial, a descrição das síndromes " Painful Legs Moving Toes ", "Gait Ignition Failure" e o "Tremor Primário da Escrita". As contribuições de Charcot no século XIX e de Marsden no século XX na área dos distúrbios do movimento permitem concluir que ambos foram as figuras mais representativas desta área nos últimos dois séculos. Abstract in english Charcot described many neurological diseases in the 19th century, particularly in movement disorders.Charcot contributed in the clinical description of Parkinson's disease, and introduced its first pharmacological treatment. He also studied the hyperkinesias, e.g. of Tourette syndrome, differential [...] diagnosis of tremors, dystonias, choreas and startle disease. Marsden, who died recently, was an exponent in the study of Movement Disorders, with many publications in this field in the 20th century. His most important contributions are definitions and classifications of movement disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, dystonia, myoclonus, essential tremor, the description of the syndromes "Painful Legs Moving Toes", "Gait Ignition Failure" and "Primary Writing Tremor". The contributions of Charcot in the 19th century and Marsden in the 20th century to the movement disorders allow us to conclude that both of them were the most representative icons in this field in the past two centuries.

Hélio A.G., Teive; Jorge A.A., Zavala; Fábio M., Iwamoto; Daniel, Sá; Hipólito, Carraro Júnior; Lineu Cesar, Werneck.

2001-09-01

268

20th Century Sea Ice Cover As Simulated By A Coupled Ocean-atmosphere Gcm And Efforts To Understand The Sensitivity Of The Sea Ice Component To Its Formulation  

Science.gov (United States)

During the late 20th century sea ice cover in the Arctic has been observed to have decreased significantly in extent and thickness (e.g. Vinnikov et al (1999), Rothrock et al (1999)). Observed trends are compared to an ensemble of simulations of 20th century climate using the HadCM3 GCM (Gregory et al.,Stott et al.). The trend in Arctic sea ice extent from 1978 to 1998 is well simulated, and the estimated trend in Arctic sea ice volume is in good agreement with other modelling studies, while being somewhat less than that estimated by Rothrock et al. However, the representation of sea ice in the model is relatively simple, and carries many uncertainties. A long standing problem has been the lack of data with which to compare model predictions of ice thickness and mass. An experiment is described which is designed to analyse the sensitivity of the sea ice model to its formulation and parameters, and optimise it by comparison with new remotely sensed estimates of Arctic sea ice thickness. Progress with this experiment will be presented.

Cresswell, D. J.; Gregory, J. M.; Stott, P. A.; Rayner, N. A.; Gordon, C.; Sexton, D. M. H.; Laxon, S. W.

269

Noor-Eesti enesekoloniseerimisprojekt. Teine osa Olulised kirjandusmõtteviisid . The Self-Colonization Project of Young Estonia. Part II. Modes of Literary Thinking and Relations with Colonialism in Estonian Literature of the beginning of the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The topic of this article is the literary discourse of Young Estonia; its relations with other important Estonian literary discourses from the beginning of the 20th century, and its relations with colonial cultural discourse. First, I give an overview of the basic positions of the Young Estonians’ literary discourse, the main shapers of which were Friedebert Tuglas, Gustav Suits, later on Johannes Semper as well. Next, I present the basic principles of three Estonian literary discourses from the beginning of the 20th century, which were also important to the Young Estonians: nationalist-naturalistic (close-to-life; socialist/ class-based, and 20th century modernist. The Young Estonians began as nationalists and/or socialists. During the formation of Young Estonia’s discourse at the end of the first and beginning of the second decade of the 20th century, 20th century modernism began, which the Young Estonians regarded first and foremost with irony. The Young Estonians’ literary discourse is a mixture of aestheticism, decadence, symbolism, romanticism, and classicism. The point of departure for the Young Estonian approach to literature was eurocentrism. They took a superior and negative view of existing Estonian literature, which they regarded as having fallen drastically behind Europe. Since it was unable to build on its own foundation, it had to borrow from Europe. The discourse’s understandings of cultural values – theory, reading, knowledge, ready-made culture, derive from the centrality of the dynamic of borrowing. New culture could be created freely, without the support of previous local tradition; it was to be an elite culture, while the writer remained an individualist. Literature was to follow the principle of art for art’s sake; aesthetics and the form of the work of art were basic criteria. The formal ideals of the work of art were classicist: unity, integrity (wholeness, harmony, order, logic, etc. Thirdly, I outline the basic positions of colonial thinking about culture, and compare the Young Estonian approaches to literature with colonial thought. The foundation of colonialism is eurocentrism: if Europe is the core; everything else belongs to the periphery, and regarded from the outset as of lesser inherent worth: colonialism is characterized by a superior and negative attitude toward local culture. The colonizing culture interprets its own values and experiences as universals; these are congruent with the outlines of what is deemed to be ”European” culture. The mission of colonialism is to bring the periphery into the sphere of influence of the enlightened core. Though colonial thinking does not commit itself to any specific artistic movement or style, its most important tenet with regard to evaluating art is classicist, emphasizing enduring values and good ”handiwork”. The bases for the creation of colonial culture are ready-made models and categories, and the outcome of colonization is culture constructed according to a model. The outcome of the analysis is that the Young Estonian way of thinking is in close consonance with the colonial way of thinking. Those attitudes that Young Estonians did not adopt, or those they relinquished and discarded, are in opposition to it. My own basic claim is that the Young Estonians unconsciously carried a colonial way of thinking, and that they might be considered to be self-colonizers.

Tiit Hennoste

2012-04-01

270

Evolution of living standards and human capital in China in 18-20th century: evidences from real wage and anthropometrics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article mobilizes and integrates both existing and new time series data on real wages, physical heights and age-heaping to examine the long-term trend of living standards and human capital for China during the eighteenth to twentieth centuries. Our findings confirm the existence of a substantial gap in living standards between China and North-western Europe in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. They also reveal a sustained decline in living standards and human capital at least in S...

Baten, Joerg; Ma, Debin; Morgan, Stephen; Wang, Qing

2009-01-01

271

The Problem of Financial Accounting Measurement in Italian Accounting Thought between the 19th and the 20th Century From “Exchange Value” to “Historical Cost”  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main subject of the paper is the theory of accounting measurement as observed in its historical development. More notably, the research concerns theoretical concepts of such discipline, as developed by the Italian doctrine in a very specific age, that is, between the second half of the nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth century, i.e. from the theorization of the “exchange value rule” to the theorization of the “historical cost principle”. As it was impossible t...

Gonnella, Enrico

2010-01-01

272

FORESTS AND AGRICULTURE: AN OVERVIEW OF THE HISTORICAL LIMITS OF SUSTAINABILITY OF ARGENTINEAN FORESTS WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF 20TH CENTURY CAPITALIST EXPLOITATION  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

At the end of the 19th century, there were in Argentina 160 million hectares of natural forests, mountains and original jungles. In less than half a century, the country lost more than two—thirds of its aboriginal forests. Currently, the country has less than 33 million hectares of native forests. The exploitation of this extraordinary Argentinean forest wealth is the starting point of this historical analysis that intends to study, from an environmental history perspective, the evolution o...

Adrián Zarrilli

2008-01-01

273

European Tips on Tourism development in the Caucasus in Early ?? Century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article presents tips, recommendations, advice by the Europeans. Their consideration was important for further development of tourism in the Caucasus. Namely, for the development of the organization, established in early 20th century “Caucasus Tourism Promotion Committee" and its relation with the countries with well-developed tourism, such as: Austria, Hungary, Germany, France, Bosnia and Herzegovina and etc. Using archive sources, we can consider the issues, concerning foreign tourism experience, types of advertisement in XX century, means of information, transport, tourist accommodation, tourism infrastructure, etc

Tamar Tamarashvili

2013-01-01

274

Gender and imagined purity of at the turn of the 20th century: the example of B.O. Flower, reformer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Boston progressive editor Benjamin O. Flower (1858-1918) pushed for a wide range of women-friendly reforms and publicized many turn-of-the-century feminists. He saw "female purity" as the engine of progress - the moral purification women inspired was the backbone of a radical regeneration of the country that would lead to individual, social, economic, political and family transformations. This article purposes to explore this social imagination of purity, its scope and its evolution. It exami...

Marin-lamellet, Jean-louis

2014-01-01

275

The modal potential of a newspaper text: The case of Moskovskiye vedomosty of the post-reform period of the second half of the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article considers the category of language modality as a means to implement the author’s intentions in a newspaper text. The modal meanings indicative of the author’s attitude to the message and the means of its expression are identified. The interaction between objective and subjective modal meanings is described for newspaper texts of the second half of the 19th century.

Kuksa I.

2013-01-01

276

Notas para una historia de la desnutrición en la Iberoamérica del siglo XX / Notes for a history of the malnutrition in the Latin America of the 20th century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El trabajo analiza los principales determinantes y las características de la desnutrición en América Latina durante la segunda mitad del siglo XX. En primer lugar, se explican las bases del problema moderno del hambre y la desnutrición, tanto en su dimensión fisiológica como social, al destacarse su [...] condición de calamidad social y de expresión biológica del subdesarrollo y de las desigualdades sociales. En segundo lugar, a partir de testimonios contemporáneos, se exponen las principales características de la desnutrición que ha afectado a la población iberoamericana, y las causas que la explican. Por último, a modo de conclusión, se subrayan las consecuencias negativas de no haber aprovechado la oportunidad que conllevaba el reto de superar los factores condicionantes de la malnutrición por defecto, y haber finalizado el siglo XX con un panorama epidemiológico nutricional donde los problemas del hambre y la desnutrición conviven con fenómenos como los de la obesidad de la pobreza. Abstract in english The work analyzes the principal determinants and the characteristics of the malnutrition in Latin America during the second half of the 20th century. First, are explained the bases of the modern problem of the hunger and the malnutrition (undernourishment), so much in his physiological as social dim [...] ension, on having been outlined his condition of social calamity and of biological expression of the underdevelopment and of the social inequalities. Secondly, from contemporary testimonies, there are exposed the principal characteristics of the malnutrition that has affected the Latin-American population, and the causes that explain it. Finally, like conclusion, are underlined the negative consequences of not having taken advantage of the opportunity that was carrying the challenge of overcoming the determining factors of the malnutrition (undernourishment), and to have finished the 20th century with an epidemiological nutritional panorama where the problems of the hunger and the malnutrition coexist with phenomena as those of the obesity of the poverty.

J., Bernabeu-Mestre.

2010-10-01

277

Notas para una historia de la desnutrición en la Iberoamérica del siglo XX Notes for a history of the malnutrition in the Latin America of the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El trabajo analiza los principales determinantes y las características de la desnutrición en América Latina durante la segunda mitad del siglo XX. En primer lugar, se explican las bases del problema moderno del hambre y la desnutrición, tanto en su dimensión fisiológica como social, al destacarse su condición de calamidad social y de expresión biológica del subdesarrollo y de las desigualdades sociales. En segundo lugar, a partir de testimonios contemporáneos, se exponen las principales características de la desnutrición que ha afectado a la población iberoamericana, y las causas que la explican. Por último, a modo de conclusión, se subrayan las consecuencias negativas de no haber aprovechado la oportunidad que conllevaba el reto de superar los factores condicionantes de la malnutrición por defecto, y haber finalizado el siglo XX con un panorama epidemiológico nutricional donde los problemas del hambre y la desnutrición conviven con fenómenos como los de la obesidad de la pobreza.The work analyzes the principal determinants and the characteristics of the malnutrition in Latin America during the second half of the 20th century. First, are explained the bases of the modern problem of the hunger and the malnutrition (undernourishment, so much in his physiological as social dimension, on having been outlined his condition of social calamity and of biological expression of the underdevelopment and of the social inequalities. Secondly, from contemporary testimonies, there are exposed the principal characteristics of the malnutrition that has affected the Latin-American population, and the causes that explain it. Finally, like conclusion, are underlined the negative consequences of not having taken advantage of the opportunity that was carrying the challenge of overcoming the determining factors of the malnutrition (undernourishment, and to have finished the 20th century with an epidemiological nutritional panorama where the problems of the hunger and the malnutrition coexist with phenomena as those of the obesity of the poverty.

J. Bernabeu-Mestre

2010-10-01

278

Trends of extramarital births in Serbia in the second half of the 20th and at the beginning of the 21st century in the wider European context  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper analyses the phenomenon of extramarital births in Serbia in the period of 1950-2008. Great changes that European countries have been undergoing in the last half-century related to fertility and family forms were also followed by an intense increase in the share of extramarital births. This is also true for Serbia (excluding Kosovo), where the share of extramarital births in total live births for the period of 1950-2008 increased almost 3 times (from 8.0% to 22.8%), and their number ...

Stankovi? Biljana; Penev Goran

2010-01-01

279

Generalized War and the National Security Doctrine. German Military Thought in Latin America during the last third of the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper analyzes the concept of generalized war, which played a key role in the development of the National Security Doctrine –implemented in Latin America during the last third of the twentieth century–. The interpretation of generalized war by theorists of National Security Doctrine mixed different previous ideas: absolute war –from Von Clausewitz-, total war –from Ludendorff- and atomic war -from Cold War times-. The confusing nature of such concepts could have distorted the development of the very concept of generalised war. And it is likely that the influence of two relevant German authors -Von Clausewitz and Ludendorff- in building the concept this study focuses on was more important than what can be thought at first sight. The theoretical misconceptions, along with the excessive enthusiasm that war generated among classical theorists and the forced interpretation of political and social realities, gave way to a justification of the excesses of the National Security regimes.

Pedro Rivas-Nieto

2012-12-01

280

One of the great conundrums of the 20th century science - ionizing radiation: Radiation processing and applications in the Czech Lands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article deals with the following topics: Milestones in the early history of radiation and radiation sources (1895-1954); Radiation effects - early observations and further development; Scope of radiation processing; Radiation processing in the Czech Lands (i.e. Bohemia + Moravia = the Czech part of Czechoslovakia or Austria-Hungary till 1918) (radiation sterilization of medical items; radiation processing of cable insulations; radiation preservation of objects of art and historical monuments; radiation modification of semiconductors; radiation synthesis of organic compounds; food irradiation; application of ionizing radiation in agriculture and gardening; radiation regeneration of water wells; radiation degradation of chlorinated biphenyls; radiation coloration of glass for decorative purposes; some other applications; and problems associated with practical radiation processing). An overview of 60Co gamma irradiators and electron accelerators installed at Czech institutions is presented in the tabular form. (P.A.)

 
 
 
 
281

L’Homme, un itinéraire vietnamien. Humanisme et sujet humain au xxe siècle Man, a Vietnamese Itinerary. Humanism and the Human Subject in the 20th Century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cette étude interroge la confrontation qui s’est instaurée au Vietnam depuis le milieu du xixe siècle – et sans doute bien avant – entre la conception de l’homme-individu importée par les Occidentaux en Asie orientale et les philosophies du sujet qui s’y étaient développées depuis l’antiquité chinoise. Cette confrontation a-t-elle abouti dans la culture vietnamienne à une réévaluation socialement acceptée du statut du sujet et sur une nouvelle figure de l’humanisme ? Quel bilan provisoire dresser ?This paper examines the mid 19th century encounter in Vietnamese culture of the concept of the individual imported by Westerners to Far East Asia with the philosophical tradition of the human subject that has developed in China since the classic period. Did this conflictual encounter result in a new, socially acceptable evaluation of the human statute and in a renewed Vietnamese humanism? This article concludes with a provisional assessment of a cultural confrontation.

Daniel Hémery

2009-10-01

282

A noção de modelo na virada do século XIX para o século XX / The notion of model at the turn of the 20th century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo descreve o modo pelo qual a noção de modelo começou a ingressar na ciência, em particular na física, no final do século XIX. Este é talvez o primeiro domínio científico a fazer uso explícito e consciente dessa noção, para o qual o uso de modelos significou o abandono de toda e qualquer t [...] entativa de representar fielmente os fenômenos naturais. Em questão, estava a representação dos fenômenos elétricos e magnéticos por meio de analogias. Abstract in english This article describes the way in which the idea of model began to be discussed in science, in particular in physics, towards the end of the 19th century. Physics is perhaps the first scientific domain that explicitly and consciously made use of models in a way that was understood to involve abandon [...] ing any attempt faithfully to represent natural phenomena. The representation of electromagnetic phenomena by means of analogies was in question.

Tatiana, Roque; Antonio Augusto Passos, Videira.

2013-06-01

283

Negócio à moda antiga: tropas de comércio em Diamantina nos meados do século XX Older forms of business: troops of trade in Diamantina in the middle of the 20th Century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este artigo analisa uma variedade de aspectos relacionados à atuação das tropas de comércio nas Minas Gerais ao longo dos séculos XIX e XX. Agente central da economia mineira por largo tempo, ressalta-se o conjunto de narrativas dos viajantes estrangeiros sobre o fenômeno do tropeirismo oitocentista, o que ajuda a compreender certos sentidos sociais e culturais implicados no objeto em tela. A partir das memórias de antigos almocreves do Alto Jequitinhonha, procura-se demonstrar, também a notável longevidade alcançada pelas tropas de comércio na região de Diamantina, fenômeno que persistiu até os anos 1950.The authors analyze a variety of issues relative to the activities of trading caravans in the State of Minas Gerais over the 19th and 20th centuries. These caravans were a main attribute of this State's economy for a long time. A collection of foreign travelers' stories about the phenomenon of the nineteenth century drover is also highlighted, which helps in understanding certain social and cultural meanings concerning it. Through the memoirs of the old muleskinners from Alto Jequitinhonha, the authors also seek to demonstrate their remarkable longevity in Diamantina, a phenomenon that persisted until the 1950s.

