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1

Immigration and crime in early 20th century America  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Research on crime in the late 20th century has consistently shown, that despite the public rhetoric, immigrants have lower rates of involvement in criminal activity than natives. The earliest studies of immigration and crime conducted at the beginning of the 20th century produced similar conclusions...

Moehling, Carolyn; Piehl, Anne Morrison

2

Healing after disasters in early-20th-century Texas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This historical study analyzes 2 disasters in Texas in the early 20th century: the 1937 school explosion in New London and the 1947 Texas City ship explosion. Disaster narratives and commemoration activities are examined as means of healing and restoration after a catastrophic event. Specifically, this article discusses contextual factors of time and place, Coastal and East Texas between 1937 and 1947, and shows how these factors shaped the ways in which people made sense of their disaster experiences. This included not only the influence of geography but also economics, social position, racial characterizations, and religious beliefs. The article also considers conflicting and biased factors that can occur regarding time and place and how these factors influenced narrative constructions.

Wall BM

2008-07-01

3

Financial Market Discipline in Early 20th Century Mexico  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We test for the presence of market discipline in the banking sector in early 20th century Mexico. Using a panel of financial data from note-issuing banks between 1905 and 1910, we examine whether bank fundamentals influenced the pattern of withdrawals. When we do not control for exit, our estimation suggests that fundamentals were not a significant determinant of depositor behavior. Instead, bank specific fixed effects and systemic risk seem to have been the most important determinants of net changes in deposits. However this period included the banking crisis of 1907, and the subsequent exit of several banks, indicating that a sample selection bias may exist. Our results change substantially when we use a two step estimator to take this bias into account. We show that fundamentals were indeed an important determinant of bank withdrawals in this period, clearly indicating the existence of market discipline.

Centro De; Investigacin Econmica; Astrid Luce; Col Hroes De Padierna; Astrid Luce Jordan

4

Exploring 20th Century London  

Science.gov (United States)

From the expansion of the Underground to the waves of new arrivals from the British colonies, London was greatly transformed through the 20th century. Recently, several London institutions, including the Museum of London, combed through their respective resources to create this interactive exhibit and archive that would tell visitors a bit about the city's evolution during those 100 years. The materials can be viewed through three sections: "Timeline", "Themes", and "Places". In the "Timeline" section, visitors can browse through featured objects and also learn about major events during the period. Moving on, the "Themes" area organizes the city's recent past into topical areas that focus on art and design, the built environment, ethnic communities, and leisure activities. The "Places" section features a clickable map of London's boroughs which reveals artifacts from each of these respective areas.

5

Real Style: Riegl and Early 20th Century Central European Art  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Originally published in Centropa: Journal of Central European Art and Architecture 5, n. 1 (January 2005): 16-25. Kimberly A. Smith discusses the ways in which the understanding of style was articulated by intellectuals working in the late nineteenth century, primarily in Germany and Austria, and the epistemological repercussions of this shift in thinking for both the theory and practice of central European art in the years before World War I. Smith focuses in particular on the writings of Alois Riegl, in which this approach to thinking about style came to its most influential fruition, and proposes that Riegl’s conception of form had implications for artistic practice. Riegl’s methodological understanding of artistic form drew connections between morphological types and perceptions of reality, thereby altering the ways in which artists could conceive of aesthetic authenticity. Style itself could be seen as the harbinger of truth, opening up the possibility that any style might offer a genuine revelation of the real. Yet as Smith shows, the Rieglian theory of meaningful form may have encouraged an artistic pluralism that subverted the very Kunstwollen theory of historically unified style from which it sprung.

Kimberly A. Smith

2011-01-01

6

[Mexico's healthcare in the 20th century].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this article is to present Mexico's healthcare in the 20th century. This was a process that was based on illustrated rationalism, positivism and neopositivism. Knowledge and science used to veer away from all aspects of charity and beneficence. Liberal legacy were favourable to government stocks and the state managed to raise a considerable amount of financial and human resources.

Fajardo Ortiz G

2002-01-01

7

Conservation of 19th and early 20th century oil paintings - in situ studies using the environmental scanning electron microscope  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Most 19th and early 20th century oil paintings suffer from fading, discolouration, pitting, cracking swelling or the loss of material due to the embrittlement or the extreme friability of the paint layers. As a consequence of this deterioration, they require special care by experienced conservators to ensure their continued preservation. These aging processes are a consequence of (i) chemical interactions between pigments, oils and binders used by the artist and (ii) the action of air, water and ultra-violet irradiation on these materials. The influence of chemical interactions is pertinent for paintings of this era as the industrial revolution brought forth new colourful chemicals that were quickly adopted as pigments with varying success. The conservation of oil paintings requires an understanding of the individual structure of each work of art and what mechanisms underlie its deterioration. This generally involves the need for (i) correct identification of the pigments used by the artist, (ii) a detailed knowledge of the chemical interaction between these pigments, (iii) an understanding of the artist's method of mixing colours and laying paint on the canvas and (iv) a detailed knowledge of the role of the atmosphere, moisture and UV irradiation on painting deterioration. In addition to dealing with the deterioration that occurs within the painting, conservators spend a large portion of their time correcting earlier failed conservation attempts. Most oil paintings from this era are valuable from an artistic or historic perspective and only an extremely small sample may be excised from the work, hence microscopy is an indispensable technique in art preservation. Optical microscopy is the core analysis technique used, however, in recent years a limited number of conservators have begun to use Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) technology to examine paint layers to take advantage of the accurate and rapid identification of elements present in layers of paints it allows. X-ray diffraction (XRD) can be used to ascertain pigments based on their crystal structure but this technique is generally ruled out due to the relatively large sample required for accurate identification. In this project techniques have been developed to examine the chemical interaction of pigments in oil paintings using the ESEM. The ultimate aim is to investigate these aging and degradation processes in situ under accelerated conditions using the controlled gas phase and temperature capabilities of this instrument. The ESEM also allows direct observation of the effects of sudden and slow changes in the relative humidity as well as the exposure to UV radiation on paint layers under controlled conditions. Other complementary techniques have been used to both characterise the pigments and linseed oils used in this work and to examine the chemical interactions in constructed paint layers. XRD has been used to characterise the dry pigments used in 19th and early 20th century oil paintings and GC-MS was used to characterize a range of linseed oils. Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Thermogravimetry have been used to study the drying kinetics of all the linseed oils used in this work on their own and in combination with pigments to establish the optimum conditions for ESEM analysis. Paint layers have been constructed using similar materials and methods as were used by oil painters in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Dry inorganic pigments of the type used in that era were obtained from an art supplier and chemical suppliers. Each pigment was ground in three types of linseed oil using the traditional muller and glass plate. These were applied in layers to glass slides to avoid influence from ground media or canvas and allowed to dry in the air and in an oven. Pigments that were known to interact strongly were placed in paint layers in direct contact with one another to encourage chemical interaction between the various pigments. In this paper, the key results to date of the present study will be reported. In addition, the practi

2003-01-01

8

Weyl geometry in late 20th century physics  

CERN Multimedia

Weyl's original scale geometry of 1918 ("purely infinitesimal geometry") was withdrawn from physical theory in the early 1920s. It had a comeback in the last third of the 20th century in different contexts: scalar tensor theories of gravity, foundations of physics (gravity, quantum mechanics), elementary particle physics, and cosmology. Here we survey the last two segments. It seems that Weyl geometry continues to have an open research potential for the foundations of physics after the turn of the century.

Scholz, Erhard

2011-01-01

9

Maltreatment of people with serious mental illness in the early 20th century: a focus on Nazi Germany and eugenics in America.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prejudice and stigma against people with mental illness can be seen throughout history. The worst instance of this prejudice was connected to the rise of the eugenics movement in the early 20th century. Although the Nazi German T-4 program of killing people with mental illness was the most egregious culmination of this philosophy, the United States has its own dark eugenics history-nearing a slippery slope all too similar to that of the Nazis. Mental health care clinicians need to examine this period to honor the memory of the victims of eugenics and to guarantee that nothing like this will ever happen again. PMID:23197125

Fischer, Bernard A

2012-12-01

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Maltreatment of people with serious mental illness in the early 20th century: a focus on Nazi Germany and eugenics in America.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Prejudice and stigma against people with mental illness can be seen throughout history. The worst instance of this prejudice was connected to the rise of the eugenics movement in the early 20th century. Although the Nazi German T-4 program of killing people with mental illness was the most egregious culmination of this philosophy, the United States has its own dark eugenics history-nearing a slippery slope all too similar to that of the Nazis. Mental health care clinicians need to examine this period to honor the memory of the victims of eugenics and to guarantee that nothing like this will ever happen again.

Fischer BA

2012-12-01

11

Socialising nurse probationers in the late 19th and early 20th centuries--relevance of historical reflection for modern policy makers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Primary source material related to St Mary's Hospital, Paddington and the London Homoeopathic Hospital, and St Marylebone and Kensington Infirmaries, from the late 19th to the early 20th century is examined. Descriptions of nurse probationers by matrons and sisters are analysed. Character traits rather than intellectual ability are stressed as important. More recent literature, from the 1970s till the present time, is examined to chart the shift in terms of prescription for nurse socialisation, with increasing stress on the nurse as 'knowledgeable doer'.

Lorentzon M

2003-07-01

12

In the laboratory of the Ghost-Baron: parapsychology in Germany in the early 20th century.  

Science.gov (United States)

During the early twentieth century the Munich-based psychiatrist Albert von Schrenck-Notzing constructed a parapsychological laboratory in his Karolinenplatz home. Furnished with a range of apparatus derived from the physical and behavioural sciences, the Baron's intention was to mimic both the outward form and disciplinary trajectory of contemporary experimental psychology, thereby legitimating the nascent field of parapsychology. Experimentation with mediums, those labile subjects who produced ectoplasm, materialisation and telekinesis, however, necessitated not only the inclusion of a range of spiritualist props, but the lackadaisical application of those checks and controls intended to prevent simulation and fraud. Thus Schrenck-Notzing's parapsychological laboratory with its stereoscopic cameras, galvanometers and medium cabinets was a strange coalescence of both the séance room and the lab, a hybrid space that was symbolic of the irresolvable epistemological and methodological problems at the heart of this aspiring science. PMID:19896715

Wolffram, Heather

2009-11-07

13

Australian Literature Database: A Collection of 18th, 19th and early 20th century Australian texts  

Science.gov (United States)

Part of the metasite of the Scholarly Electronic Text and Image Service (SETIS) at the University of Sydney Library, this site allows users to access hundreds of complete texts of literary and historical works written by Australians in the last three centuries. Included here are poems, short stories, novels, reference works, memoirs, historical narratives and documents, and much more. The texts can be browsed or searched with options allowing users to search or limit searches by date, publisher, author, title, genre, gender of author, or opening lines. A limited number of historically valuable texts are displayed in page image format; the rest are offered in standard .html. Since many of these texts can be difficult for students and researchers not on the southern continent to find, the database is all the more valuable to those doing work in this field.

14

Will coal survive the 20th century  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A brief review of the US coal industry is presented with particular reference to changes over the last twenty years made in response to changing social and political attitudes towards mining and the use of coal, and the introduction of regulatory legislation for safety, health and environmental quality. The effects of the oil crisis of the 1970's and the resulting reduction in demand due to energy conservation measures, and also the competition from nuclear energy in the early 1980s are highlighted. The impact of new technologies such as coal gasification integrated with combined cycle power plants, superconductors, fluidized-bed combustion and cogeneration are mentioned, as are transportation issues, labor relations and educational standards in the workforce.

Addington, J.H.

1987-11-01

15

Writing the history of psychiatry in the 20th century.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

As editors of the special issue, we try to summarize here the historiographic trends of the field.We argue that the field of research is accommodating the diversity of the institutional, social and political developments. But there is no narrative in sight which can explain the psychiatry of the 20th century, comparable to the authoritative coherence achieved for the 19th century. In contrast, the efforts to extend these narratives to the 20th century are largely missing the most impressive transformation of psychiatric treatment--and self-definition.

Hess V; Majerus B

2011-06-01

16

?????????? ????????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????? ? ????? XIX-?????? XX ????(Scandinavian missions in the materials of the Russian Orthodox magazines (from the late 19th and early 20th centuries))  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Russian Orthodox magazines - Pravoslavny Blagovestnik, Missio- nerskoe obozrenie, Amerikansky pravoslavny vestnik, and others - are important and interesting sources. These periodicals describe missionary activity in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Naturally, these magazines were primarily concerned with the missionary attempts of the "Great Powers". But the work of Scandinavian missions was also covered. The material can be divided into three categories: historical reviews, statistics, and so-called "missionary problems". The reviews deal with the history of all influential Scandinavian missionary organizations - The Norwegian Missionary Society, The Norwegian Covenant Mission, The Danish Missionary Society, The Church of Sweden Mission. The statistical material - the number of missionary organizations and missionaries, native assistants, converts, financial support - offers a chance to compare Scandinavian missionary activity on an international scale. At the turn of the 19th century the problems between missionaries and native inhabitants became very topical. These problems, too, were touched upon in Russian religious magazines. On the whole, the role of Scandinavian missions in the missionary movement was evaluated in an objective manner.

I. A. Garcev

1998-01-01

17

Manuscripts and Broadsheets. Narrative Genres and the Communication Circuit among Working-Class Youth in early 20th-Century Finland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article the hazy boundary between folklore and literature, orality and literacy is explored in relation to the individual and the community. How do people who belong to the first generation of active writers in their family and community express their own experiences through fictional narratives and the literary tradition? This question is explored in relation to the working-class youth in the small industrial community of Karkkila (Högfors)in southern Finland. The most important research materials are the editions of hand-written newspapers written by these young people from 1914 to 1925.My theoretical background is derived from both folklore studies and book history. Inspired by the research of Robert Darnton, I have outlined the communication circuit of the working-class youth during the early 20th century, discussing the position of the manuscript tradition (hand-written newspapers, ballad books, minutes) in relation to the printed texts(books, newspapers, broadsheets) and the oral tradition. In my article I focus on the narratives of love in the manuscripts written by the working-class youth. How do they work with the ideas and narrative genres and themes adopted from the printed media and the oral tradition? I outline fictionalization of personal experiences and localization of fictional, printed texts as two basic narrative strategies utilized in these processes.

Kirsti Salmi-Niklander

2006-01-01

18

Fox-hunting in the 20th century British culture  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper focuses on the character and position of fox hunting especially at the beginning of the 20th century in Great Britain. The main features, such as the participating social class, the etiquette and the whole atmosphere of the hunt, its rules and customs, and finally, the roles of participant...

Ko?ínková, Martina

19

Personal reminiscences of ophthalmology giants of the 20th century.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper records personal reminiscences of seven 20th century ophthalmologists who each in his own way metaphorically split the atom and, thereby, changed ophthalmology forever. In addition to their major contributions, they each shared some very desirable traits. They were gentlemen who were devoted to their families and their families to them.

Tasman W

2013-07-01

20

Spitsbergen landscape under 20th century climate change: Sorkapp Land.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A reaction of the European Arctic landscape to a climate change on the scale of a typical middle-sized region is outlined. A wide scope of the methods was used, first of all field mapping and observations. Glaciers are important in the Sørkapp Land landscape because they cover the majority of its territory and undergo quick recessions as a result of the 20th century warming. Glacial recession influence intensively: relief with Quaternary deposits, waters, animals, vegetation and soils. The most important landscape changes in the 20th century are: uplift of the equilibrium line altitude on glaciers by 100-200 m; large glacial recession in both surface and volume; significant decrease of the land area due to recession of tidewater glaciers; lengthening of the coastline, and especially of glacial cliffs; development of the land water network; start of the plant succession in areas abandoned by glaciers. No isostatic uplift has taken place in Sørkapp Land since the Little Ice Age.

Ziaja W

2004-08-01

 
 
 
 
21

Nutrition and food commodities in the 20th century.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nutrition in the 20th century is examined with respect to changes in the American diet due to changes in the economy and evolution from an agrarian to an industrialized society. The American farm family diet from two regions of the United States during the 1930s is studied on the basis of overall availability of food commodities. A discussion of the diet staples and differences in farm family health is presented and related to nutritional deficiencies. Beginning in the 1920s through the early 1930s dietary deficiencies became a major focus of public health officials in the United States. Identification of the cause of these human nutritional deficiencies prompted significant research by government agencies such as the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Drug Administration, and National Institutes of Health. Medical schools, universities, pharmaceutical corporations, and private institutions directed their resources into basic chemical research and clinical trials to assess the role of vitamins, minerals, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nutrients for improving human health and nutrition. Chemists played an important role in the discovery of vitamins, minerals, and essential nutrients, validating the efficacy through tedious clinical trials. They developed synthetic vitamins affording food manufacturers and pharmaceutical companies the opportunity to capitalize upon fortifying foods for consumers. The American chemist was also responsible for the development of commodities to maximize crop yield through pesticides and fertilizers.

Martini SA; Phillips M

2009-09-01

22

Constraining climate model parameters from observed 20th century changes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present revised probability density functions for climate model parameters (effective climate sensitivity, the rate of deep-ocean heat uptake, and the strength of the net aerosol forcing) that are based on climate change observations from the 20th century. First, we compare observed changes in surface, upper-air, and deep-ocean temperature changes against simulations of 20th century climate in which the climate model parameters were systematically varied. The estimated 90% range of effective climate sensitivity is 2-5 K but no corresponding upper bound can be placed on the equilibrium climate sensitivity. The net aerosol forcing strength for the 1980s has 90% bounds of -0.70 to -0.27 W/m2. The rate of deep-ocean heat uptake corresponds to an effective diffusivity, Kv , with a 90% range of 0.04-4.1 cm2/s. Second, we estimate the effective climate sensitivity and rate of deep-ocean heat uptake for 11 of the IPCC AR4 AOGCMs. By comparing against the acceptable combinations inferred from the observations, we conclude that the rates of deep-ocean heat uptake for the majority of AOGCMs lie above the observationally based median value. This implies a bias in the predictions inferred from the IPCC models alone

Forest, Chris E.; Stone, Peter H.; Sokolov, Andrei P. (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)). e-mail: ceforest@mit.edu

2008-07-01

23

Constraining climate model parameters from observed 20th century changes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present revised probability density functions for climate model parameters (effective climate sensitivity, the rate of deep-ocean heat uptake, and the strength of the net aerosol forcing) that are based on climate change observations from the 20th century. First, we compare observed changes in surface, upper-air, and deep-ocean temperature changes against simulations of 20th century climate in which the climate model parameters were systematically varied. The estimated 90% range of effective climate sensitivity is 2-5 K but no corresponding upper bound can be placed on the equilibrium climate sensitivity. The net aerosol forcing strength for the 1980s has 90% bounds of -0.70 to -0.27 W/m2. The rate of deep-ocean heat uptake corresponds to an effective diffusivity, K_v , with a 90% range of 0.04-4.1 cm2/s. Second, we estimate the effective climate sensitivity and rate of deep-ocean heat uptake for 11 of the IPCC AR4 AOGCMs. By comparing against the acceptable combinations inferred from the observations, we conclude that the rates of deep-ocean heat uptake for the majority of AOGCMs lie above the observationally based median value. This implies a bias in the predictions inferred from the IPCC models alone

Forest, Chris E.; Stone, Peter H.; Sokolov, Andrei P. (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (US)). e-mail: ceforest@mit.edu

2008-07-01

24

History of Constructivism in the 20th Century  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

notions, such as `constructive proof', `arbitrary number-theoretic function' are rejected. Statements involving quantifiers are finitistically interpreted interms of quantifier-free statements. Thus an existential statement 9xAx is regardedas a partial communication, to be supplemented by providing an x which satisfiesA. Establishing :8xAx finitistically means: providing a particular x such that Axis false.In this century, T. Skolem4was the first to contribute substantially to finitist4Thoralf Skolem 1887--1963History of constructivism in the 20th century 3mathematics; he showed that a fair part of arithmetic could be developed in acalculus without bound variables, and with induction over quantifier-free expressionsonly. Introduction of functions by primitive recursion is freely allowed (Skolem1923). Skolem does not present his results in a formal context, nor does he try todelimit precisely the extent of finitist reasoning.Since the idea of finitist reasoning ...

25

The expression of emotions in 20th century books.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We report here trends in the usage of "mood" words, that is, words carrying emotional content, in 20th century English language books, using the data set provided by Google that includes word frequencies in roughly 4% of all books published up to the year 2008. We find evidence for distinct historical periods of positive and negative moods, underlain by a general decrease in the use of emotion-related words through time. Finally, we show that, in books, American English has become decidedly more "emotional" than British English in the last half-century, as a part of a more general increase of the stylistic divergence between the two variants of English language.

Acerbi A; Lampos V; Garnett P; Bentley RA

2013-01-01

26

Modern Medicine Environment and Adaptation of Korean Trader for Medicinal Herbs From the Late 19th Century to the Early 20th Century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since the late 18th century, the Korean traditional medicine trade witnessed a steady growth. There were lots of stores which sold Korean medicinal herbs in Seoul and every major towns had at least one or more stores in Korea, which led to a subsequent growth of people involved in the trade. However, Korean medicine merchants encountered a new environment with the influx of western medicines after the Opening of Ports and the execution of modern medicine policies. Such change of atmosphere led the merchants to seek new breakthroughs. Some of the merchants found the answer in producing and selling patent medicine. The people in the industry had little knowledge of western medicine, so that they had little choice but to combine their experience of Korean medicine with whatever information they had about western counterpart. Such resolution generated a new kind of medicine known as patent medicine. Patent medicine businessmen observed the new medicine policies of the Korean Empire. Some visionary ones even sought to eagerly utilize the trademark system to secure the selling route. The Japanese colonial government strengthened the medicine policies. It revised the legislature and mobilized administrative powers to manage and control the industry. However, such colonial policies in the 1910s implicated certain limits due to its lack of understanding of Korean medicine industry. Also, the colonial government showed poor efforts in introducing modern medicine facilities and systems, so that the ground was set for the patent medicine business to flourish. Patent medicine enjoyed a high turnover. So, the entrepreneurs endeavored to promote the sales in whatever means necessary. The most basic form of advertisement was through the newspaper. Indirect promotion through newspaper articles, issuing medicine flyers, free gift draw, reputation of an influential expert were widely used for its sales. Consequently, patent medicine industry in the 1910s saw a healthy prosperity. One example of such golden days was the case of Hwapyungdangyakbabg(one of the biggest patent medicine companies), which won a third place along with Kyungsungbangjik, which was the top Korean company at that time, in the advertisement design contest hosted by the classified department of Dong-a Daily in 1926. But actually, a few Japanese medicine merchants led the industry. So prosperity of Korean medicine merchant had its limits.

YANG Jeongpil

2006-01-01

27

[Modern medicine environment and adaptation of Korean trader for medicinal herbs from the late 19th century to the early 20th century].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Since the late 18th century, the Korean traditional medicine trade witnessed a steady growth. There were lots of stores which sold Korean medicinal herbs in Seoul and every major towns had at least one or more stores in Korea, which led to a subsequent growth of people involved in the trade. However, Korean medicine merchants encountered a new environment with the influx of western medicines after the Opening of Ports and the execution of modern medicine policies. Such change of atmosphere led the merchants to seek new breakthroughs. Some of the merchants found the answer in producing and selling patent medicine. The people in the industry had little knowledge of western medicine, so that they had little choice but to combine their experience of Korean medicine with whatever information they had about western counterpart. Such resolution generated a new kind of medicine known as patent medicine. Patent medicine businessmen observed the new medicine policies of the Korean Empire. Some visionary ones even sought to eagerly utilize the trademark system to secure the selling route. The Japanese colonial government strengthened the medicine policies. It revised the legislature and mobilized administrative powers to manage and control the industry. However, such colonial policies in the 1910s implicated certain limits due to its lack of understanding of Korean medicine industry. Also, the colonial government showed poor efforts in introducing modern medicine facilities and systems, so that the ground was set for the patent medicine business to flourish. Patent medicine enjoyed a high turnover. So, the entrepreneurs endeavored to promote the sales in whatever means necessary. The most basic form of advertisement was through the newspaper. Indirect promotion through newspaper articles, issuing medicine flyers, free gift draw, reputation of an influential expert were widely used for its sales. Consequently, patent medicine industry in the 1910s saw a healthy prosperity. One example of such golden days was the case of Hwuapyungdangyakbabg (one of the biggest patent medicine companies), which won a third place along with Kyungsungbangjik, which was the top Korean company at that time, in the advertisement design contest hosted by the classified department of Dong-a Daily in 1926. But actually, a few Japanese medicine merchants led the industry. So prosperity of Korean medicine merchant had its limits.

Yang J

2006-12-01

28

The Top Ten Astronomical 'breakthroughs' of the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Astronomy was revolutionized in the 20th century. The electron was discovered in 1897 and this transformed spectroscopy and introduced plasma and magnetohydrodynamic physics and astro-chemistry. Einstein’s E = mc2, solved the problem of stellar energy generation and spawned the study of elemental nuclear synthesis. Large telescopes led to a boom in astronomical spectroscopic and photometric data collection, leading to such cornerstones as the Hertzprung-Russell diagram and the mass-luminosity relationship, and to the realization that the Universe contained a multitude of galaxies and was expanding. Radio astronomy was introduced and the advent of the space age saw the astronomical wavelength range expand into the ultraviolet, X-ray and gamma-ray regions, as well as the infrared and millimetre. We also startedwandering around roaming the Solar System instead of merely glimpsing its members from the bottom of our warm, turbulent atmosphere. Astronomical “breakthroughs” abounded. We have asked astronomers to select their “top ten” and these are listed and discussed in this paper.

Hughes, D. W.; de Grijs, Richard

2007-01-01

29

[The history of sleep research in the 20th century  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Not until the 19th century theories on sleep were based upon experimental findings in animal and humans. The so-called 'hypnotoxin theory' culminated, when Legendre and Piéron successfully induced sleep in a dog by transmission of cerebrospinal fluid from a dog deprived of sleep. The main discussion concerning the origin of sleep has been the question if sleep is a passive or an active state. Similarities with coma, the positive Babinski sign and pathoanatomical findings in patients who died after encephalitis lethargica were the arguments for the 'deafferentiation hypothesis'. Bremer's classical brainstem-transsections in cats confirmed this idea. Pavlov was the major representative of the idea that sleep was due to a general inhibition of the brain. Hess induced physiological sleep in cats by electrical stimulation of the diencephalon, proving the active nature of sleep. The introduction of the EEG in animals by Caton and in humans by Berger allowed for the first time the measurement of sleep depth without waking the sleeper. After discovery of the REM sleep periods by Aserinsky and Kleitman in 1953 and the demonstration of periodical sleep cycles by Dement and Kleitman, polysomnography with simultaneous whole night recording of EEG, EMG, electrooculogram and other physiological parameters was established as the major diagnostic tool in sleep disorders. One of the most important questions about the function of sleep is still unresolved. NREM sleep is believed to have a restorative function, whereas REM sleep might be involved in learning processes. According to the sleep interpretation of Sigmund Freud, the dream content represents endogenous wishes which cannot be expressed during wakefulness because of an internal 'sensor'. A more recent theory by Hobson explains the dreams by a very unspecific brainstem activity occurring during REM sleep which projects to the frontal brain and activates stored memory. The most important sleep disease of the 20th century is certainly the sleep-apnea syndrome. Charles Dickens described in his 'Pickwick Papers' subjects with this illness already 150 years ago. The pathogenetic significance of the apneas during sleep, however, were recognized in 1965 only by Gastaut and at the same time by Jung and Kuhlo. Treatment for insomniacs was restricted for many years to alcohol, opium and barbiturates. Following the horrible sequelae of thalidomide therapy in 1956, a more efficient treatment was available through the introduction of benzodiazepines after 1960.

Mathis J

1995-12-01

30

[20th century medical debate over venereal disease and prostitution  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the early twentieth century a wider debate took place about how Swedish society was to fight the spread of contagious venereal diseases and in 1910 a government committee had written a law proposal that would dramatically reform these measures previously, Swedish physicians had been united against any measures against these diseases that did not involve the regulation of prostitutes, but this consensus was slowly withering away in the early parts of the century. Female doctors and a younger generation of venereologists was drawing the conclusion that mandatory checks of only one out of two sexes was insufficient. This article reviews the debate regarding the regulation of prostitution that took place between conservative and liberal members in the Swedish Medical Association in 1911. It depicts a fierce discussion between members that still clung to nineteenth-century ideas of women as being prone to prostitution if left idle and unemployed, and liberal members that believed social injustices such as low wages laid behind women's decisions. The study gives an insight into the complexities of building the Swedish welfare state.

Lundberg A

2001-01-01

31

[20th century medical debate over venereal disease and prostitution].  