Marcos Antônio Lopes

2011-06-01

284

Evolución histórica de las farmacias en Santiago de Cuba en la primera mitad del siglo XX / Historical development of drugstores in Santiago de Cuba during the first half of the 20th century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se expone la evolución de las farmacias en Santiago de Cuba durante la primera mitad del siglo XX, con sus características, auge y desarrollo; la organización del Colegio de Farmacéuticos de la ciudad; así como la participación en la vida social y política de los farmacéuticos en el territorio. Se m [...] encionan las farmacias que prestaban servicio de guardia en caso de urgencias y se ofrece información sobre algunas dirigidas por graduadas de la especialidad en ese período, durante el cual la actividad farmacéutica en Santiago evolucionó, desde las farmacias iniciales al estilo colonial, hasta alcanzar un desarrollo superior vinculado con servicios de dispensario, patentes de medicamentos, atención a domicilio y horario de guardias nocturnas. Abstract in english This paper presented the evolution of the pharmacies in Santiago de Cuba during the first half of the 20th century, with its characteristics, peak period and development; the organization of the school of pharmacists of the city, as well as the participation of the pharmacists in the social and poli [...] tical life in the territory. The pharmacies that rendered service for emergencies were stated. Some pharmacies managed by female pharmacists during the first half of the century were also described. The pharmaceutical activity in Santiago de Cuba evolved from the initial colonial styled pharmacies to higher stage of development related to dispensary services, drug patents, home care and night service.

Clara Aurora, Zúñiga Moro.

2014-03-01

285

Objetos de ensino: a renovação pedagógica e material da escola primária no Brasil, no século XX / Objects of learning: the pedagogic and material renovation of elementary school in Brazil, in the 20th century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste texto é analisar o papel dos objetos de ensino nas proposições de renovação da escola primária durante o século XX assinalando as mudanças na composição material das escolas tendo em vista os objetos que foram introduzidos e ressaltados como relevantes para a modernização da educaçã [...] o e aqueles que permaneceram ou foram redefinidos em termos de finalidades e usos. Pretende-se, dessa forma, examinar três momentos significativos de implantação de inovações na escola elementar: a modernização pelo método intuitivo na virada do século XIX para o século XX, as proposições da Escola Nova nas décadas de 1930 a 1950 e a renovação representada pela Tecnologia Educacional nas décadas de 1960 e 1970. Abstract in english This article aims at analyzing the role of the objects of learning in the propositions for innovation of primary schools during the 20th century, highlighting the changes in the composition of school subjects having in mind the objects that were introduced and marked out as relevant for school moder [...] nization and those that remained or were redefined in terms of their finality and uses. The examination of three significant moments of the implementation of innovations in the elementary school is intended: the modernization by the intuitive method at the turn of the century; the propositions of "Escola Nova" between the 1930s and the 1950s; and the renovation represented by educational technology in the 1960s and 1970s.

Rosa Fátima de, Souza.

2013-09-01

286

Mortalidad materna en las primeras décadas del siglo xx / Maternal Mortality during the early decades of 20th century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: describir la mortalidad materna ocurrida entre 1910 y 1949. Métodos: investigación descriptiva y documental. Resultados: en las cuatro primeras décadas estudiadas de 1910 a 1949, la mortalidad materna en Cuba mostró un descenso de 51,0 %, desde tasas de 493,4 por 100 000 nacidos vivos en l [...] a década 1910-1919 a tasas de 242,2 en la década de 1940-1949, en una época en la que no existían los antibióticos ni los bancos de sangre, ni tampoco se había generalizado la atención prenatal. Estas cifras no deben considerarse demasiado elevadas en aquellos años en un país subdesarrollado. El notable descenso de una década a otra, es testimonio de la lucha contra sus principales causas, llevada a cabo por profesores y discípulos, por el desarrollo obtenido por las mujeres, las facilidades del transporte, la disponibilidad de médicos, enfermeras y comadronas y el alcance obtenido por los medios masivos de comunicación como la radio y la prensa escrita. Se muestran los descensos obtenidos en las principales causas de muerte como la infección puerperal, las muertes por hemorragia y las debidas a eclampsia convulsiva y preclampsia. Conclusiones: el comportamiento de las cifras analizadas no es una simple coincidencia con la aplicación en Cuba de los nuevos cambios en la medicina en general, y en la atención materna en particular, sino también la influencia que tuvo en la salud el desarrollo económico y social de la nación. Abstract in english Objective: to describe cases of maternal deaths between 1910 and 1949. Methods: descriptive and documentary research. Results: in the first four decades surveyed from 1910 to 1949, maternal mortality in Cuba showed a decrease of 51.0 % from rates of 493.4 per 100 000 live births from 1910 to 1919 at [...] a rate of 242.2 during 1940-1949, at a time when there were no antibiotics or blood banks, nor was widespread prenatal care. These figures should not be considered as too high in those years in an underdeveloped country. The sharp decline during these decades is an evidence of the fight against the main causes, conducted by teachers and pupils, by the work achieved by women, the availability of doctors, nurses, midwives and means of transportation, and the extended scope of mass media such as radio and print media. The declines in the leading causes of death as puerperal infection, bleeding and deaths due to preeclampsia and convulsive eclampsia are shown in the study. Conclusions: the behavior of the data examined is not a mere coincidence with the implementation of the new changes in medical general practice in general in Cuba, and particularly maternal care, but also influence it had on the health and social-economic development of the whole nation.

Ubaldo, Farnot; Norma Eneida, Rios.

2013-03-01

287

Mortalidad materna en las primeras décadas del siglo xx / Maternal Mortality during the early decades of 20th century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: describir la mortalidad materna ocurrida entre 1910 y 1949. Métodos: investigación descriptiva y documental. Resultados: en las cuatro primeras décadas estudiadas de 1910 a 1949, la mortalidad materna en Cuba mostró un descenso de 51,0 %, desde tasas de 493,4 por 100 000 nacidos vivos en l [...] a década 1910-1919 a tasas de 242,2 en la década de 1940-1949, en una época en la que no existían los antibióticos ni los bancos de sangre, ni tampoco se había generalizado la atención prenatal. Estas cifras no deben considerarse demasiado elevadas en aquellos años en un país subdesarrollado. El notable descenso de una década a otra, es testimonio de la lucha contra sus principales causas, llevada a cabo por profesores y discípulos, por el desarrollo obtenido por las mujeres, las facilidades del transporte, la disponibilidad de médicos, enfermeras y comadronas y el alcance obtenido por los medios masivos de comunicación como la radio y la prensa escrita. Se muestran los descensos obtenidos en las principales causas de muerte como la infección puerperal, las muertes por hemorragia y las debidas a eclampsia convulsiva y preclampsia. Conclusiones: el comportamiento de las cifras analizadas no es una simple coincidencia con la aplicación en Cuba de los nuevos cambios en la medicina en general, y en la atención materna en particular, sino también la influencia que tuvo en la salud el desarrollo económico y social de la nación. Abstract in english Objective: to describe cases of maternal deaths between 1910 and 1949. Methods: descriptive and documentary research. Results: in the first four decades surveyed from 1910 to 1949, maternal mortality in Cuba showed a decrease of 51.0 % from rates of 493.4 per 100 000 live births from 1910 to 1919 at [...] a rate of 242.2 during 1940-1949, at a time when there were no antibiotics or blood banks, nor was widespread prenatal care. These figures should not be considered as too high in those years in an underdeveloped country. The sharp decline during these decades is an evidence of the fight against the main causes, conducted by teachers and pupils, by the work achieved by women, the availability of doctors, nurses, midwives and means of transportation, and the extended scope of mass media such as radio and print media. The declines in the leading causes of death as puerperal infection, bleeding and deaths due to preeclampsia and convulsive eclampsia are shown in the study. Conclusions: the behavior of the data examined is not a mere coincidence with the implementation of the new changes in medical general practice in general in Cuba, and particularly maternal care, but also influence it had on the health and social-economic development of the whole nation.

Ubaldo, Farnot; Norma Eneida, Rios.

2013-03-01

288

Mortalidad materna en las primeras décadas del siglo xx Maternal Mortality during the early decades of 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivo: describir la mortalidad materna ocurrida entre 1910 y 1949. Métodos: investigación descriptiva y documental. Resultados: en las cuatro primeras décadas estudiadas de 1910 a 1949, la mortalidad materna en Cuba mostró un descenso de 51,0 %, desde tasas de 493,4 por 100 000 nacidos vivos en la década 1910-1919 a tasas de 242,2 en la década de 1940-1949, en una época en la que no existían los antibióticos ni los bancos de sangre, ni tampoco se había generalizado la atención prenatal. Estas cifras no deben considerarse demasiado elevadas en aquellos años en un país subdesarrollado. El notable descenso de una década a otra, es testimonio de la lucha contra sus principales causas, llevada a cabo por profesores y discípulos, por el desarrollo obtenido por las mujeres, las facilidades del transporte, la disponibilidad de médicos, enfermeras y comadronas y el alcance obtenido por los medios masivos de comunicación como la radio y la prensa escrita. Se muestran los descensos obtenidos en las principales causas de muerte como la infección puerperal, las muertes por hemorragia y las debidas a eclampsia convulsiva y preclampsia. Conclusiones: el comportamiento de las cifras analizadas no es una simple coincidencia con la aplicación en Cuba de los nuevos cambios en la medicina en general, y en la atención materna en particular, sino también la influencia que tuvo en la salud el desarrollo económico y social de la nación.Objective: to describe cases of maternal deaths between 1910 and 1949. Methods: descriptive and documentary research. Results: in the first four decades surveyed from 1910 to 1949, maternal mortality in Cuba showed a decrease of 51.0 % from rates of 493.4 per 100 000 live births from 1910 to 1919 at a rate of 242.2 during 1940-1949, at a time when there were no antibiotics or blood banks, nor was widespread prenatal care. These figures should not be considered as too high in those years in an underdeveloped country. The sharp decline during these decades is an evidence of the fight against the main causes, conducted by teachers and pupils, by the work achieved by women, the availability of doctors, nurses, midwives and means of transportation, and the extended scope of mass media such as radio and print media. The declines in the leading causes of death as puerperal infection, bleeding and deaths due to preeclampsia and convulsive eclampsia are shown in the study. Conclusions: the behavior of the data examined is not a mere coincidence with the implementation of the new changes in medical general practice in general in Cuba, and particularly maternal care, but also influence it had on the health and social-economic development of the whole nation.

Ubaldo Farnot

2013-03-01

289

Mortalidad materna en las primeras décadas del siglo xx Maternal Mortality during the early decades of 20th century  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objetivo: describir la mortalidad materna ocurrida entre 1910 y 1949. Métodos: investigación descriptiva y documental. Resultados: en las cuatro primeras décadas estudiadas de 1910 a 1949, la mortalidad materna en Cuba mostró un descenso de 51,0 %, desde tasas de 493,4 por 100 000 nacidos vivos en la década 1910-1919 a tasas de 242,2 en la década de 1940-1949, en una época en la que no existían los antibióticos ni los bancos de sangre, ni tampoco se había generalizado la atención p...

Ubaldo Farnot; Norma Eneida Rios

2013-01-01

290

Esimesed läti naismaalikunstnikud 20. sajandi alguses = The first Latvian female painters in the early 20th century / Baiba Vanaga  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Läti kunstiharidusest ja kunstikoolidest 20. sajandi alguses. Naiste kunstihariduse kvaliteedist, nende mõjutajatest, kunstilisest stiilist, arenguteedest ning naiste tegelikust kohast oma aja kunstiväljal.

Vanaga, Baiba

2014-01-01

291

EVOLUCION DE LA NUTRICION Y ALIMENTACION EN CHILE EN EL SIGLO XX NUTRITION AND FEEDING TRENDS IN CHILE IN THE 20TH CENTURY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este artículo da una visión del desarrollo de la nutrición y la alimentación en Chile en el siglo XX. Se presenta la nutrición y la alimentación relacionada con la solución de problemas multidisciplinarios, integrada con salud, considerada un derecho humano, que en Chile ha motivado un compromiso del gobierno, de la comunidad y de los grupos profesionales y académicos. Se destaca a los profesionales que tuvieron la visión de incorporar la nutrición a campos pediátricos, clínicos de la salud pública y bioquímica como "precursores de la nutrición", cuyas actividades se iniciaron alrededor de 1940. Se enumeran 8 Centros que se desarrollaron antes de 1970 y se unieron para acciones comunes. Posterior a la Reforma universitaria las 4 instituciones creadas por sus discípulos. Se destaca la labor de los creadores de estos Centros y la visionaria orientación del Laboratorio de Investigaciones Pediátricas del INTA y de CONIN-CREDES junto a innumerables profesionales. Países desarrollados han destacado la experiencia chilena como un ejemplo para el mundo en desarrollo y como "el modelo chileno". La virtual erradicación de la desnutrición infantil ha permitido reorientar los esfuerzos y recursos a las enfermedades crónicas. Se señala el rol de las instituciones académicas en el desarrollo de políticas y programas nutricionales, investigación, desarrollo de programas y entrenamiento de profesionales de la salud, educación y agricultura. La formación de nutricionistas por las escuelas respectivas y la creación de postítulos y postgradosIn this article the authors give their vision of the development of food and nutrition activities during the XXth century. Food and nutrition are seen related with solution of multidisciplinary problems and integrated with health, considered as a human right, which has motivated a deep compromise of the government, community and academic profesionals. Special mention is given to those who incorporate the starting nutrition approach, about 1940, to pediatrics, clinical fields, public health, biochemistry. and so on. They are recognized as "precursors of nutrition" in Chile. Eight special centers developed prior to 1970, worked in an academic relationship, and later after the University reform (1967- 1970, four main Food and Nutrition institutions prevail until now. The work of these centers and the inspiring orientation of the Laboratory of Pediatric Investigation, of INTA, CONIN-CREDES, CONPAN and others has been recognized and presented as an experience, which might be a useful model for developing countries. The virtual erradication of undernutrition in Chile has allowed to re-orient efforts and resources to chronic diseases of the epidemiologic transition. The academic institutions have play a mayor rol in policies, programs, research, training of health, education and agriculture professionals, with post-graduate courses and programs, mainly to nutritionists and other health profesionals

Sergio Valiente B.

2002-04-01

292

Trends of extramarital births in Serbia in the second half of the 20th and at the beginning of the 21st century in the wider European context  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper analyses the phenomenon of extramarital births in Serbia in the period of 1950-2008. Great changes that European countries have been undergoing in the last half-century related to fertility and family forms were also followed by an intense increase in the share of extramarital births. This is also true for Serbia (excluding Kosovo, where the share of extramarital births in total live births for the period of 1950-2008 increased almost 3 times (from 8.0% to 22.8%, and their number increased by a fifth (from 13,1 to 15,7 thousand. At the beginning of the observed period, significant differences existed in the percentage shares of extramarital births in the main regions, with the share in Vojvodina several times that of Central Serbia. Subsequent divergent dynamics led to the disappearance of regional differences and, after 1970, the level of extramarital fertility was mostly balanced. From a European aspect, the increase in the share of extramarital births in Serbia was moderate, with Serbia being one of the few countries that also recorded a decrease in the share of extramarital births in the last four decades (between 1970 and 1980. In comparison with other European countries, position of Serbia changed during the observed period from the top towards the bottom of the list, so that it was in its lower half in 2008. During the 1990s, as well as at the beginning of the 2000s, the greatest increase in the share of extramarital births in Europe was recorded in countries in transition. In the paper, the changes in the marital status of the population were treated as one of the determinants of the increase of extramarital births in Serbia. The paper also points out the similarities and differences between births in cohabitation and marriage, and legal aspects related to extramarital unions and extramarital births were also analyzed. The conclusions about the degree of presence of births in stable partner unions were made indirectly, based on the results of survey research and the latest available data on recognition children by their fathers. Since approximately three fifths of extramarital children at the beginning of the 2000s were not recognized, it was assumed that they were born in unstable unions and that they were brought up by their mothers alone. At the same time, the small level of cohabitations, discovered through survey research on the representative sample, shows that the increase in extramarital births was not proportionally followed by an increase in cohabitation. Therefore, based on indirect indicators, the authors conclude that the phenomenon of extramarital birth in Serbia was not the result of an advanced transition in partner relationships and abandoning of marriage as the partner union in which children are born. At the same time, the importance of understanding the social context of births was pointed out on the example of the Czech Republic, as a country in transition.