Science.gov (United States)

In the early twentieth century a wider debate took place about how Swedish society was to fight the spread of contagious venereal diseases and in 1910 a government committee had written a law proposal that would dramatically reform these measures previously, Swedish physicians had been united against any measures against these diseases that did not involve the regulation of prostitutes, but this consensus was slowly withering away in the early parts of the century. Female doctors and a younger generation of venereologists was drawing the conclusion that mandatory checks of only one out of two sexes was insufficient. This article reviews the debate regarding the regulation of prostitution that took place between conservative and liberal members in the Swedish Medical Association in 1911. It depicts a fierce discussion between members that still clung to nineteenth-century ideas of women as being prone to prostitution if left idle and unemployed, and liberal members that believed social injustices such as low wages laid behind women's decisions. The study gives an insight into the complexities of building the Swedish welfare state. PMID:11817395

Lundberg, A

2001-01-01

32

Serbian schools and teaching of Serbian language in Greece in the 20th century  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The topic of this work is Serbian schools and the teaching of Serbian language in Greece in the 20th century. During the first half of the 20th century the existence of Serbian people in Turkey (later in Greece) was acknowledged through school and church. Thanks to the Serbian schools, Serbs as an i...

Blagojevi? Gordana

33

Simulation of Daily Soil Moisture Content and Reconstruction of Drought Events from the Early 20th Century in Seoul, Korea, using a Hydrological Simulation Model, BROOK  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To understand day-to-day fluctuations in soil moisture content in Seoul, I simulated daily soil moisturecontent from 1908 to 2009 using long-term climatic precipitation and temperature data collected at the Surface SynopticMeteorological Station in Seoul for the last 98 years with a hydrological simulation model, BROOK. The output data setfrom the BROOK model allowed me to examine day-to-day fluctuations and the severity and duration of droughts in theSeoul area. Although the soil moisture content is highly dependent on the occurrence of precipitation, the pattern ofchanges in daily soil moisture content was clearly quite different from that of precipitation. Generally, there were severalphases in the dynamics of daily soil moisture content. The period from mid-May to late June can be categorized as theinitial period of decreasing soil moisture content. With the initiation of the monsoon season in late June, soil moisturecontent sharply increases until mid-July. From the termination of the rainy season in mid-July, daily soil moisture contentdecreases again. Highly stochastic events of typhoons from late June to October bring large amount of rain to the Koreanpeninsula, culminating in late August, and increase the soil moisture content again from late August to early September.From early September until early October, another sharp decrease in soil moisture content was observed. The periodfrom early October to mid-May of the next year can be categorized as a recharging period when soil moisture contentshows an increasing trend. It is interesting to note that no statistically significant increase in mean annual soil moisturecontent in Seoul, Korea was observed over the last 98 years. By simulating daily soil moisture content, I was also able toreconstruct drought phenomena to understand the severity and duration of droughts in Seoul area. During the periodfrom 1908 to 2009, droughts in the years 1913, 1979, 1939, and 2006 were categorized as ‘severe’ and those in 1988and 1982 were categorized as ‘extreme’. This information provides ecologists with further potential to interpret naturalphenomenon, including tree growth and the decline of tree species in Korea.

Eun-Shik Kim

2010-01-01

34

The history of blood transfusion prior to the 20th century--part 2.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although there are a number of descriptions of 'blood infusion' in antiquity, it was the publication of the discovery of the circulation of blood in 1628 by William Harvey and the work of Christopher Wren and Robert Boyle in 1663 on the infusion of different materials into dogs that paved the way to the possible practical attempts at actual blood transfusion. Although these early experiments, principally by Richard Lower in England and Jean Denis in France provided valuable information regarding inter-species incompatibility and the problems of blood coagulation, it was not until the work of James Blundell in the early part of the 19th century that blood transfusion was used as a means of blood replacement. However, blood transfusion was not to become an accepted therapeutic possibility until the discovery of practical anticoagulation and the ABO blood groups at the start of the 20th century.

Learoyd P

2012-12-01

35

The history of blood transfusion prior to the 20th century--part 2.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although there are a number of descriptions of 'blood infusion' in antiquity, it was the publication of the discovery of the circulation of blood in 1628 by William Harvey and the work of Christopher Wren and Robert Boyle in 1663 on the infusion of different materials into dogs that paved the way to the possible practical attempts at actual blood transfusion. Although these early experiments, principally by Richard Lower in England and Jean Denis in France provided valuable information regarding inter-species incompatibility and the problems of blood coagulation, it was not until the work of James Blundell in the early part of the 19th century that blood transfusion was used as a means of blood replacement. However, blood transfusion was not to become an accepted therapeutic possibility until the discovery of practical anticoagulation and the ABO blood groups at the start of the 20th century. PMID:23016954

Learoyd, P

2012-09-28

36

Observed and model simulated 20th century Arctic temperature variability: Canadian Earth System Model CanESM2  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present simulations of the 20th century Arctic temperature anomaly from the second generation Canadian Earth System Model (CanESM2). The new model couples together an atmosphere-ocean general circulation model, a land-vegetation model and terrestrial and oceanic interactive carbon cycle. It simulates well the observed 20th century Arctic temperature variability that includes the early and late 20th century warming periods and the intervening 1940–1970 period of substantial cooling. The addition of the land-vegetation model and the terrestrial and oceanic interactive carbon cycle to the coupled atmosphere-ocean model improves the agreement with observations from 1900–1970, however, it increases the overestimate of the post 1970 warming. In contrast the older generation coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models Canadian CanCM3 and NCAR/LANL CCSM3, used in the IPCC 2007 climate change assessment report, overestimate the rate of the 20th century Arctic warming by factor of two to three and they are unable to reproduce the observed 20th century Arctic climate variability.

P. Chylek; J. Li; M. K. Dubey; M. Wang; G. Lesins

2011-01-01

37

???????????? ?? ??????? ??????? ? ????????????? ????? ?? 20 ??? : The theology of the Divine energies in 20th century Orthodox thought  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The dissertation was part of an individual doctoral research program as an external scholar in the Faculty of Theology at Sofia University, Bulgaria. It suggests a comprehensive study of the concept of energy in Orthodox theology and physics. It consists of a historical, dogmatic and empirical component. The first chapter discusses the re-emergence of the distinction between Divine essence and energies in Orthodox theology by focusing on the sophiological controversy in the first half of 20th century with a specific emphasis on the theology of Fr. Georges Florovsky and Fr. Sergius Bulgakov. The analysis points out the role of Fr. G. Florovsky for the rediscovery of the teaching on the Divine essence and energies as one of his key theological contributions by focusing on some of his letters to Bulgakov that were written as early as 1925 and on his work Creature and creaturehood (1927). The analysis suggests that these early works have determined the main direction of Orthodox theological reflection in the 20thcentury. Chapter II of the dissertation focuses on a comparative analysis of the theological insights of three key Orthodox theologians: Metropolitan John Zizioulas (1931 ?), Fr. Dumitru Staniloae (1903 ? 1993) and Fr. John Romanides (1927?2001). Metropolitan John Zizioulas is a Greek theologian who is currently the main theological representative of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, New Rome. Fr. D. Staniloae is a Romanian theologian who provided one of the most comprehensive theological syntheses in the 20th century. Fr. Romanides is a Greek-born American theologian who returned to Greece and became one of the main drivers of the renewal of Greek Orthodox theology in the 20th century. These three theologians have significantly contributed to Orthodox theology in the 20th century and have addressed the teaching on the Divine energies in different ways. Fr. D. Staniloae and Fr. John Romanides included the teaching on the Divine energies as an integral part of their theological systems. Metr. John Zizioulas adopted a different approach trying to demonstrate that the teaching on the Divine energies is not essential in Orthodox theology. The dissertation suggests a comparative analysis of the three theologians to show that neglecting the teaching on the energies leads to a narrower understanding of both spiritual life and the Church. Chapter III provides a parallel study of the term energy in Orthodox theology and physics. Its intention is to build on existing works and established knowledge to provide a basis for the development of an interdisciplinary analytical framework in contribution to the ongoing contemporary dialogue between science and theology. The Chapter starts with a discussion of the methodological grounds for the parallel exploration of the concept of energy in Orthodox theology and physics by focusing on the ‘analogical isomorphism’ approach. Afterwards it provides a more detailed articulation of the ways the concept of energy is used in physics and Orthodox theology by concentrating on the history, content and major issues related to two debates, the first one, between two monks - Barlaam the Calabrian and St Gregory Palamas - in 14th century Byzantium, and, the second, between two great physicists - Niels Bohr and Albert Einstein - in the 20th century. The qualitative comparative analysis approach was found to be particularly fruitful. It builds on insights from Eastern Christian (Byzantine) theology, philosophy of science and philosophy of religion to suggest an analysis of the way of using language in theology and quantum mechanics. The Chapter concludes by summarizing the observations emerging from the analysis and a number of conclusions related to their potential value for the science-theology dialogue.

Tanev, Stoyan

2012-01-01

38

Radiation legacy of the 20th century: Environmental restoration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] As a result of events in the twentieth century, mainly related to the development of nuclear energy, mankind has been forced to deal with the restoration of the environments which contain radioactive residues. The International Conference RADLEG-200 was particularly focused on the radioactive legacy of the countries of the former Soviet Union and eastern Europe. By means of reviews and case studies the conference assessed the overall situation with respect to the contaminated sites and sources of potential environmental contamination and evaluated the achievements of rehabilitation and remediation programmes as well as identifying future needs in this field. The Conference was attended by 266 participants from 16 countries and 6 international organizations with 49 papers presented orally and 64 presented as posters. This publication contains the 49 orally presented papers, each of them was indexed separately

2000-11-02

39

Progress of coal science in the 20th century  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coal science is an applied discipline, using methods of science and engineering for research into genesis, characterisation, conversion and utilisation of coal and related solid fuels. This paper describes at first the development of coal science in the last century under the driving forces of politics, economics, and technology and in interaction with the progress achieved by other scientific and engineering disciplines. After that the growth and status of knowledge gained with respect to the different aspects of coal will be elucidated, choosing examples under the guideline 'Structures and Basic Reactions'. These are 'Chemical Structure and Coal Models', 'Reaction Based on Bond-breaking', and 'Surface Structure of Coke and Char and its Importance for Heterogeneous Reactions'. Besides the remarkable outcome of coal science, whereby many results have acquired great importance far beyond our discipline in science and technology, there exist also numerous unfulfilled aims of research work, as far as their transfer into practice is concerned. Globally, coal will still remain an indispensable source of chemical feedstock and energy for a long period of time. New and improved processes for its efficient and environmentally acceptable use will be a steady challenge for coming generations of coal scientists and for society to support the research required. 171 refs., 24 figs.

van Heek, K.H. [DMT-Gesellschaft fuer Forschung und Pruefung mbH, Essen (Germany)

2000-01-01

40

[Treatment of pulmonary diseases from the 20th to the 21st century  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the 21st century, the treatment of pulmonary diseases will undergo fundamental change. The treatment of patients in general and of pulmonary diseases in particular will transcend the vertical and fragmented approach based on analytical and reductionistic disease concepts to emphasize holistic care given by an interdisciplinary team. Extended life expectancies, understandably ones that represent significant progress in 20th century medicine, will lead to considerably higher costs in the healthcare system and to a redistribution of therapeutic resources. Healthcare centers will form that are better equipped to handle the true needs of the patients and provide better continuity of care. Likewise, this nascent century will bring forth one irreversible sociological change, namely the better informed and better educated patient who, by demanding access to medical information in order to profit from modern technological advances, will become an active partner of the healthcare professionals. The Swiss Lung League, which is celebrating its 100th anniversary this year, has been able to tackle the real pulmonological challenges of the 20th century by taking on a pioneering role in the fight against tuberculosis, smoking and setting benchmarks by providing patients with sophisticated respiratory technology like mechanical home ventilation. Unlike other medical disciplines, it recognized early on the importance of working within a healthcare network. Its strength derives from a synergy of the cantonal leagues' medical and social commitment and the Pulmonological Society's scientific support. Indeed, this trend can be observed all over Europe and the USA. This partnership is self-perpetuating and has adapted its own mentalities and structures to scientific progress and the changing needs of pulmonary patients.

Tschopp JM

2003-08-01

 
 
 
 
41

[Sexual stereotypes of institutional confinement in Quebec, at the turn of the 20th century].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper concerning the men and women patients of the Hôpital Saint-Jean-de-Dieu investigates gender stereotyping in mental disorders during the late-19th and early-20th centuries through an analysis of quantitative sources from over 8357 admissions. The asylum records (Registre des idiots de la Providence and the medical record, Form C) reveal that there were few differences between the medical diagnoses given and the behaviours of the patients who had been judged insane by their families. Nevertheless, a number of interesting contrasts emerge. The evidence also indicates gender distinctions; in general, the applicants tended to deny feeble-mindedness in men but recognized it as natural in women.

Thifault MC

2010-01-01

42

Lucha antivenérea en Antioquia entre finales del siglo XIX e inicios del siglo XX: una cuestión moral Anti-venereal fight in Antioquia during the late 19th and early 20th centuries: a moral question.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El presente artículo busca responder en qué sentido la lucha antivenérea en Antioquia a finales del siglo XIX y principios del XX, parte del dispositivo higienista, fue una lucha contra la inmoralidad. Para su construcción se realizó revisión bibliográfica de fuentes secundarias. El proyecto regional en su dimensión ética-cultural incluyó una apuesta modernizadora, a cargo de los médicos, ajustada a la moral puritana promovida por la Iglesia, para ello emprendieron una lucha antivenérea que consistió en ilustrar a las masas populares: se debía reservar la sexualidad a la familia y reprochar moralmente a la población donde aparecían dichas enfermedades. Así, el discurso médico-científico juzgó las prácticas de los sectores populares mientras los hombres de ciencia ingresaban al escenario social con poder por tener jerarquía moral. This article aims to define in what ways the anti-venereal fight in Antioquia, during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, which was part of the hygienic device, was really a fight against the immorality. In order to write it, secondary bibliographic sources were revised. In its ethical and cultural dimension, the regional project included a modernizing project. Doctors were in charge of this project which was adjusted to fit the puritan moral the Church promoted. They began a fight against sexual transmission diseases tah was bases upon illustration of communities: sexuality was to be reserved to family environments and populations where diseases appeared should be morally rejected. An so, medical scientific speech be judged low class populations` actions while men of science entered the social scenario with power from having moral hierarchy.

Juliana Martínez Londoño

2008-01-01

43

Pilk ingliskeelse kirjanduse tõlgetele 18. sajandi lõpust 20. sajandi algusveerandini / A Look at Estonian Translations of English Literature from the late 18th Century to the Early 20th Century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this article is to provide an overview of translations of English literature into Estonian between 1779 and 1917. There is an attempt to analyse the texts by describing them on the basis of, or in their departure from, a text or texts that chronologically and logically precede them. The discussion includes the nature of the transfer and the changes that have been made to the text, either because they existed in the source or mediating text or because of the expectations or requirements in the receptor, i.e. Estonian culture. The translated texts are seen in their historical-cultural context. For the analysis, a corpus of translated texts – religious, fiction, drama and non-fiction (published in a book form) was compiled. The general orientation of Estonia until the 1880s was to the German cultural sphere. So the first translations of English literature were made via a mediating language, which was German. English Puritan writers were introduced by the Pietist missionaries with the aim of spreading their teachings in the second half of the 18th century. At about the same time the narrative element was introduced into stories with religious content. Some internationally popular stories, e.g. the Inkle and Yarico story, later robinsonades, stories of slavery and plant at ion life, as well as Amer ican Indian st or ies wer e also t r anslat ed fr om Ger man. However, until  1875  ver  y  few  translations  of  English  literature  into  E stonian were  published.  The  last quarter of the 19th century saw an explosion in literary production: there was a substantial increase  both  in  the  number  of  translations  of  English  literature  into  E stonian  as  well  as diversification of genres. This continued into the first decade of the 20th  centur y,  when  the sociopolitical situation in Estonia changed. In addition, books came to be translated directly from  English,  although  many  translations  of  English  literature  were  still  made  via  German and, to a lesser extent, via Russian, Swedish or Finnish. Thus, English literature often reached the Estonian audiences in a mediated form. The selection of authors and books, the structure of the texts and the overall meaning and tone of the texts often depended on the mediating text or culture. However, many changes were made by the translator: explanations of new words and phrases, pronunciations, references to the Estonian reader, etc. Here paratexts are quite important: the titles often explained the content or the purpose of the book and referred to the language from which the book was translated. In the prefaces, translators or publishers explained their aims or connected the book to discussions in society (e.g. the translator of Uncle Tom’s Cabin connected it to anabolitionist argument of slavery as a moral evil; on the other hand, the editor connected it to the Estonian fight for freedom; the translation of The Pathfinder was related to the polemics in the Estonian newspapers over migration). However, in very many cases it was difficult to positively identify the mediating or source language or text and to establish whether it was a translation of English literature.

Krista Mits

2012-01-01

44

Serbian schools and teaching of Serbian language in Greece in the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The topic of this work is Serbian schools and the teaching of Serbian language in Greece in the 20th century. During the first half of the 20th century the existence of Serbian people in Turkey (later in Greece) was acknowledged through school and church. Thanks to the Serbian schools, Serbs as an invisible minority became a visible one. In the second half of the 20th century there is primarily a teaching of Serbian language as a foreign language. During this period, Serbian was accepted primarily by Greeks at courses and private classes. At the beginning of the nineties in the 20th century because of the war in the territory of Yugoslavia, a large number of refugees went to Greece. Teaching of Serbian as a native language was organized only ten years later (at the beginning of 21st century). In some places, the schools are located in consular sections and have the assistance of the country of origin (Thessalonica, Katerini) while in Hani (Crete) immigrants organized them-selves without the assistance from the country of origin. By studying Serbian schools and the teaching of Serbian language, this work considers relation towards language as a symbol of ethnic identity - at the individual level, at the level of receiving country and at the level of country of origin.

Blagojevi? Gordana

2007-01-01

45

Commentary: Mid-20th Century Development of Brazilian Archaeology (1964–1985)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two recent articles in the International Journal of Historical Archaeology provide a bit of light on the development of Brazilian archaeology in the middle 20th century. The first is one by Pedro Paulo de Abreu Funari entitled ‘Class Interests in Brazilian Archaeology’ (Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 209–216...

David L. Browman

46

The Devolution of 20th Century Presidential Campaign Rhetoric: A Call for "Rhetorical Service."  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the course of the 20th century, American Presidential campaign rhetoric has undergone various metamorphoses. Most of these changes can be traced to developments in technology and media. Furthermore, many of these changes have had the unfortunate effect of undermining a rational choice of the electorate, and thus threaten our democracy. Like…

Heinemann, Robert L.

47

The Economic Impact of Climate Change in the 20th Century  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The national version of FUND3.6 is used to infrapolate the impacts of climate change to the 20th century. Carbon dioxide fertilization of crops and reduced energy demand for heating are the main positive impacts. Climate change had a negative effect on water resources and, in most years, human healt...

TOL, RICHARD S. J.

48

Sea ice evolution over the 20th and 21st centuries as simulated by current AOGCMs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Outputs from simulations performed with current atmosphere-ocean general circulation models for the Fourth Assessment Report of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC AR4) are used to investigate the evolution of sea ice over the 20th and 21st centuries. We first use the results from the "C...

Arzel, O.; Fichefet, Thierry; Goosse, Hugues

49

A significant increase in wave height in the North Atlantic Ocean over the 20th century  

Science.gov (United States)

A new 109 year numerical wind-wave hindcast is developed for the North Atlantic Ocean based on the 20th century atmospheric reanalysis (20CR). Wave results are validated directly against data originating from voluntary observing ships and satellite altimetry in the North-East Atlantic Ocean. The normalized error for yearly-mean significant wave height (Hs) is shown to be of the order of 5% for the second part of the 20th century. An indirect validation is also performed through 10 m wind speed and suggests that the accuracy of yearly-mean Hs only slightly decreases for the beginning of the 20th century. The comparison between Hs and the index of the North Atlantic Oscillation revealed that this phenomenon partly controls Hs inter-annual variability, with a positive (negative) correlation in the northeastern (southwestern) part of the study area. The analysis of model results shows an increase in Hs over the whole North Atlantic Ocean superimposed to the inter-annual variability, reaching 0.01 m.yr- 1 (20 to 40% over the 20th century) north of 50°N. This increase is explained by a rise in wind speed exceeding 20% north of 50°N. The roughening in the wave climate demonstrated in this study is expected to have strong implications for the development of coastal zones and could explain the increase in erosion along the North Atlantic shorelines.

Bertin, Xavier; Prouteau, Elizabeth; Letetrel, Camille

2013-07-01

50

Afterword to 20th-Century Literacy: Prospects at the Millennium.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses the notion that the best predictor of future literacy education is the past, considering major trends in progress at the end of the 20th century, particularly those that may hold the potential to end the pendulum-like shifts that have marked literacy education over time, and offering reasons to believe that such shifts will be avoided.…

McKenna, Michael C.

1998-01-01

51

THE DISCOUNT RATE POLICY IN ROMANIA IN THE 20TH CENTURY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Throughout the 20th century, economists have generally acknowledged the importance of the central bank discount rate as the reference interest rate in a country: by increasing the interest rate during economic booms that forego the busts, the Central Bank

Dobrescu M. Emilian; Pociovalisteanu Diana

2009-01-01

52

Temperature variability in Serbia in the second half of the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available According to data of IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel for Climatic Change), the global surface air temperature increased to 0,6 ± 0,2 °C in the 20th century. Weber G. R., (1995) quotes that there is a trend of cold in the last 60 years in the middle latitudes including Europe, too. Starting from already mentioned perplexities we have tried to perceive the problem of climate variability in Serbia in the second half of the 20th century, when it came to very important increasing of concentration of CO2. With that aim we observed the decade values of average annual temperatures in the network of 20 climatic stations. In the period 1951 - 1990 a decrease of temperature was registered in 13 stations while in other stations an increase was less than 0,1 °C. Explorers from Bulgaria (Alexandrov V., 2000) and Hungary (Domonkos P., Zoboki J., 2000) came to similar results, too. However, if we take in account the last decade 20th century the number of stations with positive changes is enlarged on 15. Stations that have small changes and those with decrease of temperature were localized in the south and south eastern part of the country, and they are mainly coincided with before separated climatic regions with maritime pluviometric regime (Radovanovi? M., 2001). Using Dzerdzevskis B. L., (1975) division on three main types of circulation in the north hemisphere, we found that the increase of temperatures in the last decade 20th century is above all caused by change of dominant type of circulation from the south meridian to zonal. An analysis of seasonal changes showed that in the last five decades 20th century it came to decrease of winter temperatures in almost half of the stations in contrast with results of paleoclimatics models of possible greenhouse effect.

Radovanovi? Milan M.; Duci? Vladan D.

2004-01-01

53

[Changes of medico-pharmaceutical profession and private practice from the late 19th century to the early 20th century: ebb and flow of western pharmacies and clinics attached to pharmacy].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article examined i) how traditional medico-pharmaceutical custom from the late 19th century influenced such changes, ii) how medical laws of Daehan Empire and early colonial period influenced the differentiation of medico-pharmaceutical profession, and iii) what the responses of medico-pharmaceutical professionals were like, and arrived at following conclusions. First, in late Chosun, there was a nationwide spread of pharmacies (medicine room, medicine store) as general medical institutions in charge of prescription and medication as well as diagnosis. Therefore, Koreans' perception of Western medicine was not very different from that of traditional pharmacy. Second, Western pharmacies were established by various entities including oriental doctors, Western doctors and drug manufacturers.Their business ranged from medical consultation, prescription, medication and drug manufacture. This was in a way the extension of traditional medico-pharmaceutical custom, which did not draw a sharp line between medical and pharmaceutical practices. Also, regulations on medical and pharmaceutical business of Daehan Empire did not distinguish oriental and Western medicine. Third, clinics attached to pharmacy began to emerge after 1908, as some Western pharmacies that had grown their business based on selling medicine began to hire doctors trained in Western medicine. This trend resulted from Government General's control over medico-pharmaceutical business that began in 1908, following a large-scale dismissal of army surgeons trained in medical schools in 1907. Fourth, as specialization increased within medico-pharmaceutical business following the colonial medical law in early 1910s, such comprehensive business practices as Western pharmacy disappeared and existing businesses were differentiated into dealers of medical ingredients, drug manufacturer, patent medicine businessmen and herbalists. And private practice gradually became the general trend by establishment of medical system with doctors at the pinnacle and spread of modern Western medicine, and support of capitalists.

Lee HK

2010-12-01

54

[Changes of medico-pharmaceutical profession and private practice from the late 19th century to the early 20th century: ebb and flow of western pharmacies and clinics attached to pharmacy].  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examined i) how traditional medico-pharmaceutical custom from the late 19th century influenced such changes, ii) how medical laws of Daehan Empire and early colonial period influenced the differentiation of medico-pharmaceutical profession, and iii) what the responses of medico-pharmaceutical professionals were like, and arrived at following conclusions. First, in late Chosun, there was a nationwide spread of pharmacies (medicine room, medicine store) as general medical institutions in charge of prescription and medication as well as diagnosis. Therefore, Koreans' perception of Western medicine was not very different from that of traditional pharmacy. Second, Western pharmacies were established by various entities including oriental doctors, Western doctors and drug manufacturers.Their business ranged from medical consultation, prescription, medication and drug manufacture. This was in a way the extension of traditional medico-pharmaceutical custom, which did not draw a sharp line between medical and pharmaceutical practices. Also, regulations on medical and pharmaceutical business of Daehan Empire did not distinguish oriental and Western medicine. Third, clinics attached to pharmacy began to emerge after 1908, as some Western pharmacies that had grown their business based on selling medicine began to hire doctors trained in Western medicine. This trend resulted from Government General's control over medico-pharmaceutical business that began in 1908, following a large-scale dismissal of army surgeons trained in medical schools in 1907. Fourth, as specialization increased within medico-pharmaceutical business following the colonial medical law in early 1910s, such comprehensive business practices as Western pharmacy disappeared and existing businesses were differentiated into dealers of medical ingredients, drug manufacturer, patent medicine businessmen and herbalists. And private practice gradually became the general trend by establishment of medical system with doctors at the pinnacle and spread of modern Western medicine, and support of capitalists. PMID:21330775

Lee, Heung-Ki

2010-12-31

55

Observed 20th century desert dust variability: impact on climate and biogeochemistry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Desert dust perturbs climate by interacting with incoming solar and outgoing long wave radiation, thereby changing precipitation and temperature, in addition to modifying ocean and land biogeochemistry. While we know that desert dust is sensitive to perturbations in climate and human land use, previous studies have been unable to determine whether humans were in the net increasing or decreasing desert dust. Here we present observational estimates of desert dust based on paleodata proxies showing a doubling of desert dust during the 20th century over much, but not all the globe. Large uncertainties remain in estimates of desert dust variability over 20th century due to limited data. Using these observational estimates of desert dust change in combination with ocean, atmosphere and land models, we calculate the net radiative effect of these observed changes (top of atmosphere) over the 20th century to be ?0.14±0.11 W/m2 (1990–1999 vs. 1905–1914). The estimated radiative change due to aerosols is especially strong between the dusty 1980–1989 and the less dusty 1955–1964 time periods (?0.57±0.46 W/m2), which model simulations suggest may have reduced the rate of temperature increase between these time periods by 0.11 °C. Model simulations also indicate strong regional shifts in precipitation and temperature from the desert dust changes, causing 6 ppm (12 Pg C) reduction in model carbon uptake by the terrestrial biosphere over the 20th century. Desert dust carries iron, an important micronutrient for ocean biogeochemistry that can modulate ocean carbon storage; here we show that dust deposition trends increase ocean productivity by an estimated 6% over the 20th century, drawing down an additional 4 ppm (8 Pg C) of carbon dioxide into the oceans. Thus, perturbations to desert dust over the 20th century inferred from observations are potentially important for climate and biogeochemistry, and our understanding of these changes and their impacts should continue to be refined.

N. M. Mahowald; S. Kloster; S. Engelstaedter; J. K. Moore; S. Mukhopadhyay; J. R. McConnell; S. Albani; S. C. Doney; A. Bhattacharya; M. A. J. Curran; M. G. Flanner; F. M. Hoffman; D. M. Lawrence; K. Lindsay; P. A. Mayewski; J. Neff; D. Rothenberg; E. Thomas; P. E. Thornton; C. S. Zender

2010-01-01

56

Observed 20th century desert dust variability: impact on climate and biogeochemistry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Desert dust perturbs climate by directly and indirectly interacting with incoming solar and outgoing long wave radiation, thereby changing precipitation and temperature, in addition to modifying ocean and land biogeochemistry. While we know that desert dust is sensitive to perturbations in climate and human land use, previous studies have been unable to determine whether humans were increasing or decreasing desert dust in the global average. Here we present observational estimates of desert dust based on paleodata proxies showing a doubling of desert dust during the 20th century over much, but not all the globe. Large uncertainties remain in estimates of desert dust variability over 20th century due to limited data. Using these observational estimates of desert dust change in combination with ocean, atmosphere and land models, we calculate the net radiative effect of these observed changes (top of atmosphere) over the 20th century to be ?0.14 ± 0.11 W/m2 (1990–1999 vs. 1905–1914). The estimated radiative change due to dust is especially strong between the heavily loaded 1980–1989 and the less heavily loaded 1955–1964 time periods (?0.57 ± 0.46 W/m2), which model simulations suggest may have reduced the rate of temperature increase between these time periods by 0.11 °C. Model simulations also indicate strong regional shifts in precipitation and temperature from desert dust changes, causing 6 ppm (12 PgC) reduction in model carbon uptake by the terrestrial biosphere over the 20th century. Desert dust carries iron, an important micronutrient for ocean biogeochemistry that can modulate ocean carbon storage; here we show that dust deposition trends increase ocean productivity by an estimated 6% over the 20th century, drawing down an additional 4 ppm (8 PgC) of carbon dioxide into the oceans. Thus, perturbations to desert dust over the 20th century inferred from observations are potentially important for climate and biogeochemistry, and our understanding of these changes and their impacts should continue to be refined.

N. M. Mahowald; S. Kloster; S. Engelstaedter; J. K. Moore; S. Mukhopadhyay; J. R. McConnell; S. Albani; S. C. Doney; A. Bhattacharya; M. A. J. Curran; M. G. Flanner; F. M. Hoffman; D. M. Lawrence; K. Lindsay; P. A. Mayewski; J. Neff; D. Rothenberg; E. Thomas; P. E. Thornton; C. S. Zender

2010-01-01

57

How in the 20th century physicists, chemists and biologists answered the question: what is life?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The most essential achievements in 20th century biology are analyzed and the question of how throughout the last century physicists, chemists and biologists answered the question 'What is life?' is considered. The most considerable scientific achievement of 20th century biology, and perhaps of all science, is considered by many to be the discovery by biologist J Watson and physicists F Crick and M Wilkins that resulted in establishing the DNA structure. The related work of well-known scientists of the USA and Europe, E Schroedinger, L Pauling, M Perutz, J Kendrew, and of the Russian scientists N K Koltsov, N V Timofeeff-Ressovsky, G A Gamow, A M Olovnikov, is analyzed. Presently, when the structure of DNA, the process of gene expression and even the genomes of human beings are already known, scientists realize that we still do not know many of the most important things. In our opinion, the 20th century studies of nucleic acids largely ignored the principle of the cyclic organisation of DNA. In this connection, we analyze the principle of cyclicity, which in its generality may well complement the concept of the atomic structure of matter. (from the history of physics)

2010-07-08

58

Psychometrics and psychometricians in the 20th and 21st centuries: how it was in the 20th century and how it is now.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article is based largely upon the author's invited address at the 113th annual convention of the American Psychological Convention, Washington, DC, as the 2005 recipient of the Samuel J. Messick Award bestowed by APA Division 5 and the Educational Testing Service. The author summarizes the growth of graduate training in psychometrics and quantitative psychology, in the years prior to and following the end of WWII. He then opines the steady decline in the training of psychometricians and quantitative psychologists beginning in the 1970s and continuing into the 20th century. Likely causes of the decline are inferred and prospects for strengthening the quantitative skills of doctorates are discussed, including recommendations for reversing the downward trend. PMID:17450960

Merenda, Peter F

2007-02-01

59

Hallmarks in the history of enteral and parenteral nutrition: from antiquity to the 20th century.  

Science.gov (United States)

Parenteral nutrition (PN) and enteral nutrition (EN) have a very long history, emerging in the ancient world and developing throughout the common epoch. This history dates back as far as 3500 bc to the ancient Egyptians, Indians, and Chinese. Their medical practices were the first reports of enteral feeding therapy, provided via rectum with enemas of wine, milk, whey, wheat, and barley. Hippocrates and Plato, in ancient Greece, were the first personalities to emphasize the importance of diet on health. In the following centuries, Erasistratus and Herophilus described the first notion of the circulatory system, and Oribasius and Celsus described the role of nutrition and disease. There is a great historical gap between the times of Galen (2nd century), who elaborated on the circulatory system; Ibn Zuhr (12th century), who constructed the first model of PN; and Capivacceus (16th century), who placed the first tube for EN. The 17th-19th centuries showed major developments in modern nutrition elements. Steps toward artificial nutrition began in 1628 with the detailed description of blood circulation by William Harvey; however, most of the advances in enteral and parenteral feeding techniques, solutions, and formulas took place in the 20th century. Over the last decade of the 20th century, research focused on metabolic control, multitude formulas, timing and the combination of EN and PN for intensive care patients. PMID:23239792

Vassilyadi, Frank; Panteliadou, Alkistis-Kira; Panteliadis, Christos

2012-12-13

60

Hallmarks in the history of enteral and parenteral nutrition: from antiquity to the 20th century.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Parenteral nutrition (PN) and enteral nutrition (EN) have a very long history, emerging in the ancient world and developing throughout the common epoch. This history dates back as far as 3500 bc to the ancient Egyptians, Indians, and Chinese. Their medical practices were the first reports of enteral feeding therapy, provided via rectum with enemas of wine, milk, whey, wheat, and barley. Hippocrates and Plato, in ancient Greece, were the first personalities to emphasize the importance of diet on health. In the following centuries, Erasistratus and Herophilus described the first notion of the circulatory system, and Oribasius and Celsus described the role of nutrition and disease. There is a great historical gap between the times of Galen (2nd century), who elaborated on the circulatory system; Ibn Zuhr (12th century), who constructed the first model of PN; and Capivacceus (16th century), who placed the first tube for EN. The 17th-19th centuries showed major developments in modern nutrition elements. Steps toward artificial nutrition began in 1628 with the detailed description of blood circulation by William Harvey; however, most of the advances in enteral and parenteral feeding techniques, solutions, and formulas took place in the 20th century. Over the last decade of the 20th century, research focused on metabolic control, multitude formulas, timing and the combination of EN and PN for intensive care patients.

Vassilyadi F; Panteliadou AK; Panteliadis C

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
61

Un Médico Higienista Buscando Ordenar el Mundo Urbano Argentino de Comienzos del Siglo XX/ A Hygienist Doctor Trying to Bring Some Order to the Early 20th Century Argentine Urban World  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Aferrándose a las altas expectativas generadas por el discurso del progreso y las promesas de la ciencia, la higiene fue una suerte de gran consejera, de experta en el arte de observar, corregir, mejorar o tratar de cambiar radicalmente la salud del cuerpo social en su conjunto. En ese contexto llegó incluso a imaginar ciudades alternativas o utópicas. Emilio Coni, probablemente el higienista argentino más destacado de fines del siglo XIX y comienzos del XX, imaginó (more) una de esas ciudades. Las notas que siguen contextualizan su "Ciudad argentina ideal o del porvenir", cuyo texto original -publicado por primera vez el 3 de abril de 1919 en La Semana Médica- se reproduce. Abstract in english As part of the discourse of progress and the promises of science, hygiene as a discipline has been playing the role of a great advisor, a sort of expert in the art of observing, correcting, improving and trying to change the health of the social body and the modern nation. In that context hygiene even imagined alternative or utopian cities. Emilio Coni, perhaps the most distinguished Argentine hygienist of the end of the 19th century and the beginnings of the 20th, imagin (more) ed one of such cities. The following notes aim at contextualizing his "Argentine ideal city". The original version of Coni's text, published in La Semana Médica on April 3, 1919, is also included.

Armus, Diego

2007-04-01

62

Un médico higienista buscando ordenar el mundo urbano argentino de comienzos del siglo XX/ A hygienist doctor trying to bring some order to the early 20th century argentine urban world  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Aferrándose a las altas expectativas generadas por el discurso del progreso y las promesas de la ciencia, la higiene fue una suerte de gran consejera, de experta en el arte de observar, corregir, mejorar o tratar de cambiar radicalmente la salud del cuerpo social en su conjunto. En ese contexto llegó incluso a imaginar ciudades alternativas o utópicas. Emilio Coni, probablemente el higienista argentino más destacado de fines del siglo XIX y comienzos del XX, imaginó (more) una de esas ciudades. Las notas que siguen contextualizan su "Ciudad argentina ideal o del porvenir", cuyo texto original -publicado por primera vez el 3 de abril de 1919 en La Semana Médica- se reproduce. Abstract in english As part of the discourse of progress and the promises of science, hygiene as a discipline has been playing the role of a great advisor, a sort of expert in the art of observing, correcting, improving and trying to change the health of the social body and the modern nation. In that context hygiene even imagined alternative or utopian cities. Emilio Coni, perhaps the most distinguished Argentine hygienist of the end of the 19th century and the beginnings of the 20th, imagin (more) ed one of such cities. The following notes aim at contextualizing his "Argentine ideal city". The original version of Coni's text, published in La Semana Médica on April 3, 1919, is also included.

Armus, Diego

2007-04-01

63

Genetic improvement of bread wheat yield and associated traits in Spain during the 20th century.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A collection of 26 wheat genotypes widely grown in Spain during the 20th century was evaluated in eight contrasting environments in order to quantify breeding achievements in yield and associated traits. From 1930 to 2000, yield increased at a rate of 35·1 kg/ha/yr or 0·88%/yr, but estimations of relative genetic gain (RGG) were environment-dependent. RGG estimated for yield were positively associated with the average minimum daily temperatures from sowing to heading in the testing environments (R(2) = 0·81; P < 0·01). The number of grains/spike and the number of spikes/m(2) increased at a rate of 0·60%/yr and 0·30%/yr, respectively, while grain weight remained unchanged. The present study detected two main episodes of yield improvement during the century. The first one coincided with the introduction, during the 1950s, of the first improved cultivars derived from intra-specific crosses, which increased the yield of landraces by 30% due to an increase of c. 58% in the number of grains/spike, accompanied by a 16% reduction in grain weight. These initial cultivars (termed 'old-bred' in a previous study by Sanchez-Garcia et al. 2012) exhibited a higher harvest index (HI), increased from 0·25 to 0·40, but maintained the same aboveground biomass at maturity as the landraces (despite reducing both plant height and the number of tillers/plant) due to increases in the proportion of tillers bearing spikes. The second yield gain occurred after the introduction, in the early 1970s, of semi-dwarf germplasm from CIMMYT (International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre) and some French cultivars. This new germplasm further reduced plant height, improved HI up to 0·45 and increased the number of tillers/plant while maintaining their rate of fertility, thus resulting in a yield gain of c. 37%. The cultivars released during the last decade of the century did not contribute to significant yield improvements.

Sanchez-Garcia M; Royo C; Aparicio N; Martín-Sánchez JA; Alvaro F

2013-02-01

64

Circuito aberto: idéias e intercâmbios médico-científicos na América Latina nos primórdios do século XX/ Open circuit: the exchange of medical and scientific knowledge in Latin America in the early 20th century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este artigo aborda a realização dos Congressos Médicos Latino-Americanos e das Exposições Internacionais de Higiene nas primeiras décadas do século XX como estratégia de legitimação e persuasão do conhecimento médico produzido perante a comunidade especializada e as autoridades públicas, suportes estes fundamentais para sua apresentação à sociedade em geral como portadores do saber oficial da arte de medicar. Tais eventos fizeram parte de um movimento mais (more) amplo de internacionalização e organização do campo profissional da medicina na América Latina. O artigo sugere ainda que as atividades desenvolvidas durante esses eventos tiveram papel central na difusão de idéias e na troca de experiências entre os países latino-americanos, caracterizando uma rede de intercâmbios científicos no continente. Abstract in english This article discusses the Latin American Medical Congresses and International Exhibitions on Hygiene held in the first few decades of the 20th century as a strategy for underpinning and influencing medical knowledge within the specialized community itself and for public authorities, which were fundamental for presenting to society at large as they were seen as the vehicles of official know-how on the art of medicating. These events made up part of a broader movement to i (more) nternationalize and coordinate the professional field of medicine in Latin America. The article further suggests that the activities that took place during these events played a key role in the propagation of ideas and exchange of experience between Latin American nations, forming a network of scientific exchange in the continent.

Almeida, Marta de

2006-09-01

65

The treatment of melanoma at Westminster Hospital in the 20th century.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

At Saint Dunstan's Coffee House in 1715 four London men met to form "A charitable proposal for Relieving the Poor and Needy and Other Distressed Persons". The proposal marked the beginnings of Westminster Hospital in London. Following the admission of the first patient in 1720, Westminster Hospital and later Westminster Medical School dominated the medical scene of London for over two and a half centuries until its closure in 1993 and transfer to the new Chelsea and Westminster Hospital. The Hospital and Medical school are credited with pioneering work in the fields of anaesthesia, immunology, bone marrow transplantation and the treatment of cancer. In the 20th century Westminster became a centre of tertiary referrals for cancer and under the leadership of Sir Stanford Cade and later of Gerald Westbury and Kenneth Newton the hospital pioneered the multidisciplinary management of malignant disease exemplified by the internationally- famous Wednesday afternoon clinics where the patients' best interests were discussed and served by a multitude of surgical and medical specialists. This paper focuses on the treatment of melanoma at Westminster Hospital in the 20th Century, placing in perspective the latest therapeutic developments based on the genetics of this cancer.

Retsas S

2013-04-01

66

Commentary: Mid-20th Century Development of Brazilian Archaeology (1964–1985)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two recent articles in the International Journal of Historical Archaeology provide a bit of light on the development of Brazilian archaeology in the middle 20th century. The first is one by Pedro Paulo de Abreu Funari entitled ‘Class Interests in Brazilian Archaeology’ (Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 209–216, 2002) and the second is a heated response to Funari, along with his rejoinder, by James A. Delle, Igor Chmyz, Ondemar Ferreira Dias, Tania Andrade Lima, Betty J. Meggers, and Pedro Paulo de Abreu Funari, entitled ‘On Collaboration, Class Conflict, and Archaeology in Brazil’ (Vol. 7, No. 3, pp. 223–237, 2003).

David L. Browman

2004-01-01

67

[Famous doctors who stayed on the Croatian coast at the turn of the 20th century].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

At the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century many famous persons stayed on the Croatian coast mostly because of touristic and health reasons, than because of natural beauties, scientific or political reasons. Most often they came from Austro-Hungary, Germany or Russia but also from our homelands. Among them were also many famous doctors, some known worldwide. The most distinguished were the surgeon Theodor Billroth, the bacteriologist and a Nobel prize winner Robert Koch, the pathologist Rudolf Virchow, and the psychiatrist Sigmund Freud. They left a deep impression and a big benefit at the area they stayed in.

Ivanisevi? P; Lesin M; Plestina-Borjan I; Ivanisevi? M

2012-03-01

68

Modelling the 20th and 21st century evolution of Hoffellsjökull glacier, SE-Vatnajökull, Iceland  

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Full Text Available The Little Ice Age maximum extent of glaciers in Iceland was reached about 1890 AD and most glaciers in the country have retreated during the 20th century. A model for the surface mass balance and the flow of glaciers is used to reconstruct the 20th century retreat history of Hoffellsjökull, a south-flowing outlet glacier of the ice cap Vatnajökull, which is located close to the southeastern coast of Iceland. The bedrock topography was surveyed with radio-echo soundings in 2001. A wealth of data are available to force and constrain the model, e.g. surface elevation maps from ~1890, 1936, 1946, 1989, 2001, 2008 and 2010, mass balance observations conducted in 1936–1938 and after 2001, energy balance measurements after 2001, and glacier surface velocity derived by kinematic and differential GPS surveys and correlation of SPOT5 images. The approximately 20% volume loss of this glacier in the period 1895–2010 is realistically simulated with the model. After calibration of the model with past observations, it is used to simulate the future response of the glacier during the 21st century. The mass balance model was forced with an ensemble of temperature and precipitation scenarios derived from 10 global and 3 regional climate model simulations using the A1B emission scenario. If the average climate of 2000–2009 is maintained into the future, the volume of the glacier is projected to be reduced by 30% with respect to the present at the end of this century. If the climate warms, as suggested by most of the climate change scenarios, the model projects this glacier to almost disappear by the end of the 21st century. Runoff from the glacier is predicted to increase for the next 30–40 yr and decrease after that as a consequence of the diminishing ice-covered area.

G. Aðalgeirsdóttir; S. Guðmundsson; H. Björnsson; F. Pálsson; T. Jóhannesson; H. Hannesdóttir; S. Þ. Sigurðsson; E. Berthier

2011-01-01

69

Greeks’ Identities in Smyrna, 19th - 20th Century Local and Global Parameters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this research we pose an historic question about the Greek identities that have been grown and excelled in Smyrna, in the late of 19th-20th century. The basic elements for the construction of the Greek identity were the orthodox Christian religion, the language, the origins from ancient times, and the education. The awakening of the Greek national consciousness in the years of the Ottoman Rule relied mainly on the use of the Greek language, as it was grow, secretly or openly, by the church.The historical context refers to the 19th and the 20th century and we focus on the construction of the Greek Identities. The specific historic place is Smyra.The methodology that we use is the historic qualitative analysis of historic archives. We assume that the factors that compromise the Greek identity come from the religion, the education, the ethnicity, the culture, the citizenship, the locality and the relations with the other population they lived with.

Evangelia Boubougiatzi; Ifigenia Vamvakidou; Argyris Kyridis

2013-01-01

70

„One-way ticket” Romanian Migration at the beginning of the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Unlike the new age of migration that we are experiencing now, the social mobility specific to the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century may be defined by the expression “one way ticket”; the immigrant, usually a man, used to leave his country of origin and settle for good in his host-country (he did not look for his happiness from state to state, as it happens now). The Romanian migration of that time was directed mainly towards the New World (particularly to the USA, and less to Canada). This paper is an attempt to sketch the image of Romanian emigration by taking into account the peculiarities determined by: emigration causes, geographical predominance, social composition, occupational options in the host-country, and the structure of Romanian immigrant communities.

Silvia Bocancea

2011-01-01

71

Modelling the 20th and 21st century evolution of Hoffellsjökull glacier, SE-Vatnajökull, Iceland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Little Ice Age maximum extent of glaciers in Iceland was reached about 1890 AD and most glaciers in the country have retreated during the 20th century. A model for the surface mass balance and the flow of glaciers is used to reconstruct the 20th century retreat history of Hoffellsjökull, a south-flowing outlet glacier of Vatnajökull, which is located close to the southeast coast of Iceland. The bedrock topography was surveyed with radio-echo soundings in 2001. A wealth of data are available to force and constrain the model, e.g. surface elevation maps from ~1890, 1936, 1946, 1986, 2001, 2008 and 2010, mass balance observations conducted in 1936–1938 and after 2001, energy balance measurements after 2001, and glacier surface velocity derived by DGPS and correlation of SPOT5 images. The 21% volume loss of this glacier in the period 1895–2010 is realistically simulated with the model. After calibration of the model with past observations, it is used to simulate the future response of the glacier during the 21st century. The mass balance model was forced with an ensemble of temperature and precipitation scenarios from a study of the effect of climate change on energy production in the Nordic countries (the CES project). If the average climate of 2000–2009 is maintained into the future, the volume of the glacier is projected to be reduced by 30% with respect to the present at the end of this century, and the glacier will almost disappear if the climate warms as suggested by most of the climate change scenarios. Runoff from the glacier is predicted to increase for the next 30–40 years and decrease after that as a consequence of the diminishing ice-covered area.

G. Aðalgeirsdóttir; S. Guðmundsson; H. Björnsson; F. Pálsson; T. Jóhannesson; H. Hannesdóttir; S. Þ. Sigurðsson; E. Berthier

2011-01-01

72

Nooreestlased arvustuses ja arvustajatena: lugejakontseptsioonist 20. sajandi alguse kriitikas. The Young Estonians as Critics and in the Eyes of Critics: On the Concept of the Reader in Early 20th Century Estonia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Until recently, the treatment of Estonian literature from the beginning of the 20th century has been influenced by the literary and cultural activities and programmatic articles of the Young Estonia movement. Current research on Young Estonia has addressed their more everyday realm of activity, which has heretofore received less attention: the Young Estonians as readers of the new works of their literary contemporaries and their practical criticism in reviews, particularly in daily newspapers. This article uses a receptionhistorical approach to analyze a large body of source material: the Young Estonians voluminous critical oeuvre in the period 1905–1915. The Young Estonians to be examined are all members of the core group of the movement: Gustav Suits, Bernhard Linde, Aino Kallas, Johannes Aavik, Villem Grünthal-Ridala, Jaan Oks, August Alle, and Johannes Semper. Within the larger framework of collective horizons of expectation, the focus of the study is the critics` concept of the reader. In addition, I will briefly discuss the dynamics of how such conceptions change. Research results indicate that in critical reviews from the time of Young Estonia, the topic of the reader was addressed from different standpoints depending on the addressee. Texts directed rhetorically toward a broad readership are characterized by the pursuit of objectivity and generalizations. When the concept of the reader is critic-centered, the text emphasizes subjective judgments, experience, and emotion. When focusing on the author and the text, the reviewer describes the influence on the reader, the cause of which is either the literary work directly or the author’s genius. In the case of polemic on the subject of reading, found mainly in responses written to reviews, the writer interprets another reader (or other readers`) reading, opposing it to his or her own. When we follow the way the readers of Young Estonia and the Young Estonians themselves handle the characteristics and functions of the reader, it becomes apparent that the reader is defined primarily according to relations – whether these are with the author, the text, the content, the critic, the reader himself/ herself, or with literature in general. The reader is regarded as a passive subject in the literary process who needs to be influenced by the author and directed by the critic. At the beginning of the era of Young Estonia, the reader’s primary role is seen as supporting original literary works. Those critics who did not belong to Young Estonia’s core group orient themselves to the common reader, and to a heterogenous content familiar from everyday life. The Young Estonians` longing for „better” literature, and expectations connected with the literary representation of educated people are aimed at authors; there is also the expectation that educated people will form a readership. In the middle of the Young Estonia period, topics of ongoing discussion include the question of rereading, or repeated reading of books, and prejudices formed based on an author’s prior works and the broader literary context. In mid-period, a clearer separation comes into focus between reviewer and reader, and the judgments of readers and reviewers can be seen to diverge. Toward the end of the period, the evaluation of literary texts takes a further step from the search for objective values toward recognizing the individuality of the reader. In conclusion, during the decade 1905–1915, the definition of the reader in the eyes of the critic underwent an expansion, merging with the Young Estonians’ specific expectations. Though the Young Estonians’ own principles – quite resolute at first – later became somewhat tempered, they still maintained their elitist positions and uncompromising stance toward their opposition. The result is an enrichment in the criteria for judging literature rather than a replacement of one set of criteria by another. Horizons of interpretation continue to approach one another, until the horizon of expectation of Young Estonia’s read

Marju Mikkel

2009-01-01

73

Causes of mortality and development: Evidence from large health shocks in 20th century America  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Exploiting pre-intervention variation in flu/pneumonia, tuberculosis and maternal mortality, together with time variation arising from medical breakthroughs starting in the late 1930s, this paper studies the aggregate impact of large health shocks across US states. The analysis demonstrates that the shocks influenced income per capita in different ways. While the shock to flu/pneumonia mortality has been conductive for development, the large reduction in the incidence of tuberculosis deaths has been a negative force in the development of US states over the second-half of 20th century. In addition, the decline in maternal mortality has a fragile, but positive relationship with income per capita. Because these specific health shocks affected mortality across the life cycle differently, the evidence here underscores the general tenet of regarding health as multifaceted.

Worm Hansen, Casper

2012-01-01

74

A personal retrospective on the second half of the 20th century.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During the Second World War scientists and engineers were involved as never before in all technical phases of the war effort. It included intelligence, logistics and large scale automated computation. Much of this required team work which led to the adoption of interdisciplinary perspectives and found expression after the war in new fields of enquiry such as cybernetics, biophysics and artificial intelligence. While Europe was recovering from its devastation, the United States entered an unprecedented age of prosperity beginning in the 1940s and 50s. The political and budgetary environment was favorable for scientific research and it was felt in Europe as well as the U.S.A. I discuss some of these conditions and the figures associated with the work that became the foundation for advances throughout the second half of the 20th century and conclude with a few observations on quantitative neuroscience and the problem of representation.

Nicholas Leibovic K

2013-06-01

75

Population evolution in 20th-century Easter Island: endogamy and admixture.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We studied the 20th-century evolution of the Rapanui population of Easter Island, the most geographically isolated in the world, to analyze the current process of admixture. Using parochial birth records, we determined origin of the birth parents based on their surnames. The origin of parents reveals two stages of population evolution: endogamy, due to the isolation of the island, but with a strong rejection of isonymous marriages; and admixture, beginning in 1965 with the opening of the island to the rest of the world. We used Lasker's coefficient (Lasker's Ri) and the Shannon-Weaver coefficient of diversity (H) to characterize both stages. The gene flow evaluated from admixture has increased significantly since 1965. Births from exogamous unions represented 3.5% of total births from 1937 to 1965. increased to 43.2% between 1966 and 1980, and constituted 50.8% of all births between 1981 and 1996.

Hernández M; García-Moro C; Moral P; González-Martín A

2000-04-01

76

Cognitive study and upgrading of the 20th century architectonic heritage: experiences and methodologies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One component of the heritage of publicly funded property developments put up since the Second World War is residential districts designed by leading architects in which upgrading has to take into account considerations of safeguarding. The raising of the threshold from 50 to 70 years before safeguarding norms come into effect means that local authorities and management companies have sole responsibility for the modification and safeguarding of this heritage. This paper looks at some examples of 20th century housing estates designated for upgrading in order to highlight the specific strategies adopted, selected from a range of actions based on the need for accurate knowledge and collective agreement by all the parties involved right from the design phase.

Paola Ascione

2012-01-01

77

Corpus methods and their reflection in linguistic theories of the 20th century  

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Full Text Available In the 20th century structuralism established itself as the central linguistic theory, in the first half mainly through its originator Ferdinand de Saussure, and in the second half with the figure of Noam Chomsky. The latter consistently refused to acknowledge analysis of extensive quantity of texts as a valuable method, and favoured linguistic intuition of a native speaker instead. In parallel with structuralism other trends in linguistics emerged which pointed to the inadequateness of the prevailing linguistic paradigm and to theoretical insights which were only possible after the systematic analysis of large quantities of texts. The paper discusses some of the dilemmas stemming from this dichotomy and places corpus linguistics in a broader linguistic context.

Simon Krek

2013-01-01

78

Project Management (PM) Prosperity: A Second Half of the 20th Century Literature Review  

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Full Text Available The present study firstly adopts a holistic approach upon the project management (PM) principles that prevail in the relevant business, services, and high-technological environments during the second half of the 20th century. Particularly, this study presents and chronically categorizes existing literature works that are exploring the project management, in combination to other affiliated managerial and administrative tools. The bibliographical overview was implemented through bibliographical databases research during the first half of the year 2011. The outcome of the above research is presented as relevant Table-formatted information. Secondly, a specified project was selected and unfolded in parallel to the above general/holistic approach over the study. Finally, the data collected were categorized in eight sub-groupings revealing that the orientation upon project management in a continuously changing and globally liquefied economic environment is equally determined by human and non-human entrepreneurial characteristics.

Grigorios L Kyriakopoulos

2011-01-01

79

A possible 20th-century slowdown of southern ocean deep water formation  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Chlorofluorocarbon-11 inventories for the deep Southern Ocean appear to confirm physical oceanographic and geochemical studies in the Southern Ocean, which suggest that no more than 5 x 10(6) cubic meters per second of ventilated deep water is currently being produced. This result conflicts with conclusions based on the distributions of the carbon-14/carbon ratio and a quasi-conservative property, PO(4)(*), in the deep sea, which seem to require an average of about 15 x 10(6) cubic meters per second of Southern Ocean deep ventilation over about the past 800 years. A major reduction in Southern Ocean deep water production during the 20th century (from high rates during the Little Ice Age) may explain this apparent discordance. If this is true, a seesawing of deep water production between the northern Atlantic and Southern oceans may lie at the heart of the 1500-year ice-rafting cycle.

Broecker WS; Sutherland S; Peng TH

1999-11-01

80

Rapid 20th-century increase in coastal upwelling off northwest Africa.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Near-shore waters along the northwest African margin are characterized by coastal upwelling and represent one of the world's major upwelling regions. Sea surface temperature (SST) records from Moroccan sediment cores, extending back 2500 years, reveal anomalous and unprecedented cooling during the 20th century, which is consistent with increased upwelling. Upwelling-driven SSTs also vary out of phase with millennial-scale changes in Northern Hemisphere temperature anomalies (NHTAs) and show relatively warm conditions during the Little Ice Age and relatively cool conditions during the Medieval Warm Period. Together, these results suggest that coastal upwelling varies with NHTAs and that upwelling off northwest Africa may continue to intensify as global warming and atmospheric CO2 levels increase.