Stankovi? Biljana

2010-01-01

293

EVOLUCION DE LA NUTRICION Y ALIMENTACION EN CHILE EN EL SIGLO XX / NUTRITION AND FEEDING TRENDS IN CHILE IN THE 20TH CENTURY  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este artículo da una visión del desarrollo de la nutrición y la alimentación en Chile en el siglo XX. Se presenta la nutrición y la alimentación relacionada con la solución de problemas multidisciplinarios, integrada con salud, considerada un derecho humano, que en Chile ha motivado un compromiso de [...] l gobierno, de la comunidad y de los grupos profesionales y académicos. Se destaca a los profesionales que tuvieron la visión de incorporar la nutrición a campos pediátricos, clínicos de la salud pública y bioquímica como "precursores de la nutrición", cuyas actividades se iniciaron alrededor de 1940. Se enumeran 8 Centros que se desarrollaron antes de 1970 y se unieron para acciones comunes. Posterior a la Reforma universitaria las 4 instituciones creadas por sus discípulos. Se destaca la labor de los creadores de estos Centros y la visionaria orientación del Laboratorio de Investigaciones Pediátricas del INTA y de CONIN-CREDES junto a innumerables profesionales. Países desarrollados han destacado la experiencia chilena como un ejemplo para el mundo en desarrollo y como "el modelo chileno". La virtual erradicación de la desnutrición infantil ha permitido reorientar los esfuerzos y recursos a las enfermedades crónicas. Se señala el rol de las instituciones académicas en el desarrollo de políticas y programas nutricionales, investigación, desarrollo de programas y entrenamiento de profesionales de la salud, educación y agricultura. La formación de nutricionistas por las escuelas respectivas y la creación de postítulos y postgrados Abstract in english In this article the authors give their vision of the development of food and nutrition activities during the XXth century. Food and nutrition are seen related with solution of multidisciplinary problems and integrated with health, considered as a human right, which has motivated a deep compromise of [...] the government, community and academic profesionals. Special mention is given to those who incorporate the starting nutrition approach, about 1940, to pediatrics, clinical fields, public health, biochemistry. and so on. They are recognized as "precursors of nutrition" in Chile. Eight special centers developed prior to 1970, worked in an academic relationship, and later after the University reform (1967- 1970), four main Food and Nutrition institutions prevail until now. The work of these centers and the inspiring orientation of the Laboratory of Pediatric Investigation, of INTA, CONIN-CREDES, CONPAN and others has been recognized and presented as an experience, which might be a useful model for developing countries. The virtual erradication of undernutrition in Chile has allowed to re-orient efforts and resources to chronic diseases of the epidemiologic transition. The academic institutions have play a mayor rol in policies, programs, research, training of health, education and agriculture professionals, with post-graduate courses and programs, mainly to nutritionists and other health profesionals

Sergio, Valiente B.; Ricardo, Uauy D..

2002-04-01

294

French school of neurology in the 19 th and first half of the 20th century, and its influence in Brazil / Escola francesa de neurologia no seculo 19 e primeira metade do seculo 20, e sua influencia no Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese  A medicina francesa é de extrema importância para o nascimento da medicina moderna e a neurologia do século 19. Foram colocadas em prática diversas inovações, como exame à beira do leito, uso de estetoscópio, técnicas de palpação, ausculta e exame do paciente, além da observação dos desfechos da do [...] ença e ênfase à correlação anátomo-clinica. A medicina francesa ofereceu capacitação profissional e incentivo para a fase inicial da neurologia e psiquiatria brasileiras. Voltando da França, muitos médicos brasileiros implementaram o que tinham aprendido, principalmente em Paris. Os mais importantes discípulos das escolas francesas de neurologia no Brasil no século 19 e metade do 20 incluem nomes como Antonio Austregesilo, Aloysio de Castro, Enjolras Vampré e Deolindo Couto, fundadores das principais escolas brasileiras neurológicas, influenciados diretamente por Dejerine, Pierre Marie, Guillain and Babinski. Abstract in english French medicine was of the utmost importance for the birth of modern medicine and neurology in the 19 th century. Innovative approaches, such as examination at the bedside, the use of the stethoscope, techniques of auscultation, palpation, and close patient examination, besides emphasis on anatomica [...] l-clinical correlation and observation of the outcome of the disease, were put into practice. French medicine offered professional training and incentives for the beginnings of Brazilian neurology and psychiatry. Returning from France, many Brazilian physicians implemented what they had learned, mainly in Paris. The most important pupils of the French neurology schools in Brazil during the 19 th century and first half of the 20 th century include names like Antonio Austregesilo, Aloysio de Castro, Enjolras Vampré, and Deolindo Couto, founders of the leading Brazilian neurological schools, directly influenced by Dejerine, Pierre Marie, Guillain and Babinski.

Marleide da Mota, Gomes; Jose Luiz de Sa, Cavalcanti; Eliasz, Engelhardt.

2013-10-01

295

Erst akzeptiert, dann abgedrängt. Frauen in den Wissenschaften in der ersten Hälfte des 20. Jahrhunderts First Accepted, Then Rejected: Women in the Sciences in the First Half of the 20th Century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available „Von den Ausnahmen zu den Außenseiterinnen“ lautet die Bilanz von Annette Vogt für die ersten fünfzig Jahre, in denen die deutschen Universitäten auch für Frauen ihre Tore geöffnet hatten. Frauen in den Wissenschaften waren in der Weimarer Republik fast schon selbstverständlich, als der Nationalsozialismus zu gravierenden Rückschlägen führte. Damit einher ging die Verschiebung des universitären Betätigungsfeldes der Frauen von den Natur- zu den Geisteswissenschaften. Noch lange nach 1945 waren die Folgen dieser Entwicklung zu spüren. Zu diesen Ergebnissen kommt Vogt durch die vergleichende Analyse der Werdegänge von mehreren hundert Wissenschaftlerinnen an der Berliner Universität und der außeruniversitären Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft in der ersten Hälfte des 20. Jahrhunderts.“From the exception to the marginalized": Thus reads Annette Vogt’s summary for the first fifty years in which German universities opened their doors to women. During the Weimar Republic the existence of women in the sciences went almost without saying, until National Socialism led to grave setbacks. Along with this came the displacement of women working in the university from the area of the natural sciences to that of the humanities. The consequences of this development were felt long after 1945. Vogt comes to these conclusions through a comparative analysis of the career development of hundreds of female scientists at Berlin universities and at the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Society in the first half of the 20th century”.

Claudia von Gélieu

2008-03-01

296

The correlates of infant and childhood mortality: A theoretical overview and new evidence from the analysis of longitudinal data of the Bejsce (Poland parish register reconstitution study of the 18th-20th centuries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper has two main goals. The first is to review the context for studying infant mortality, which includes a review of the theoretical framework, the covariates used to examine mortality over the first 60 months of life, and the major findings of empirical studies. Second, the paper adds some new empirical evidence that comes from the longitudinal reconstitution of church registers of Bejsce parish, located in the south of Poland. This rich database allows for an analysis of mortality trends of cohorts born between the 18th and 20th centuries in the parish. The analysis includes a reconstruction of descriptive measures of infant and childhood mortality, and a hazard model of mortality over the first 60 months of life. The hazard model has been calculated for each cohort separately in order to demonstrate the change in the relative importance of analyzed factors during the process of mortality decline in the parish. Obtained mortality patterns are discussed with reference to the theoretical context presented in the first part of the paper.

Krzysztof Tymicki

2009-05-01

297

Uma história das práticas alimentares de trabalhadores paulistanos em dois momentos do século XX / A history of practices in nourishment among workers in São Paulo city in two moments of the 20th century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A partir de uma discussão sobre estudos que lidaram com os temas alimentares nas Ciências Humanas, este artigo aponta as possibilidades das Pesquisas de Padrão de Vida como fontes para uma história social da alimentação entre trabalhadores que viviam em São Paulo durante a primeira metade do século [...] XX. Apresento os métodos de aplicação, as intenções dessas pesquisas e o perfil das famílias. Em seguida, os produtos e as quantidades consumidas pelas famílias são analisados em temporalidades distintas, tentando verificar o impacto da industrialização, da renda e da propaganda. Abstract in english Based on studies about food issues in the Humanities, this article indicates the possibilities of the Living Standards Research as sources for a social history of nourishment between workers living in Sao Paulo during the first half of the 20th century. I present the methods of application, the inte [...] ntions of this research and the profile of families analyzed. After, I analyze the products and quantities consumed by families in different times, trying to understand the impact of industrialization, wage income and advertisement.

Jaime, Rodrigues.

2011-12-01

298

Uma história das práticas alimentares de trabalhadores paulistanos em dois momentos do século XX A history of practices in nourishment among workers in São Paulo city in two moments of the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A partir de uma discussão sobre estudos que lidaram com os temas alimentares nas Ciências Humanas, este artigo aponta as possibilidades das Pesquisas de Padrão de Vida como fontes para uma história social da alimentação entre trabalhadores que viviam em São Paulo durante a primeira metade do século XX. Apresento os métodos de aplicação, as intenções dessas pesquisas e o perfil das famílias. Em seguida, os produtos e as quantidades consumidas pelas famílias são analisados em temporalidades distintas, tentando verificar o impacto da industrialização, da renda e da propaganda.Based on studies about food issues in the Humanities, this article indicates the possibilities of the Living Standards Research as sources for a social history of nourishment between workers living in Sao Paulo during the first half of the 20th century. I present the methods of application, the intentions of this research and the profile of families analyzed. After, I analyze the products and quantities consumed by families in different times, trying to understand the impact of industrialization, wage income and advertisement.

Jaime Rodrigues

2011-12-01

299

La idea de juventud en Chile en el siglo XX. Aproximación genealógica al discurso de las revistas de juventud* / The Idea of Youth in Chile during the 20th Century. A Genealogical Approach to the Speech of Juvenile Magazines.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El texto expone resultados preliminares de una investigación sobre la construcción histórica de la idea de juventud en las revistas chilenas en el periodo 1900-1940. Para ello, el artículo presenta el contexto comunicacional de las revistas de juventud, las identidades juveniles reconocibles en las [...] primeras décadas del siglo XX y los regímenes de juvenilidad que se comienzan a perfilar. Concluimos de manera provisional algunas cuestiones vinculadas con el proceso de estabilidad semiótica de la idea de juventud y el papel que las imágenes, específicamente las publicitarias, cumplen en la construcción de lo juvenil. Abstract in english This article exhibits preliminary results of a research about the historical construction of the idea of youth given in Chilean magazines between 1900 and 1940. For this purpose, the article shows the communicational context of juvenile magazines, juvenile identities with high recognition during the [...] first decades of the 20th century and the juvenility regimes that were arising at that time. Temporary conclusions were given about some topics related to the semiotic stability process of the idea of youth and the role that images (specifically advertising images) play to construct what is juvenile.

Óscar, Aguilera Ruiz.

2014-06-01

300

Algumas hipóteses comparativas entre Brasil e Argentina no século XX / Des hypothèses comparatives entre le Brésil et l'Argentine au XXème siècle / Some comparative hypotheses on Brazil and Argentina during the 20th century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Comparar trajetórias políticas ao longo de um século supõe um esforço muito maior de esquecimento do que de memória. Tentarei aqui converter uma grande quantidade de matérias analíticas muito heterogêneas em algumas conjeturas "popperianas". Elas podem provir de qualquer parte e podem ser submetidas [...] à corroboração ou à refutação. Ou seja, trata-se de um processo inverso à tarefa estritamente acadêmica. Em certamedida, estou recomeçando "desde o zero" o meu trabalho. É verdade que a história democrática argentina, no século XX, é mais longa do que a brasileira. Todavia, essa diferença não invalida a comparação. Minha hipótese concisa é a seguinte: na política democrática brasileira, a dimensão institucional é dominante - as instituições, de fato, representam o lugar em que se dão as interações e em que os atores coletivos configuram-se. Em compensação, nessas instituições, a inclusão tanto social como política tem sido fraca. No entanto, no caso argentino, a dimensão inclusiva tem sido dominante, com o prejuízo indubitável da dimensão institucional. Na política democrática argentina, participaram "todos". Na política democrática brasileira até 1964, a estabilidade baseou-se na exclusão - por exemplo, das massas rurais. Estas hipóteses podem estar corretas ou erradas, mas, em qualquer caso, importa dizer que não as estabeleci ex nihilo, como vindas do nada, nem diacrônica, nem sincronicamente. Diacronicamente, porque a história do século XX sustenta-se, é obvio, na do XIX; sincronicamente, porque com certeza cada uma das hipóteses ou conjeturas que discuti aqui pode imbricar-se com os processos do próprio século XX, com os dramas, as lutas, as lideranças, os conflitos, as controvérsias, as gestões de governo, os períodos de depressão e de prosperidade e as esperanças, tudo, enfim, o que constitui a história desse século. Abstract in english Comparing political trajectories over the course of a century demands more forgetting than remembering. I will make an attempt here to convert a considerable amount of very heterogeneous analytical material into some "Popperian" conjectures. They may emerge from anywhere within and may be subjected [...] to corroboration or refutation. In other words, this process is precisely the reverse of the one that informs strictly academic tasks. To some extent, I begin my work "from scratch". It may be true that the history of democracy in Argentina is longer than that of Brazil. Nonetheless, this difference does not invalidate comparison. My concise hypothesis is the following: in Brazilian democratic politics, the institutional dimension prevails - institutions, in fact, represent the place in which interactions occur and collective actors take shape. In compensation, within these institutions, both social and political inclusion has been weak. However, in the Argentine case, the inclusive dimension has been dominant, in clear detriment to the one. In Argentine democratic politics, "everyone" was included. In Brazilian democratic politics until 1964, stability was based on exclusion - for example, the exclusion of the rural masses. These hypotheses may be correct or incorrect but in any case, it is important to emphasize that they have not been established ex nihilo, as if coming from nowhere and neither diachronic nor synchronic. Diachronic, insofar as the history of the 20th century is sustained, obviously, in the history of the preceding one; synchronic, because each of the hypotheses or conjectures discussed here are undeniably embedded in processes that are proper to the 20th century, its dramas, struggles, leaders, conflicts, controversies, political administrations, periods of depression and prosperity and hopes; in short, all that makes up the history of the century.

Vicente, Palermo.

2009-06-01

 
 
 
 
301

Armenians and 20th century genocide - Debates  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Somalia has been one of the UN member countries who lingers from the presence of terrorist groups in its territory, that exert tremendous influence in the daily life of its society and economy. Al Shabaab is well known in the horn of Africa, particularly in Somalia, for its terrorist training and strong affiliation with other terrorist groups in Nigeria and Al-Qaeda. The Harakat Shabaab Al Mujahidin, also known as Al-Shabaab. has completely controlled the central and southern part of Somalia including some of its important sea ports, which are vital for the country’s economy. Although Ethiopian and Somali military forces attempted to rout the group in a two week war between December 2006 and January 2007, Al Shabaab, with its 14,500 militants, still continues to maintain control over strategic locations, not only in Somalia, but also throughout the horn of Africa. The paper delves into the recent events and attacks either undertaken or influenced by Al-Shabaab, including a snap shot of its threat to humanitarian aid personnel as well as the Africa Union troops who are desperately trying to lower the intensity of conflict along the Somalia Kenya border area and Al-Shabaab’s actions to secure financial resources.

Maria Immacolata Macioti

2011-01-01

302

AGS 20th anniversary celebration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On May 22, 1980, a symposium was held at Brookhaven to celebrate the 20th birthday of the AGS, to recall its beginnings, and to review major discoveries that have been made with its beams. The talks at the symposium are recorded in this volume

303

AGS 20th anniversary celebration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On May 22, 1980, a symposium was held at Brookhaven to celebrate the 20th birthday of the AGS, to recall its beginnings, and to review major discoveries that have been made with its beams. The talks at the symposium are recorded in this volume.

Baggett, N.V. (ed.)

1980-05-22

304

A educação física e o funâmbulo: entre a arte circense e a ciência (século XIX e início do século XX) / Physical Education and the funambulist: between science and circus arts (19th century and the beginning of the 20th century) / La Educación Física y el funámbulo: entre el circo y la ciencia (siglo XIX y principios del siglo XX)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar a separação entre atividades circenses e a Educação Física, mais especificamente, a ginástica no século XIX e início do século XX. Para isto, foi realizada uma pesquisa histórica que buscou explicações e dados empíricos sobre esta relação. As fontes foram ca [...] racterizadas por textos de personagens históricas identificadas como teóricos da Educação Física no período. Os documentos foram analisados tendo como centro a mentalidade dos professores sobre os critérios para a organização de uma ginástica científica. Concluiu-se que a associação entre Educação Física e as ciências naturais identificou a ginástica como meio científico de educação do corpo. Nessa delimitação, as artes circenses eram criticadas e excluídas. Abstract in spanish Este estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar la separación de las actividades del circo y la Educación Física, más concretamente, la gimnasia, en el siglo XIX y principios del siglo XX. Para esto, se realizó una investigación que buscaba explicaciones históricas y datos sobre esta relación. Las fuente [...] s se caracterizan por textos de personajes históricos identificados como los teóricos de la Educación Física en el período. Se examinó los ficheros centrados en la mentalidad de los profesores sobre los criterios para la organización de un ejercicio científico. Se concluyó que la asociación entre la Educación Física y ciencias naturales identifica la gimnasia como la educación científica del cuerpo. En esta definición, las artes del circo fueron criticadas y excluidas. Abstract in english This study aimed to investigate the separation of circus activities and Physical Education, more specifically, the gymnastic, in the 19th century and early 20th century. For this, it was conducted a historical research which found explanations and data of this relationship. The sources were characte [...] rized by texts of historical persons identified as theorists of Physical Education in the period. The study examined the files centered in the thoughts of the teachers on the criteria for the organization of a scientific gymnastic. It concluded that the association between Physical Education and natural sciences identified the gymnastic as the scientific education of the body. In this definition, circus arts were criticized and excluded.

Mirian Kormann, Hauffe; Edivaldo, Góis Junior.