McGregor HV; Dima M; Fischer HW; Mulitza S

2007-02-01

 
 
 
 
81

Medieval Warm Period, Little Ice Age and 20th century temperature variability from Chesapeake Bay  

Science.gov (United States)

We present paleoclimate evidence for rapid (Little Ice Age (???1400-1900 AD) and the Medieval Warm Period (???800-1300 AD) possibly related to changes in the strength of North Atlantic thermohaline circulation (THC). Evidence is presented for a long period of sustained regional and North Atlantic-wide warmth with low-amplitude temperature variability between ???450 and 1000 AD. In addition to centennial-scale temperature shifts, the existence of numerous temperature maxima between 2200 and 250 years BP (average ???70 years) suggests that multi-decadal processes typical of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) are an inherent feature of late Holocene climate. However, late 19th and 20th century temperature extremes in Chesapeake Bay associated with NAO climate variability exceeded those of the prior 2000 years, including the interval 450-1000 AD, by 2-3??C, suggesting anomalous recent behavior of the climate system. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Cronin, T. M.; Dwyer, G. S.; Kamiya, T.; Schwede, S.; Willard, D. A.

2003-01-01

82

Fire dynamics during the 20th century simulated by the Community Land Model  

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Full Text Available Fire is an integral Earth System process that interacts with climate in multiple ways. Here we assessed the parametrization of fires in the Community Land Model (CLM-CN) and improved the ability of the model to reproduce contemporary global patterns of burned areas and fire emissions. In addition to wildfires we extended CLM-CN to account for fires related to deforestation. We compared contemporary fire carbon emissions predicted by the model to satellite-based estimates in terms of magnitude and spatial extent as well as interannual and seasonal variability. Long-term trends during the 20th century were compared with historical estimates. Overall we found the best agreement between simulation and observations for the fire parametrization based on the work by Arora and Boer (2005). We obtained substantial improvement when we explicitly considered human caused ignition and fire suppression as a function of population density. Simulated fire carbon emissions ranged between 2.0 and 2.4 Pg C/year for the period 1997–2004. Regionally the simulations had a low bias over Africa and a high bias over South America when compared to satellite-based products. The net terrestrial carbon source due to land use change for the 1990s was 1.2 Pg C/year with 11% stemming from deforestation fires. During 2000–2004 this flux decreased to 0.85 Pg C/year with a similar relative contribution from deforestation fires. Between 1900 and 1960 we predicted a slight downward trend in global fire emissions caused by reduced fuels as a consequence of wood harvesting and also by increases in fire suppression. The model predicted an upward trend during the last three decades of the 20th century as a result of climate variations and large burning events associated with ENSO-induced drought conditions.

S. Kloster; N. M. Mahowald; J. T. Randerson; P. E. Thornton; F. M. Hoffman; S. Levis; P. J. Lawrence; J. J. Feddema; K. W. Oleson; D. M. Lawrence

2010-01-01

83

Causes of death in Serbia since the mid-20th century  

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Full Text Available The structure of the leading causes of death in Serbia has considerably changed in the last half century. Diseases which presented the main threat to the population a few decades ago are now at the level of a statistical error. On the one side are causes which drastically changed their share in total mortality in this time interval, while others have shown stability and persistence among the basic causes of death. Acute infectious diseases "have been replaced" with chronic noninfectious diseases, due to the improvement of general and health conditions. One of the consequences of such changes is increased life expectancy and a larger share of older population which resulted in cardiovascular diseases and tumors to dominate more and more in total mortality. Convergent trends in the structure of the leading causes of death in Serbia from the middle of the 20th century are the reasons why there are considerably fewer diseases and causes with a significant rate in total population mortality at the beginning of the 21st century. During the 1950s, there were five groups of diseases and causes which participated individually with more than 10% of population mortality (infectious diseases, heart and circulatory diseases, respiratory diseases, some perinatal conditions and undefined states) while at the beginning of the new century there were only two such groups (cardiovascular diseases and tumors). Identical trends exist in all European countries, as well as in the rest of the developed world. The leading causes of death in Serbia are cardiovascular diseases. An average of somewhat over 57.000 people died annually in the period from 2007 - 2009, which represents 55.5% of total population mortality. Women are more numerous among the deceased and this difference is increasing due to population feminization. The most frequent cause of death in Serbia, after heart and circulatory diseases, are tumors, which caused 21,415 deaths in 2009. Neoplasms are responsible for one fifth of all deaths. Their number has doubled in three decades, from 9,107 in 1975 to about 20,000 at the beginning of the 21st century, whereby tumors have become the fastest growing cause of death. Least changes in absolute number of deaths in the last half century were marked among violent deaths. Observed by gender, men are in average three times more numerous among violent deaths than women. In the middle of the 20th century in Serbia, one third of the deaths caused by violence were younger than 25 and as many as one half were younger than 35 years old. Only one tenth (11%) of total number of violent deaths were from the age group of 65 or older. At the end of the first decade of the 21st century (2009), the share of population younger than 25 in the total number of violent deaths was decreased four times (and amounted to 8%). At the same time, the rate of those older than 65 or more quadrupled (amounted to 39%).

Marinkovi? Ivan

2012-01-01

84

[Prima inter pares--internal medicine in Vienna at the beginning of the 20th century  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In 1901 the Society for Internal Medicine was founded, the purpose of which was to reestablish unity within the field of internal medicine. Paediatrics, dermatology, laryngology, and neurology had established themselves as independent specialties and the unity of internal medicine had disintegrated in the 19th century. On the basis of Nothnagel's complications (First Department of Medicine) and Schrötter's treatment of tuberculosis in sanatoria (Third Department of Medicine), the 19th century continued to exert an influence on medicine until well into the first decade of the 20th century. Neusser furthered haematology and endocrinology and laid the foundations for the Central Roentgen Institute. Before the main task of neurological research became the concern of psychiatry, Frankl-Hochwart conducted research in the fields of neurology and neuro-endocrinology. With the appointment of Noorden, the study of pathological metabolism and diabetes became the principal concern of the First Medical Department. Nevertheless, the research work of his assistant Eppinger made a major contribution to electrocardiography in the first decade of our century. Similarly, Wilhelm Türk at Neusser's department helped to make Vienna a centre of haematology through his improvements in technique, his textbooks and, among other things, his description of agranulocystosis. Nesser's self-willed disciple, Franz Chvostek, continued to propagate making spot diagnoses, as introduced by his mentor, and Schrötter's disciple, Josef Sorgo, expanded on his teacher's endoscropic methods, which he eventually managed to develop into a new therapeutic procedure. Adolf von Strümpell took over Schrötter's "propaedeutic clinic," but returned to his homeland, Germany, a year after having been appointed to the position in Vienna.

Wyklicky H

1983-09-01

85

[Prima inter pares--internal medicine in Vienna at the beginning of the 20th century].  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1901 the Society for Internal Medicine was founded, the purpose of which was to reestablish unity within the field of internal medicine. Paediatrics, dermatology, laryngology, and neurology had established themselves as independent specialties and the unity of internal medicine had disintegrated in the 19th century. On the basis of Nothnagel's complications (First Department of Medicine) and Schrötter's treatment of tuberculosis in sanatoria (Third Department of Medicine), the 19th century continued to exert an influence on medicine until well into the first decade of the 20th century. Neusser furthered haematology and endocrinology and laid the foundations for the Central Roentgen Institute. Before the main task of neurological research became the concern of psychiatry, Frankl-Hochwart conducted research in the fields of neurology and neuro-endocrinology. With the appointment of Noorden, the study of pathological metabolism and diabetes became the principal concern of the First Medical Department. Nevertheless, the research work of his assistant Eppinger made a major contribution to electrocardiography in the first decade of our century. Similarly, Wilhelm Türk at Neusser's department helped to make Vienna a centre of haematology through his improvements in technique, his textbooks and, among other things, his description of agranulocystosis. Nesser's self-willed disciple, Franz Chvostek, continued to propagate making spot diagnoses, as introduced by his mentor, and Schrötter's disciple, Josef Sorgo, expanded on his teacher's endoscropic methods, which he eventually managed to develop into a new therapeutic procedure. Adolf von Strümpell took over Schrötter's "propaedeutic clinic," but returned to his homeland, Germany, a year after having been appointed to the position in Vienna. PMID:6649644

Wyklicky, H

1983-09-16

86

Antheunis Janse of Biggekerke (1890–1960). Morning star of a 20th-century reformation  

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Full Text Available Antheunis Janse of Biggekerke (1890-1960). Morning star of a 20thcentury reformation This first biography is the result of research on the life and work of the Dutch thinker, Antheunis Janse (1890-1960) of Biggekerke conducted at intervals in South Africa and in the Netherlands during the past 35 years. The stimulus for the research was the fact that Janse has never been acknowledged for his contribution to Christian philosophy – especially anthropology – which originated in the thirties of the previous century in the Netherlands. The aim of this article is to demonstrate that he should be regarded (with Professors D.H. Th. Vollenhoven and H. Dooyeweerd) as a founding father of Christian- Reformational philosophy, also known as the philosophy of the Cosmonomic Idea or simply as the Amsterdam philosophy. No biography on this important thinker exists; the historical information provided is thus needed. The biographical details are intertwined with the following systematic aspects: Why reformation was required during Janse’s lifetime; Janse’s contribution to the development of Reformational philosophy; a more detailed discussion of his anthropological viewpoints; the secret of his reformational endeavours; and in conclusion, some suggestions are given about much needed research to be done to be able to fully profit from the rich heritage of this “morning star of a 20th-century reformation”. An addendum of his most important publications are also provided.

B.J. van der Walt

2004-01-01

87

[Achievements, disappointments and hopes in neurological therapy in the 20th century  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Only in the second half of the 20th century a breakthrough occurred in the traditional neurological therapeutic methods based up to that time mainly on bromine with valerian extract and vitamins B. Later on in that century several great discoveries were made which improved greatly the effectiveness of the neurological therapy: psychopharmacology which began with the introduction of chlorpromazine and reserpine, the use of corticosteroids for which the Nobel award was given, levodopa introduction for Parkinson's disease, non-steroid antiinflammatory agents and the demonstration of their action mechanism /also Nobel award/, immunotherapy, botulin toxin for the treatment of dystonias and thrombolytic drugs possibly the drugs of the future. The main disappointment is the broad chasm between the progress made in diagnostic methods and the low effectiveness of therapy in strokes, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and other degenerative neurological diseases. Many problems arose with the introduction of levodopa changing the course and clinical pattern of Parkinson's disease. The problem of our times are the adverse effects of pharmacotherapy. The low effectiveness of the new drugs used in epilepsy is also disappointing. A hope for the future is the new direction in therapy--the use of genes and also the use of monoclonal antibodies and neurotrophic agents. It is to be expected that in the near future medicine will find effective methods for the treatment of malignant neoplasms.

Domza? TM

1999-01-01

88

The Decline of Smoking among Female Birth Cohorts in China in the 20th Century: A Case of Arrested Diffusion?  

Science.gov (United States)

The smoking prevalence by age of women in China is distinct from most other countries in showing more frequent smoking among older women than younger. Using newly developed birth cohort histories of smoking, the authors demonstrate that although over one quarter of women born 1908–1912 smoked, levels of smoking declined across successive cohorts. This occurred despite high rates of smoking by men and the wide availability of cigarettes. The analysis shows how this pattern is counter to that predicted by the leading theoretical perspectives on the diffusion of smoking and suggests that it arose out of a mix of Confucian traditions relating to gender and the socio-economic and political events early in the 20th century which placed emerging women's identities in conflict with national identities. That a similar pattern of smoking is evident in Japan and Korea, two countries with strong cultural affinities to China, is used to buttress the argument.

Hermalin, Albert I.; Lowry, Deborah S.

2012-01-01

89

The Decline of Smoking among Female Birth Cohorts in China in the 20(th) Century: A Case of Arrested Diffusion?  

Science.gov (United States)

The smoking prevalence by age of women in China is distinct from most other countries in showing more frequent smoking among older women than younger. Using newly developed birth cohort histories of smoking, the authors demonstrate that although over one quarter of women born 1908-1912 smoked, levels of smoking declined across successive cohorts. This occurred despite high rates of smoking by men and the wide availability of cigarettes. The analysis shows how this pattern is counter to that predicted by the leading theoretical perspectives on the diffusion of smoking and suggests that it arose out of a mix of Confucian traditions relating to gender and the socio-economic and political events early in the 20(th) century which placed emerging women's identities in conflict with national identities. That a similar pattern of smoking is evident in Japan and Korea, two countries with strong cultural affinities to China, is used to buttress the argument. PMID:22904585

Hermalin, Albert I; Lowry, Deborah S

2012-08-01

90

The Decline of Smoking among Female Birth Cohorts in China in the 20(th) Century: A Case of Arrested Diffusion?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The smoking prevalence by age of women in China is distinct from most other countries in showing more frequent smoking among older women than younger. Using newly developed birth cohort histories of smoking, the authors demonstrate that although over one quarter of women born 1908-1912 smoked, levels of smoking declined across successive cohorts. This occurred despite high rates of smoking by men and the wide availability of cigarettes. The analysis shows how this pattern is counter to that predicted by the leading theoretical perspectives on the diffusion of smoking and suggests that it arose out of a mix of Confucian traditions relating to gender and the socio-economic and political events early in the 20(th) century which placed emerging women's identities in conflict with national identities. That a similar pattern of smoking is evident in Japan and Korea, two countries with strong cultural affinities to China, is used to buttress the argument.

Hermalin AI; Lowry DS

2012-08-01

91

An Assessment of IPCC 20th Century Climate Simulations Using the 15-year Sea Level Record from Altimetry  

Science.gov (United States)

Recen tly, multiple ensemble climate simulations h ave been produced for th e forthco ming Fourth A ssessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). N early two dozen coupled ocean- atmo sphere models have contr ibuted output for a variety of climate scen arios. One scenar io, the climate of the 20th century exper imen t (20C3 M), produces model output that can be comp ared to th e long record of sea level provided by altimetry . Generally , the output from the 20C3M runs is used to initialize simulations of future climate scenar ios. Hence, v alidation of the 20 C3 M experiment resu lts is crucial to the goals of th e IPCC. We present compar isons of global mean sea level (G MSL) , global mean steric sea level change, and regional patterns of sea lev el chang e from these models to r esults from altimetry, tide gauge measurements, and reconstructions.

Leuliette, E.; Nerem, S.; Jakub, T.

2006-07-01

92

THE POPULATION’S NOMINAL AND REAL INCOMES IN ROMANIA IN THE 20TH CENTURY  

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Full Text Available The research of Romania’s population incomes for a period of a century has not only an incontestable historical importance, but also a social one, as it may give answer to the question what was gained from the viewpoint of the living standard of the population in the 20th century. The issue is approached under two aspects of the economic and social polarisation process, and of the real incomes, and also with respect to the capacity of comparing the main population categories. The differing purposes of the social and ideological systems underwent during this century, and the periods of war and destruction have both triggered a sinuous incomes’ curve with considerable raises and falls of incomes. The final conclusion is that the level of average incomes from 1914 is re-established in the aftermath of the First World War only about 1929, and the year 1938 is situated beneath the pre-crises threshold. World War II and the crisis following it have diminished average incomes to 20 - 25% from the level of the year 1938 and only after 1970 the pre-war threshold is reached again, which is followed in the eighties and nineties by significant growth to be brutally annulled by the transition processes up to 2000, when the average real income is again at the level of the year 1970. It results that the development efforts of six decades, 1939-2000, from the viewpoint of incomes’ level were lost for the majority of the country’s population in favour of a minority that was made rich by the transition.

Victor AXENCIUC

2006-01-01

93

Intra- to multi-decadal terrestrial precipitation regimes at the end of the 20th century  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Intra- to multi-decadal (IMD) variation in terrestrial precipitation during 1901-98 was evaluated here by sampling annual precipitation rankings over 6-30 year moving time windows and converting those rankings to Mann-Whitney U statistics. Those U statistics were then used to identify the most significant concentrations of wet and dry years relative to a null hypothesis that assumes stationary climate variability. This time series analysis approach served as the basis of a climate survey method used to identify IMD precipitation regimes over continental areas, and was also used to evaluate IMD variation in time series of annual precipitation spatially averaged over those areas. These methods showed a highly significant incidence of wet years over North America during 1972-98, with 8 of the 10 wettest years of 1901-98 occurring during that 27-year period. A comparably significant incidence of late century wetness was also found over a northern Europe grid region, with 7 of the 10 wettest years occurring during 1978-98. Although significant wet and dry regimes were also found over other land areas in the last decades of the 20th century, the late century North American and northern European wet periods stood out as the most statistically significant found here during 1901-98. It is suggested that these recent wet periods are actually terrestrial evidence of a single multi-decadal precipitation mode extending across the North Atlantic, and the most observable evidence of an even broader pattern of recent North Atlantic climate change.

Mauget, S.A. [US Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, USDA Plant Stress and Water Conservation Laboratory, Lubbock, Texas, 3810 4th Street, Lubbock, TX 79415 (United States)

2006-10-15

94

Trends and extremes of drought indices throughout the 20th century in the Mediterranean  

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Full Text Available Average monthly precipitation, the original Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and a recent adaptation to Europe, the Self Calibrated PDSI (scPDSI) have been used here to analyse the spatial and temporal evolution of drought conditions in the Mediterranean during the 20th century. Monthly, seasonal and annual trends were computed for the period 1901–2000 and also for the first and second halves of this period. The statistical significance of trends was obtained with a modified version of the Mann-Kendall test that accounts for serial auto-correlation. The results show a clear trend towards drier conditions during the 20th century in most western and central Mediterranean regions, with the exceptions of northwestern Iberia and most of Turkey that reveal an increase of moisture availability. A Generalized Extreme Values (GEV) analysis was applied to the maximum and minimum regional values of scPDSI, with results pointing towards a significant decline of absolute extreme values in central areas (Italy and Balkans) and a less clear picture emerging in western (Iberia) and eastern (Turkey) realms. The inter-annual variability of the scPDSI index series is shown to be more realistic than the corresponding PDSI version, fitting better the drought episodes sequence and magnitude described in the literature for each sub-region. We assess the decadal and inter-annual variability of the scPDSI for each sub-domain and evaluate the role played by the major teleconnection patterns, and by several sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies. The main driver of scPDSI in western and central Mediterranean areas is the winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) pattern that is also relevant during the following spring and summer seasons with anti-correlation values below ?0.60. The second most important mode corresponds to the Scandinavian Pattern that is significantly associated to the scPDSI between winter and summer over central Mediterranean (correlation values around 0.50). Finally, the teleconnection and SST analysis has allowed us to calibrate a stepwise regression model, enabling the forecasting of summer drought conditions six months in advance. The final model obtained is capable of reproducing the observed scPDSI time series fairly well, with a correlation coefficient of 0.79 (0.77 after cross-validation) and a significant gain over climatology (SSc=59%), while the corresponding result against persistence is more modest (SSp6=11%).

P. M. Sousa; R. M. Trigo; P. Aizpurua; R. Nieto; L. Gimeno; R. Garcia-Herrera

2011-01-01

95

Reorganizing a 20th century cabinet of curiosities into a museum for the 21st century  

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Full Text Available This paper describes the life of a university museum that was born in the 1980s and transformed in the 21st century. Over a period of 25 years Professor Reverte collected more than 3700 objects and set up an authentic cabinet of curiosities dedicated to the fields of anthropology and forensic science. Despite the diversity of its contents, the museum had a recognized scientific interest. It has now undergone changes in order to meet the requirements of new academic demands and public accessibility, but without losing reference to its origins.

Isabel M. García Fernández

2010-01-01

96

The concept of personality in 19th-century French and 20th-century American psychology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since the 1920s, the road to the acknowledgement of personality psychology as a field of scientific psychology that has individuality as its object began with the founding of the discipline by Gordon W. Allport. Historians of psychology have made serious attempts to reconstruct the cultural, political, institutional, and chronological beginnings of this field in America in the 20th century. In this literature, however, an important European tradition of psychological studies of personality that developed in France in the 2nd half of the 19th century has been overlooked. The aim of this article is to cast some light on this unexplored tradition of psychological personality studies and to discuss its influence on the development of the scientific study of personality in the United States. PMID:12817602

Lombardo, Giovanni Pietro; Foschi, Renato

2003-05-01

97

1900 ?zmir ve 1901 ?stanbul Salg?nlar? Ba?lam?nda Veban?n XX. Yüzy?l Ba?lar?nda Osmanl? ?mparatorlu?u’nda Devam Eden Etkisi///The Ongoing ?mpact Of The Most Dreadful Disease Of World History Plague In The Ottoman Empire In The Early 20th Century Within The Contexts Of 1900 Izmir And 1901 Istanbul Epidemics  

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Full Text Available At the beginning of the 20th century plague had almost become a local, demographically ineffective and even an ordinary disease. However, even at such a late period, in the epidemics occured in any part of the ottoman territories, plague continued to cause economy based troubles similar to the ones in the previous centuries, due to the quarantines.

Mesut AYAR

2010-01-01

98

Observed Abrupt Changes in Minimum and Maximum Temperatures in Jordan in the 20th Century  

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Full Text Available This study examines changes in annual and seasonal mean (minimum and maximum) temperatures variations in Jordan during the 20th century. The analyses focus on the time series records at the Amman Airport Meteorological (AAM) station. The occurrence of abrupt changes and trends were examined using cumulative sum charts (CUSUM) and bootstrapping and the Mann-Kendall rank test. Statistically significant abrupt changes and trends have been detected. Major change points in the mean minimum (night-time) and mean maximum (day-time) temperatures occurred in 1957 and 1967, respectively. A minor change point in the annual mean maximum temperature also occurred in 1954, which is essential agreement with the detected change in minimum temperature. The analysis showed a significant warming trend after the years 1957 and 1967 for the minimum and maximum temperatures, respectively. The analysis of maximum temperatures shows a significant warming trend after the year 1967 for the summer season with a rate of temperature increase of 0.038°C/year. The analysis of minimum temperatures shows a significant warming trend after the year 1957 for all seasons. Temperature and rainfall data from other stations in the country have been considered and showed similar changes.

Mohammad M.  samdi

2006-01-01

99

Stationarity analysis of historical flood series in France and Spain (14th–20th centuries)  

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Full Text Available Interdisciplinary frameworks for studying natural hazards and their temporal trends have an important potential in data generation for risk assessment, land use planning, and therefore the sustainable management of resources. This paper focuses on the adjustments required because of the wide variety of scientific fields involved in the reconstruction and characterisation of flood events for the past 1000 years. The aim of this paper is to describe various methodological aspects of the study of flood events in their historical dimension, including the critical evaluation of old documentary and instrumental sources, flood-event classification and hydraulic modelling, and homogeneity and quality control tests. Standardized criteria for flood classification have been defined and applied to the Isère and Drac floods in France, from 1600 to 1950, and to the Ter, the Llobregat and the Segre floods, in Spain, from 1300 to 1980. The analysis on the Drac and Isère data series from 1600 to the present day showed that extraordinary and catastrophic floods were not distributed uniformly in time. However, the largest floods (general catastrophic floods) were homogeneously distributed in time within the period 1600–1900. No major flood occurred during the 20th century in these rivers. From 1300 to the present day, no homogeneous behaviour was observed for extraordinary floods in the Spanish rivers. The largest floods were uniformly distributed in time within the period 1300–1900, for the Segre and Ter rivers.

M. Barriendos; D. Coeur; M. Lang; M. C. Llasat; R. Naulet; F. Lemaitre; A. Barrera

2003-01-01

100

The great exodus of 1939 and other exiles of the 20th Century  

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Full Text Available In spite of being a historic constant and a characteristic phenomenon of the 20th century, the subject ‘exile’ is still little valued by contemporary historiography´. The civil war from 1936 to 1939 and the Francoist triumph provoked an exile without precedent in recent Catalonian history. This exile was decisive in the preservation of Catalan culture (persecuted by the Franco regime in Catalonia itself), as well as for the continuity of Catalan self-government, the ‘Generalitat of Catalonia’. It was also an extremely important platform for the democratic opposition to Francoism, although it lost its political weight around the nineteen sixties. At that time, though, new waves of exiles took place caused by the fight against the dictatorship, but they were in no way related to the scale of those from the civil war in the thirties. At the dictator’s death many people returned home, but the fragility of the democracy born from the political transition process brought new exiles. In order to know more in detail on such an important subject it is necessary to promote a culturally institutionalised process that makes possible its systematic study, and it is also necessary that the analysis of this phenomenon become a top priority aim of study for historiography and for all human sciences.

Enric Pujol

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Brief resume of exploration history in Azerbaijan sector of Caspian sea in 20th century  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Full text : This article contains information about seismic exploration activities in the shallow water part of Azeri sector of Caspian see in the 20th century. During this time 145 perspective structures had been discovered in Azeri sector of Caspian as a result of the exploration. On some of those perspectives that were prepared for geological prospecting deep-hole exploration drilling was carried out and according to the data acquired, there were 27 oil and gas gas fields discovered at that time. The distinctive feature of these deposits is that the production was conducted by means of special dums, piers, built from the shore and also by deviated wells having there wellhead on the land. After World War 2, due to depletion of the main oil producing region, i.e. Apsheron peninsular, Azerbaijan geologists appealed to exploring new oil bearing deposits in other regions of Azerbaijan. Analyses of the geological and geophysical data reveal that along with the high probability of new deposit detection within already discovered structures, positive results may also be acquired by exploration of non-anticlinal traps and pliocene deposits of the western slope of Caspian sea.

2002-01-01

102

Patterns of Coherent Climate Signals in the Indian Ocean during the 20th Century  

Science.gov (United States)

QBO, ENSO, and BDO fluctuations are identified in the Indian Ocean from a joint frequency domain analysis of sea surface temperature (SST) and sea level pressure (SLP) conducted over the 20th Century. Within the ENSO band (3- to 7-year period), local fractional variance (LFV) is maximum near 3.4-year period, revealing spatially coherent SST and SLP variability propagating eastward from the Horn of Africa and southwest Indian Ocean respectively, toward the eastern tropical Indian Ocean. Within the QBO band (2.1- to 2.8- year period), LFV is maximum near 2.2-year period revealing spatially coherent SST and SLP variability propagating northward and eastward from Southwestern Ocean, toward the South China Sea. The 3.4-year period ENSO signal diminished in intensity in the 1920s and 1950s, whilst the 2.2-year period QBO signal diminished in the 1910s, 1940s, and 1950s, as observed for the global QBO and ENSO signals [White and Tourre, 2003].

Tourre, Yves M.; White, Warren B.

2003-12-01

103

Language & authoritarianism in the 20th century: The cases of Estonia and Catalonia  

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Full Text Available The 20th century saw the Soviet and Francoist regimes enforce their respective ideologies in Estonia and the Catalan-speaking territories in Spain. In both cases, the autochthonous language suffered under the stringent control of the mechanisms of censorship and repression. In fact, Soviet and Spanish leaders—representing both extremes of the political spectrum—tried to replace the use of the autochthonous language in many sociolinguistic domains with their own—Russian and (Castilian) Spanish—as these languages embodied the ideologies and the new orders that they wished to establish. This paper compares and contrasts the diverse methods of control over language carried out in Estonia and the Catalan-speaking areas of Spain in order to demonstrate that highly centralised multilingual states—whatever their political ideology—can make use of surprisingly similar means of control, ultimately depriving local linguistic communities of the ability to use and develop their own language.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5128/ERYa6.16

Delaney Michael Skerrett

2010-01-01

104

Ochres and earths: matrix and chromophores characterization of 19th and 20th century artist materials.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present paper describes the main results obtained from the characterization of a wide range of natural and synthetic ochre samples used in Portugal from the 19th to the 20th century, including powder and oil painting samples. The powder ochre samples came from several commercial distributors and from the collection of Joaquim Rodrigo (1912-1997), a leading Portuguese artist, particularly active during the sixties and seventies. The micro-samples of oil painting tubes came from the Museu Nacional de Arte Contemporânea-Museu do Chiado (National Museum of Contemporary Art-Chiado Museum) in Lisbon and were used by Columbano Bordalo Pinheiro (1857-1929), one of the most prominent naturalist Portuguese painters. These tubes were produced by the main 19th century colourmen: Winsor & Newton, Morin et Janet, Maison Merlin, and Lefranc. The samples have been studied using ?-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (?-FTIR), Raman microscopy, ?-Energy Dispersive X-ray fluorescence (?-EDXRF), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The analyzed ochres were found to be a mixture of several components: iron oxides and hydroxides in matrixes with kaolinite, gypsum and chalk. The results obtained allowed to identify and characterize the ochres according to their matrix and chromophores. The main chromophores where identified by Raman microscopy as being hematite, goethite and magnetite. The infrared analysis of the ochre samples allowed to divide them into groups, according to the composition of the matrix. It was possible to separate ochres containing kaolinite matrix and/or sulfate matrix from ochres where only iron oxides and/or hydroxides were detected. ?-EDXRF and Raman were the best techniques to identify umber, since the presence of elements such as manganese is characteristic of these pigments. ?-EDXRF also revealed the presence of significant amounts of arsenic in all Sienna tube paints.

Montagner C; Sanches D; Pedroso J; Melo MJ; Vilarigues M

2013-02-01

105

[Wilhelm Troll (1897-1978). The tradition of idealistic morphology in the German botanical sciences of the 20th century].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During the first half of the 19th century, idealistic morphology developed into an influential research program in the German biosciences. This program was based on the concept of an ideal connection existing between various living beings. The growth of Darwinian thought and its new paradigm of historical explanation supplanted the idealistic morphology. Yet in the first half of the 20th century the principles of idealistic morphology experienced a powerful revival. Wilhelm Troll (1897-1978) was one of the most significant figures in this renaissance. Guided by the ideas of J.W. von Goethe, Troll established a research program rejecting causal, functional, and phylogenetic explanations as well as the idea of evolutionary adaptation. Instead, he attempted to create a 'pure' morphology based on the descriptions of various plant species. Governed by some explicitly metaphysical presumptions, Troll based his theory on the description of the organismal Gestalt. In consequence, his theory was actually a return to the proper idealistic morphology as it was known in the early 19th century. It lead German botanical morphology to a period of methodological and epistemological return.

Meister K

2005-01-01

106

[Wilhelm Troll (1897-1978). The tradition of idealistic morphology in the German botanical sciences of the 20th century].  

Science.gov (United States)

During the first half of the 19th century, idealistic morphology developed into an influential research program in the German biosciences. This program was based on the concept of an ideal connection existing between various living beings. The growth of Darwinian thought and its new paradigm of historical explanation supplanted the idealistic morphology. Yet in the first half of the 20th century the principles of idealistic morphology experienced a powerful revival. Wilhelm Troll (1897-1978) was one of the most significant figures in this renaissance. Guided by the ideas of J.W. von Goethe, Troll established a research program rejecting causal, functional, and phylogenetic explanations as well as the idea of evolutionary adaptation. Instead, he attempted to create a 'pure' morphology based on the descriptions of various plant species. Governed by some explicitly metaphysical presumptions, Troll based his theory on the description of the organismal Gestalt. In consequence, his theory was actually a return to the proper idealistic morphology as it was known in the early 19th century. It lead German botanical morphology to a period of methodological and epistemological return. PMID:16602487

Meister, Kay

2005-01-01

107

Modelling Antarctic and Greenland volume changes during the 20th and 21st centuries forced by GCM time slice integrations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Current and future volume changes of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets depend on modern mass balance changes and on the ice-dynamic response to the environmental forcing on time scales as far back as the last glacial period. Here we focus on model predictions for the 20th and 21st centuries usi...

Huybrechts, P.; Gregory, J.M.; Janssens, I.; Wild, M.

108

Potential forest fire danger over Northern Eurasia: Changes during the 20th century  

Science.gov (United States)

Significant climatic changes over Northern Eurasia during the 20th century have been reflected in numerous variables of economic, social, and ecological interest, including the natural frequency of forest fires. For the former USSR, we are now using the Global Daily Climatology Network and a new Global Synoptic Data Network archive, GSDN, created jointly by U.S. National Climatic Data Center and Russian Research Institute for Hydrometeorological Information. Data from these archives (approximately 1500 of them having sufficiently long meteorological time series suitable for participation in our analyses) are employed to estimate systematic changes in indices used in the United States and Russia to assess potential forest fire danger. We use four indices: (1) Keetch Byram Drought Index, (KBDI; this index was developed and widely used in the United States); (2) Nesterov, (3) Modified Nesterov, and (4) Zhdanko Indices (these indices were developed and widely used in Russia). Analyses show that after calibration, time series of the days with increased potential forest fire danger constructed using each of these three indices (a) are well correlated and (b) deliver similar conclusions about systematic changes in the weather conditions conducive to forest fires. Specifically, over the Eastern half of Northern Eurasia (Siberia and the Russian Far East) statistically significant increases in indices that characterize the weather conditions conducive to forest fires were found. These areas coincide with the areas of most significant warming during the past several decades south of the Arctic Circle. West of the Ural Mountains, the same indices show a steady decrease in the frequency of “dry weather summer days” during the past 60 yr. This study is corroborated with available statistics of forest fires and with observed changes in drought statistics in agricultural regions of Northern Eurasia.

Groisman, Pavel Ya.; Sherstyukov, Boris G.; Razuvaev, Vyacheslav N.; Knight, Richard W.; Enloe, Jesse G.; Stroumentova, Nina S.; Whitfield, Paul H.; Førland, Eirik; Hannsen-Bauer, Inger; Tuomenvirta, Heikki; Aleksandersson, Hans; Mescherskaya, Anna V.; Karl, Thomas R.

2007-04-01

109

The economic historiography of Valle del Cauca, 19th and 20th centuries. Topics, spaces, and times: A quantitative approximation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available From a quantitative perspective, the article deals with the economic historiography of the Valle del Cauca for the 19th and 20th centuries. The aim is to offer a sectorial approximation from the selection of a series of variables such as: topics, centuries and periods, and spaces. The intention is, in a critical style, to give an account of the level of development achieved by this historiography on the regional economy.

Julio César Zuluaga Jiménez

2009-01-01

110

Manuais didáticos no início do século XX em Sergipe: cultura material escolar dos grupos escolares/ Textbooks from the early 20th century in Sergipe: institutional teaching material for school groups  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Ao investigar a cultura escolar dos grupos escolares sergipanos, questionou-se acerca da presença de manuais didáticos nestas instituições no início do século XX e suas características. Assim, com base em pesquisa bibliográfica e documental desenvolvidas sob a perspectiva da História Cultural, objetivou-se identificar quais manuais didáticos integraram a cultura dos grupos escolares, analisar a materialidade dos documentos e identificar aspectos característicos da cultura escolar do período, por meio da análise do conteúdo dos textos dos manuais escolares. Abstract in english When investigating the school institutions of Sergipe, the presence and characteristics of textbooks at the beginning of the twentieth century were examined. Thus, based on a literary and documentary search developed from the perspective of Cultural History, the objective was to identify which textbooks had been integrated into the school institutions, then analyze the materiality of the documents, identifying characteristic features of the school institutions of that period through an analysis of the content of the textbooks.

Azevedo, Crislane Barbosa

2011-12-01

111

Evaluation for sustainable agriculture water use from River, Reservoirs and Groundwater in the 20th century  

Science.gov (United States)

High water stress due to economic growth and climate change (ex. global warming) will be falling into 2 billion people to 4 billion people in the future. Agricultural water use accounting for about 70% of global water consumption might continue to increase due to production of foods and biofuels occurred by population growth in the future. In particular, water demand, food and biofuel production have an inextricable link. It is very important to evaluate these relationship for sustainable water use from past to the future. In this study, we focused on the objective to assess the impact of water withdrawal from various sources (stream flow, medium-sized reservoirs and nonrenewable nonlocal blue water) in the 20th century by considering irrigation area and climate change. Irrigation water withdrawal is the most important water use sector accounting for about 90% of total water withdrawal. First, we make the global spatial database of equipped irrigation area change and medium-sized reservoirs capacity. Then, water withdrawal from each sources for 50 years from 1950 to 2000 were simulated in global-scale at a resolution of 1.0 degree x 1.0 degree using an integrated global water resources model (hereafter, the H08 model). The H08 model can simulate both natural or anthropogenic water flow and anthropogenic water withdrawals. For comparison with our results, distribution of agricultural, industrial and domestic water withdrawals from 1950 to 2000 were estimated by distributing the country-based withdrawal data from AQUASTAT with irrigation area, urban population and total population, respectively. Groundwater withdrawal was then estimated by distributing the country-based withdrawal data based on statistical data from WRI, IGRAC and AQUASTAT with the total water withdrawal. As a result, agricultural water withdrawal change from nonrenewable nonlocal blue water during the past 50 years agreed well with the observed groundwater abstraction based on statistical data. In addition, many of the well-known hot spots of groundwater depletion (northeast Pakistan, northeast China, the Ogallala Aquifer, Iran and southeast Spain) appeared in spatial distribution of the change. In conclusion, this study was successful in simulations of global water withdrawals change from nonrenewable nonlocal blue water during the past 50 years using by the H08 model consisting of physical based hydrology. If irrigation areas continue to increasing, groundwater depletion might become more serious.

Yoshikawa, S.; Yamada, H.; Hanasaki, N.; Kanae, S.

2011-12-01

112

[History of public health in Mexico: 19th and 20th centuries  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, its growth accompanied the country's political and social changes. In the early half of the nineteenth century, care for the sick depended in part on religious charity. So-called public beneficial care was later introduced and consolidated under president Benito Juárez (1856) and then continued under Porfirio Díaz (1880-1910). The Mexican Revolution (1910-1917) brought the notion that public-health assistance is the State's social responsibility. Health care and social security are now both part of so-called "institutional medicine," which also encompasses research and teaching on public health. This analysis of public-health care in Mexico examines the question of diseases and their control, the emergence of institutions, and the development of the concept of public health.

Rodríguez de Romo AC; Rodríguez Pérez ME

1998-01-01

113

Ideology and Social Improvement in Bolivia during the 20th Century Ideology and Social Improvement in Bolivia during the 20th Century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This essay relates improvements in social indicators in Bolivia during the Twentieth Century to ideological changes during the same period. During the Twentieth Century, most social indicators improved dramatically in Bolivia. Separately, scholars have vigorously debated ideologies, such as neoliberalism and its macroeconomic competitors, and the potential social impact of these ideologies. Despite the separate emphases on ideas and social outcomes, no systematic attempt has been made by scholars of Bolivia to link long–term ideological change to long–term social improvement in the country. This essay argues that it is probable that such a relationship exists, but it is important to consider mass ideology, which affects the whole of Bolivian society, in addition to elite ideology, which affects a much more limited portion of society.Este ensayo relaciona las mejoras en indicadores sociales en Bolivia durante el siglo XX con cambios ideológicos registrados durante el mismo periodo. Durante el siglo XX la mayoría de los indicadores sociales mejoraron dramáticamente en Bolivia. Los especialistas han debatido vigorosamente  la relación de estas mejoras con ideologías tales como el neoliberalismo y sus competidores macroeconómicos, discutiendo su potencial impacto social. Sin embargo, pese al énfasis otorgado a la relación de las ideas con los resultados sociales, no ha habido ninguna tentativa sistemática por parte de los especialistas de  relacionar el cambio ideológico de largo plazo con las mejoras sociales de largo plazo en el país. Este ensayo sostiene que es probable que tal relación exista, pero para visibilizarla es importante considerar la ideología de masas, que afecta al conjunto de la sociedad boliviana, además de la ideología de la élite, que afecta a una porción mucho más limitada de la sociedad.

Brian Norris

2012-01-01

114

Hallmarks in the history of cerebral palsy: from antiquity to mid-20th century.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cerebral palsy (CP) is a term that has been applied over the years to a group of children with motor disability and related service requirements. The first conceptions of cerebral palsy and our knowledge about aetiology and pathogeny allow us to assume that cerebral palsy existed in the Ancient World. Although there is lack of detailed medical descriptions from before the 19th century, mentions to cerebral palsy can be found in representational art, literary sources and paleopathology; however, because of the poor medical documentation, the diagnosis of cerebral palsy must remain a more or less well-justified supposition. In the Ancient World, the first medical description of cerebral palsy was made by Hippocrates in his work "Corpus Hippocraticum". Concrete examples and definitions of cerebral palsy, however, did not emerge until the early 19th century with observations by William John Little; thus, Little was the first personality to intensely engage cerebral palsy. Towards the end of the 19th century, two more personalities emerged, adding to the historical hallmarks of cerebral palsy: William Osler and Sigmund Freud. The significant developments that have followed since then are all due to the contributions of these three personalities in the field of cerebral palsy.

Panteliadis C; Panteliadis P; Vassilyadi F

2013-04-01

115

Hallmarks in the history of cerebral palsy: from antiquity to mid-20th century.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cerebral palsy (CP) is a term that has been applied over the years to a group of children with motor disability and related service requirements. The first conceptions of cerebral palsy and our knowledge about aetiology and pathogeny allow us to assume that cerebral palsy existed in the Ancient World. Although there is lack of detailed medical descriptions from before the 19th century, mentions to cerebral palsy can be found in representational art, literary sources and paleopathology; however, because of the poor medical documentation, the diagnosis of cerebral palsy must remain a more or less well-justified supposition. In the Ancient World, the first medical description of cerebral palsy was made by Hippocrates in his work "Corpus Hippocraticum". Concrete examples and definitions of cerebral palsy, however, did not emerge until the early 19th century with observations by William John Little; thus, Little was the first personality to intensely engage cerebral palsy. Towards the end of the 19th century, two more personalities emerged, adding to the historical hallmarks of cerebral palsy: William Osler and Sigmund Freud. The significant developments that have followed since then are all due to the contributions of these three personalities in the field of cerebral palsy. PMID:22658818

Panteliadis, Christos; Panteliadis, Panos; Vassilyadi, Frank

2012-06-02

116

See no evil, hear no evil: the rise and fall of child sexual abuse in the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper examines the development of a medical perspective on child sexual abuse during the course of the 20th century and argues that such a perspective has not served the best interests of sexually abused children. An alternate social perspective is outlined, which would appear to have the potential to adequately address the needs of sexually abused children in the 21st century. The paper concludes by arguing that, despite its merits, the social perspective is likely to be of little value unless we can learn to more effectively see and hear the voices of child survivors.

Steven J Collings

2009-01-01

117

See no evil, hear no evil: the rise and fall of child sexual abuse in the 20th century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english This paper examines the development of a medical perspective on child sexual abuse during the course of the 20th century and argues that such a perspective has not served the best interests of sexually abused children. An alternate social perspective is outlined, which would appear to have the potential to adequately address the needs of sexually abused children in the 21st century. The paper concludes by arguing that, despite its merits, the social perspective is likely to be of little value unless we can learn to more effectively see and hear the voices of child survivors.

Collings, Steven J

2009-01-01

118

Extending the 20th century temperature and precipitation records on Svalbard using newly available instrumental and ice-core data  

Science.gov (United States)

The homogenized Svalbard Airport series is one of only a few long-term (>65 yr) instrumental temperature series from the high Arctic. It is, therefore, an important record for interpreting present Arctic meteorological trends in terms of past behaviour. Some doubt remains, however, about the reliability of the early part of the Svalbard Airport record, in particular the period 1912-1920. During these years mean annual temperatures appear to increase dramatically, with an increase of over 3 degrees C between the average for the periods 1912-1917 and 1918-1923. In this contribution we present the first results of extending the Svalbard Airport record through incorporating newly digitised meteorological observations from early 20th century over-wintering expeditions (eight winters in the interval 1899-1913). In addition, we compare the extended instrumental record with the ice core oxygen isotope record, a temperature proxy, from the 1997 Lomonosovfonna ice core. The ice core record shows only slightly more negative isotope values in the period 1910-1920, suggesting that the winters in the early instrumental record may have been less cold than implied by the homogenized Svalbard Airport series. Furthermore, the winter expedition data prior to 1911 also indicate higher temperatures than the minimum values in the 1910s, and for the limited periods in which there are both expedition data and Svalbard Airport data, the latter monthly mean temperatures are consistently colder than the former during the coldest months. Finally, the precipitation record for Svalbard Airport is compared to the ice-core accumulation record determined using annual layer counting and datable volcanic and beta-activity peaks. Both the instrumental and the ice-core records indicate an increasing accumulation trend.

Kohler, J.; Nordli, Ø.; Isaksson, E.; Pohjola, V.

2003-04-01

119

Effects of breeding activity on durum wheat traits breed in Italy during the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Italy is the first world producer of pasta from durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) and an intense breeding activity has been conducted over the last century to support the long tradition of pasta making. This manuscript reviews the results achieved through the Italian breeding programs over last century. The analysis of data allows to appreciate the selective pressure imposed by the breeders on plant height and phenology to select cultivars well adapted to the Italian semi-arid conditions, where early maturity allows to escape the drought season. The annual genetic gain in terms of yield ranged from 17 to 24.6 kg ha-1 year-1 and it was most clearly associated with a higher kernels number m-2 indicating a larger grain-sink size and a higher number of spikes m-2. Regarding the quality traits, the grain protein concentration showed a decreasing trend over time of release of about 0.02% per year, confirming the negative relationship with grain yield.The progressive incorporation into recent cultivars of favourable alleles (7+8 glutenin subunit composition) coding for superior quality subunits reflects the improvement in pasta making quality of the recent genotypes.

Pasquale De Vita; Loredana Matteu; Anna Maria Mastrangelo; Natale Di Fonzo; Luigi Cattivelli

2011-01-01

120

Effects of breeding activity on durum wheat traits breed in Italy during the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Italy is the first world producer of pasta from durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) and an intense breeding activity has been conducted over the last century to support the long tradition of pasta making. This manuscript reviews the results achieved through the Italian breeding programs over last century. The analysis of data allows to appreciate the selective pressure imposed by the breeders on plant height and phenology to select cultivars well adapted to the Italian semi-arid conditions, where early maturity allows to escape the drought season. The annual genetic gain in terms of yield ranged from 17 to 24.6 kg ha-1 year-1 and it was most clearly associated with a higher kernels number m-2 indicating a larger grain-sink size and a higher number of spikes m-2. Regarding the quality traits, the grain protein concentration showed a decreasing trend over time of release of about 0.02% per year, confirming the negative relationship with grain yield.The progressive incorporation into recent cultivars of favourable alleles (7+8 glutenin subunit composition) coding for superior quality subunits reflects the improvement in pasta making quality of the recent genotypes.

Pasquale De Vita; Loredana Matteu; Anna Maria Mastrangelo; Natale Di Fonzo; Luigi Cattivelli

 
 
 
 
121

Effects of breeding activity on durum wheat traits breed in Italy during the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Italy is the first world producer of pasta from durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) and an intense breeding activity has been conducted over the last century to support the long tradition of pasta making. This manuscript reviews the results achieved through the Italian breeding programs over last century. The analysis of data allows to appreciate the selective pressure imposed by the breeders on plant height and phenology to select cultivars well adapted to the Italian semi-arid conditions, where early maturity allows to escape the drought season. The annual genetic gain in terms of yield ranged from 17 to 24.6 kg ha-1 year-1 and it was most clearly associated with a higher kernels number m-2 indicating a larger grain-sink size and a higher number of spikes m-2. Regarding the quality traits, the grain protein concentration showed a decreasing trend over time of release of about 0.02% per year, confirming the negative relationship with grain yield.The progressive incorporation into recent cultivars of favourable alleles (7+8 glutenin subunit composition) coding for superior quality subunits reflects the improvement in pasta making quality of the recent genotypes.

Pasquale De Vita; Loredana Matteu; Anna Maria Mastrangelo; Natale Di Fonzo; Luigi Cattivelli

2007-01-01

122

20th century acidification and warming as recorded in two alpine lakes in the Tatra Mountains (South Poland, Europe).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sediment profiles of two alpine lakes located in the Tatra Mountains, the Toporowy Staw Nizni (TSN) and the Zielony Staw Gasienicowy (ZSG), were studied for their chronology, lithology, diatom and cladoceran remains. The sediment sequences, 50cm long from TSN and 30cm long from ZSG, were deposited during the last 1000 and 300 years, respectively. Vertical changes in lithology, diatom and Cladocera allow the reconstruction of three periods in the lakes' evolution: mild climatic conditions during Medieval Warm Period (MWP, only in TSN), severe conditions between the end of 14th and 19th centuries, identified as the Little Ice Age (LIA), and 20th century warming. The LIA was recorded in the sediments of both lakes in the form of intensified erosion and lower lake ecosystem productivity, as indicated by organic matter lower content, changes in diatom species composition, and decline in Daphnia. The 20th century was a time of acidification in both lakes. The scale of acidification was assessed based on the decline in diatom-inferred pH (DI-pH). DI-pH dropped by 1.2 pH units during the last century in TSN and by 0.4 pH unit in ZSG. The decline of DI-pH was noted in both lakes, but its intensity was clearly higher in TSN due to the lower acid neutralisation capacity (ANC) of this lake. The lower pH during the final decades of the 20th century was lethal to some water organisms while attracting others, such as Daphnia. The Daphnia population increased after the pH drop, probably due to the high food flexibility of this genus. A similar increase was not observed in ZSG, where planktonivorous fishes were introduced in the 1940s, which effectively limited the crustacean plankton density.

Gasiorowski M; Sienkiewicz E

2010-02-01

123

PHOTOGRAPHY AND MODERNIZATION OF THE PRESS IN BRAZILIAN CAPITAL: The First Fifty Years of the 20th Century  

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Full Text Available The process which created the conditions for the development ofmass media press in Brazil was consolidated in the first half of the 20th Century with the emergence of newspaper companies based on an industrial form of production, the modernization of the writing style and design, plus the use of photography as a newsy element. There was a strong investment in technology in order to modernize the nation and photography, as a technical image par excellence, started to portray the acceleration of the passage of time that was accentuated by the 1890’s. In the beginning of the 20th century a new technological trend occurred mediated by the photographic apparatus and diffused through the newspaper and illustrated magazines pages that were multiplying in the nation’s capital, Rio de Janeiro1. The press used photography and a series of technological artifacts to acquire the status of a modern entity and multiply the number of readers, changing its forms of production and its auto-referential discourse, starting to be more and more the icon of modernity. The technologies capable of giving a wider dimension to the concept of time and space were decisive in shaping the new symbolic world which emerged since the turn of the century. The world got closer and more visible, the perception of the “other” changed gradually and temporality took on a new dimension. This article traces a panorama of the use of photography by the main newspapers published in the capital of Brazil in the first half of the 20th century, seeking in photography the reflection of the modernizing process that Brazilian society desired and underwent.

Silvana Louzada

2011-01-01

124

PHOTOGRAPHY AND MODERNIZATION OF THE PRESS IN BRAZILIAN CAPITAL: The First Fifty Years of the 20th Century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The process which created the conditions for the development ofmass media press in Brazil was consolidated in the first half of the 20th Century with the emergence of newspaper companies based on an industrial form of production, the modernization of the writing style and design, plus the use of photography as a newsy element. There was a strong investment in technology in order to modernize the nation and photography, as a technical image par excellence, started to portray the acceleration of the passage of time that was accentuated by the 1890’s. In the beginning of the 20th century a new technological trend occurred mediated by the photographic apparatus and diffused through the newspaper and illustrated magazines pages that were multiplying in the nation’s capital, Rio de Janeiro1. The press used photography and a series of technological artifacts to acquire the status of a modern entity and multiply the number of readers, changing its forms of production and its auto-referential discourse, starting to be more and more the icon of modernity. The technologies capable of giving a wider dimension to the concept of time and space were decisive in shaping the new symbolic world which emerged since the turn of the century. The world got closer and more visible, the perception of the “other” changed gradually and temporality took on a new dimension. This article traces a panorama of the use of photography by the main newspapers published in the capital of Brazil in the first half of the 20th century, seeking in photography the reflection of the modernizing process that Brazilian society desired and underwent.

Silvana Louzada

2009-01-01

125

North Atlantic 20th century multidecadal variability in coupled climate models: sea surface temperature and ocean overturning circulation  

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Full Text Available Output from a total of 24 state-of-the-art Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models is analyzed. The models were integrated with observed forcing for the period 1850–2000 as part of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report. All models show enhanced variability at multi-decadal time scales in the North Atlantic sector similar to the observations, but with a large intermodel spread in amplitudes and frequencies for both the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). The models, in general, are able to reproduce the observed geographical patterns of warm and cold episodes, but not the phasing such as the early warming (1930s–1950s) and the following colder period (1960s–1980s). This indicates that the observed 20th century extreme in temperatures are due to primarily a fortuitous phasing of intrinsic climate variability and not dominated by external forcing. Most models show a realistic structure in the overturning circulation, where more than half of the available models have a mean overturning transport within the observed estimated range of 13–24 Sverdrup. Associated with a stronger than normal AMOC, the surface temperature is increased and the sea ice extent slightly reduced in the North Atlantic. Individual models show potential for decadal prediction based on the relationship between the AMO and AMOC, but the models strongly disagree both in phasing and strength of the covariability. This makes it difficult to identify common mechanisms and to assess the applicability for predictions.

I. Medhaug; T. Furevik

2011-01-01

126

A time-series analysis of the 20th century climate simulations produced for the IPCC's Fourth Assessment Report.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this paper evidence of anthropogenic influence over the warming of the 20th century is presented and the debate regarding the time-series properties of global temperatures is addressed in depth. The 20th century global temperature simulations produced for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Fourth Assessment Report and a set of the radiative forcing series used to drive them are analyzed using modern econometric techniques. Results show that both temperatures and radiative forcing series share similar time-series properties and a common nonlinear secular movement. This long-term co-movement is characterized by the existence of time-ordered breaks in the slope of their trend functions. The evidence presented in this paper suggests that while natural forcing factors may help explain the warming of the first part of the century, anthropogenic forcing has been its main driver since the 1970's. In terms of Article 2 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, significant anthropogenic interference with the climate system has already occurred and the current climate models are capable of accurately simulating the response of the climate system, even if it consists in a rapid or abrupt change, to changes in external forcing factors. This paper presents a new methodological approach for conducting time-series based attribution studies.

Estrada F; Perron P; Gay-García C; Martínez-López B

2013-01-01

127

A Time-Series Analysis of the 20th Century Climate Simulations Produced for the IPCC's Fourth Assessment Report  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper evidence of anthropogenic influence over the warming of the 20th century is presented and the debate regarding the time-series properties of global temperatures is addressed in depth. The 20th century global temperature simulations produced for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s Fourth Assessment Report and a set of the radiative forcing series used to drive them are analyzed using modern econometric techniques. Results show that both temperatures and radiative forcing series share similar time-series properties and a common nonlinear secular movement. This long-term co-movement is characterized by the existence of time-ordered breaks in the slope of their trend functions. The evidence presented in this paper suggests that while natural forcing factors may help explain the warming of the first part of the century, anthropogenic forcing has been its main driver since the 1970’s. In terms of Article 2 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, significant anthropogenic interference with the climate system has already occurred and the current climate models are capable of accurately simulating the response of the climate system, even if it consists in a rapid or abrupt change, to changes in external forcing factors. This paper presents a new methodological approach for conducting time-series based attribution studies.

Estrada, Francisco; Perron, Pierre; Gay-Garcia, Carlos; Martinez-Lopez, Benjamin

2013-01-01

128

On modernity in general and on the main obstacles to modernity in Serbia in the 20th century - and afterwards  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work offers, in the first place, a definition of the notion of modernity, then, a reconstruction of historical origins of that wide and long-lasting ideal/spiritual and practical project, and the main theoretical views of the attributes and conditions of its contemporary existence. The analysis of the character of the main socio-historical currents in Serbia during the 20th century - based upon the above mentioned logical theoretical, methodological and historical considerations - reveals the reasons why the project of modernity has never become a basis or, at least a relevant orientation factor for human action/behaviour in the milieu.

Turza Karel

2003-01-01

129

The ‘Rediscovery’ of Scripture and its Impact on the Romanian Christian Context at the Beginning of the 20th Century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Scripture has always played a crucial role in the renewal of the churches throughout the history of Christianity and this was seen particularly well during the Reformation. This paper offers another example of the enduring power of the Scripture to change lives and renew communities. It looks at the impact of the ‘rediscovery’ of the Bible on the Romanian Christian context at the beginning of the 20th century, by presenting the life and influence of three key Orthodox priests, Dumitru Cornilescu, Dumitru Popescu and Iosif Trifa. Particularly, it explores the foundation, establishment and the theology of the Lord’s Army – a unique renewal movement within the Orthodox Churches.

Corneliu Constantineanu

2011-01-01

130

The spatial extent of 20th-century warmth in the context of the past 1200 years.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Periods of widespread warmth or cold are identified by positive or negative deviations that are synchronous across a number of temperature-sensitive proxy records drawn from the Northern Hemisphere. The most significant and longest duration feature during the last 1200 years is the geographical extent of warmth in the middle to late 20th century. Positive anomalies during 890 to 1170 and negative anomalies during 1580 to 1850 are consistent with the concepts of a Medieval Warm Period and a Little Ice Age, but comparison with instrumental temperatures shows the spatial extent of recent warmth to be of greater significance than that during the medieval period.

Osborn TJ; Briffa KR

2006-02-01

131

Response of the Everglades ridge and slough landscape to climate variability and 20th-century water management.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The ridge and slough landscape of the Florida Everglades consists of a mosaic of linear sawgrass ridges separated by deeper-water sloughs with tree islands interspersed throughout the landscape. We used pollen assemblages from transects of sediment cores spanning sawgrass ridges, sloughs, and ridge-slough transition zones to determine the timing of ridge and slough formation and to evaluate the response of components of the ridge and slough landscape to climate variability and 20th-century water management. These pollen data indicate that sawgrass ridges and sloughs have been vegetationally distinct from one another since initiation of the Everglades wetland in mid-Holocene time. Although the position and community composition of sloughs have remained relatively stable throughout their history, modern sawgrass ridges formed on sites that originally were occupied by marshes. Ridge formation and maturation were initiated during intervals of drier climate (the Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age) when the mean position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone shifted southward. During these drier intervals, marsh taxa were more common in sloughs, but they quickly receded when precipitation increased. Comparison with regional climate records suggests that slough vegetation is strongly influenced by North Atlantic Oscillation variability, even under 20th-century water management practices.