2014-04-01

305

A mortalidade por doenças infecciosas no início e no final do século XX no Município de São Paulo Deaths due to infectious diseases in the beginning and the end of the 20th century in the City of São Paulo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A melhora das condições de vida do homem durante o século XX contribuiu para transformações da estrutura demográfica e para mudanças dos padrões de morbi-mortalidade. Com o objetivo de discutir essas mudanças, pretende-se comparar os dados de mortalidade do Município de São Paulo em 1901, 1960 e 2000. As causas de morte foram obtidas das seguintes fontes: Anuários Estatísticos da FSEADE, para 1901; Anuário de 1961 do Departamento de Estatística do Estado e CD-ROM de Mortalidade do Ministério da Saúde, para o ano de 2000. Os demais dados - de população, de nascidos vivos, coeficientes de mortalidade geral e infantil - foram obtidos do CD-ROM "500 anos de Divisão territorial e 100 anos de Estatísticas Demográficas Municipais" da FSEADE. Do início até o final do século XX, a população do Município de São Paulo aumentou 36 vezes, o número de nascimentos quase 24 e o número de óbitos 13,6 vezes. No entanto, as taxas de mortalidade diminuíram, a mortalidade geral foi 2,6 vezes menor no ano 2000 e a mortalidade infantil 11,3 vezes menor. A proporção de óbitos por doenças infecciosas declina de 45,7% do total de óbitos em 1901 para 9,7% em 2000. Em 1901, entre as 10 principais causas de morte no Município, 5 eram doenças infecciosas, correspondendo a 37% das mortes; em 1960, apareciam nesta lista apenas 3 doenças infecciosas (16,1% dos óbitos, e em 2000 apenas a pneumonia constava entre as principais causas de morte. Doenças como tétano, difteria, coqueluche, sarampo e escarlatina mostraram-se controladas no final do período. No entanto, a pneumonia, a tuberculose, a septicemia e a aids ainda se situam entre as que merecem especial atenção na área de saúde pública.The changes in living conditions during the 20th century have contributed to change morbidity and mortality standards, and the population structure. This study aims to present and discuss these changes by comparing mortality data of the City of São Paulo from 1901, 1960 and 2000. Mortality data were collected from Annual Statistical Reports of Fundação SEADE (State Data Analysis System Foundation, for 1901; from Annual Statistical Reports of the State Department of Statistics, for 1961; and from a CD-ROM of the Ministry of Health, for 2000. The population data, number of newborns and infant mortality rates were collected from the CD-ROM "500 anos de Divisão Territorial e 100 Anos de Estatísticas Demográficas Municipais" (500 years of Territory Division and 100 Years of Municipal Demographic Statistics of FSEADE. During the 20th century, the population of the City of São Paulo increased 36-fold, the number of newborns 24-fold and deaths 13.6-fold. On the other hand, mortality rates decreased, general mortality was 2.6 times lower and infant mortality was 11.3 lower in 2000 when compared to 1901. The proportion of deaths due to infectious diseases decreased from 45.7% of total deaths in 1901 to 9.7% in 2000. Taking into consideration the 10 main causes of death for 1901, 5 were infectious diseases, corresponding to 37% of all deaths. In 1960 there were only 3 infectious diseases among the main causes of deaths, accounting for 16.1% of all deaths, and in 2000 only pneumonia was among the 10 main causes of death. Tetanus, diphtheria, whooping cough, measles, and scarlet fever were controlled in this period. Nevertheless, infectious diseases as pneumonia, septicemia, tuberculosis, and AIDS still deserve special attention from public health authorities.

Cássia Maria Buchalla

2003-12-01

306

Las diócesis del Valle del Cauca (Colombia) en el siglo XX: Hacia el fortalecimiento de la modernización / The Diocese of Valle del Cauca (Colombia) during 20th Century: Towards the Strengthening of Modernity  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El presente artículo hace un recorrido histórico (consultando fundamentalmente los archivos diocesanos, en su mayoría inéditos), por la instauración de las principales diócesis creadas en el Departamento del Valle del Cauca (Colombia) durante el siglo XX: Cali, Palmira, Buenaventura, Cartago y Buga. [...] Se muestra como la Iglesia constituye un proyecto fundamental de modernización religiosa, que se denota ante todo en la extensión de su presencia en el territorio vallecaucano. Proceso que inicia con la desfragmentación del gran territorio de la arquidiócesis de Popayán, con lo cual cada diócesis creada logra impulsar sus propios procesos de generación de parroquias, centros educativos y de beneficencia, logrando con esto, construir la iglesia vallecaucana y fortalecer la religión católica tanto en los sectores rurales como en los espacios urbanos del departamento del Valle del Cauca. Cada nueva diócesis se inscribe además, en su propia coyuntura local de desarrollo y modernización económica y social. Abstract in english The present article, based on a research carried out on diocesan archives -mainly unpublished- describes the historical path followed during the creation of the most important dioceses in the Valle del Cauca region (Colombia) during the 20th century: Cali, Palmira, Buenaventura, Cartago and Buga. It [...] shows how the Church constituted a fundamental project of religious modernization as a result of its growing presence in the Valle del Cauca territory. The process begun with the fragmentation of the wide area occupied by the Archdiocese of Popayan, when each new diocese developed its own process in the establishment of new parishes, schools and charity institutions. These constitute the foundations of the Catholic Church and the construction and empowerment of religion, both in rural sectors and urban spaces along the Department. Nevertheless, each new parish in the Valle del Cauca was created according to local circumstances of economic development and social modernization.

Antonio José, Echeverry Pérez; Carolina, Abadía Quintero.

2014-12-01

307

Movilidad social e identidad "negra" en la segunda mitad del siglo XX / Social Mobility and "Black" Identity in the Second Half of the 20th Century / Mobilidade social e identidade "negra" na segunda metade do século XX  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese A partir de uma análise dos discursos produzidos por alguns movimentos negros colombianos entre os anos quarenta e setenta do século XX, este artigo se propõe analisar a maneira em que eles assumiram a identidade étnico-racial negra, propondo-a como elemento de reivindicação. Em particular, será apr [...] ofundada a influência que teve a localização de seus membros na classe média e como eles assumiram uma identidade de classe e articularam-na à identidade étnico-racial. Abstract in spanish A partir de un análisis de los discursos producidos por algunos movimientos negros colombianos entre los años cuarenta y setenta del siglo XX, este artículo se propone analizar la manera en que ellos asumieron la identidad étnico-racial negra, proponiéndola como elemento de reivindicación. En partic [...] ular, se profundizará la influencia que tuvo la ubicación de sus miembros en la clase media y cómo ellos asumieron una identidad de clase y la articularon a la identidad étnico-racial. Abstract in english On the basis of the analysis of the discourses produced by some Colombian Black movements during the decades of the 40s and 70s of the 20th century, the article discusses the way in which they assumed their ethnic-racial identity as an element of vindication. Special attention is given to the fact t [...] hat the members of those movements belonged to the middle class, which led them to assume a class identity and articulate it with their ethnic-racial identity.

PIETRO, PISANO.

2014-06-01

308

Chinos y gamines: imágenes de los habitantes pobres de Bogotá en la primera mitad del siglo XX / The urchins and street boys: images of the poor inhabitants of Bogota in the first half of the 20th century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En el artículo se tejen algunos indicios que permiten poner en escena las formas como los niños pobres o los hijos de los habitantes pobres de la ciudad de Bogotá fueron diferenciados de la infancia "normal", en la primera mitad del siglo XX. Acudiendo a discursos de especialistas, voces de reformis [...] tas educativos y periodistas se evidencia que la diferenciación fue producida mediante la estigmatización de los lugares sociales de los niños pobres, a través de la imagen de los chinos y los gamines. Imágenes que resultan paradigmáticas para desentrañar la deslegitimación de las estructuras familiares, de las trayectorias escolares y de los modos de habitar la ciudad de los niños y niñas de los sectores populares, dada la articulación, infundada y temeraria que se estableció entre la vida de los pobres y la delincuencia infantil. Abstract in english In this paper we present hints that allow us to reveal the ways poor children, or the children of poor inhabitants, from the city of Bogota were excluded from the "normal" childhood in the first half of the 20th century. Based on specialists' statements as well as opinions from educational reformers [...] and journalists it is clear that this exclusion was created due to the stigmatization of the social places belonging to the poor children through the image of the urchins and street boys.. Such images were a model that could reveal the illegitimacy of the family structures, of the school history and of the way children from the popular areas lived, given the articulation, mistaken and dangerous, that was established between the life of poor people and children delinquency.

Yeimy Cárdenas, Palermo.

2012-04-01

309

Las prácticas higienistas en el entorno urbano caleño, durante la primera mitad del siglo XX / THE PRACTICAL HYGIENISTS IN THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT OF THE CITY OF CALI, DURING THE FIRST HALF OF THE 20TH CENTURY  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este estudio tiene como propósito mostrar desde una perspectiva histórico-ambiental, aspectos relacionados con las prácticas higienistas características de la ciudad de Cali durante la primera mitad del siglo XX. Se destacan algunos de los problemas centrales relacionados con esta urbe y con algunas [...] poblaciones aledañas, en un momento histórico en el que se presentaron graves dificultades concernientes al abastecimiento de agua, al sistema de desagüe urbano y a la organización de los servicios de higiene correspondientes a la limpieza pública, la recolección de residuos, y la situación de establecimientos insalubres. El estrecho vínculo existente entre el discurso higienista y la idea de progreso impulsó la ejecución de propuestas encaminadas al mejoramiento de la potabilidad del agua y la adopción de prácticas en las que este recurso se convirtió en elemento estratégico para la limpieza pública, doméstica y personal. La construcción del acueducto y el alcantarillado representó una vía de solución frente a los requerimientos propios del panorama citadino de comienzos de siglo, en el que resultaba prioritario responder al tema de la salubridad, al avance del crecimiento demográfico, industrial y urbano, y al logro de mejores condiciones de vida para la población. Abstract in english This study has as intention show from a historical environmental perspective, aspects related to the practical hygienists typical of the city of Cali during the first half of the 20th century. Are outlined some of the central problems related to this city and to some bordering populations, in a hist [...] orical moment in which they presented serious difficulties relating to the water supply, to the system of urban outlet and to the organization of the services of hygiene corresponding to the public cleanliness, the compilation of residues, and the situation of noxious industries. The narrow existing link between the speech hygienist and the idea of progress stimulated the execution of offers directed to the improvement of the potability of the water and the adoption of practices in which this resource turned into strategic element for the public, domestic and personal cleanliness. The construction of the aqueduct and the sewer represented a route of solution opposite to the own requirements of the panorama of the city of beginning of century, in which it was turning out to be priority to answer to the topic of the health, to the advance of the demographic, industrial and urban growth, and to the achievement of better living conditions for the population.

Aceneth, Perafán Cabrera.

2013-06-01

310

Lietuvi? muzikos tautiškumo problema. Pietry?i? Lietuvos liaudies melodijos XX a. I pus?s fonografo ?rašuose | The problem of the national style in Lithuanian music. South Eastern Lithuanian folk melodics in phonograph recordings from the 1st half of the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article, several issues are discussed and related, namely, the phonograph recordings that have recently started being released with Lithuanian folk music from the first half of the 20th century; the folk melodies of the South Eastern Lithuania and the impact from the melodies of the eastern neighbors observed; the formation of professional Lithuanian music, a considerable part of which comprised harmonized folksongs in the beginning of the 20th century. According to the author, the first sound documents were recorded at the turning point, when the centuries-long formation of the Lithuanian folk music dialects was over and the decline of the regional differences started. However, folk music dialects did not vanish without the trace, but were integrated into the professional music culture instead. The change of the Lithuanian music culture in the first half of the 20th century was not a spontaneous process, as the ethnologists and composers began influencing the continuation or break in the traditions. The article is based on the sound recordings, collections of the folk music, the ethno-musicological research, and the written heritage of Eduard Wolter, Aukusti Robert Niemi, Jonas Basanavi?ius, Mikalojus Konstantinas ?iurlionis, Jonas Balys and Zenonas Slavi?nas.

Aust? Nakien?

2006-01-01

311

FROM 19th CENTURY PROPAGANDA BY THE DEED TO 20th CENTURY (IM)MEDIATION: JOSEPH CONRAD’S THE SECRET AGENT AND DON DELILLO’S MAO II  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present paper is intended to comment on the relation between terrorist violence and the mass media in various temporal segments of human experience. The starting premise is represented by the hypothesis of a symbiosis between the two elements, which has long been one of the essential principles in the field of terrorology. The focus will first be laid on the forms the respective relation assumed at the end of the nineteenth century and on the manner in which literature recorded this relat...

Sti?nga?, Valentina

2010-01-01

312

Medios de transporte, accidentes de tránsito y legislación en Medellín (Colombia) durante las tres primeras décadas del siglo XX / Means of Transport, Traffic Accidents and Legislation in Medellín, Colombia, During the First Three Decades of the 20th Century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Automóviles, coches, camiones y trenes aparecieron en Medellín (Colombia) durante las primeras décadas del siglo XX, afectando las rutinas de los habitantes que tuvieron la necesidad de usarlos, transformando así las dinámicas de la ciudad. En este proceso, hombres y mujeres se vieron involucrados e [...] n circunstancias aciagas en las que estos aparatos fueron los medios a través de los cuales se cometían atropellamientos, que podían ser calificados como delitos, extendiendo así el marco de aplicación de las leyes y obligando, incluso, a generar estrategias legales para intentar llevar coherentemente estos litigios. El objeto central de este artículo es describir las formas como se presentaron los accidentes de tránsito en el contexto señalado y al mismo tiempo relacionar este tipo de hechos con la legislación existente en aquella época y la manera como era aplicada por las autoridades al momento de generar un veredicto sobre la culpabilidad por homicidio de un conductor. Para su elaboración se tuvieron en cuenta cinco sumarios por homicidio del Archivo Histórico Judicial de Medellín, información del Archivo Histórico de Medellín y de la Colección Patrimonio Documental de la Universidad de Antioquia, artículos de la prensa local, legislación y datos estadísticos de la época. Abstract in english Automobiles, cars, trucks and trains appeared in Medellín, Colombia, during the first decades of the 20th century, and affected the routines of the inhabitants who had the need to use them, thus transforming the dynamics of the city. In this process, men and women were involved in unfortunate circum [...] stances in which these machines were the means through which people were run over. Since this act was qualified as a committed crime, it was necessary to enforce the laws and even generate legal strategies for consistently attempt these disputes. The aim of this article is to describe the ways how traffic accidents occurred in the stated context, and at the same time, relate this kind of facts with the existing legislation in that time, and the way as it was applied by the authorities when generating a verdict on the guilt of murder of a driver. For its preparation five summaries were considered by murder of the Archivo Historico Judicial de Medellín, the information of the Archivo Histórico de Medellín, and the Collection Heritage Documentary of the Unviersidad de Antioquia, articles from the local press, legislation and statistical data of that time

Juan David, Alzate Alzate.

2012-12-01

313

A Comparative Study of Variation of the Pterion of Human Skulls from 13th and 20th Century Anatolia / Un Estudio Comparativo de la Variación del Pterion en Cráneos Humanos de los Siglos 13 y 20 de Anatolia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish El pterion es un punto comúnmente usado como punto de referencia antropológico y neuroquirúrgico, correspondiendo a la unión de los huesos esfenoides, temporal, parietal y frontal. Generalmente es clasificado en 4 tipos basado en padrones suturales: esfenoparietal, en el cual los huesos esfenoides y [...] parietal están directamente en contacto; frontotemporal, en el cual el frontal y el temporal se encuentran en contacto directo; estrellado, en el cual los cuatro huesos mencionados se contactan directamente en un punto y epiptérico, en el cual un pequeño hueso sutural se encuentra entre el hueso parietal y el ala mayor del esfenoides. En el presente estudio, investigamos la morfología y la localización del pterion en 44 cráneos Anatolian de diferentes épocas, Bizantina (Siglo XIII) y contemporánea (Siglo XX). La forma más común que se encontró fue la Esfenoparietal, con un 87,5 % para los del grupo Bizantino y 89,2 % para los de la era contemporánea. La frecuencia del tipo epiptérico fue de 6,25 % y 3,6 %, respectivamente. Se realizaron medidas de la posición del pterion utilizando un caliper y un software de imágenes. No hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas en las mediciones manuales y digitales entre los lados derecho e izquierdo de los cráneos de ambos grupos. Sin embargo, la distancia desde el pterion al inion fue significativamente mayor en las medidas manuales comparadas con las digitales. Las variaciones anatómicas del pterion, las cuales son de interés para antropólogos, patólogos forenses y cirujanos, son un tema de investigación a desarrollar en otras poblaciones de diferentes áreas geográficas. Abstract in english The pterion is a commonly used anthropologic and neurosurgical landmark defined as the junction of the sphenoid, temporal, parietal and frontal bones. It is commonly classified into four types based on sutural pattern: sphenoparietal, in which the sphenoid and parietal bones are in direct contact; f [...] rontotemporal, in which the frontal and temporal bones are in direct contact; stellate, in which all four bones come into contact at a point; and epipteric, in which a small sutural bone is found between the parietal bone and the greater wing of the sphenoid bone. In the present study, 44 Anatolian skulls from two different eras, Byzantine (13th century) and contemporary (20th century), were investigated for morphology and location of the pterion. Sphenoparietal was the most common form, comprising 87.5% and 89.2% in the Byzantine and contemporary groups, respectively. The frequencies of the epipteric type of pterion were 6.25% and 3.6% in the Byzantine and contemporary groups, respectively. Measurements of the location of the pterion were made by using stainless steel calipers and Scion Image software. There were no significant differences in digital and manual measurements between the right and left sides of the skulls in both groups. However, the distance from the pterion to the inion was significantly greater in the manual measurements compared to the digital measurements. Anatomical variations of the pterion, which are of interest to anthropologists, forensic pathologists and surgeons, deserve further investigation in other populations from different geographical areas.

Ari, Ilknur; Kafa Ilker, Mustafa; Bakirci, Sinan.