Bernhardt CE; Willard DA

2009-10-01

132

Tree ring evidence of a 20th century precipitation surge in the monsoon shadow zone of the western Himalaya, India  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study is the first attempt to develop an annual (August-July) precipitation series back to AD 1330 using a tree ring data network of Himalayan cedar (Cedrus deodara (Roxb.) G. Don) from the Lahaul-Spiti region in the western Himalaya, India. The rainfall reconstruction reveals high magnitude multidecadal droughts during the 14th and 15th centuries and thenceforth a gradual increase in precipitation. Increasingly wet conditions during the 20th century are consistent with other long-term precipitation reconstructions from high Asia and reflect a large-scale intensification of the hydrological cycle, coincident with what is anticipated due to global warming. Significant relationships between reconstructed precipitation and precipitation records from central southwest Asia, east of the Caspian Sea, ENSO (NINO4-SST) variability and summer monsoon rainfall over central northeast India underscore the utility of our data in synoptic climatology.

Yadav, Ram R.

2011-01-01

133

Effects of breeding activity on durum wheat traits breed in Italy during the 20th century  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Italy is the first world producer of pasta from durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) and an intense breeding activity has been conducted over the last century to support the long tradition of pasta making. This manuscript reviews the results achieved through the Italian breeding programs over last cen...

Pasquale De Vita; Loredana Matteu; Anna Maria Mastrangelo; Natale Di Fonzo; Luigi Cattivelli

134

Hans Bethe and Physics in/of the 20th Century  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

I will present some facets of Hans Bethe’s life to illustrate how I have used biography to narrate certain aspects of the history of twentieth century physics. I will focus on post World War II quantum field theory, on the relation between solid state/condensed matter physics and high energy physics, and make some observations regarding certain “top down” views in solid state physics in postmodernity.

Schweber, Silvan [Brandeis University

2012-12-12

135

THE INDUSTRIAL STARTUP IN ROMANIA AT THE BEGINNING OF THE 20TH CENTURY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper dedicated to the mechanised industry start-up shows the transformations triggered within this sector by shifting in various sectors from manual labour and technique to mechanised labour and technique, the latter turning out to represent in just a few decades the industrial production of the country. The industrial revolution, based on import, and the beginning of the industrialisation process have recovered over half of the century the economic delay in Romania’s development.

Victor AXENCIUC

2005-01-01

136

Argentina, Brazil and the world in the face of the 20th century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english This paper analyses the international scene in the XX1st century by taking into account three major issues: first, the new world order; second, the relationship between technological advances and the humanist conception; third, the search for a solution for the increasing differences between affluent and marginal societies, and, within them, extremely rich and extremely poor sectors. In this context, the opportunities Argentinaand Brazilhave within Mercosur and the South American Community of Nations are also highlighted.

Jaguaribe, Helio; Assenti del Rio, Andrea

2006-01-01

137

Modernisation, nationalisation, désislamisation Modernization, Nationalization and de-Islamization : The Transformation of Turkish during the 19th –20th centuries.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Studies concerned with linguistic Reform (or Revolution) of Turkish have tended to neglect the role played by religion in the context of the modernization of the Turkish language in the 19th-20th centuries. The debate started very early with various arguments. Religious arguments revolve around the issue of the script and the creation of a modern terminology. The attachment to the ‘Muslim script’ and to the lexical resources provided by the Arabic derivational system (particularly regarding technical terms) was extremely strong. The desire to create a scientific vocabulary on a par with the other ‘Islamic languages’ guided a nationalist thinker like Ziya Gökalp. It is only during the 1930s that under the influence of a new republican nationalism, a trend began toward what can be defined as a ‘de-Islamization’. In the language domain, the evolution, which started with the adoption of the Latin script and went on with the elimination of Arabic and Persian elements has become irreversible today, even if some Islamists reject such changes. As for the language of religion, the innovative trend seems to have reached its limits, although the turkicization of the language of prayers continues to be discussed.Le rôle joué par la religion dans le cadre de la modernisation du turc aux XIXe – XXe siècles est un aspect négligé des études sur la Réforme (ou « Révolution ») linguistique en Turquie. Le débat, mené avec les arguments les plus divers, commence très tôt. C’est surtout autour de la question de l’alphabet et de la création d’une terminologie moderne que la religion entre en jeu. L’attachement à l’ « alphabet musulman », et, en ce qui concerne les termes techniques, aux ressources lexicales fournies par la dérivation arabe, a été pendant longtemps extrêmement puissant. Le souci de créer un vocabulaire scientifique en accord avec les autres « langues islamiques » a encore pu guider un penseur nationaliste comme Ziya Gökalp. Ce n’est qu’à partir des années 1930 que commence, sous l’influence d’un nouveau nationalisme républicain, une évolution qui peut être qualifiée aussi de « désislamisation ». Dans le domaine de la langue, l’évolution qui a commencé par l’adoption de l’alphabet latin et qui s’est poursuivie avec l’élimination des éléments arabo-persans, est devenue irréversible aujourd’hui, même si certains milieux islamistes s’obstinent à rejeter les innovations. Quant à la langue religieuse, l’innovation semble avoir atteint ses limites - même si la turcisation de la langue de la prière continue à être débattue.

Johann Strauss

2011-01-01

138

Estimation of the Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance during 20th and 21st centuries  

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Full Text Available Results from a regional climate simulation (1970–2006) over the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) reveals that more than 97% of the interannual variability of the modelled Surface Mass Balance (SMB) can be explained by the GrIS summer temperature anomaly and the GrIS annual precipitation anomaly. This multiple regression is then used to empirically estimate the GrIS SMB since 1900 from climatological time series. The projected SMB changes in the 21st century are investigated with the set of simulations performed with atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) of the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC AR4). These estimates show that the high surface mass loss rates of recent years are not unprecedented in the GrIS history of the last hundred years. The minimum SMB rate seems to have occurred earlier in the 1930s. The AOGCMs project that the SMB rate of the 1930s would be common at the end of 2100. The temperature would be higher than in the 1930s but the increase of accumulation in the 21st century would partly offset the acceleration of surface melt due to the temperature increase. However, these assumptions are based on an empirical multiple regression only validated for recent/current climatic conditions, and the accuracy and time homogeneity of the data sets and AOGCM results used in these estimations constitute a large uncertainty.

X. Fettweis; E. Hanna; H. Gallée; P. Huybrechts; M. Erpicum

2008-01-01

139

Low energy electron beam processing in Europe at the end of the 20th century  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Overview of low energy electron beam processing in Europe was presented. The presentation contained the following topics: the early installations, years of growth, stagnation, status 1999 and the future of this technology

140

Dead Men Do Tell Tales: The Apotheosis of Celebrities in 20th Century America  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ecological-evolutionary theory (EET) argues, and anecdotal evidence suggests, that with the advancement of industrial technology, there is a decline in the scope and influence of theistic ideologies and a corresponding increase in that of secular ideologies, especially hedonism (Nolan and Lenski 2009: Chapter 11). Using a measure we develop, we explore the quantitative dimensions of this cultural shift by examining a sample of more than a century of obituaries published in the New York Times. As suspected, we find a substantial decline in the proportion of obituaries of religious figures and an increase in those of individuals associated with entertainment and sports. We conclude with a discussion of the theoretical import and implications of this trend, and compare it with trends in employment in religious and entertainment and sports occupations over this period.

Timothy J. Bertoni; Patrick D. Nolan

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Biodeterioration of monuments in relation to climatic changes in Rome between 19-20th centuries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A decrease in the biodeterioration phenomena of Roman monuments during the last two centuries is shown, by comparing historic and recent data. During this period, an increase in air pollution, a reduction of humidity, and recently a reduction of rainfall, has taken place. Pollution reduces the diversity of the flora, i.e. the number of different organisms (especially lichens), but it hardly reduces the total biological cover. On the other hand, an unfavourable bio- and microclimate dramatically reduces the survival of the biological species on a xeric substrate such as stone material. In fact, when the microclimate is favourable, organisms resistant to pollution (especially cyanobacteria) can grow abundantly even in very polluted environments. A reduction of the water supply seems the most important limiting factor for the lithophytic microflora

Caneva, Giulia [Dipartimento di Biologia, III Univ. Roma, Rome (Italy); Gori, Enrico; Montefinale, Tito [CNR - Istituto di Fisica dell`Atmosfera, Rome (Italy)

1995-04-28

142

Franco-Serbian relations in the 19th and 20th centuries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper the authors deals with the evolution of the Franco-Serbian relations in European, regional and local contexts during the last two centuries. Two nations are characterized by material disproportion, geographic distance and cultural differences. Hence, the relations have been observed in their complexity and variations of intensity. Special attention is paid to versatile perceptions of the two nations, which have been influenced by the combination of political, ideological, economical and cultural factors in a given time. The author's conclusion is that due to reach tradition of the French-Serbian relations, the Serbs poses spiritual capital in France that is the base for further development of good relations between the two countries and two nations in the context of Serbia's European integrations. .

Sretenovi? Stanislav

2009-01-01

143

Connections: can the 20th century coronary heart disease epidemic reveal something about the 1918 influenza lethality?  

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Full Text Available This essay proposes that the ecologic association shown between the 20th century coronary heart disease epidemic and the 1918 influenza pandemic could shed light on the mechanism associated with the high lethality of the latter. It suggests that an autoimmune interference at the apoB-LDL interface could explain both hypercholesterolemia and inflammation (through interference with the cellular metabolism of arachidonic acid). Autoimmune inflammation, then, would explain the 1950s-60s acute coronary events (coronary thrombosis upon influenza re-infection) and the respiratory failure seen among young adults in 1918. This hypothesis also argues that the lethality of the 1918 pandemic may have not depended so much on the 1918 virus as on an immune vulnerability to it, possibly resulting from an earlier priming of cohorts born around 1890 by the 1890 influenza pandemic virus.

M.I Azambuja

2008-01-01

144

Evaluation of Continental Precipitation in 20th-Century Climate Simulations: The Utility of Multi-Model Statistics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At the request of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), simulations of 20th-century climate have been performed recently with some 20 global coupled ocean-atmosphere models. In view of its central importance for biological and socio-economic systems, model-simulated continental precipitation is evaluated relative to three observational estimates at both global and regional scales. Many models are found to display systematic biases, deviating markedly from the observed spatial variability and amplitude/phase of the seasonal cycle. However, the point-wise ensemble mean of all the models usually shows better statistical agreement with the observations than does any single model. Deficiencies of current models that may be responsible for the simulated precipitation biases as well as possible reasons for the improved estimate afforded by the multi-model ensemble mean are discussed. Implications of these results for water-resource managers also are briefly addressed.

Phillips, T J; Gleckler, P J

2005-11-01

145

The discourse of civism in Pereira, or The “sacredness” of public matters during the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The constant reference to civism is one of the most distinct characteristics of the urban history of Pereira. Similar to many Colombian cities, the ideology of civism assumes that there is a need to establish a kind of symbiosis between the city, its public spaces, and its citizens, in material as well as spiritual matters. In the case of Pereira, the author seeks to identify the most relevant aspects of the civic discourse which developed entities like the Improvement Society and the Rotary Club, through different written means, putting special emphasis on the moral values which the civic citizens (or ciudadanos de bien) must have exhibited in the process of transformation and modernization experienced throughout the 20th century.

John Jaime Correa Ramírez

2009-01-01

146

Geologic and hydrologic hazards in glacierized basins in North America resulting from 19th and 20th century global warming  

Science.gov (United States)

Alpine glacier retreat resulting from global warming since the close of the Little Ice Age in the 19th and 20th centuries has increased the risk and incidence of some geologic and hydrologic hazards in mountainous alpine regions of North America. Abundant loose debris in recently deglaciated areas at the toe of alpine glaciers provides a ready source of sediment during rainstorms or outburst floods. This sediment can cause debris flows and sedimentation problems in downstream areas. Moraines built during the Little Ice Age can trap and store large volumes of water. These natural dams have no controlled outlets and can fail without warning. Many glacier-dammed lakes have grown in size, while ice dams have shrunk, resulting in greater risks of ice-dam failure. The retreat and thinning of glacier ice has left oversteepened, unstable valley walls and has led to increased incidence of rock and debris avalanches. ?? 1993 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

O'Connor, J. E.; Costa, J. E.

1993-01-01

147

Climate-change impact on the 20th-century relationship between the Southern Annular Mode and global mean temperature.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The positive phase of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) increases global mean temperature, and contributes to a negative phase of the Southern Annular Mode (SAM), the dominant mode of climate variability in the Southern Hemisphere. This interannual relationship of a high global mean temperature associated with a negative SAM, however, is opposite to the relationship between their trends under greenhouse warming. We show that over much of the 20th century this relationship undergoes multidecadal fluctuations depending on the intensity of ENSO. During the period 1925-1955, subdued ENSO activities weakened the relationship. However, a similar weakening has occurred since the late 1970s despite the strong ENSO. We demonstrate that this recent weakening is induced by climate change in the Southern Hemisphere. Our result highlights a rare situation in which climate change signals emerge against an opposing property of interannual variability, underscoring the robustness of the recent climate change.

Wang G; Cai W

2013-01-01

148

Connections: can the 20th century coronary heart disease epidemic reveal something about the 1918 influenza lethality?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english This essay proposes that the ecologic association shown between the 20th century coronary heart disease epidemic and the 1918 influenza pandemic could shed light on the mechanism associated with the high lethality of the latter. It suggests that an autoimmune interference at the apoB-LDL interface could explain both hypercholesterolemia and inflammation (through interference with the cellular metabolism of arachidonic acid). Autoimmune inflammation, then, would explain th (more) e 1950s-60s acute coronary events (coronary thrombosis upon influenza re-infection) and the respiratory failure seen among young adults in 1918. This hypothesis also argues that the lethality of the 1918 pandemic may have not depended so much on the 1918 virus as on an immune vulnerability to it, possibly resulting from an earlier priming of cohorts born around 1890 by the 1890 influenza pandemic virus.

Azambuja, M.I

2008-01-01

149

Social valuation of institutional office furniture during the first of the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The documentation of cabinetwork in Madrid at the turn-of-the-century has allowed for the study of the social conditions implied in the development of institutional office furniture in public buildings. It can been seen as representative of the different levels existing especially on the ministerial plane, the evolution of which will establish the guidelines for systems of modern furnishings. This study has been carried out using the documentary and graphic materials preserved in the Spanish Treasury Department (Ministerio de Hacienda), on three coordinated actions in the local offices of this Department, thereby allowing for the registration of a full list of commercial firms and workshops active between 1900 and 1936.Documentar la labor de ebanistería en el Madrid finisecular ha permitido estudiar las condiciones sociales que en los edificios públicos implicaron el desarrollo del despacho, como elemento representativo de los distintos estadios existentes, sobre todo a nivel ministerial y cuya evolución marcará la pauta de los sistemas de amueblamiento modernos. Este estudio se realiza sobre la base documental y gráfica conservada en el Ministerio de Hacienda, sobre tres acciones coordinadas en todas las Delegaciones de Hacienda, permitiendo registrar una amplia lista de casas comerciales y talleres activos entre 1900 y 1936.

Aguiló-Alonso, María Paz

2011-01-01

150

Are infant mortality rate declines exponential? The general pattern of 20th century infant mortality rate decline  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Time trends in infant mortality for the 20th century show a curvilinear pattern that most demographers have assumed to be approximately exponential. Virtually all cross-country comparisons and time series analyses of infant mortality have studied the logarithm of infant mortality to account for the curvilinear time trend. However, there is no evidence that the log transform is the best fit for infant mortality time trends. Methods We use maximum likelihood methods to determine the best transformation to fit time trends in infant mortality reduction in the 20th century and to assess the importance of the proper transformation in identifying the relationship between infant mortality and gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. We apply the Box Cox transform to infant mortality rate (IMR) time series from 18 countries to identify the best fitting value of lambda for each country and for the pooled sample. For each country, we test the value of ? against the null that ? = 0 (logarithmic model) and against the null that ? = 1 (linear model). We then demonstrate the importance of selecting the proper transformation by comparing regressions of ln(IMR) on same year GDP per capita against Box Cox transformed models. Results Based on chi-squared test statistics, infant mortality decline is best described as an exponential decline only for the United States. For the remaining 17 countries we study, IMR decline is neither best modelled as logarithmic nor as a linear process. Imposing a logarithmic transform on IMR can lead to bias in fitting the relationship between IMR and GDP per capita. Conclusion The assumption that IMR declines are exponential is enshrined in the Preston curve and in nearly all cross-country as well as time series analyses of IMR data since Preston's 1975 paper, but this assumption is seldom correct. Statistical analyses of IMR trends should assess the robustness of findings to transformations other than the log transform.

Bishai David; Opuni Marjorie

2009-01-01

151

Are infant mortality rate declines exponential? The general pattern of 20th century infant mortality rate decline.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Time trends in infant mortality for the 20th century show a curvilinear pattern that most demographers have assumed to be approximately exponential. Virtually all cross-country comparisons and time series analyses of infant mortality have studied the logarithm of infant mortality to account for the curvilinear time trend. However, there is no evidence that the log transform is the best fit for infant mortality time trends. METHODS: We use maximum likelihood methods to determine the best transformation to fit time trends in infant mortality reduction in the 20th century and to assess the importance of the proper transformation in identifying the relationship between infant mortality and gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. We apply the Box Cox transform to infant mortality rate (IMR) time series from 18 countries to identify the best fitting value of lambda for each country and for the pooled sample. For each country, we test the value of lambda against the null that lambda = 0 (logarithmic model) and against the null that lambda = 1 (linear model). We then demonstrate the importance of selecting the proper transformation by comparing regressions of ln(IMR) on same year GDP per capita against Box Cox transformed models. RESULTS: Based on chi-squared test statistics, infant mortality decline is best described as an exponential decline only for the United States. For the remaining 17 countries we study, IMR decline is neither best modelled as logarithmic nor as a linear process. Imposing a logarithmic transform on IMR can lead to bias in fitting the relationship between IMR and GDP per capita. CONCLUSION: The assumption that IMR declines are exponential is enshrined in the Preston curve and in nearly all cross-country as well as time series analyses of IMR data since Preston's 1975 paper, but this assumption is seldom correct. Statistical analyses of IMR trends should assess the robustness of findings to transformations other than the log transform.

Bishai D; Opuni M

2009-01-01

152

TOPOGRAPHIC MAPPING SUPPORT IN THE SOUTH AFRICAN MILITARY DURING THE 20TH CENTURY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Maps provide a base for all intelligence operations and strategic and tactical decisions, supporting the planning and execution of all battlefield functions. The development of military mapping support in South Africa, related closely to the development of aerial photography, may be divided into five, sometimes overlapping, phases. The first of these phases spans the years from 1840 to 1930 and is characterised by the gradual recognition that aerial photographs could be used for mapping. Two major conflicts – the Anglo Boer War and the First World War – marked this development. The Second World War is the key event of the second phase (1930–1950), which witnessed a rapid expansion of aerial photo coverage. The third phase (1945–1960) saw the overemphasising of interpretation techniques rather than the analytical use of results, which was rectified during the fourth phase (1955–1962) when the focus shifted to the applied uses of air-photo interpretation. During the third and fourth phases the topographic mapping support ability of the South African military was expanded. The fifth phase (since 1960) commenced with the expansion of data gathering and analysis into portions of the electromagnetic spectrum beyond the small visible sector. During this period the protracted nature of the conflict on the northern border of Namibia (formerly South West Africa) and the war in Angola focused attention on the South African military mapping system. The National Service system allowed for the expansion of mapping units and the thorough mapping of large areas adjoining our borders. Through all five phases, mapping in the South African military has advanced from hand-produced maps to the utilisation of complex equipment that satisfies the sophisticated mapping needs of a modern defence force.This paper presents a brief history of both mapping support and the mapping units that have served within the South African theatre during the twentieth century. In doing so, the operational importance of topographic maps is also highlighted.

André Jacobs; Hennie Smit

2012-01-01

153

Borehole temperatures reveal details of 20th century warming at Bruce Plateau, Antarctic Peninsula  

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Full Text Available Two ice core boreholes of 143.74 m and 447.65 m (bedrock) were drilled during the 2009–2010 austral summer on the Bruce Plateau at a location named LARISSA Site Beta (66°02' S, 64°04' W, 1975.5 m a.s.l.). Both boreholes were logged with thermistors shortly after drilling. The shallow borehole was instrumented for 4 months with a series of resistance thermometers with satellite uplink. Surface temperature proxy data derived from an inversion of the borehole temperature profiles are compared to available multi-decadal records from weather stations and ice cores located along a latitudinal transect of the Antarctic Peninsula to West Antarctica. The LARISSA Site Beta profiles show temperatures decreasing from the surface downward through the upper third of the ice, and warming thereafter to the bed. The average temperature for the most recent year is ?14.78 °C (measured at 15 m depth, abbreviated T15. A minimum temperature of ?15.8 °C is measured at 173 m depth and basal temperature is estimated to be ?10.2 °C. Current mean annual temperature and the gradient in the lower part of the measured temperature profile have a best fit with an accumulation rate of 1.9 × 103 kg m?2 a?1 and basal heat flux (q) of 88 mW m?2, if steady-state conditions are assumed. However, the mid-level temperature variations show that recent temperature has varied significantly. Reconstructed surface temperatures (Ts=T15 over the last 200 yr are derived by an inversion technique. From this, we find that cold temperatures (minimum Ts=?16.2 °C) prevailed from ~1920 to ~1940, followed by a gradual rise of temperature to ?14.2 °C around 1995, then cooling over the following decade and warming in the last few years. The coldest period was preceded by a relatively warm 19th century at T15 ? ?15 °C. To facilitate regional comparisons of the surface temperature history, we use our T15 data and nearby weather station records to refine estimates of lapse rates (altitudinal, adjusted for latitude: ?a(l)). Good temporal and spatial consistency of ?a(l)) over the last 35 yr are observed, implying that the climate trends observed here are regional and consistent over a broad altitude range.

V. Zagorodnov; O. Nagornov; T. A. Scambos; A. Muto; E. Mosley-Thompson; E. C. Pettit; S. Tyuflin

2011-01-01

154

Borehole temperatures reveal details of 20th century warming at Bruce Plateau, Antarctic Peninsula  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two ice core boreholes of 143.18 m and 447.73 m (bedrock) were drilled during the 2009–2010 austral summer on the Bruce Plateau at a location named LARISSA Site Beta (66°02' S, 64°04' W, 1975.5 m a.s.l.). Both boreholes were logged with thermistors shortly after drilling. The shallow borehole was instrumented for 4 months with a series of resistance thermometers with satellite uplink. Surface temperature proxy data derived from an inversion of the borehole temperature profiles are compared to available multi-decadal records from weather stations and ice cores located along a latitudinal transect of the Antarctic Peninsula to West Antarctica. The LARISSA Site Beta profiles show temperatures decreasing from the surface downward through the upper third of the ice, and warming thereafter to the bed. The average temperature for the most recent year is ?14.78°C (measured at 15 m depth, abbreviated T15). A minimum temperature of ?15.8°C is measured at 173 m depth, and basal temperature is estimated to be ?10.2°C. Current mean annual temperature and the gradient in the lower part of the measured temperature profile have a best fit with an accumulation rate of 1.9×103 kg m?2 a?1 and basal heat flux (q) of 88 mW m?2, if steady-state conditions are assumed. However, the mid-level temperature variations show that recent temperature has varied significantly. Reconstructed surface temperatures (Ts=T15) over the last 200 yr are derived by an inversion technique (Tikhonov and Samarskii, 1990). From this, we find that cold temperatures (minimum Ts=?16.2°C) prevailed from ~1920 to ~1940, followed by a gradual rise of temperature to ?14.2°C around 1995, then cooling over the following decade and warming in the last few years. The coldest period was preceded by a relatively warm 19th century at T15??15°C. To facilitate regional comparisons of the surface temperature history, we use our T15 data and nearby weather station records to refine estimates of lapse rates (altitudinal, adjusted for latitude: ?a(l)). Good temporal and spatial consistency of ?a(l) over the last 35 yr are observed, implying that the climate trends observed here are regional and consistent over a broad altitude range.

V. Zagorodnov; O. Nagornov; T. A. Scambos; A. Muto; E. Mosley-Thompson; E. C. Pettit; S. Tyuflin

2012-01-01

155

Borehole temperatures reveal details of 20th century warming at Bruce Plateau, Antarctic Peninsula  

Science.gov (United States)

Two ice core boreholes of 143.18 m and 447.73 m (bedrock) were drilled during the 2009-2010 austral summer on the Bruce Plateau at a location named LARISSA Site Beta (66°02' S, 64°04' W, 1975.5 m a.s.l.). Both boreholes were logged with thermistors shortly after drilling. The shallow borehole was instrumented for 4 months with a series of resistance thermometers with satellite uplink. Surface temperature proxy data derived from an inversion of the borehole temperature profiles are compared to available multi-decadal records from weather stations and ice cores located along a latitudinal transect of the Antarctic Peninsula to West Antarctica. The LARISSA Site Beta profiles show temperatures decreasing from the surface downward through the upper third of the ice, and warming thereafter to the bed. The average temperature for the most recent year is -14.78°C (measured at 15 m depth, abbreviated T15). A minimum temperature of -15.8°C is measured at 173 m depth, and basal temperature is estimated to be -10.2°C. Current mean annual temperature and the gradient in the lower part of the measured temperature profile have a best fit with an accumulation rate of 1.9×103 kg m-2 a-1 and basal heat flux (q) of 88 mW m-2, if steady-state conditions are assumed. However, the mid-level temperature variations show that recent temperature has varied significantly. Reconstructed surface temperatures (Ts=T15) over the last 200 yr are derived by an inversion technique (Tikhonov and Samarskii, 1990). From this, we find that cold temperatures (minimum Ts=-16.2°C) prevailed from ~1920 to ~1940, followed by a gradual rise of temperature to -14.2°C around 1995, then cooling over the following decade and warming in the last few years. The coldest period was preceded by a relatively warm 19th century at T15?-15°C. To facilitate regional comparisons of the surface temperature history, we use our T15 data and nearby weather station records to refine estimates of lapse rates (altitudinal, adjusted for latitude: ?a(l)). Good temporal and spatial consistency of ?a(l) over the last 35 yr are observed, implying that the climate trends observed here are regional and consistent over a broad altitude range.

Zagorodnov, V.; Nagornov, O.; Scambos, T. A.; Muto, A.; Mosley-Thompson, E.; Pettit, E. C.; Tyuflin, S.

2012-06-01

156

Climate?induced response of commercially important flatfish species during the 20th century  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The consequence of elevated ocean temperatures on commercial fish stocks is addressed using time series of commercial landings (1906–2004) and juvenile survey catch data (1904–2006) collected around Denmark. We analyze (i) whether warm?water sole (Solea solea) has increased relative to Boreal plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) and (ii) whether two related warm?water species (turbot, Psetta maxima and brill, Scophthalmus rhombus) show similar responses to increasing temperature or, alternatively, whether turbot (which has a broader juvenile diet) has been favored. Since the early 1980s, both sole and turbot have constituted an increasing part of the commercial landings and survey catches, as compared with plaice and brill, respectively. These changes in species composition were linked to sea surface temperatures, Northern Hemisphere temperature anomalies (NHA) and the North Atlantic Oscillation. NHA was closely related and explained 43% of the observed variation in sole survey catches relative to the plaice catches and almost 38% of the observed variation in the sole landings relative to the plaice landings. For the less common species, turbot and brill, none of the global change indicators explained more than 15% of the variation, although all showed a positive relationship. Survey catch per unit effort increased significantly for both sole and turbot around the early 1980s, whereas catch per unit effort for plaice and brill remained constant. The results indicate that the abundance of warm?water species is likely to increase with increasing temperature but also that species with similar life histories might react differently according to degree of specialization.