1291-12-01

314

Ilukirjanduse tõlked 20. sajandi esimese poole Eesti ja Soome raamatutoodangus (1900–1940 / Translations of Belles-Lettres in the Book Production of Estonia and Finland during the First Half of the 20th Century (1900–1940  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article presents statistical data on the publications of belles-lettres in Estonia in 1900–1940 – a period when the country developed into a modern European society and gained independence. The topic is treated in the context of book history, which uses publishing statistics to provide a broader context for individual case studies. The research on the quantity and share of translated literature in book production comes close to the statisticalsociological approach in translation history, characterised by Peeter Torop as one of the aspects of the study of translation culture. The statistical indicators have been elaborated on the basis of retrospective bibliographies and on the data, obtained from National Library of Estonia. The analysis includes the share of belles-lettres in book production, the balance of original works and translations, the changes in the quantity of translations during different decades and the share of source literatures. The Estonian statistics have been presented in comparison with corresponding data from Finland, which has been published in the collective monograph on Finnish translation history, issued in 2007. As the Finnish data is organized by decades, the same principle is used for statistics on Estonia. This approach corresponds generally to the political history of the two countries – both belonged to the Russian Empire during the first two decades of the 20th century and existed as independent states during the following two decades. Both nations had passed through the first stage in the development of literary culture, characterised by extensive publication of adaptations and free translations by the beginning of the century. Thus the share of original works started to increase and slightly exceeded the share  of  translations  in  E stonia  as  well  as  in  Finland.  The  selection  of  translated  works  in both countries was varied and their level was unstable. Despite the longstanding plans of developing translation culture in Finland, the choice of works was influenced by international acclaime and the activitiy of translators. The immaturity of Estonian publishing manifested itself, among other things, as inadeaquate paratexts of the translations. Due to the differences in historical development and cultural background, the structure of  source  literature s  of  translated  belle s-let tre s  in  the  two  countrie s  dif fered  in  many  ways – translating from the English language increased considerably in Finland, fending the traditional German and Scandinavian domination. The importance of translations of German literature, which maintained the leading role in Estonia, is a common feature of both countries. At the same time, the interest in Scandinavian literature only started to emerge in Estonia. The  translations  of  Rus sian  literature,  however,  were  much  more  numerous  in  E stonia  thanin Finland. In general, the period of 1900–1919 is characterised by a notable increase in the quantit y of translated belles-lettres as well as their uneveness. However, the growing number of translations provided greater diversity, introducing new authors, styles and trends.The existence of an independent Republic of Estonia (since 1918 opened utterly new perspectives for the development of national culture – for the first time it could be done without external control and using the Estonian language in all levels of administration and education. These circumstances fostered publishing, the demand for books was especially great during the first years after the War of Independence (1918–1920, later the declines and increases in book production were connected to the economic conditions. Belles-lettres formed about 20 per cent of the title production, which in turn was almost equally divided between original works and translations. In contrast to Estonia, the number of translations started to decrease in Finland in the 1930s due to economic and political factors, idealising conservative national values. Th

Aile Möldre

2012-06-01

315

Participación española en los Congresos de la Sociedad Internacional de Urología en el siglo XX / The Spanish participation in the Congresses of the International Society of Urology during the 20th Century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Con ocasión del centenario de la constitución en 1907 de la denominada primero Asociación y, más tarde, Sociedad Internacional de Urología, señalamos los temas tratados y analizamos la presencia de urólogos españoles en el acto fundacional así como el papel desempeñado y sus aportaciones e [...] n los congresos de la Sociedad celebrados en el siglo XX. Métodos: Entresacamos datos de la información recogida en diferentes publicaciones periódicas, de las memorias de algunos de los participantes y de las actas de los congresos. Resultados: Hemos obtenido notas de la reunión constitutiva de la Asociación Internacional y de sus dos congresos y luego de los veinticinco de la Sociedad. Extraemos, principalmente de las actas editadas por el secretario de la reunión, la asistencia de los urólogos españoles y su contribución con ponencias o comunicaciones así como la relevancia que han tenido al desempeñar cargos en el seno de la organización. Conclusiones: Desde 1907 la presencia de urólogos españoles tanto en la Asociación como en la Sociedad Internacional de Urología ha sido constante. En la primera mitad del siglo, años en los que nuestra Urología se encontraba en un periodo de consolidación, fueron los responsables de los principales servicios urológicos de los grandes hospitales del país los que podían transmitir su experiencia con un nivel y calidad equiparables a los del resto de los europeos. En la segunda, una vez recuperadas las naciones de los episodios bélicos, prosigue la actividad científica con una creciente aportación española conforme se extiende por todo el país la creación de los Hospitales de la Seguridad Social con servicios jerarquizados de Urología en los que se realiza el estudio y el análisis de sus casuísticas y se inician la investigación clínica y experimental, lo que permite que las comunicaciones españolas se incrementen de modo notable sobre todo en los congresos celebrados en poblaciones de habla castellana o en los europeos. Como consecuencia de su participación, en España se han desarrollado tres de los veinticinco congresos organizados en el siglo XX. La presencia española en los órganos rectores de la Sociedad se vio favorecida con la presidencia del profesor D. Salvador Gil Vernet por dos periodos consecutivos. Abstract in english Objectives: With the occasion of the Centenary of the Constitution in 1907 of the International Society of Urology, initially named Association, we point at the topics treated and analyze the presence of the Spanish urologists in the foundation act as well as their role and contributions in the meet [...] ings during the 20th century. Methods: We obtained the data from the information in various periodic publications, from the memories of some participant urologists and from the meeting records. Results: We obtained notes from the foundation meeting of the International Association and two congresses, and also from the 25 congresses of the Society. We mainly extract data from the records edited by the meeting secretary, about the assistance of Spanish urologists and their contribution with conferences or communications and also about the relevance they have had holding positions within the organization. Conclusions: From 1907 the presence of Spanish urologists both in the Association and the International Society of Urology has been a constant. During the first half of the century, a time when our Urology was in a period of consolidation, the people in charge of the main urology departments in big hospitals in our country where the ones that could transmit their experience, with a level and quality comparable with the rest of Europeans. During the second half, once the nations recovered from wars, the scienti.c activity continued with an increasing Spanish contribution, which extended all over the country with the creation of the net of Social Security hospitals. They had hierarchical urology departments that performed study and analysis

Mariano, Pérez Albacete; Jesús, Tornero Ruíz; Gerardo, Server Pastor; Ignacio, Ponce de León Castell.

1029-10-01

316

Nineteenth Century Black and Mulatto Physical Activity, Calories, and Life Expectancy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Using data from late 19th and early 20th century US prisons, this study considers how black and mulatto basal metabolic rates and calories varied with economic development. During the 19th century, black physical activity and net nutrition declined during the late 19th and early 20th centuries across their BMR and calorie distributions, and increasing black life expectancy was not likely due to improved nutrition. Physically active farmers had greater BMRs and received more calories per day t...

Carson, Scott A.

2014-01-01

317

Paradigmas de control de la malaria en Guatemala, siglos XX y XXI, de la erradicación a la eliminación / Paradigms of the malarial control in Guatemala in the 20th and 21st centuries moving from eradication to elimination  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La malaria continúa siendo un problema de salud pública mundial. Durante los siglos XX y XXI el abordaje de esta enfermedad sufrió cambios paradigmáticos muy interesantes, pero principalmente estuvo influenciado por los descubrimientos relacionados con la segunda guerra mundial, la situación económi [...] ca mundial, el advenimiento de nuevas estrategias de control y el abordaje de la enfermedad por medio de la participación comunitaria y el sector de la salud. El propósito de este trabajo es presentar los cambios de paradigmas desde una óptica vertical o erradicación, a una horizontal o eliminación, y desde lo positivista cuantitativo a lo mixto, en el abordaje de la malaria en Guatemala. Se realiza una reseña histórica de la malaria y se discuten los aspectos bioéticos del uso del insecticida dicloro-difenil-tricloroetano a nivel mundial. En los países desarrollados fueron justificadas las intervenciones de erradicación con el rociamiento intradomiciliar del insecticida citado y completarlas con el diagnóstico y tratamiento de la malaria; la realidad en la mayoría de los países en vías de desarrollo, fue diferente, puesto que no pudieron mantener los programas de erradicación por problemas financieros, un ejemplo claro de iniquidad global. Guatemala en esta década trabaja en la fase de preeliminación-eliminación, con buenos resultados, lo que marca un cambio de paradigma e indica que las medidas contra la malaria deben ser horizontales y favorecer el trabajo intra e intersectorial. Abstract in english Malaria remains a world health problem. During the 20th and 21st centuries, the approach to this disease underwent very interesting paradigmatic changes, but they were influenced by breakthroughs derived from the Second World Wear, the international economic situations, the advent of new monitoring [...] strategies and the approach to the disease based on the community and the health sector involvement. The objective of this paper was to present changes in paradigms form a vertical perspective or eradication to a horizontal viewpoint or elimination, and from a quantitative positivist to a combined standpoint in addressing malaria in Guatemala. A historical account of malaria was made and the bioethical aspects of the use of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane worldwide were discussed. The eradicating interventions by using the insecticidal spraying of houses were backed up in the developed countries. This was supplemented with the diagnosis and treatment of malaria. However, the situation was different in most of the developing countries, since their financial restrictions did not make possible to keep the eradication programs, being a clear example of the global inequality. In the present decade, Guatemala is going through the pre-elimination-elimination phase and it works with good results, which is indicative of a change in paradigm and shows that actions against malaria should be horizontal in order to encourage the intrasectorial and the intersectorial work.

Jaime, Juárez.

2013-06-01

318

Paradigmas de control de la malaria en Guatemala, siglos XX y XXI, de la erradicación a la eliminación / Paradigms of the malarial control in Guatemala in the 20th and 21st centuries moving from eradication to elimination  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La malaria continúa siendo un problema de salud pública mundial. Durante los siglos XX y XXI el abordaje de esta enfermedad sufrió cambios paradigmáticos muy interesantes, pero principalmente estuvo influenciado por los descubrimientos relacionados con la segunda guerra mundial, la situación económi [...] ca mundial, el advenimiento de nuevas estrategias de control y el abordaje de la enfermedad por medio de la participación comunitaria y el sector de la salud. El propósito de este trabajo es presentar los cambios de paradigmas desde una óptica vertical o erradicación, a una horizontal o eliminación, y desde lo positivista cuantitativo a lo mixto, en el abordaje de la malaria en Guatemala. Se realiza una reseña histórica de la malaria y se discuten los aspectos bioéticos del uso del insecticida dicloro-difenil-tricloroetano a nivel mundial. En los países desarrollados fueron justificadas las intervenciones de erradicación con el rociamiento intradomiciliar del insecticida citado y completarlas con el diagnóstico y tratamiento de la malaria; la realidad en la mayoría de los países en vías de desarrollo, fue diferente, puesto que no pudieron mantener los programas de erradicación por problemas financieros, un ejemplo claro de iniquidad global. Guatemala en esta década trabaja en la fase de preeliminación-eliminación, con buenos resultados, lo que marca un cambio de paradigma e indica que las medidas contra la malaria deben ser horizontales y favorecer el trabajo intra e intersectorial. Abstract in english Malaria remains a world health problem. During the 20th and 21st centuries, the approach to this disease underwent very interesting paradigmatic changes, but they were influenced by breakthroughs derived from the Second World Wear, the international economic situations, the advent of new monitoring [...] strategies and the approach to the disease based on the community and the health sector involvement. The objective of this paper was to present changes in paradigms form a vertical perspective or eradication to a horizontal viewpoint or elimination, and from a quantitative positivist to a combined standpoint in addressing malaria in Guatemala. A historical account of malaria was made and the bioethical aspects of the use of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane worldwide were discussed. The eradicating interventions by using the insecticidal spraying of houses were backed up in the developed countries. This was supplemented with the diagnosis and treatment of malaria. However, the situation was different in most of the developing countries, since their financial restrictions did not make possible to keep the eradication programs, being a clear example of the global inequality. In the present decade, Guatemala is going through the pre-elimination-elimination phase and it works with good results, which is indicative of a change in paradigm and shows that actions against malaria should be horizontal in order to encourage the intrasectorial and the intersectorial work.

Jaime, Juárez.

2013-06-01

319

A imprensa negra e o futebol em São Paulo no início do século XX The Black Press and the soccer in São Paulo in the beginning of the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Em São Paulo, na primeira metade do século XX, havia associações destinadas à promoção de atividades culturais e esportivas para os negros, que surgiram diante da necessidade de denunciar as práticas discriminatórias e promover a sociabilidade étnica através do atletismo, do boxe e, sobretudo, do futebol. Uma delas era a Imprensa Negra. Neste artigo, os autores buscaram compreender as estratégias da Imprensa Negra para noticiar a participação do negro no emergente campo do futebol. Utilizando a perspectiva teórica da História Cultural, se ocuparam dos conteúdos das matérias dos jornais da Imprensa Negra, disponíveis na Biblioteca Nacional na forma de microfilmes. O objetivo foi observar a continuidade e a regularidade do discurso, os pontos de afrontamento e de disputa simbólica em torno da negociação da construção identitária da "raça negra" no esporte e captar, através das mensagens emitidas por esses órgãos da imprensa, as estratégias de distinção utilizadas por esse grupo étnico/racial em torno da contestação das representações negativas ou construção de representações positivas sobre o negro no emergente campo do futebol. Concluíram que o sentimento de consciência racial, a necessidade de se integrar à nação e o desejo de ascensão social eram os motivos que mantinham unidos os negros através daquelas associações. A Imprensa Negra procurou construir uma representação identitária do negro que privilegiasse o capital futebolístico, sem se esquecer dos predicados morais como a disciplina, a higiene e a ordem. A estratégia de divulgação dos feitos de sucesso dos negros no campo esportivo promovia uma identidade positiva do negro no futebol, em conformidade com as demandas daquele contexto: uma nação higienizada e disciplinada na esteira do projeto nacional que via no futebol um meio de expressão positiva da brasilidade.In the first half of the 20th century, in São Paulo, there were associations dedicated to promote cultural and sport activities for the African American people. They emerged to denounce discriminatory practices and to promote ethnic sociability through athletics, boxing and, especially, soccer. One of them was the Black Press. In this article, the authors sought to understand the strategies of the Black Press to report the participation of black people in the emerging field of soccer. The contents of the Black Press, available in the National Library in the form of microfilms, were analyzed using the theoretical perspective of the Cultural History. The objective was to observe the continuity and regularity of the speech, the points of confrontation and symbolic dispute around the negotiation of the identity construction of "black" in the sport and identify, by means of the messages sent by those media outlets, the strategies of distinction used by the ethnic / racial group around the defense against negative representations or construction of positive representations of blacks in the emerging field of soccer. They concluded that the feeling of the racial consciousness, the need to integrate themselves with the nation and the desire for social mobility were the reasons that held the African Americans together through those associations. Thence, the "Black Press" tried to build a representation of black identity that emphasized the soccer resources, without forgetting moral matters as discipline, hygiene and order. The dissemination of the achievements of blacks in sports promoted a positive identity of black man in soccer, in accordance with the demands of that context: a sanitized and disciplined nation in accordance with the national project that understood soccer as a mean of positive expression of "Brazilianness".

Bruno Otávio de Lacerda Abrahão

2012-03-01

320

El derecho a la educación en México: del liberalismo decimonónico al neoliberalismo del siglo XXI / The Right to Education in Mexico: From 19th-century Liberalism to the Neo-liberalism of the 20th Century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este artículo intenta responder a la pregunta sobre los alcances que el derecho humano a la educación ha tenido en la Constitución mexicana y en las posibilidades concretas de ejercicio de este derecho para los mexicanos en el último siglo y medio. Con ese doble propósito, se describen someramente t [...] res grandes momentos de la historia mexicana donde se generan cambios significativos tanto en el texto constitucional que se refiere a la educación como en las estrategias y políticas concretas que amplían o restringen el acceso a ella. Éstos pueden identificarse a partir de la reforma de 1857, la de 1934 y las de los años noventa (1992 y 1993), incluyendo como parte de este último periodo la modificación sobre la obligatoriedad de la educación media superior (2012). Se presentan y analizan los textos correspondientes pero, sobre todo, se busca mostrar sus conexiones con la forma en que en cada momento -dando cuenta del contexto de confrontaciones, acuerdos y resistencias frente a cambios decisivos- se concibe y se traduce en los hechos el derecho a la educación. Abstract in english This article attempts to answer questions about the scope of the human right to education as established in Mexico's Constitution and in the Mexican population's possibilities to exercise that right during the past one and one-half centuries. With this double purpose, a description is given of three [...] major moments in Mexican history when significant changes were generated in constitutional texts that refer to education, as well as in the concrete policies and strategies that broaden or restrict access to education. Such changes can be identified as the reforms of 1857, 1934, and the 1990s (1992 and 1993); the final period includes the modification of the compulsory nature of high school education (2012). The corresponding texts are presented and analyzed, but above all, an effort is made to show their connections with the way the right to education-in a context of confrontations, agreements, and resistance to decisive change-is conceived and translated into fact.

Hugo, Aboites.

2012-06-01

 
 
 
 
321

Antiikvärsimõõdud eesti tõlgetes 19. sajandi lõpul – 20. sajandi esimesel poolel / Ancient Meters in Estonian Translations at the End of the 19th Century – the First Half of the 20th Century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although ancient verse has also been translated into Estonian with different non-equimetrical strategies, from the very beginning the equimetrical way of translation has prevailed, the purpose of which has been to convey the meter of a source text in the target text. Ancient meters are found in the Estonian tradition of translation from the end of the 19th century, when several authors undertook the translation of voluminous hexametrical texts. During the following decades, hexameter became an important meter both in original and translated poetry, first in accentual-syllabic or syllabic-accentual versification systems, later different quantitative forms were added. In the case of Estonian quantitative hexameter, a two-way evolution can be observed: the aim of the first direction is to accommodate hexameter in the prosodic reality of the Estonian language and develop a form that allows licences in the metrical structure rather than deform language, the aim of the second is to create a verse form, which, first of all, follows the patterns of ancient verse and, if necessary, forms artificial rules of quantity in order to accommodate Estonian language with the structure of hexameter.The incidence of other ancient meters, including different Ionic and Aeolic verse forms, is  considerably  lower.  During  the  obser  ved  period,  Aeolic meter s  are  conveyed  in  two  dif  fe -rent forms: in syllabic-accentual verse, where quantity plays only a rhythmic role, and syllabic-accentual-quantitative form, where the number of syllables is always strictly fixed, the distribution  of  accent s  is  governed  by  cer tain  rule s,  while  quantit y  is  more  impor tant  in strong positions and less regulated in weak positions.At the same time, we come across non-equimetrical translations as well, where instead of the original meter some other verse form has been chosen for the translation. Such rendition can be a functional equivalent, but sometimes it is just the result of a random choice. On the other hand, mostly in the case of poems in hexameter or elegiac distichs, the verseto-prose translation strategy is also used.Therefore, we can see that during the observed period ancient meters were translated with a variety of strategies. There were many different experiments and some of these resulted in a vital and sustainable tradition still viable in Estonian poetry translation.

Maria-Kristiina Lotman

2012-06-01

322

Dietary reconstruction and reservoir correction of 14C dates on bones from pagan and early Christian graves in Iceland : Proceedings of the 20th International Radiocarbon Conference  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this study, ?13C and ?15N of bone samples from 83 skeletons (79 humans, 2 horses, and 2 dogs) excavated from pagan and early Christian graves from 21 localities in Iceland are used to reconstruct diet of the early settlers in Iceland and possible differences in diet depending on the distance between the excavation site and the seashore. We have radiocarbon dated 47 of these skeletons and used the carbon isotopic composition (?13C) to estimate and correct for the marine reservoir effect (the 14C difference between terrestrial and mixed marine organisms). The reservoir-corrected ages lie in the range of AD 780?1270 (68.2% probability). Reservoir age corrections were checked by comparing 14C dates of a horse (terrestrial diet), a dog (highly marine diet), and a human (mixed diet) from the same burial. The range in measured marine protein percentage in individual diet is from about 10% up to 55%, mostly depending on the geographical position (distance from the sea) of the excavation site. We had access to the skeleton (AAR-5908) of the Sk?lholt bishop P?ll J?nsson whose remains are enshrined at the Episcopal residence in Sk?lholt, southern Iceland. According to written sources, the bishop died in AD 1211. Using our dietary reconstruction, his bones were about 17% marine, which is within the range of human skeletons from the same area, and the reservoir-corrected calibrated 14C age of the skeleton is in accord with the historical date.

Sveinbjörnsdóttir, Árný E; Heinemeier, Jan

2010-01-01

323

TWO IMPORTANT DEVELOPMENT THROUGHT THE TUSKISH HISTORY IN THE 20 TH CENTURY: THE RISING OF AVIATION AND A LEADER
TÜRK TAR?H? BAKIMINDAN 20. YÜZYILDA ?K? ÖNEML? GEL??ME:“HAVACILI?IN VE B?R L?DER?N DO?U?U”
 

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Planes are one of the most important discoveries of the 20th century. This was the last period of the Ottman Empire. This was also the first years of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk’s military life.Turkish government used the airplane in military field firstly in Balkan Wars. Ottoman Empire bought about 450-500 airplanes between 1912-1918 years. Turkish air forces was the one of the first establishments that constituted by parlement at the independence war years. Ever pressed Greek air force, enemy...

Yalc?in, Osman

2011-01-01

324

Uma doença que não perdoa: a tuberculose e sua terapêutica no sul do Brasil e na Itália, em fins do século XIX e inícios do XX An unforgiving disease: the tuberculosis and its therapeutic in South Brazil and Italy, at the end of 19th century and beginning of 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A tuberculose, em fins do século XIX e inícios do XX, constituiu-se como uma grande epidemia que ceifou a vida de milhares de pessoas. Embora fosse incurável, a imprensa fazia publicidade de uma série de tratamentos desenvolvidos em diversas regiões do mundo. Este artigo pretende discutir a trajetória da doença a partir de terapêuticas propostas por dois médicos italianos, Edoardo Maragliano e Carlo Forlanini, as quais tiveram uma boa receptividade no Rio Grande do Sul. O primeiro ficou conhecido por uma vacina, mas especialmente por seu soro; o segundo desenvolveu o procedimento conhecido como pneumotórax artificial. A intenção é a de abordar o contexto vivido pelo estado do RS e pela Itália com relação à tuberculose, percebendo caminhos que se cruzaram para o cuidado de enfermos, que muito pouco podiam fazer após a confirmação de seu diagnóstico.The tuberculosis, at the end of 19th century and beginning of 20th century, has been a large epidemic that has ended with a thousand's lifes. Although it was incurable, the press made publicity of a series of treatments developed in several regions of the world. This article intend to discuss the diseases path made by therapeutics proposed by two italian doctors, Edoardo Maragliano e Carlo Forlanini, who have had a good receptivity in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The first one has been known for a vaccine, but also because of his serum; the second one has developed the procedure known as artificial pneumothorax. The aim is to approach the context lived at the state of RS and in Italy in relation to the tuberculosis, realizing the paths that have been crossed to the ills care, who could make not much after the diagnosis confirmation.

Lorena Almeida Gill

2012-06-01

325

De la dominación colonial a la fabricación de la nación: Las categorías étnico-raciales en los censos e informes y sus usos políticos en Belice, siglos XIX-XX / From Colonial Domination to the Forging of a Nation: Ethnic-racial Categories in Censuses and Reports and their Political Uses in Belize, 19th-20th Centuries  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este texto presenta un análisis de los procesos de clasificación y categorización étnico-raciales de la población de Belice a lo largo de los siglos XIX y XX, apoyándose en los censos demográficos y en los informes de gobierno. No nos interesamos tanto en las cifras como tales, sino en las categoría [...] s de conteo y su evolución, como indicadores de las lógicas políticas de construcción de una sociedad colonial y luego nacional. Mientras que para el XIX los censos dan cuenta de las distintas formas de manejo de la población (transición de la esclavitud a la libertad, afirmación o negación de la diversidad étnico-racial), los informes administrativos dibujan un modelo demográfico-territorial estático y estereotipado como herramienta de gestión política. Para el siglo XX, se analiza el difícil camino hacia la independencia y los cambios introducidos por el nuevo Estado beliceño (categorías, metodología, actores) en el proceso de construcción de una "identidad nacional". Abstract in english This text presents an analysis of the processes of erhnic-racial classification and categorization of the population of Belize in the 19th and 20th centuries, based on demographic censuses and government reports. We are not so much interested in figures as such as in the counting categories and thei [...] r evolution, as indicators of the political logics of constructing a colonial and then a national society. By the 19th century, censuses reflect the different ways of managing the population (transition from slavery to freedom, affirmation or denial of ethnic-racial diversity), the administrative reports outline a static demographic-territorial model stereotypes as a tool for political management. In the 20th century, they analyze the difficult road co independence and the changes introduced by the new Belize state (categories, methodology, actors) in the process of constructing a "national identity."

Elisabeth, Cunin; Odile, Hoffmann.

2012-04-01

326

Nación e historia La justificación e interpretación histórica de las naciones a finales del siglo XIX y en la primera mitad del XX / Nation and History. Historical Justification and Interpretation of Nations towards the End of the 19th Century and the First Half of the 20th Century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El propósito de este texto es ofrecer una visión general de la relación entre nación e historia en los debates que se generaron por parte de los historiadores y otros intelectuales de las ciencias sociales a finales del siglo XIX y durante gran parte del siglo XX. La reflexión central que se plantea [...] consiste entonces en estudiar y mostrar cómo al mismo tiempo que las naciones modernas eran objeto de un proceso de redefinición política, en el escenario intelectual de las ciencias sociales, y en particular de los historiadores, fueron apareciendo también un conjunto de debates y obras que intentaban problematizar y someter a consideración las relaciones que pretendían establecerse entre la nación y la historia como un elemento que las justificaba. Abstract in english The purpose of this text is to provide the reader with an overview of the relationship between nation and history in the debates that were generated by historians and other scholars in the field of social sciences in the late 19th and the first half of the 20th centuries. The main idea that is propo [...] sed here is to study and then show how modern nations were subject to a process of political redefinition in the intellectual landscape of the social sciences -and particularly of historians- while, at the same time, a set of debates and works was emerging, which was trying to question and place under scrutiny the relations that were sought to be established between nation and history as an element that justified them.

Rafael E, Acevedo P.

2014-12-01

327

20. Yüzy?l Ba??nda “?mtiyaz” Kelimesi ile “Kapitülasyon” Kelimesinin Tarihsel Aç?dan Kar??la?t?rmal? ?ncelenmesi///A Comparative Study of “Capitulation” Word with “Concession” Word in Terms of Historical Perspective at the Beginning of the 20th Century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available At the end of 19th and beginning of the 20th century the Ottoman Empire was experiencing great difficulties in terms of financial. Foreigners in the Ottoman lands had obtained important advantages with capitulation. Besides Foreigners were influential in many concessions for public services. However capitulation and concession words in terms of meaning and scope were separated apart. This difference in the future studies about that period and related topics will allow more accurate interpretations to be made. In this study, the meaning of the concession will be investigated in the last period of the Ottoman Empire. In that period and then, this word given meanings will be compared with a historical dimension with the concept of capitulation. Consequently will be kept light to that period from an different aspect.

Mustafa MALHUT

2010-07-01

328

Is fecundability associated with month of birth? An analysis of 19th and early 20th century family reconstitution data from The Netherlands.  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationship between fecundability and month of birth was investigated in a cohort of 1526 women who married between 1802 and 1929, using only women whose first marriage occurred before the age of 35 years. On the basis of their time to pregnancy (TTP, calculated as time between wedding and first birth minus gestational length), women were categorized into two groups: fecunds (TTP up to 12 months or prenuptial conceptions, n = 1348) and subfecunds (TTP >18 months, n = 118). By use of logistic regression, cosinor functions with a period of 1 year or 6 months and variable shift and amplitude were fitted through the monthly odds of subfecunds versus fecunds. The best fitting curve was unimodal, with a zenith in September (P = 0.13 for H0: no differences). Exclusion of childless women (n = 36, minimum follow-up 5 years) from the subfecunds led to a similar curve (P < 0.01), while childless women, as compared with fecunds, showed a birth distribution that was best represented with a bimodal curve with zeniths in January and July (P = 0.06). This study provides evidence for the existence of differences in fecundability by month of birth. The cause of this relationship is unclear, but may lie in a melatonin-dependent circannual variability of the quality of the oocyte. PMID:9436710

Smits, L J; Van Poppel, F W; Verduin, J A; Jongbloet, P H; Straatman, H; Zielhuis, G A

1997-11-01

329

EFFECTS OF ARYL HYDROCARBON RECEPTOR MEDIATED EARLY LIFE STAGE TOXICITY ON LAKE TROUT POPULATIONS IN LAKE ONTARIO DURING THE 20TH CENTURY  

Science.gov (United States)

Lake trout embryos and sac fry are very sensitive to toxicity associated with maternal exposures to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenza-p-dioxin (TCDD) and structurally related chemicals that act through a common aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)- mediated mechanism of action. The presence ...

330

Anomalía y enfermedad en escritoras de inicios del s. XX / Anomaly and Disease in Women Writers of the early 20th century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Frente a los cada vez más legitimados y popularizados estudios científicos sobre las patologías femeninas y la naturalización de la enfermedad en la mujer, las escritoras del periodo introducen en sus ficciones agudas críticas contra la ciencia médica. A partir del análisis de la obra de cuatro auto [...] ras, proponemos tres ejes fundamentales en que ellas realizarían su denuncia. Mediante: 1) una nueva interpretación respecto de la "enfermedad" que cuestiona el sistema social y cultural que la produce; 2) el rechazo del diagnóstico de "enferma" y con ello las bases teóricas, presupuestos, métodos, en síntesis, la ciencia que lo fundamenta; y 3) a partir de la misma diferencia "natural" de los sexos, la formulación de modelos de mujer que se constituyen "superiores" moral y emocionalmente (sanas y estables) frente a sus pares masculinos más débiles e influenciables. Abstract in english As a reaction against the increasingly legitimized and popularized studies about Chilean women's pathologies and the common acceptance of women's diseases, the female writers of the period acutely criticize medical science in their work. Based on the analysis of four female authors' writing, three w [...] ays to condemn this reality are suggested: 1) posing a new interpretation of the "disease" that denounces the social and cultural system that produces it; 2) rejecting the diagnose of "ill", together with the theoretical basis, presuppositions and methods of the science that supports the illness; and 3) based on the "natural" difference between genders, formulating models of women who are seen as morally and emotionally "superior" to their masculine peers (healthier and more stable), who are represented as weaker and more gullible.

Ana, Traverso.

2014-11-01

331

Rudolf Bultmann: sy mees invloedryke bydrae in die 20ste eeu: 'Urchristentum', 'Jesus', 'Johannes'-kommentaar? / Rudolf Bultmann: his most influential contribution in the 20th century: 'Urchristentum', 'Jesus', 'Commentary on John's gospel'?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: Afrikaner Abstract in english This article pays tribute to Rudolf Bultmann as a scholar of faith who fulfilled the most influential role in the interpretation of Jesus and the New Testament during the twentieth century. In the article Bultmann's leading publications are discussed against the background of the question of which o [...] ne has been the most significant. Three important publications are identified, namely his book on the socio-cultural environment of the earliest followers of Jesus in first-century Semitic-Hellenistic world, his book on the historical Jesus, and his commentary on the Gospel of John. Various criteria are applied to value the significance of these three publications. They are Bultmann's understanding of what the scientific nature of the theological discourse principally would entail; how modern-day believers could adhere to an ancient mythological discourse; the way in which today a historical discourse could existentially been engaged with and why Jesus of Nazareth would be regarded as theologically significant. Both the depth of Bultmann's understanding of the substance of the theological discourse found in John's gospel and the quality of Bultmann's historical-critical analysis of John's gospel lead to the finding that this commentary should be considered to be not only the most significant for the twentieth century but beyond that time even into the current phase of biblical and theological interpretation.

Andries G., van Aarde.

332

20. Yüzy?l?n Son Çeyre?inde Ya?anan Jeopolitik K?r?lma Noktas? ile Ba?layan 21. Yüzy?l, Yeni Tarihin Ne Kadar Ba?lang?c?d?r? 21st Century; Initiated With The Geopolitical Breaking Point Occurred At The Last Quarter Of 20th Century; Beginning Of The New History In What Extent?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the collapse of the USSR in 1990, many global problemshave arisen. One of the most crucial issues has been the replacement ofthe stability sustained by Cold War that affected the 20th centurydeeply, the bipolar world system, nuclear and ballistic weapons with achaotic environment of asymmetric features. This new stage not onlyaffected the political vital constraints of all societies but also showed theneed of geopolitical theories dealing with problems that can arise.The incapability in dealing with uncertainties of power at all levelscaused a lack of compiling long and mid-term plans.Energy sources of the former Soviet territory, mergedcommunities, social issues, various underground resources, issues ofethnic conflicts and radical terrorist organizations, put the whole worldinto a chaotic environment.Therefore, an important breaking point in 1990 was experiencedby all countries. This is such a point that the near and distant pastaccumulations will remain ineffective and new strategic and geopoliticalapproaches are required. The main problem is revolved around twoquestions. Will the geo-strategic theories of 20th century that are basedon two power poles be available in the new era of asymmetric chaos?Or, are theories, built with the new geostrategic perception needed? 1990 y?l?nda SSCB’nin da??lmas? ile ortaya birçok küresel sorun ç?km??t?r. Bu sorunlar?n en ba??nda da 20’inci yüzy?la damgas?n? vuran So?uk Sava?, iki kutuplu dünya düzeni, nükleer ve balistik silahlara dayal? denge ortam?n?n yok olmas? ve yerine asimetrik özelliklere sahip kaotik bir ortam?n ç?kmas? vard?r. Yeni ba?layan süreç, hem bütün toplumlar?n siyasi/politik ya?amsal desteklerini ve dayanaklar?n? ortadan kald?racak ?ekilde sarsm??, hem de ortaya ç?kan problem sahalar? ile mücadele edebilecek jeopolitik teorilerin eksikli?i hissedilmi?tir. Özellikle her seviyedeki gücün yeni ba?layan sürecin bilinmezli?i ile mücadele edebilecek donan?ma sahip olmamas?, orta vadeli bir plan yapamamas?na ve uzun vadede nas?l bir sürprizler zinciri ile kar??la?abileceklerine dair bir fikir olu?turamamalar?na neden olmu?tur.Özellikle eski Sovyet topraklar?n?n enerji kaynaklar?, birbirine kar??m?? halklar?, toplumsal sorunlar?, de?i?ik yeralt? kaynaklar?, etnik çat??ma sorunlar? ve radikal terör örgütleri, bütün dünyay? kaos ortam?na sokmu?tur.Dolay?s? ile dünyan?n 1990 y?l?nda önemli bir k?r?lma noktas? ya?ad???n? ifade etmek gerekmektedir. Bu öyle bir noktad?r ki yak?n ve uzak geçmi?in birikimleri etkisiz kalmaktad?r ve yeni bir stratejik ve jeopolitik yakla??mlara ihtiyaç duyulmaktad?r. As?l sorun ?udur. 20’inci yüzy?l boyunca iki güç kutbuna dayand?r?lm?? olan denge esasl? jeostratejik teoriler yeni dönemin asimetrik kaos ortam?nda geçerli olacak m?d?r? Yoksa yeni jeostratejik alg?lama ile in?a edilecek teorilere mi ihtiyaç duyulacakt?r?