Sparrevohn, Claus Reedtz; Lindegren, Martin

2013-01-01

157

EL POSITIVISMO EN EL DERECHO PENAL CHILENO: ANÁLISIS SINCRÓNICO Y DIACRÓNICO DE UNA DOCTRINA DE PRINCIPIOS DEL SIGLO XX QUE SE MANTIENE VIGENTE Positivism in chilean criminal law: A synchronic and diachronic analysis of an early 20th century doctrine still in use  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El artículo describe, contra la opinión mayoritaria, cómo el positivismo penal se desarrolló en Chile desde principios del siglo XX, a partir de la influencia de Valentín Letelier y Raimundo del Río en la enseñanza universitaria. Da cuenta del impacto de las ideas positivistas en otros autores de la época, en los proyectos de Código penal de Erazo-Fontecilla (1929) y Silva-Labatut (1938), y las leyes sobre Estados Antisociales (Nº 11.265) y Remisión Condicional de la Pena (Nº 7.821); sustentando la hipótesis, contraria a la opinión dominante, de que las tesis positivistas permanecen vigentes en nuestro ordenamiento punitivo y especialmente en la práctica procesal, al punto de que nuestro actual sistema de penas, incluyendo las salidas alternativas ("suspensión condicional del procedimiento"), las "sanciones" de la Ley de Responsabilidad Adolescente Nº 20.084 y las medidas de la Ley Nº 18.216 ("remisión condicional" y "libertad vigilada"), puede ser descrito en clave "positivista", al determinarse la duración y clase las medidas efectivamente a imponer principalmente por criterios relativos a la "peligrosidad" del imputado.Against the predominant opinion, this article describes how Criminal Positivism developed in Chile since the early 20th Century, starting from the influences of Valentín Letelier and Raimundo del Río in their university teachings. This work acknowledges the impact positivist ideas had on other contemporary authors, on the Erazo-Fontecilla (1929) and Silva-Labatut (1938) Criminal Code projects, on the Antisocial States Act (11.265) and on the Conditional Remission of Punishment Act (7.821); contrary to the dominant view, the author sustains the hypothesis that positivist theses remain effective in our criminal law system, especially in criminal procedural practices, to the extent that our actual punitive system, including alternative sentencing (conditional suspension of procedure), the "sanctions" contemplated in the Teenage Responsibility Law Number 20.084 and the measures of Law Number 18.216 (conditional remission and parole), can be described as positivist, because the length and type of effectively imposed measures are mostly determined on the basis of criteria regarding the accused’s dangerousness.

Jean Pierre Matus Acuña

2007-01-01

158

Changing climatic and anthropogenic influences on the Bermejo wetland, through archival documents - Mendoza, Argentina, 16th-20th centuries  

Science.gov (United States)

The wrong management of watering in the highest zones of the Mendoza northern oasis, the topography of the terrain and the deficient drainage, together with neotectonics phenomena, but mostly a dramatic and progressive increase of the Rio Mendoza flow volume originated the expansion of the wetlands area at the NE of the city of Mendoza at the turn of the 18th century, while in previous centuries it had retracted to a minimum. The area grew until reaching the dimension of large wetlands in the lowest oasis zones, resulting from a larger runoff and soil saturation by the rise of the phreatic layers. This situation remained throughout the 19th century, affecting the extension and use of the available land for human activity. The purpose of this study was to research this process that culminated in 1930 with the partial desiccation of the area. We have given particular importance to the influence of the climatic fluctuations in the Cordillera de los Andes and to the consequent variations of the Rio Mendoza flow volume in this process. For the analysis we used snowfall series at the cordillera and flow volume of the Rio Mendoza, built by Prieto (2009) with documental data. We analyzed which were the mediate and immediate consequences of the growth and later desiccation of the wetlands over the environment and its present repercussion on the ecosystem (salinization, poor soil drainage, soil alkalinization, sedimentation). In addition, we have also worked over georeferenced historic charts that partially reflect the behavior of the Cienaga del Bermejo during the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. This behavior characterized by "growth pulses" and retraction moments is reflected in the analyzed charts, where those moments of major growth coincide with cycles of bigger snowstorms and larger flow volume in the Rio Mendoza.

Prieto, M. R.; Rojas, F.

2011-11-01

159

The distribution of an illustrated timeline wall chart and teacher's guide of 20th century physics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The American Physical Society's part of its centennial celebration in March of 1999 decided to develop a timeline wall chart on the history of 20th century physics. This resulted in eleven consecutive posters, which when mounted side by side, create a 23-foot mural. The timeline exhibits and describes the millstones of physics in images and words. The timeline functions as a chronology, a work of art, a permanent open textbook, and a gigantic photo album covering a hundred years in the life of the community of physicists and the existence of the American Physical Society. Each of the eleven posters begins with a brief essay that places a major scientific achievement of the decade in its historical context. Large portraits of the essays' subjects include youthful photographs of Marie Curie, Albert Einstein, and Richard Feynman among others, to help put a face on science. Below the essays, a total of over 130 individual discoveries and inventions, explained in dated text boxes with accompanying images, form the backbone of the timeline. For ease of comprehension, this wealth of material is organized into five color-coded story lines the stretch horizontally across the hundred years of the 20th century. The five story lines are: Cosmic Scale, relate the story of astrophysics and cosmology; Human Scale, refers to the physics of the more familiar distances from the global to the microscopic; Atomic Scale, focuses on the submicroscopic world of atoms, nuclei and quarks; Living World, chronicles the interaction of physics with biology and medicine; Technology, traces the applications of physic to everyday living. Woven into the bottom border of the timeline are period images of significant works of art, architecture, and technological artifacts such as telephones, automobiles, aircraft, computers, and appliances. The last poster, covering the years since 1995, differs from the others. Its essay concerns the prospect for physics into the next century, and is illustrated with pictures of promising award winning high school students who, it is hoped, will be the leading researchers of physics in the decades ahead. Appropriately the last entries in the timeline are not achievements but open questions to be answered in the future.

Schwartz, Brian

2000-12-26

160

Response of the ice cap Hardangerjøkulen in southern Norway to the 20th and 21st century climates  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Glaciers respond to mass balance changes by adjusting their surface elevation and area. These properties in their turn affect the local and area-averaged mass balance. To incorporate this interdependence in the response of glaciers to climate change, models should include an interactive scheme coupling mass balance and ice dynamics. In this study, a spatially distributed mass balance model, comprising surface energy balance calculations, was coupled to a vertically integrated ice-flow model based on the shallow ice approximation. The coupled model was applied to the ice cap Hardangerjøkulen in southern Norway. The available glacio-meteorological records, mass balance and glacier length change measurements were utilized for model calibration and validation. Forced with meteorological data from nearby synoptic weather stations, the coupled model realistically simulated the observed mass balance and glacier length changes during the 20th century. The mean climate for the period 1961–1990, computed from local meteorological data, was used as a basis to prescribe climate projections for the 21st century at Hardangerjøkulen. For a linear temperature increase of 3 °C from 1961–1990 to 2071–2100, the modelled net mass balance soon becomes negative at all altitudes and Hardangerjøkulen disappears around the year 2100. The projected changes in the other meteorological variables could at most partly compensate for the effect of the projected warming.

R. H. Giesen; J. Oerlemans

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Reconstructing 20th century global hydrography: a contribution to the Global Terrestrial Network- Hydrology (GTN-H)  

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Full Text Available This paper presents a new reconstruction of the 20th century global hydrography using fully coupled water balance and transport model in a flexible modeling framework. The modeling framework allows a high level of configurability both in terms of input forcings and model structure. Spatial and temporal trends in hydrological cycle components are assessed under "pre-industrial" conditions (without modern-day human activities) and contemporary conditions (incorporating the effects of irrigation and reservoir operations). The two sets of simulations allow the isolation of the trends arising from variations in the climate input driver alone and from human interventions. The sensitivity of the results to variations in input data was tested by using three global gridded datasets of precipitation. Our findings confirm that the expansion of irrigation and the construction of reservoirs has significantly and gradually impacted hydrological components in individual river basins. Variations in the volume of water entering the oceans annually, however, are governed primarily by variations in the climate signal alone with human activities playing a minor role. Globally, we do not find a significant trend in the terrestrial discharge over the last century. The largest impact of human intervention on the hydrological cycle arises from the operation of reservoirs that drastically changes the seasonal pattern of horizontal water transport in the river system and thereby directly and indirectly affects a number of processes such as ability to decompose organic matter or the cycling of nutrients in the river system.

D. Wisser; B. M. Fekete; C. J. Vörösmarty; A. H. Schumann

2010-01-01

162

Reconstructing 20th century global hydrography: a contribution to the Global Terrestrial Network- Hydrology (GTN-H)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a new reconstruction of the 20th Century global hydrography using fully coupled water balance and transport model in a flexible modeling framework. The modeling framework allows a high level of configurability both in terms of input forcings and model structure. Spatial and temporal trends in hydrological cycle components are assessed under "pre-industrial" conditions (without modern-day human activities) and contemporary conditions (incorporating the effects of irrigation and reservoir operations). The two sets of simulations allow the isolation of the trends arising from variations in the climate input driver alone and from human interventions. Our findings confirm that the expansion of irrigation and the construction has significantly and gradually impacted hydrological components in individual river basins. Variations in the volume of water entering the oceans, however, are governed by variations in the climate signal alone with human activities playing secondary role. Globally, we do find a significant trend in the terrestrial discharge over the last century. The largest impact of human intervention on the hydrological cycle arises from the operation of reservoirs that drastically changes the seasonal pattern of horizontal water transport in the river system and thereby directly and indirectly affects a number of processes.

D. Wisser; B. M. Fekete; C. J. Vörösmarty; A. H. Schumann

2009-01-01

163

100 years of change: examining agricultural trends, habitat change and stakeholder perceptions through the 20th century  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The 20th century has witnessed substantial increases in the intensity of agricultural land management, much of which has been driven by policies to enhance food security and production. The knock-on effects in agriculturally dominated landscapes include habitat degradation and biodiversity loss. We examine long-term patterns of agricultural and habitat change at a regional scale, using the Peak District of northern England as a case study. As stakeholders are central to the implementation of successful land-use policy, we also assess their perceptions of historical changes. In the period 1900 to 2000, there was a fivefold rise in sheep density, along with higher cattle density. We found a reduction in the number of farms, evidence of a shift in land ownership patterns, and increased agricultural specialization, including the virtual disappearance of upland arable production. Despite previous studies showing a substantial loss in heather cover, we found that there had been no overall change in the proportion of land covered by dwarf shrub moor. Nonetheless, turnover rates were high, with only 55% of sampled sites maintaining dwarf shrub moor coverage between 1913 and 2000. Stakeholders identified many of the changes revealed by the historical data, such as increased sheep numbers, fewer farms and greater specialization. However, other land-use changes were not properly described. For instance, although there had been no overall change in the proportion of dwarf shrub moor and the size of the rural labour force had not fallen, stakeholders reported a decline in both. Spatial heterogeneity of the changes, shifting baselines and problems with historical data sources might account for some of these discrepancies. Synthesis and applications. A marked increase in sheep numbers, combined with general agricultural intensification, have been the dominant land-use processes in the Peak District during the 20th century. Stakeholders only correctly perceived some land-use changes. Policy and management objectives should therefore be based primarily on actual historical evidence. However, understanding stakeholder perceptions and how they differ from, or agree with, the available evidence will contribute to the successful uptake of land management policies and partly determine the costs of policy implementation.

Dallimer, Martin; Tinch, Dugald

2009-01-01

164

Siglo XX. Cien años de miseria y esplendor/ The 20th Century: 100 years of misfortune and splendor  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El siglo XX ha sido uno de los períodos de la Historia más intensos y Convulsivos que le ha tocado vivir a la humanidad. Siglo de paradojas y de contrastes, se inició con optimismo, fue testigo del apocalipsis de dos guerras mundiales y terminó con un progreso científico inimaginable que nos condujo a una nueva civilización, que aún no podemos intuir. En él ocurrieron grandes acontecimientos que moldearon nuestro tiempo y proyectaron sus resultados hacia un futuro (more) inmediato. Unos fueron providenciales para entender la vida del hombre, combatir las enfermedades y prolongar la vida y otros de innegable importancia social para la humanidad. Unos saberes se fundamentaron en otros. La filosofía se adentro en la matemática, como la ciencia en la filosofía, mientras la política y la economía ejercían tan decisivo influjo en nuestro modo de sentir y de vivir, que la cultura y la sociedad se conmovieron hasta sus cimientos. En esa centuria, se gestó además, la mayor revolución tecnológica de todos los tiempos, tan trascendental como inimaginable, que con el alunizaje pusieron al hombre en el camino hacia las estrellas y con ella se creó la sociedad de la información, cuyo máximo símbolo: internet, emergió como un nuevo demiurgo. Sin embargo ha sido el siglo XX hasta ahora, con todo su infortunio y esplendor, paradojas y contrastes, creación y destrucción, el más trascendental de toda la historia y lega al futuro un horizonte promisor en la búsqueda de un renovado significado de vida y un anhelo de convivencia pacífica para toda la humanidad. Abstract in english The 20th century has been one of the most intense and convulsive periods in the History of humanity. A century of paradoxes and contrasts, it began with optimism, it witnessed the apocalypse of two world wars, and finished with unimaginable scientific progress that gave us a new civilization that we cannot yet grasp. In this century, significant events happened that shaped our time and projected their results toward an immediate future. Some of these were providential in (more) understanding man 's life, fighting against illnesses and prolonging life, and others were of undeniable social importance for humanity. Some knowledge was based on the work of others. Philosophy was embedded in mathematics, as was science in philosophy, while politics and the economy exercised so decisive an influence in our way of feeling and living that culture and society were affected to the core. Within that century the biggest technological revolution of all the time was also created, as transcendent as it was unimaginable, which put mankind on the road to the stars with the moon landing and in the process created the information society whose signature symbol, the internet, emerged as a new demiurge. However, the 20th century, with all its misfortune and splendor, paradoxes and contrasts, creation and destruction, was the most transcendent in the whole of history and it bequeaths to the future a promising horizon in the search for a renovated meaning of life and a yearning for peaceful coexistence for the whole humanity.

Urdaneta-Carruyo, Eliéxer

2005-02-01

165

La Historia del Derecho y la Historiografía jurídica alemana del siglo XX The History of Law and the German Juridical Historiography in the 20th Century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La escuela histórico-jurídica alemana del siglo XX ha contribuido de un modo significativo en la ampliación del objeto de estudio al incorporar en las investigaciones histórico-jurídicas temas específicos del Derecho público. Desde esta perspectiva la escuela histórica jurídica alemana es parte de la revolución científica del siglo XX.The German history-law school in the 20th century has contributed in a significant way to broaden the subject matter when it incorporated specific topics regarding Public Law in the historical-juridical research. From this perspective, the German history and law school is part of the scientific revolution of the 20th century.

Patricio Hernán Carvajal Aravena

2010-01-01

166

Lean people … abundant food: memories of whanau health and food in mid-20th Century everyday life.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

ISSUE ADDRESSED: This article reports the first phase of a project to develop, in participation with a M?ori community, a model of health promotion to combat the impact of metabolic syndrome. METHODS: A series of hui (meetings and focus groups) were conducted with community elders to learn about the food they gathered, prepared and consumed in the mid-20th Century before diabetes became endemic. A participatory research approach was used. RESULTS: Three main themes emerged: food related work, self-sufficiency and the 'richness' of food. Most people were lean with diets rich in vegetables, fruit and sea food, while low in red meat and processed foods. The resources of the whole community were devoted to the growing, gathering, preparation and preservation of food. CONCLUSIONS: This first phase provides only a partial record; continued gathering of the stories to widen and deepen understanding of the changes to M?ori communities and their health is recommended. Next is to collaboratively develop and test a M?ori model of health promotion, using local knowledge to develop interventions relevant to the community. It is contended that the future of health promotion lies in the interface between medical science and the knowledge held by communities.

Harding T; North N; Barton R; Murray E

2011-08-01

167

FROM BECKMANN TO BASELITZ – TOWARDS AN IMPROVED MICRO-IDENTIFICATION OF ORGANIC PIGMENTS IN PAINTINGS OF 20th CENTURY ART  

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Full Text Available Today, synthetic organic pigments play a major role as colorantsof excellent light-fastness in artists' paints. Theiranalytical determination in paintings gains steady importancewith respect to attribution and studio practice of certainartists as well as dating and authentication. Syntheticorganic pigments have extremely varied chemical structuresand properties such as colouring strength, solubilityor thermal stability. Therefore, it is a challenging task tofully identify all organic as well as inorganic colorants andfillers in a micro-sample taken from a painting. A complementarysampling and analytical approach is suggested,that combines micro-chemical and solubility tests, Ramanmicroscopy, pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry,thin layer chromatography and/or high-performanceliquid chromatography on a case-to-case basis. This paperpresents results and discusses practical experiences withRaman microscopy as a rapid and minimally invasive techniquefor the identification of organic pigments in paintsamples. Case studies from 20th century German artworksby Max Beckmann, Georg Baselitz, A.R. Penck and MarkusLüpertz illustrate the potential and limitations of Ramanmicroscopy and the need for complementary techniques,especially in the case of mixtures. Selected organic pigments,especially Pigment Green 7, Pigment Violet 23 orPigment Yellow 83, are briefly discussed with respect totheir use in artists' paints.

Karin Lutzenberger; Heike Stege

2009-01-01

168

[The health and disease from a sociocultural perspective in the first half of the 20th century].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The social historians of ends of the 20th century placed in the center of his worries new topics and approaches, between them, the problems linked with the social question called. It is defined as the set of social problems arisen as consequence of the industrialization, the urbanization, the immigration between those who were the conflicts of the work, the poverty, the marginality, the disease, that they returned the protagonism of subjects forgotten as the patients, the madmen, the delinquents between others. The diseases in the society, raise a new historical object of reflection that provides a window to the social reality. To analyze the trilogy disease - health- service of an integrated way is to know an aspect that explains the social problematics. The response to the social problems came from the civil society and from the State, arising institutions of social assistance that were acting in a combined way. The present article approaches the topic of the disease- health- service and the response to this problematics for the State during the period 1900-1940 in Córdoba, seeking to reconstruct how the disease allows us to show the conditions of material and cultural life where they emerged and the social process of constitution of the Social State and the social citizenship, from the continuities, changes and transformations that were demonstrating in the sanitary field.

Moreyra BI; Domínguez IM

2012-01-01

169

The 20th century whole-basin trophic history of an inter-drumlin lake in an agricultural catchment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Eight 1-m sediment cores were extracted from across the basin of Friary Lough, a 5.4-ha eutrophic lake in a wholly grassland agricultural catchment in Co. Tyrone, Northern Ireland. Sedimentary TP, diatom inferred TP, Ca, Na, Fe, Mn, loss-on-ignition (LOI), dry weight and density were determined in the core profiles. Core dating and correlation gave a 210Pb, 137Cs and 241Am chronology from 1906 to 1995 and enabled a whole-basin estimate of chemical and sediment accumulation rate over the 20th Century. The major changes for all parameters occurred after c. 1946. Sediment accumulation rate was most influenced by organic matter accumulations, probably of planktonic origin, and increasing after c. 1946. Inorganic sediment accumulation rate was found to be largely unchanging through the century at 10 t km(-2) yr(-1) when expressed as catchment exports. All chemical accumulation rate changes occurred after c. 1946. Total phosphorus accumulation rate, however, was found to be the only chemical to be increasing throughout the epilimnion and hypolimnion areas of the sedimentary basin at an average of 22.5 mg m(-2) yr(-1) between 1946 and 1995. The other chemical parameters showed increasing accumulation rates after c. 1946 in the epilimnion part of the basin only. Interpreted in terms of whole-basin sedimentation and catchment export processes over time, it is suggested that diffuse TP inputs are independent of sediment inputs. This corresponds to hydrochemical models that suggest soluble P as the primary fraction that is lost from grassland catchments. The increase in sedimentary TP accumulation rate, and DI-TP concentration, are also explained with regard to current models that suggest increases in runoff P concentrations from elevated soil P concentrations. Increases in eplimnion chemical and sediment accumulation rate after c. 1946 may be due to local erosion that has limited impact on lake basin sedimentation.

Jordan P; Rippey B; Anderson NJ

2002-10-01

170

20th century trends and budget implications of chloroform and related tri-and dihalomethanes inferred from firn air  

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Full Text Available Four trihalomethane (THM; CHCl3, CHBrCl2, CHBr2Cl and CHBr3) and two dihalomethane (DHM; CH2BrCl and CH2Br2) trace gases have been measured in air extracted from polar firn collected at the North Greenland Icecore Project (NGRIP) site. CHCl3 was also measured in firn air from Devon Island (DI), Canada, Dronning Maud Land (DML), Antarctica and Dome Concordia (Dome C), Antarctica. All of these species are believed to be almost entirely of natural origin except for CHCl3 where anthropogenic sources have been reported to contribute ~10% to the global burden. A 2-D atmospheric model was run for CHCl3 using reported emission estimates to produce historical atmospheric trends at the firn sites, which were then input into a firn diffusion model to produce concentration depth profiles that were compared against the measurements. The anthropogenic emissions were modified in order to give the best model fit to the firn data at NGRIP, Dome C and DML. As a result, the contribution of CHCl3 from anthropogenic sources, mainly from pulp and paper manufacture, to the total chloroform budget appears to have been considerably underestimated and was likely to have been close to ~50% at the maximum in atmospheric CHCl3 concentrations around 1990, declining to ~29% at the beginning of the 21st century. We also show that the atmospheric burden of the brominated THM's in the Northern Hemisphere have increased over the 20th century while CH2Br2 has remained constant over time implying that it is entirely of natural origin.

D. R. Worton; W. T. Sturges; J. Schwander; R. Mulvaney; J.-M. Barnola; J. Chappellaz

2006-01-01

171

20th Century trends and budget implications of trihalomethanes and dihalomethanes inferred from North GRIP firn air  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Four trihalomethane (THM; CHCl3, CHBrCl2, CHBr2Cl and CHBr3) and two dihalomethane (DHM; CH2BrCl and CH2Br2) trace gases have been measured in air extracted from polar firn collected at the North Greenland Icecore Project (NGRIP) site. CHCl3 was also measured in firn air from Devon Island (DI), Canada, Dronning Maud Land (DML), Antarctica and Dome Concordia (Dome C), Antarctica. All of these species are believed to be almost entirely of natural origin except for CHCl3 where anthropogenic sources have been reported to contribute ~10% to the global burden. A 2-D atmospheric model was run for CHCl3 using reported emission estimates to produce historical atmospheric trends at the three firn sites, which were then input into a firn diffusion model to produce concentration depth profiles that were compared against the measurements. The anthropogenic emissions were modified in order to give the best model fit to the firn data at NGRIP, Dome C and DML. As a result, the contribution of CHCl3 from anthropogenic sources, mainly from pulp and paper manufacture, to the total chloroform budget appears to have been considerably underestimated and was likely to have been close to ~40% at the maximum in atmospheric CHCl3 concentrations around 1990, declining to ~19% at the beginning of the 21st Century. We also show that the atmospheric burden of the brominated THM's in the northern hemisphere have increased over the 20th Century while CH2Br2 has remained constant over time implying that it is entirely of natural origin.

D. R. Worton; W. T. Sturges; J. Schwander; R. Mulvaney; J.-M. Barnola; J. Chappellaz

2006-01-01

172

Regional 20th Century Temperature Trends from Radiosondes and Reanalyses in the Arctic (60°N-90°N)  

Science.gov (United States)

We compare seasonal 20th century atmospheric temperature trends in the Arctic (60°N-90°N) from radiosonde observations (CHUAN, HadAT, IUK, RAOBCORE/RICH, RATPAC) and reanalyses (ERA-40, NCEP/NCAR (NNR), Twentieth Century reanalysis (20CR), CFSR, ERA-Interim, MERRA). Large differences are found between the magnitudes, vertical profiles of the temperature trends (even for time periods > 3 decades), and chronological sequences of bidecadal, regional warming and cooling periods in the reanalyses. Long term zonal mean vertical trend profiles from CHUAN and from the reanalyses reaching back to the time before the satellite era show an amplification of the tropospheric warming towards the surface in all seasons except in JJA for the periods 1901-99, 1948-99 and 1957-99. In 20CR, a very strong 20th century cooling trend compared to the other datasets is found between 150 and 200 hPa. The agreement of the vertical structure and temporal behaviour of regional, bidecadal trends in the long reanalyses for 11 regions in the Arctic with CHUAN is best on average for ERA-40, followed by a less good agreement with trends from NNR (especially vertical structure) and 20CR (vertical structure and temporal behaviour). ERA-40 performs best for the NE Atlantic, Karelia, the SE Canadian Arctic, Alaska, and Central Siberia, and less favourably in the NW Canadian Arctic, E Siberia, W Siberia, and Novaya Zemlya. NNR agreement with CHUAN is significantly worse than in ERA-40 for the NE Atlantic, SE Canadian Arctic, SW Central Siberia, and E Central Siberia. 20CR performance is generally worse than that of ERA-40 and NNR, particularly for Karelia, the SE Canadian Arctic, Novaya Zemlya, W Siberia, and Central Siberia. For the more recent but shorter reanalyses, the internal agreement is generally very high, and results are close to CHUAN, ERA-40 and NNR. A comparison of CHUAN with the other radiosonde datasets is only possible for Alaska, E Central Siberia, NE Atlantic and NE Central Siberia (only HadAT and IUK), E Siberia and Novaya Zemlya (only HadAT), and Karelia, SW Central Siberia and W Siberia (all except RATPAC). For the period of overlap (1951-99) the agreement is reasonable with respect to the general picture. However, some disagreement on the trend sign can be seen a) for Alaska during DJF 1961-80 with HadAT and IUK, b) for E Central Siberia during MAM 1971-90 and 1980-99 with HadAT and during DJF 1980-99, MAM 1971-99 and SON 1961-80 with IUK, c) for Karelia during MAM/JJA 1961-80 with RAOBCORE/RICH (JJA also with HadAT and IUK), d) for NE Central Siberia during DJF 1961-80 with HadAT, e) for Novaya Zemlya during DJF1961-80 with HadAT, f) for SW Central Siberia during SON 1980-99 with RAOBCORE/RICH, g) for W Siberia during DJF/MAM 1961-80 with RAOBCORE/RICH, HadAT and IUK.

Stickler, Alexander; Brönnimann, Stefan

2013-04-01

173

Natural movement of Belgrade population in the second half of the 20th century and beginning of the 21st century  

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Full Text Available This paper analyzes the process of natural growth movements of the City of Belgrade in the second half of the 20th and beginning of the 21st centuries. The time level of the analysis was determined by the available data on vital statistics (1961-2005), while the spatial level was determined by the administrative distribution of the City into districts during the 2002 census. It has been established that the natural growth rates for the City of Belgrade were stable until the beginning of the 1980s, though with small oscillations. Then a decrease began until 1992, when the number of deaths exceeded the number of births, with a tendency of negative growth. From then on, the population of Belgrade increased in the last decade of the 20th and beginning of the 21st centuries, only due to the migration component. Although the increase of Belgrade population has never mainly depended on natural growth, it was concluded in the paper that the effects of the ceased natural replacement would yet be shown.

Tucovi? Olgica; Stevanovi? Radoslav

2007-01-01

174

The paradigms of Romanian language and literature curricula in the second half of the 19th century and the 20th century.  

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Full Text Available This article is the synthesis of research focused on the history of the Romanian mother tongue language and literature curricula of the second half of the 19th century and the 20th century1. The curricula I analysed comprise a history with complex syncopated rhythms, periods of re-constitution and recrystallisation alternating with periods of deconstruction and repression. The changes of rhythm are the result of the dialogue between the institutional policies of the Ministry of Education and the language, literature and education sciences. This dialogue was a positive and constructive one in the periods of socio-cultural and economic evolution of the country and absent or extremely tense during the communistperiod. The article presents a history of the curricular projects for the study of the Romanian mother tongue language and literature2 by middle and secondary school pupils.

Pamfil, A.

2007-01-01

175

The historical and ethnographic sources about everyday life of the Karelian peasant woman (the end of the 19th to the beginning of the 20th century)  

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Full Text Available The article contains basic thematics groups of sources both published and archival from second half of the 19th to beginning of the 20th century. It allows analyse legal and sociocultural state of the karelian peasant woman in and out her family.

Litvin J. V.

2012-01-01

176

Scientific and practical contribution of sanitary inspection society to public health development and its formation in Saratov region in the 19th and 20th centuries  

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Full Text Available The article presents the history of organization of Saratov sanitary inspection society and its contribution to public health development and public health service formation in Saratov region at the end of the 19th and at the beginning of the 20th centuries

Raikova S.V.; Zavialov A.I.; Lutsevich I.N.; Myasnikova I.V.

2011-01-01

177

"Sure it wouldn't be right" Sure as a discourse marker in a corpus of Irish English from from the 18th to the 20th century  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This is a study of sure, surely, to be sure, sure enough, but sure and no sure that are used discourse markers in Irish English. The study has been based on A corpus of Irish English (Hickey 2003) which is a collection of texts from the medieval period to the 20th century. The discourse markers were...

Østebøvik, Silje Taraldsøy

178

Vietnamese Women and Leadership in the 20th Century: Prospects for Vietnamese Women Leaders in the 21st Century  

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Full Text Available The last few decades have marked a turning point in the role of women in Vietnam. Formerly acknowledged as the "Minister of Home Affairs," women were I able to break free from the shackles of traditional beliefs. These beliefs kept them ifrom having a life outside household servitude. During the decades of war, women displayed leadership and courage. In peace time, women educated themselves and later held important government positions as Vietnam transformed itself into a free market economy. The former second class citizens were able to distinguish themselves further in the economic, political, social realms. Now supported by government and an appreciative society, there is a brighter future for the women of Vietnam as leaders in the next century.