Laziza Nurpeiis

2013-07-01

333

21st Century Marxism  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In certain respects the situation of Marxism in the early 21st century has much in common with that in the late 19th century. In both cases Marxism is faced with a world in which the capitalist mode of production dominates. During what Hobsbawm called the ‘shorter 20th century’, the period from 1914 to 1990, world politics centered round the epochal struggle between capitalist and socialist economic systems, and that reality gave to Marxism a quite different character than in its first pe...

Cockshott, W. P.

2008-01-01

334

20th Annual Residence Hall Construction Report  

Science.gov (United States)

Even in difficult economic times, colleges and universities continue to invest in residence hall construction projects as a way to attract new students and keep existing ones on campus. According to data from "American School & University"'s 20th annual Residence Hall Construction Report, the median new project completed in 2008 was less expensive…

Agron, Joe

2009-01-01

335

Happy 20th Birthday, World Wide Web!  

CERN Multimedia

On 13 March CERN celebrated the 20th anniversary of the World Wide Web. Check out the video interview with Web creator Tim Berners-Lee and find out more about the both the history and future of the Web. To celebrate CERN also launched a brand new website, CERNland, for kids.

2009-01-01

336

Ciencia y persuasión social en la medicalización de la infancia en España, siglos XIX-XX / Science and social persuasion in the medicalization of childhood in 19th- and 20th-century Spain  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este trabajo indaga la conversión en rutinaria de la visita del médico de niños en España. Estudia la sustitución de modelos de atención al embarazo, parto y crianza, tradicionalmente opacos para varones y objeto de cuidados mediante agentes populares, por otros accesibles a la medicina académica. A [...] partir de la situación existente a nivel popular en el último tercio del siglo XIX, exploramos la repercusión de campañas de divulgación científica - entendidas como crítica sin cuartel a lo que se construyó como cultura popular - y la proliferación de dispositivos asistenciales gratuitos. La oferta de vigilancia sobre la alimentación de lactantes permitió familiarizar a las madres con la asistencia facultativa en la enfermedad, hasta que, en la segunda mitad del siglo XX, la Pediatría se centró preferentemente en las patologías y la Puericultura dejó de ser especialidad médica para convertirse en identidad profesional subalterna. Abstract in english The article explores how childhood visits to doctors first became routine in Spain. The introduction of new models of prenatal care, childbirth, and childrearing required the extension of academic medicine into a terrain traditionally occupied by practitioners of popular medicine. Focusing on the st [...] atus quo for most of the population in the final third of the nineteenth century, the study examines the repercussion of the era's scientific outreach campaigns (expressions of harsh criticism of what popular culture had constructed) and the spread of free health assistance. In particular, it highlights how attention to the nutritional needs of nursing mothers helped these women gain familiarity with the medical assistance available in the case of illness - so much so that by the second half of the twentieth century, the issues of health education and promotion had been relegated to a secondary plane within the medical profession.

Esteban, Rodríguez Ocaña; Enrique, Perdiguero.

2006-06-01

337

Ciencia y persuasión social en la medicalización de la infancia en España, siglos XIX-XX Science and social persuasion in the medicalization of childhood in 19th- and 20th-century Spain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este trabajo indaga la conversión en rutinaria de la visita del médico de niños en España. Estudia la sustitución de modelos de atención al embarazo, parto y crianza, tradicionalmente opacos para varones y objeto de cuidados mediante agentes populares, por otros accesibles a la medicina académica. A partir de la situación existente a nivel popular en el último tercio del siglo XIX, exploramos la repercusión de campañas de divulgación científica - entendidas como crítica sin cuartel a lo que se construyó como cultura popular - y la proliferación de dispositivos asistenciales gratuitos. La oferta de vigilancia sobre la alimentación de lactantes permitió familiarizar a las madres con la asistencia facultativa en la enfermedad, hasta que, en la segunda mitad del siglo XX, la Pediatría se centró preferentemente en las patologías y la Puericultura dejó de ser especialidad médica para convertirse en identidad profesional subalterna.The article explores how childhood visits to doctors first became routine in Spain. The introduction of new models of prenatal care, childbirth, and childrearing required the extension of academic medicine into a terrain traditionally occupied by practitioners of popular medicine. Focusing on the status quo for most of the population in the final third of the nineteenth century, the study examines the repercussion of the era's scientific outreach campaigns (expressions of harsh criticism of what popular culture had constructed and the spread of free health assistance. In particular, it highlights how attention to the nutritional needs of nursing mothers helped these women gain familiarity with the medical assistance available in the case of illness - so much so that by the second half of the twentieth century, the issues of health education and promotion had been relegated to a secondary plane within the medical profession.

Esteban Rodríguez Ocaña

2006-06-01

338

L’introduction de la médecine moderne dans le monde arabe The introduction of modern medicine in the Arab world: between time of urgency and time of learning (19th-20th centuries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available L’État, colonial ou autochtone, a joué un rôle majeur dans le processus d’occidentalisation du temps au XIXe siècle. Le champ de la santé permet de suivre le processus par lequel de nouveaux dispositifs (École de médecine, dispensaires, campagnes de vaccination et de lutte contre les épidémies introduisent non seulement un nouveau temps compté par l’horloge, la régularité des horaires de rendez-vous, mais aussi, de façon plus abstraite, l’idée de prévention et l’ébauche d’un souci de soi qui permet de se projeter dans l’avenir pour préserver sa santé.The State, whether colonial or native, has played a key role in the process of westernization of time in the 19th century. The field of health allows us to observe the process through which new institutions like schools of medicine, clinics, vaccination campaigns and campaigns against epidemics introduce a new counted time and the regularity of schedules for appointments. In a more abstract way, it introduces the idea of prevention and a first idea of self care that allows the individual to project himself into the future, in order to preserve his health.

Sylvia Chiffoleau

2012-06-01

339

Um mundo novo no Atlântico: marinheiros e ritos de passagem na linha do equador, séculos XV-XX / A new world in the Atlantic: sailors and rites of passage cross the Equator, from the 15th to the 20th centuries  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O artigo analisa o rito de passagem da travessia da linha do equador e suas transformações. No século XX, a persistência desse ritual deixa a impressão de que suas formas tenham sido sempre as mesmas. Todavia, ao acompanharmos as fontes desde o século XVI, podemos perceber sua origem, disseminação e [...] transformação na cultura marítima. Marinheiros e oficiais participaram da construção do ritual repleto de significados para a vida profissional dos homens embarcados como trabalhadores do mar. As fontes aqui utilizadas são basicamente narrativas de viagens no período assinalado. Abstract in english The article analyzes the rite of passage upon crossing the Equator line and its transformations. In the 20th century the persistence of this ritual gave the impression that its form had always been the same. However, looking at the sources from the 16th century, we can understand its origin, dissemi [...] nation, and transformation in maritime culture. Sailors and officers participated in the construction of ritual, full of significance for the professional life of men working at sea. The sources used here are basically travel narratives from the period in question.

Jaime, Rodrigues.

340

Los orígenes del modelo de codificación entre los siglos xix y xx en Europa, con particular atención al caso italiano / The origines of the model of codification between the 19th and 20th Centuries in Europe, with a special focus on the Italian experience  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Resumen Entre el final del siglo xvii y el comienzo del siglo xix se configura un modelo de codificación (unificación del sujeto de derecho, completitud, no hetero-integrabilidad, neta innovación normativa, sistemática) que se mantuvo sustancialmente estable hasta el siglo xx. En este artículo el au [...] tor analiza su origen, el contexto de cultura jurídica, sus variadas articulaciones en las diferentes disciplinas. Se examina, en particular, en cuanto emblemática, la experiencia italiana. Igualmente, se propone una bibliografía esencial con base en las mayores y más recientes contribuciones histórico-jurídicas. Abstract in english Abstract Between the end of the 17th and beginning of the 19th centuries develops a model of codification, which is characterized by unification of legal person, completeness, prohibition of integration by subsidiary sources of law, clear legal innovation and system. It remained essentially stable u [...] ntil the 20th century. This article analyses the origins of this model, its background of legal culture and various structures in the different disciplines. Particular attention is paid to the Italian experience due to its peculiarity. Furthermore, an essential bibliography, based on the leading and latest legal-historical contributions, is offered.

Riccardo, Ferrante.

2013-12-01

 
 
 
 
341

Les trajectoires archivées des experts de la modernisation rurale alpine (XIXe-XXe siècles Exploring the archives on the trajectories of 19th and 20th century experts in rural Alpine modernization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cet article propose une résolution historienne de la question des parcours individuels dans leurs contextes, inscrite dans l'historiographie des études prosopographiques visant à saisir les caractéristiques sociales d’un groupe par le biais d’une comparaison des itinéraires biographiques qui le constitue. Opérant un détour méthodologique et épistémologique, elle se retourne vers l’opération historiographique telle qu’a pu la définir Paul Ricoeur, et le processus d’enquête tel qu’en rend compte Jean-Claude Passeron. Il s’agit de présenter un usage possible des bases de données relationnelles en histoire qui ne se limite pas à faciliter la décomposition des sources en évènements biographiques. Conservant la lieutenance des informations extraites envers le document historique, l’outil peut être mobilisé dans la perspective d’une reconstitution des rapports individuels qui président à la formation et la conservation de chaque type d’archive. L'étude prend alors pour objet les trajectoires d'individus amenés à se reconnaître et/ou à être reconnus comme les experts de la modernisation agricole des Alpes. La politique de Restauration des Terrains de Montagne de la fin du XIXe siècle dans les Alpes occidentales françaises et la politique de Reconstitution agricole après la Seconde Guerre mondiale sur le Plateau du Vercors, s’effectuent toutes les deux sur la base d’enquêtes menées par des experts, produisant ainsi les archives à partir desquelles se dessinent les trajectoires des individus.The purpose of this contribution is to suggest a historian’s way of dealing with individual careers and social context in the past. The main historical background is rooted in prosopographic studies that arrived from the United-States in the mid-1970s. We focus on social groups, using the comparative method to grasp their social characteristics. After a theoretical detour through Paul Ricœur’s historiography and Jean-Claude Passeron’s survey process, we present possible relational databases, not restricted to breaking historical sources down into series of biographical events. Fieldwork concerned a specific social group bringing together individuals who figure as experts of modernization in the rural Alpine world. Both politics of mountain reforestation at the end of 19th century, and of farm reconstruction after World War II produced many surveys, thanks to which experts’ trajectories, rather than being predetermined careers, can be reconstituted.

Sylvain Brunier

2010-07-01

342

Migraciones internas en España durante el siglo XX: un nuevo eje para el estudio de las desigualdades sociales en salud / Internal migration in Spain in the 20th century: a new focus for the study of social inequalities in health  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Catalunya y Euskadi recibieron durante el siglo XX importantes contingentes de inmigración del resto de España. El objetivo es analizar las desigualdades en salud según el lugar de nacimiento (población autóctona y nacida en otras comunidades autónomas). Métodos: Estudio transversal sobre [...] población no institucionalizada de 50 a 79 años de edad, con datos de las encuestas de salud de Catalunya 2006 (n=5.483) y de Euskadi 2007 (n=3.424). Se utilizaron modelos log-binomiales para calcular las razones de prevalencia (RP) de mala salud percibida según el lugar de nacimiento, estratificadas por sexo y clase social, y ajustadas sucesivamente por edad, clase social y nivel de estudios. Resultados Las personas procedentes de otras comunidades autónomas valoraban peor su salud que las autóctonas, tanto en Euskadi (RP ajustada por edad en hombres de 1,30, intervalo de confianza del 95% [IC95%] 1,11-1,54; y en mujeres RP de 1,42 e IC95% de 1,25-1,62) como en Catalunya (en hombres RP 1,41 e IC95% de 1,26-1,62; en mujeres RP de 1,25 e IC95% de 1,16-1,35). Las RP se redujeron, pero permanecieron significativas tras ajustar por clase social y nivel de estudios, y estratificando por clase social manual y no manual. Conclusiones: En ambas comunidades existen desigualdades en salud en detrimento de la población procedente del resto de España, que constituye alrededor de la mitad de la población en las cohortes de edad estudiadas. Futuros estudios deberían explorar la persistencia de estas desigualdades en otros indicadores de salud y su reproducción en las segundas generaciones, así como identificar puntos de entrada para políticas preventivas. Abstract in english Objective: Catalonia and the Basque Country received substantial immigration quotas from the rest of Spain during the twentieth century. This study aimed to analyze inequalities in health by birthplace (the population born in the same region or other autonomous regions) in these two geographical are [...] as. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in the non-institutionalized population aged 50 to 79 years, with data from the health surveys of Catalonia 2006 (n=5,483) and the Basque Country 2007 (n=3,424). We used log-binomial models to estimate the prevalence ratios (PR) of poor self-rated health by birthplace, stratified by sex and social class, and successively adjusted for age, social class and educational attainment. Results: Immigrants from other autonomous regions had poorer self-rated health than the native-born population, both in the Basque Country (age-adjusted PR in men 1.30, 95% CI 1.11-1.54; women 1.42, 95% CI 1.25-1.62,) and in Catalonia (PR in men 1.41, 95% CI 1.26-1.62; PR in women 1.25, 95% CI 1.16-1.35). PRs were reduced but remained significant after adjustment for social class and educational attainment and stratification by manual or non-manual social class. Conclusions: In both communities there are health inequalities that are detrimental to the immigrant population from the rest of Spain, which constitutes approximately half of the population in the studied age cohorts. Future studies should explore the persistence of these inequalities in other health indicators and their reproduction in second generations, and identify entry points for preventive policies.

Unai, Martín; Davide, Malmusi; Amaia, Bacigalupe; Santiago, Esnaola.

2012-02-01

343

Migraciones internas en España durante el siglo XX: un nuevo eje para el estudio de las desigualdades sociales en salud / Internal migration in Spain in the 20th century: a new focus for the study of social inequalities in health  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Catalunya y Euskadi recibieron durante el siglo XX importantes contingentes de inmigración del resto de España. El objetivo es analizar las desigualdades en salud según el lugar de nacimiento (población autóctona y nacida en otras comunidades autónomas). Métodos: Estudio transversal sobre [...] población no institucionalizada de 50 a 79 años de edad, con datos de las encuestas de salud de Catalunya 2006 (n=5.483) y de Euskadi 2007 (n=3.424). Se utilizaron modelos log-binomiales para calcular las razones de prevalencia (RP) de mala salud percibida según el lugar de nacimiento, estratificadas por sexo y clase social, y ajustadas sucesivamente por edad, clase social y nivel de estudios. Resultados Las personas procedentes de otras comunidades autónomas valoraban peor su salud que las autóctonas, tanto en Euskadi (RP ajustada por edad en hombres de 1,30, intervalo de confianza del 95% [IC95%] 1,11-1,54; y en mujeres RP de 1,42 e IC95% de 1,25-1,62) como en Catalunya (en hombres RP 1,41 e IC95% de 1,26-1,62; en mujeres RP de 1,25 e IC95% de 1,16-1,35). Las RP se redujeron, pero permanecieron significativas tras ajustar por clase social y nivel de estudios, y estratificando por clase social manual y no manual. Conclusiones: En ambas comunidades existen desigualdades en salud en detrimento de la población procedente del resto de España, que constituye alrededor de la mitad de la población en las cohortes de edad estudiadas. Futuros estudios deberían explorar la persistencia de estas desigualdades en otros indicadores de salud y su reproducción en las segundas generaciones, así como identificar puntos de entrada para políticas preventivas. Abstract in english Objective: Catalonia and the Basque Country received substantial immigration quotas from the rest of Spain during the twentieth century. This study aimed to analyze inequalities in health by birthplace (the population born in the same region or other autonomous regions) in these two geographical are [...] as. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in the non-institutionalized population aged 50 to 79 years, with data from the health surveys of Catalonia 2006 (n=5,483) and the Basque Country 2007 (n=3,424). We used log-binomial models to estimate the prevalence ratios (PR) of poor self-rated health by birthplace, stratified by sex and social class, and successively adjusted for age, social class and educational attainment. Results: Immigrants from other autonomous regions had poorer self-rated health than the native-born population, both in the Basque Country (age-adjusted PR in men 1.30, 95% CI 1.11-1.54; women 1.42, 95% CI 1.25-1.62,) and in Catalonia (PR in men 1.41, 95% CI 1.26-1.62; PR in women 1.25, 95% CI 1.16-1.35). PRs were reduced but remained significant after adjustment for social class and educational attainment and stratification by manual or non-manual social class. Conclusions: In both communities there are health inequalities that are detrimental to the immigrant population from the rest of Spain, which constitutes approximately half of the population in the studied age cohorts. Future studies should explore the persistence of these inequalities in other health indicators and their reproduction in second generations, and identify entry points for preventive policies.

Unai, Martín; Davide, Malmusi; Amaia, Bacigalupe; Santiago, Esnaola.

2012-02-01

344

First Cirulating Beams (20th November 2009 onwards)  

CERN Multimedia

Following the "splash" events of 6th/7th November the time has come to circulate the proton beams all around the LHC. This started in the early evening (Geneva time) on Friday 20th November and by midnight the beam had been circulated in both directions around the ring. Within a couple of days beam lifetimes were up to several hours, both beams were circulating at the same time, beams had been ramped to higher energies and first collisions (at 900 GeV centre of mass) had taken place.

Collaboration, CMS

2009-01-01

345

BOSQUES Y AGRICULTURA: UNA MIRADA A LOS LÍMITES HISTÓRICOS DE SUSTENTABILIDAD DE LOS BOSQUES ARGENTINOS EN UN CONTEXTO DE LA EXPLOTACIÓN CAPITALISTA EN EL SIGLO XX / FORESTS AND AGRICULTURE: AN OVERVIEW OF THE HISTORICAL LIMITS OF SUSTAINABILITY OF ARGENTINEAN FORESTS WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF 20TH CENTURY CAPITALIST EXPLOITATION  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Hacia fines del siglo XIX había en Argentina más de 100 millones de hectáreas de bosques, montes y selvas originales. En menos de medio siglo el país perdió más de dos tercios de su patrimonio forestal autóctono. Hoy le quedan menos de 33 millones de hectáreas forestales nativas. La explotación de e [...] sta extraordinaria riqueza forestal Argentina es el punto de partida del análisis histórico que aquí se propone aportar una mirada desde la perspectiva histórico-ambiental referida a la evolución de la explotación forestal en el siglo XX y su relación con la expansión del modelo de agricultura capitalista. El objetivo central será, entonces, el estudio de este proceso deforestador en el contexto de su incorporación al mercado y la relación que se establece entre el mismo y la expansión de la frontera agrícola, su transformación artificial, conflictos, grados de especialización, racionalidad, interacción y el deterioro progresivo de los recursos forestales. Abstract in english At the end of the 19th century, there were in Argentina 160 million hectares of natural forests, mountains and original jungles. In less than half a century, the country lost more than two-thirds of its aboriginal forests. Currently, the country has less than 33 million hectares of native forests. T [...] he exploitation of this extraordinary Argentinean forest wealth is the starting point of this historical analysis that intends to study, from an environmental history perspective, the evolution of forest exploitation in the 20th century and its relation to the expansion of the capitalist agricultural model. The main objective of the text is centered on the study of the deforestation process within the context of its participation in the market and the relation between said phenomenon and the agricultural frontier expansion, its artificial transformation, conflicts, specialization levels, rationality, interaction and the deterioration of forest resources.

Adrián, Zarrilli.

2008-06-01

346

La dimensión geopolítica y económica del petróleo Venezolano en las primeras decadas del siglo XX y su repercusión en el Estado Cojedes / The geopolitical and economic dimension of Venezuelan oil in the first decades of the 20th Century and its repercussion in Cojedes State  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este trabajo parte de una visión de los antecedentes y los momentos iniciales de la actividad petrolera en Venezuela, adentrándose en su evolución a lo largo de las primeras dos décadas del siglo XX, su vinculación con los tentáculos internacionales y su respectiva repercusión en el espectro polític [...] o interno. Se aborda el nacimiento de la legislación petrolera y su evolución a corto plazo, impacto y consecuencias para el país, así como la influencia de las Compañías petroleras en la orientación de la misma en función de sus intereses. Para la mejor comprensión de este aspecto se analizan los vínculos del capital internacional con el régimen gomecista y su papel en el sostenimiento del mismo a partir de una connivencia de mutuos intereses. Por último se ofrece el abordaje relacionado con la política petrolera desarrollada en la tercera década del siglo XX, donde destaca la apertura y el otorgamiento de concesiones a diferentes sectores económicos, entre los que sobresalen los terratenientes y personajes vinculados al régimen, produciéndose una “fiebre petrolera” que se sintió en todo el país, llegando a tocar áreas con escasas posibilidades para el desarrollo de la industria petrolera, como es el caso de la región del estado Cojedes. Abstract in english This study begins with a vision of the background and the initial moments of oil activity in Venezuela, and follows its evolution during the first two decades of the 20th century, its connection with international tentacles and their respective repercussion in the internal political scene. It deals [...] with the beginnings of oil legislation and its short term evolution, its impact and consequences for the country, and also the influence of the oil companies in their orientation of legislation in function of their own interests. In order to better comprehend this aspect there is an analysis of the relationship between international capital and the Gomez regime and its role in sustaining that government using the connivance of mutual interests. Finally it scrutinizes the oil policy developed in the third decade of the 20th century, emphasizing the opening and granting of concessions to different economic sectors, where there is a notable presence of owners of large estates and persons related to the regimen, producing an “oil fever” that was felt in all the country, even touching areas with few possibilities of development within the oil industry, as is the case of the region of Cojedes State.

Argenis, Agüero.

2012-12-01

347

El significado del silencio entre moradores de La Castañeda en los albores del siglo XX: Consideraciones metodológicas para su tratamiento / The Meaning of Silence among La Castañeda Inhabitants in the Turning of the 20th Century: Methodological Considerations for its Approach  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El trabajo se acerca al problema del silencio en una exploración histórica a partir del análisis crítico del discurso. Con base en los expedientes clínicos de tres moradores del Manicomio General de la Ciudad de México que transitaron por él en la primera década de su funcionamiento (1910-1920) en c [...] alidad de detenidos, se introduce el concepto de silencio como entidad dotada de sentido y con estructura de significante y significado. Se propone el tratamiento del silencio como un discurso que relaciona a los individuos con su entorno y que desplaza con ello el interés hacia su calidad metonímica, representada por acciones e interacciones sujetas a las posiciones diferenciadas en la estructura institucional del manicomio, en vez de concebirlo como ausencia de palabras y de subjetividad. Abstract in english This paper faces the problem of silence using a critical discourse analysis based on the clinical records of three inhabitants under arrest that lived at Mexico's City General Madhouse at the beginning of the 20th century, in the first ten years of its operation (1910-1920). The concept of silence i [...] s introduced as an entity full of meaning and as a sign in itself. It is therefore treated as a discourse that binds individuals with their environment, enhancing its metonymic quality, represented by actions and interactions subdued to the differential positions occupied in the institutional structure, instead of conceiving it as absence of words and subjectivity.

Alicia, Llamas Martínez Garza.

2013-12-01

348

A fonte da juventude brasileira: eugenia e saúde nos primórdios do século XX - doi: 10.4025/dialogos.v9i2.156 The brazilian youth´s fountain: eugenics and health at turn of the 20th century - doi: 10.4025/dialogos.v9i2.156  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O presente artigo traz como questão central a análise dos discursos médicos em torno da eugenia e do rejuvenescimento no início do século XX, no Brasil. Pretende sublinhar a participação brasileira num projeto de elevação racial e de construção de uma nação superior, quer por meio do controle dos chamados fracos e degenerados, quer pela possibilidade que se dizia abrir na reconstituição física, mental e moral de parte de sua população. Nesse sentido aqui se estabelece um diálogo com estudos atuais sobre a noção de saúde e as permanências históricas em torno da idéia de rejuvenescimento e da busca de um “novo homem” geneticamente modificado como símbolo da saúde da população.
The central issue of the present article is the analysis of medical discourse on eugenics and rejuvenation at the turn of the 20th century in Brazil. It intends to emphasize Brazilian participation in a project involving racial elevation and the construction of a superior nation, either, by controlling the so-called weak and degenerates, or by reconstituting part of its population physically, mentally, and morally. In this sense, a dialogue is established herein with current studies on the notion of health and historical continuities with respect to the idea of rejuvenation and the search for a genetically modified ‘new man’ as a symbol of the entire population’s health.

André Mota

2010-05-01

349

Os hotéis na cidade de São Paulo na primeira década do século XX: diversidade no tamanho, na localização e nos serviços / Hotels in São Paulo City in the first decade of the 20th century: diversity in their size, location and services  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Por meio da análise de três estabelecimentos de hospedagem de dimensões distintas na década de 1900, este texto ressalta a heterogeneidade dos hotéis da cidade de São Paulo no período. Seguindo os inventários post mortem de proprietários de hotéis localizados no largo São Bento, na rua Líbero Badaró [...] e na avenida Rangel Pestana, esta última no bairro do Brás, o artigo possibilita apreender a variedade dos equipamentos e serviços existentes, bem como a diversidade dos grupos aos quais pertenciam os donos desses estabelecimentos. Abstract in english Through the analysis of three hotel establishments of different sizes in the first decade of the 20th century, this article aims to highlight the heterogeneity of hotels in São Paulo City at the time. Using the post-mortem inventories of hotel owners located in Largo São Bento, Rua Líbero Badaró and [...] Avenida Rangel Pestana (the latter of which is in the district of Brás), the article displays the variety of the equipment and services made available at that time, as well as the diversity of people who owned such enterprises.

Lucília, Siqueira.

350

Paradoxos da identidade: a política de orientação sexual no século XX / Paradoxes de l'identite: la politique de l'orientation sexuelle au XXè siecle / Paradoxes of identity: sexual orientation politics in thr 20th. century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Trabalhando com a perspectiva do construcionismo social sobre a sexualidade, este artigo tem por objetivo problematizar o surgimento das identidades sexuais modernas. Identifico, por um lado, a "invenção" da homossexualidade (e, portanto, da heterossexualidade) na produção discursiva da sociedade vi [...] toriana. Por outro lado, discuto a forma em que essa nova categoria torna-se base de uma luta política que reivindica a diversidade sexual, enfocando principalmente a evolução de políticas de orientação sexual na sociedade norte-americana do século XX. Abstract in english This article works from the perspective of social constructivism on sexuality with the aim of discussing the emergence of modern "sexual identities". I identify, on the one hand, the "invention" of homosexuality (and, consequently, of heterosexuality) in the discursive production of Victorian societ [...] y. On the other hand, I discuss the form in which this new category becomes the basis of a political strife that vindicates sexual diversity, focusing mainly on the evolution of sexual orientation politics in 20th. century North American society.

Míriam, Adelman.

2000-06-01

351

Wind energy developments in the 20th century  

Science.gov (United States)

Wind turbine systems of the past are reviewed and wind energy is reexamined as a future source of power. Various phases and objectives of the Wind Energy Program are discussed. Conclusions indicate that wind generated energy must be considered economically competitive with other power production methods.

Vargo, D. J.

1974-01-01

352

20th century intraseasonal Asian monsoon dynamics viewed from Isomap  

Science.gov (United States)

The Asian summer monsoon is a high-dimensional and highly nonlinear phenomenon involving considerable moisture transport towards land from the ocean, and is critical for the whole region. We have used daily ECMWF reanalysis (ERA-40) sea-level pressure (SLP) anomalies on the seasonal cycle, over the region 50-145° E, 20° S-35° N, to study the nonlinearity of the Asian monsoon using Isomap. We have focused on the two-dimensional embedding of the SLP anomalies for ease of interpretation. Unlike the unimodality obtained from tests performed in empirical orthogonal function space, the probability density function, within the two-dimensional Isomap space, turns out to be bimodal. But a clustering procedure applied to the SLP data reveals support for three clusters, which are identified using a three-component bivariate Gaussian mixture model. The modes are found to appear similar to active and break phases of the monsoon over South Asia in addition to a third phase, which shows active conditions over the western North Pacific. Using the low-level wind field anomalies, the active phase over South Asia is found to be characterised by a strengthening and an eastward extension of the Somali jet. However during the break phase, the Somali jet is weakened near southern India, while the monsoon trough in northern India also weakens. Interpretation is aided using the APHRODITE gridded land precipitation product for monsoon Asia. The effect of large-scale seasonal mean monsoon and lower boundary forcing, in the form of ENSO, is also investigated and discussed. The outcome here is that ENSO is shown to perturb the intraseasonal regimes, in agreement with conceptual ideas.

Hannachi, A.; Turner, A. G.

2013-10-01

353

20th century intraseasonal Asian monsoon dynamics viewed from Isomap  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Asian summer monsoon is a high-dimensional and highly nonlinear phenomenon involving considerable moisture transport towards land from the ocean, and is critical for the whole region. We have used daily ECMWF reanalysis (ERA-40) sea-level pressure (SLP) anomalies on the seasonal cycle, over the region 50–145° E, 20° S–35° N, to study the nonlinearity of the Asian monsoon using Isomap. We have focused on the two-dimensional embedding of the SLP anomalies for ease of interpretation. ...

Hannachi, A.; Turner, A. G.

2013-01-01

354

Improving Learning by Discussing Controversies in 20th Century Physics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Textbooks rarely emphasize how controversial some physics theories were at the time of their proposal. Makes the case that useful classroom debate can be generated by considering the controversy that arose over models of the atom such as Rutherford's and Bohr's, and ideas about fractional charges put forward by Millikan and arising from quark…

Niaz, Mansoor; Rodriguez, Maria A.

2002-01-01

355

The history of 20th century malaria control in Peru.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malaria has been part of Peruvian life since at least the 1500s. While Peru gave the world quinine, one of the first treatments for malaria, its history is pockmarked with endemic malaria and occasional epidemics. In this review, major increases in Peruvian malaria incidence over the past hundred years are described, as well as the human factors that have facilitated these events, and concerted private and governmental efforts to control malaria. Political support for malaria control has varied and unexpected events like vector and parasite resistance have adversely impacted morbidity and mortality. Though the ready availability of novel insecticides like DDT and efficacious medications reduced malaria to very low levels for a decade after the post eradication era, malaria reemerged as an important modern day challenge to Peruvian public health. Its reemergence sparked collaboration between domestic and international partners towards the elimination of malaria in Peru. PMID:24001096

Griffing, Sean M; Gamboa, Dionicia; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam

2013-01-01

356

Dissemination of Religious Authority in 20th Century Indonesia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The diversification of religious authority in Indonesia reflects not only the variety of Islamic orientation of religious communities in Indonesia but also shows the inability of the old religious authority to respond the increasing problems that the Indonesian Muslims communities have to deal with. Radical Muslims including Imam Samudra clearly does not show any respect to scholars/ulama such as the NU ulama, because, to him, they are unable to properly respond the suffering of the Muslims community in countries such as Iraq and Afghanistan. To him, the only authoritative ulama, whom Muslims should follow, are the ulama in the frontier (ulama mujahid.Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v13i1.580

Fuad Jabali

2006-04-01

357

Dissemination of Religious Authority in 20th Century Indonesia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The diversification of religious authority in Indonesia reflects not only the variety of Islamic orientation of religious communities in Indonesia but also shows the inability of the old religious authority to respond the increasing problems that the Indonesian Muslims communities have to deal with. Radical Muslims including Imam Samudra clearly does not show any respect to scholars/ulama such as the NU ulama, because, to him, they are unable to properly respond the sufferin...

Fuad Jabali

2006-01-01

358

Education of Chinese Muslims: Changes in the 20th Century.  

Science.gov (United States)

The word Islam means submission, as in "submission to the will of God." Islam in China has been propagated over the past 1,300 years primarily among the people now known as "Hui." Hui teaching (Hui jiao) was the general term once used in China for Islam. The Hui are unique among the 55 identified minority nationalities in China in that they are…

Chiang, Linda H.

359

Choral singing in the 19th and 20th Centuries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since Josep Anselm Clavé created choral singing in Catalonia in 1850, it has become one element of identification of Catalan culture. When the “Orfeó Català” was set up in 1891 it generated an associative movement that was fundamental to the cultural life of the country thanks to the creation of the “Germanor dels Orfeons de Catalunya” (Brotherhood of Catalan Choral Societies, 1917. The Spanish Civil War put a temporary brake on this huge undertaking, but there was arecovery during the first decades of Franco’s regime, when it became not just a musical activity, but also an excuse to give a cultural cohesion to the country through the creation of federative bodies, encouraging gatherings and activities. As well as Clavé, there were other people of note, such as Lluís Millet, Joan Balcells, Antoni Pérez Moya, Enric Ribó, Oriol Martorell, Manuel Cabero, Pep Prats, Jordi Casas, Pep Vila or Pere Artís in the field of the study and spreading of the movement.

Xosé Aviñoa

2009-01-01

360

20th century intraseasonal Asian monsoon dynamics viewed from Isomap  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Asian summer monsoon is a high-dimensional and highly nonlinear phenomenon involving considerable moisture transport towards land from the ocean, and is critical for the whole region. We have used daily ECMWF reanalysis (ERA-40 sea-level pressure (SLP anomalies on the seasonal cycle, over the region 50–145° E, 20° S–35° N, to study the nonlinearity of the Asian monsoon using Isomap. We have focused on the two-dimensional embedding of the SLP anomalies for ease of interpretation. Unlike the unimodality obtained from tests performed in empirical orthogonal function space, the probability density function, within the two-dimensional Isomap space, turns out to be bimodal. But a clustering procedure applied to the SLP data reveals support for three clusters, which are identified using a three-component bivariate Gaussian mixture model. The modes are found to appear similar to active and break phases of the monsoon over South Asia in addition to a third phase, which shows active conditions over the western North Pacific. Using the low-level wind field anomalies, the active phase over South Asia is found to be characterised by a strengthening and an eastward extension of the Somali jet. However during the break phase, the Somali jet is weakened near southern India, while the monsoon trough in northern India also weakens. Interpretation is aided using the APHRODITE gridded land precipitation product for monsoon Asia. The effect of large-scale seasonal mean monsoon and lower boundary forcing, in the form of ENSO, is also investigated and discussed. The outcome here is that ENSO is shown to perturb the intraseasonal regimes, in agreement with conceptual ideas.

A. Hannachi

2013-10-01