Ha Thi Thu Huong

2001-01-01

179

Lessons learned and present day challenges of addressing 20th century radiation legacies of Russia and the United States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Decommissioning of nuclear submarines, disposal of highly enriched uranium and defense plutonium as well as processing of high-level wastes are among the most challenging issues of addressing radiation legacy of the 20th century. USA and Russia are the two primary countries that have to deal with the challenge and where most of the fissile materials to be processed are concentrated, nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste are stored, and multiple industrial sites and nuclear weapons production facilities are located. In the US, CH2M HILL is managing two of the most important nuclear projects being conducted by the US Department of Energy at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site and at the DOE Hanford Site (177 underground tanks at this site contain 60 percent of the United States' high-level radioactive wastes). Within the framework of the Russian Federal special program 'Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Materials Management, Utilization and Disposal for 1996-2005' works were carried out on the Karachai lake covering with soil, highly active radwaste vitrification and fractionation at the 'Mayak' combine. Currently there is a discussion of launching joint Russian-American initiatives including comparative studies of environmental and public health impacts from high-level waste vitrification and plutonium stabilization processes in Russia and high-level waste removal from tanks in the USA and of continuing comprehensive research with the RADSITE project (USA, European Union, Japan, China and India) using coordinated approaches in 2000-2003. This paper presents comparative studies, technical approaches, and regulatory strategies to address the challenges of managing and closing highly enriched uranium, plutonium, and high level waste sites. (author)

2000-11-02

180

Comparison of 20th century and pre-industrial climate over South America in regional model simulations  

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Full Text Available In this study, we assess how the anthropogenically induced increase in greenhouse gas concentrations affects the climate of central and southern South America. We utilise two regional climate simulations for present day (PD) and pre-industrial (PI) times. These simulations are compared to historical reconstructions in order to investigate the driving processes responsible for climatic changes between the different periods. The regional climate model is validated against observations for both re-analysis data and GCM-driven regional simulations for the second half of the 20th century. Model biases are also taken into account for the interpretation of the model results. The added value of the regional simulation over global-scale modelling relates to a better representation of hydrological processes that are particularly evident in the proximity of the Andes Mountains. Climatic differences between the simulated PD minus PI period agree qualitatively well with proxy-based temperature reconstructions, albeit the regional model overestimates the amplitude of the temperature increase. For precipitation the most important changes between the PD and PI simulation relate to a dipole pattern along the Andes Mountains with increased precipitation over the southern parts and reduced precipitation over the central parts. Here only a few regions show robust similarity with studies based on empirical evidence. However, from a dynamical point-of-view, atmospheric circulation changes related to an increase in high-latitude zonal wind speed simulated by the regional climate model are consistent with numerical modelling studies addressing changes in greenhouse gas concentrations. Our results indicate that besides the direct effect of greenhouse gas changes, large-scale changes in atmospheric circulation and sea surface temperatures also exert an influence on temperature and precipitation changes in southern South America. These combined changes in turn affect the relationship between climate and atmospheric circulation between PD and PI times and should be considered for the statistical reconstruction of climate indices calibrated within present-day climate data.

S. Wagner; I. Fast; F. Kaspar

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Snow cover and permafrost evolution in Siberia as simulated by the MGO regional climate model in the 20th and 21st centuries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An approach to ground thermodynamics description using a coupled system of atmospheric regional climate and ground heat transfer models is improved by accounting for the time varying snow density. The simulations are compared to available observational analyses, and the sensitivity of the ground thermal regime to variable snow density is analysed. Projected changes of the ground thermal regime in the 21st century relative to the late 20th century are shown and compared to earlier estimates.

2010-01-01

182

Estuarine Evidence Of Postseismic Transients In 17th-century Hokkaido And 20th-century Chile  

Science.gov (United States)

We studied postseismic transient of two giant interplate earthquakes; one is a 17th-century earthquake along the southern Kuril trench, eastern Hokkaido, and the other is the 1960 Chilean earthquake. The 17th-century earthquake along the southern Kuril trench induced postseismic uplift that probably lasted for decades, as judged from stratigraphy and paleoecology at two estuaries along the Pacific coast of eastern Hokkaido. The estuaries, at Mochirippu and Kiritappu, were invaded by an unusually large tsunami before their tidal flats emerged and became lowland forests. The tsunami is marked by a sand sheet mainly 2-5 cm thick. The sand is both underlain and overlain by tidal-flat mud. However, the mud above the sand grades upward into peat that contains volcanic ash layers from late in the 17th century. The upward sequence of mud, sand, mud, and peat implies that an earthquake (marked by the tsunami deposits) predates gradual coastal uplift (marked by the transition from mud to peat). We quantified the land-level history by means of fossil diatom assemblages in the mud and peat. The reconstructed land-levels show several decimeters of preseismic subsidence, no coseismic change, and at least 1 m of postseismic uplift. The volcanic ash layers, erupted from southwest Hokkaido and dated with the local historical records, show that the uplift started before 1667 and ended by 1694. Postseismic uplift of the 1960 Chilean earthquake provided stratigraphic and paleoecological evidence. The delta of the Rio Coihuin is in middle along the 1960 rupture zone and 10 km east of Puerto Montt, which was at the inland limit of the coseismic downwarp in 1960. The delta contains three terraces, each underlain by a different stratigraphic sequence. The_@highest terrace, now above all tides, is underlain by lahar-runout sand_@and silt derived from Mt. Calbuco, 20 km to the northeast. Inset into_@this terrace are at least lower ones that form tidal marshes. The marshes_@are underlain by intertidal deposits dominated by mud and peaty mud. A family that has farmed a remnant of the lahar-runout terrace provided_@detailed accounts of changes in land level since the 1960 earthquake._@The highest terrace had been inundated by tidal water during the monthly high tide and dominated by a tidal marsh plant, Salicornia sp., before the 1960 event. The middle terrace had been also dominated by other tidal marsh plant, Juncus balticus and Scripus americanus that the family used for their craft. However, after the event, the terraces emerged and the tidal vegetation changed. The highest terrace became freshwater upland forest, and the middle terrace increased Agrostis alba and Salicornia sp. Tidal flat changed to the present lowest terrace dominated by Puccinellia sp. Guided by this testimony, we checked deposits beneath the middle terrace beside the family's house. These deposits consist of peat, mud, sand, and volcanic ash layers. _@The uppermost peat-over-mud contact probably represents emergence that the family has been watching after the 1960 earthquake, though we cannot yet date the contact. Above the peat-over-mud contact, the peat contains rhizomes of Spartina densiflora and plant macrofossils of salt-tolerant vascular plants. Judging from the present vegetation around the delta, this change in vascular plants shows at least 1m of emergence.

Sawai, Y.; Kamataki, T.; Nasu, H.; Satake, K.; Shishikura, M.

2004-12-01

183

National identity of the Serbs in the 19th century and at the beginning of the 20th century  

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Full Text Available An attempt to establish a specific form of global uniformity by the dominant world powers, even if it is to a certain degree flexible and economically acceptable, proved to be imprudent and controversial. Autochthonous development of specific nations in all its traditional, religious and historical entirety is inaccessible and very sensitive to the form of the dominant ideological concept. Even if multiculturalism, multinationalism and multiconfessionalism belong to civilization heritage, it turned out that their declarative respect and haughty globalization was a risky experiment. European Union, supporting the project "Structuring of Europe", intends to prove its multinational (as well as any other multi determination) in the authentic interdisciplinary research work in the study of the past of each European nation. The idea of this project is based on the creative integrative link of the national identity of European nations and European super-national identity which stems from the mosaic of their existence. Attitude to the formation of national identity among the Serbs should be based on the research about the determination of national identity from the beginning of the formation of the Serbian state till today. During the 19th century and till the 1920s, I believe that one should - when determining the national identity among the Serbs - focus on the research about the role of education and culture in the national identification and on the attitude to the Yugoslav idea. The complexity of the problem also includes the specific interrelations between the idea of national identity and the standpoint of The Serbian Orthodox Church, as well as the enthusiasm of romanticism liberal ideas, party programmes, dominant elite and intelligentsia contemporary ideological influences and so on.

Markovi? Saša

2006-01-01

184

Between autonomy of music and the composer’s autonomy. Notes on modernisms and traditionalisms in Slovenian music of the 20th century  

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Full Text Available The aim of this article is to examine the relations between the old and the new in the context of 20th-century Slovenian music. The question about the old and the new is seen not only as a question of different facets of an age-old opposition, but also as a complex issue of the epistemological contextualization of those different facets. Centered on the main historiographical entries – the avant-garde, modernity, traditionalism, and post-modernity –, the outline of the 20th-century Slovenian musical culture endeavors to point out what is a common problem of the Western musical heritage from the past century: the problem of defining constituents of the old and the new within different epistemological contexts.

Stefanija Leon

2006-01-01

185

Climatic changes between 20th century and pre-industrial times over South America in regional model simulations  

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Full Text Available Two simulations with a regional climate model are analyzed for climatic changes between the late 20th century and a pre-industrial period over central and southern South America. The model simulations have been forced with large-scale boundary data from the global simulation performed with a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model. The regional simulations have been carried out on a 0.44° × 0.44° grid (approx. 50 km × 50 km horizontal resolution). The differences in the external forcings are related to a changed greenhouse gas content of the atmosphere, being higher in the present-day simulation. For validation purposes the climate model is analyzed using a five year long simulation between 1993 and 1997 forced with re-analysis data. The climate model reproduces the main climatic features reasonably well, especially when comparing model output co-located with observational station data. However, the comparison between observed and simulated climate is hampered by the sparse meteorological station network in South America. The present-day simulation is compared with the pre-industrial simulation for atmospheric fields of near-surface temperatures, precipitation, sea level pressure and zonal wind. Higher temperatures in the present-day simulation are evident over entire South America, mostly pronounced over the southern region of the Andes Mountains and the Parana basin. During southern winter the higher temperatures prevail over the entire continent, with largest differences over the central Andes Mountains and the Amazonian basin. Precipitation differences show a more heterogeneous pattern, especially over tropical regions. This might be explained by changes in convective processes acting on small scales. During southern summer wetter conditions are evident over the Amazonian and Parana basin in the present-day simulation. Precipitation increases are evident over Patagonia together with decreases to the north along the western slope of the Andes Mountains. During southern winter also a dipole pattern along the Andes Mountains with wetter conditions over the southern parts and drier conditions over the central parts is evident. An interesting feature relates to precipitation changes with changing sign within a few 10th of kilometers along the southern parts of the Andes mountain chain. This pattern can be explained by changes in large-scale circulation related to latitudinal changes of the extratropical southern hemispheric westerlies.

S. Wagner; I. Fast; F. Kaspar

2011-01-01

186

The Ambivalence of a Port-City. The Jews of Trieste from the 19th to the 20th Century  

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Full Text Available This article stems from a key question: was Habsburg Trieste truly a cosmopolitan and tolerant city? Building upon the interpretative category of "port Jews", established by David Sorkin and Lois C. Dubin, this study examines the social, economic and political behaviour of the Triestine Jews in the nineteenth- and early twentieth-centuries, and conducts a comparison with the other religious minorities present in the Adriatic port during this period: Greeks, Protestants, Serbians and Armenians. The picture which emerges allows for the proposition of a new interpretative model, that of the "port-merchant." The second part of the article focuses on the second half of the nineteenth-century, when the model of Trieste as a tolerant city was challenged by the nationalist fights between Italians and Slovenians, and by the political antisemitism. The city lost its capacity to include the 'Other', and was rapidly transformed into a genuine breeding-ground of Italian racism.

Tullia Catalan

2011-01-01

187

Stephen S. Wise and the Urban Frontier: American Jewish Life in New York and the Pacific Northwest at the Dawn of the 20th Century  

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Full Text Available The case of Stephen S. Wise provides a lens through which to examine American Jewry’s transformation at the dawn of the 20th century. Not only were New York City and Portland, Oregon – places Wise called home – two geographic poles of America’s urban frontier, they also highlight a spectrum of possibilities available to the New World’s fledgling Jewish community. Viewed in tandem, they illustrate American society’s raw, open, and pliable terrain as it emerged from a rural pre-industrial past. Moreover, by placing Wise in the context of the metropolitan growth that reshaped the Atlantic and Pacific frontiers in the late 19th century, we gain a better understanding of the relationship between the country’s dynamic environmental conditions and the phenomenon of Jewish immigrant absorption, acculturation, and Americanization.In withdrawing to the wilderness, Wise exposed himself to new possibilities for thinking about the place of Jews in American society and the future of American Judaism. He also honed the role of which he was to become a superlative exemplar – a 20th-century American rabbi at home in the worlds of religion and politics. Furthermore, his synthesis of liberal Judaism, American pluralism, Zionism, and Progressive-era notions of social justice anticipated the rise of a new American Jewish sensibility that would become normative in the 20th century.

Mark A. Raider

2011-01-01

188

CHANGES IN THE REGIME OF AIR TEMPERATURE AND PRECIPITATION RATE IN THE BLACK SEA REGION IN THE 20TH CENTURY ????????? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ??????? ? 20-? ????  

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Full Text Available Correlation and spectral methods were used to analyze changes in the regime of air temperature and precipitation rate in the Black Sea region in the 20th century. It was established that climatic tendencies on the regional scale differed from the global ones. In order to predict their consequences in the nearest 10 to 20 years it is necessary to concentrate efforts on studying and modeling natural climatic variability, which superimposes on the relatively slow global changes

Rybak O. O.; Rybak E. A.

2013-01-01

189

HEIGHT AS AN INDICATOR OF ECONOMIC STATUS IN THE POLISH TERRITORIES UNDER RUSSIAN RULE AT THE TURN OF THE 19TH TO 20TH CENTURY.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Summary Height is regarded as one of the indicators of environmental stress at population level, being an excellent barometer of standard of living. The aim of this study was to describe diversity in height among populations living in different regions of the Kingdom of Poland in terms of the economic factors in the second half of the 19th and early 20th century. This study examines the height of adult inhabitants from five guberniyas (provinces) of the Kingdom of Poland (?om?a, Warsaw, Radom, Kalisz and P?ock) collected in the years 1897-1914 (N=732 men, N=569 women). Differences in average height of male and female inhabitants across the five guberniyas were examined using ANOVA and the Fisher's LSD (Least Significant Difference) test of multiple comparisons. Statistically significant differences in the height between the guberniyas were observed. Diversity in the economic development in the studied guberniyas of the Kingdom of Poland translated into differences in the height of their inhabitants. Moreover, an increase in mean height over time was noted.

Czapla Z; Liczbi?ska G

2013-09-01

190

Declining homogamy of Austrian-German nobility in the 20th century? : a comparison with the Dutch nobility Abnahme der Homogamie der österreichisch-deutschen Aristokratie im 20. Jahrhundert? Ein Vergleich mit der niederländischen Aristokratie  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

'Has the Austrian-German nobility had the same high degree of noble homogamy during the 20th century as the Dutch nobility? Noble homogamy among the Dutch nobility was one of the two main reasons for their 'constant noble advantage' in obtaining elite positions during the 20th century. The Dutch on ...

Dronkers, Jaap

191

The 20th century retreat of ice caps in Iceland derived from airborne SAR : W-Vatnajökull and N-Myrdalsjökull  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We present observations of the long-term recession of surging outlets of Icelandic ice caps in response to 20th century climate. In August 1998, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data, covering the western part of Vatnajokull and the northern part of Myrdalsjokull in southern Iceland, were acquired with the Danish airborne EMISAR radar system. Polarimetric and interferometric SAR data reveal the margins of the present ice caps as well as a series of terminal moraines in the fore field. These moraines date back to the maximum Neoglacial extent at the end of the 19th century and the outermost allow reconstruction of the margin at that time. The data offer a unique opportunity to estimate the area decrease of these ice caps in the 20th century. The influence of the fluctuations of the surge type outlets, constituting most of W-Vatnajokull area and a good part of N-Myrdalsjokull area, is minimal, since they had all recently surged in 1998 as was presumably the case when the outermost moraines were formed. The major contributor to the area decrease is therefore climate changes in the 20th century even though the glacier retreat has been interrupted by short-lived surges. Moraines associated with most of the surges in W-Vatnajokull in the 20th century are observed in the SAR data including the most recent surges in the 1990s. Interestingly no push moraines were observed in front of the surge advance, but the moraines appear when the glaciers start retreating. We estimate that the collective decrease of the outlets of western Vatnajokull since maximum Neoglacial extent of each outlet, is log km(2) (6.7%) corresponding to an average retreat of 850 in over a 130 km long margin. In the same period the outlet Slettjokull, in N-Myrdalsjokull, has decreased by 33 km(2) (20%) corresponding to an average retreat of 1500 in over a 20 kin long margin. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Magnússon, Eyjólfur; Björnsson, Helgi

2005-01-01

192

???????????????????????????? (Bulldozing Pudian Street: Destruction or Renewal? Ambiguities in Big City Novels in Late 20th Century Chinese Literature)  

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Full Text Available There is little doubt that the most cogent literary representation of the experience of modernity has been realised in big city fiction and cinematographic masterpieces such as Fritz Lang's Metropolis (1926). Despite the formal and aesthetic incompatability of early twentieth century (predominantly Western) works of this literary genre and more recent ones, East and West, the underlying dialectic tension between progressive optimism and disorientation, existential up-rootedness, alienation and angst (Rilke's loss of soul) as archetypal manifestation of mega-city reality and its social structure and organisation, constitutes a generic hallmark, regardless of time and place. Significantly, the relevance of this problem is reinforced, theoretically and practically, by the eminent scholar and architect Rem Koolhaas whose reflections have China as a principal reference point of the global "out-of-control process of modernisation". This paper focuses on the literary representation of the complexity and universality of the problem and the social implications of the blurred and ambiguous vision of urban reality with particular reference to contemporary Chinese literature.

Xia Li

2007-01-01

193

FORESTS AND AGRICULTURE: AN OVERVIEW OF THE HISTORICAL LIMITS OF SUSTAINABILITY OF ARGENTINEAN FORESTS WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF 20TH CENTURY CAPITALIST EXPLOITATION  

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Full Text Available At the end of the 19th century, there were in Argentina 160 million hectares of natural forests, mountains and original jungles. In less than half a century, the country lost more than two—thirds of its aboriginal forests. Currently, the country has less than 33 million hectares of native forests. The exploitation of this extraordinary Argentinean forest wealth is the starting point of this historical analysis that intends to study, from an environmental history perspective, the evolution of forest exploitation in the 20th century and its relation to the expansion of the capitalist agricultural model. The main objective of the text is centered on the study of the deforestation process within the context of its participation in the market and the relation between said phenomenon and the agricultural frontier expansion, its artificial transformation, conflicts, specialization levels, rationality, interaction and the deterioration of forest resources.

Adrián Zarrilli

2008-01-01

194

The machines of Leonardo da Vinci and Franz Reuleaux kinematics of machines from the Renaissance to the 20th century  

CERN Document Server

In the Codex Madrid, da Vinci scholar Ladislo Reti compared the great artist-engineer, Leonardo da Vinci's drawings to the work of 19th century machine theorist Franz Reulaeux of Berlin. Carrying Reti's thesis further, this book examines the evolution of machine design methodology from the Renaissance to the Age of Machines in the 19th century.

Moon, Francis C

2007-01-01

195

In memory of Professor Leonor Michaelis in Nagoya: great contributions to biochemistry in Japan in the first half of the 20th century.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Leonor Michaelis spent the years of 1922-1926 as Professor of Biochemistry of the Aichi Medical College (now Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya University) in Nagoya, Japan. Michaelis succeeded in gathering many bright young biochemists from all over Japan into his laboratory, and made tremendous contributions to the promotion of biochemistry in Japan. Michaelis was invited to many places in Japan to present lectures over those years. Kunio Yagi, who was Professor of Biochemistry at Nagoya University in the second half of the 20th century, succeeded in crystallizing the "Michaelis" enzyme-substrate complex. Historically, Michelis has had an enormous impact on biochemistry in Japan.

Nagatsu TT

2013-09-01

196

Agricultural Population of Central Serbia at the End of the 20th and the Beginning of the 21st Century. Case Study: Goc Mountain and Its Foothill  

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Full Text Available In this paper there has been elaborated an analysis of distribution of arable and agricultural land on the territory of Goc and its foothill, then the distribution and density of agricultural population that live on its territory. The analysis refers to the end of the 20th and beginning of the 21st century. Special attention is given to active agricultural population. The received results show that the number of agricultural population has been decreasing. The importance of the paper is in the fact that it will enrich the knowledge about the population and settlements of the Goc Mountain and the West Morava valley.

Tamara LUKI?; An?elija IVKOV-DŽIGURSKI

2011-01-01

197

Mudança em dois períodos do século XX: inter-relacionando análises em tempo aparente/ Linguistic change in two periods of the 20th century: interrelating apparent time analyses  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese À luz da sociolinguística variacionista, tomo os conectores E, AÍ, DAÍ e ENTÃO como variantes da variável dependente "sequenciação retroativo-propulsora". Os dados são oriundos das seguintes fontes: (i) As vinhas da ira, romance escrito por John Steinbeck em 1939, cuja tradução brasileira, datada de 1940, apresenta marcas da fala de classes populares do Rio Grande do Sul; (ii) 48 entrevistas provenientes do Banco de Dados VARSUL de Florianópolis, que foram col (more) etadas ao longo da última década do século XX. Tenho por objetivos: (i) buscar indícios de mudança em tempo real; (ii) buscar indícios de mudança em tempo aparente através do controle da variável social idade; (iii) inter-relacionar os resultados referentes à variável idade nos dois períodos de tempo considerados. Obtive indícios de mudança em tempo real e de mudança em tempo aparente. Além disso, fiz uma inter-relação entre os resultados referentes à variável idade no final da primeira metade do século XX e no final da segunda metade do século XX. Baseada nessa inter-relação, consegui traçar um panorama mais detalhado das mudanças possivelmente sofridas por E, AÍ, DAÍ e ENTÃO ao longo do século XX. Abstract in english Under the light of Labovian Sociolinguistics, I take the Brazilian Portuguese connectors E, AÍ, DAÍ, and ENTÃO as variants of the dependent variable "retroactive-propeller sequenciation". The data come from the following sources: (i) "The grapes of wrath", an novel written by John Steinbeck in 1939, the 1940 Brazilian Portuguese translation of which is marked by spoken language traits of the working classes from Rio Grande do Sul (RS), the most southern Brazil State; ( (more) ii) 48 interviews from the VARSUL Data Base of Florianópolis (the capital of Santa Catarina State), which were collected during the last decade of the 20th century. My goal are: (i) to seek evidence of change in real time, (ii) to seek evidence of change in apparent time by controlling the social variable 'age', (iii) to interrelate the results regarding the variable 'age' in both periods of time. The results present evidences of change in both real time and apparent time. Moreover, I set up an inter-relationship between the results regarding the variable 'age' at the end of the first half of the 20th century and at the end of the second half of the 20th century. Based on this inter-relationship, I was able to trace a more detailed picture of the changes the connectors E, AÍ, DAÍ, and ENTÃO possibly underwent throughout the 20th century.

Tavares, Maria Alice

2011-12-01

198

20th-Century doubling in dust archived in an Antarctic Peninsula ice core parallels climate change and desertification in South America.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Crustal dust in the atmosphere impacts Earth's radiative forcing directly by modifying the radiation budget and affecting cloud nucleation and optical properties, and indirectly through ocean fertilization, which alters carbon sequestration. Increased dust in the atmosphere has been linked to decreased global air temperature in past ice core studies of glacial to interglacial transitions. We present a continuous ice core record of aluminum deposition during recent centuries in the northern Antarctic Peninsula, the most rapidly warming region of the Southern Hemisphere; such a record has not been reported previously. This record shows that aluminosilicate dust deposition more than doubled during the 20th century, coincident with the approximately 1 degrees C Southern Hemisphere warming: a pattern in parallel with increasing air temperatures, decreasing relative humidity, and widespread desertification in Patagonia and northern Argentina. These results have far-reaching implications for understanding the forces driving dust generation and impacts of changing dust levels on climate both in the recent past and future.

McConnell JR; Aristarain AJ; Banta JR; Edwards PR; Simões JC

2007-04-01

199

Documentary evidence for changing climatic and anthropogenic influences on the Bermejo Wetland in Mendoza, Argentina, during the 16th-20th century  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines the processes underlying changes to the once-extensive Bermejo Wetland, east of the city of Mendoza, Argentina (32°55' S, 68°51' W). Historical documents and maps from the 16th to 20th century are used to reconstruct environmental shifts. Historical documents indicate periods of increased snowfall in the adjacent Andes mountains, as well as high flow volumes in the Mendoza River. Data from georeferenced maps, the first from 1802 and the last from 1903, reflect the changes in the surface area of the wetland. The combined data sets show pulses of growth and retraction, in which major expansions coincided with more intense snowstorms and increased flow in the Mendoza River, which in turn influenced socio-economic activities. The wetland became progressively drier during the 19th century, before drying up completely around 1930, due in part to the construction of drainages and channels.

Prieto, M. R.; Rojas, F.

2012-05-01

200

Trace elements in South America aerosol during 20th century inferred from a Nevado Illimani ice core, Eastern Bolivian Andes (6350 m asl)  

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Full Text Available A 137 m ice core drilled in 1999 from Eastern Bolivian Andes at the summit of Nevado Illimani (16º 37' S, 67º 46' W, 6350 m asl) was analyzed at high temporal resolution, allowing a characterization of trace elements in Andean aerosol trapped in the ice during the 20th century. The upper 50 m of the ice core were dated by multi-proxy analysis of stable isotopes (d18O and d2H), 137Cs and Ca+2 content, electrical conductivity, and insoluble microparticle content, together with reference historical horizons from atmospheric nuclear tests and known volcanic eruptions. This 50 m section corresponds to a record of environmental variations spanning about 80 years from 1919 to 1999. It was cut in 744 sub-samples under laminar flow in a clean bench, which were analyzed by Ion Chromatography for major ionic concentration, by a particle counter for insoluble aerosol content, and by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) for the concentration of 45 chemical species from Li to U. This paper focuses on results of trace element concentrations measured by ICP-MS. The high temporal resolution used in the analyses allowed classifying samples as belonging to dry or wet seasons. During wet season elemental concentrations are low and samples show high crustal enrichment factors. During dry seasons the situation is opposite, with high elemental concentrations and low crustal enrichments. For example, with salt lakes as main sources in the region, average Li concentration during the 20th century is 0.035 and 0.90 ng g-1 for wet and dry seasons, respectively. Illimani average seasonal concentration ranges cover the spectrum of elemental concentration measurements at another Andean ice core site (Sajama) for most soil-related elements. Regional crustal dust load in the deposits was found to be overwhelming during dry season, obfuscating the contribution of biomass burning material. Marked temporal trends from the onset of 20th century to more recent years were identified for the concentrations of several trace species of anthropic origin, especially for Cu, As, Zn, Cd, Co, Ni and Cr. Among these elements, Cu shows average wet season crustal enrichment factors above 103, while the others range between 102 to about 5x102. P and K show moderate average wet season enrichment factors, suggesting an impact of natural biogenic emissions from the Amazon Basin. Pb has multiple anthropic sources in the region, from mining activities in the beginning of 20th century to automotive fuel after 1950s. From the large number of samples analyzed from Illimani, it was possible to derive an effective chemical characterization of the deposited background Andean soil dust aerosol during 20th century.

A. Correia; R. Freydier; R. J. Delmas; J. C. Simões; J.-D. Taupin; B. Dupré; P. Artaxo

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Trace elements in South America aerosol during 20th century inferred from a Nevado Illimani ice core, Eastern Bolivian Andes (6350 m a.s.l.)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 137 m ice core drilled in 1999 from Eastern Bolivian Andes at the summit of Nevado Illimani (16° 37' S, 67° 46' W, 6350 m a.s.l.) was analyzed at high temporal resolution, allowing a characterization of trace elements in Andean aerosol trapped in the ice during the 20th century. The upper 50 m of the ice core were dated by multi-proxy analysis of stable isotopes (d18O and d2H), 137Cs and Ca+2 content, electrical conductivity, and insoluble microparticle content, together with reference historical horizons from atmospheric nuclear tests and known volcanic eruptions. This 50 m section corresponds to a record of environmental variations spanning about 80 years from 1919 to 1999. It was cut in 744 sub-samples under laminar flow in a clean bench, which were analyzed by Ion Chromatography for major ionic concentration, by a particle counter for insoluble aerosol content, and by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) for the concentration of 45 chemical species from Li to U. This paper focuses on results of trace element concentrations measured by ICP-MS. The high temporal resolution used in the analyses allowed classifying samples as belonging to dry or wet seasons. During wet season elemental concentrations are low and samples show high crustal enrichment factors. During dry seasons the situation is opposite, with high elemental concentrations and low crustal enrichments. For example, with salt lakes as main sources in the region, average Li concentration during the 20th century is 0.035 and 0.90 ng g?1 for wet and dry seasons, respectively. Illimani average seasonal concentration ranges cover the spectrum of elemental concentration measurements at another Andean ice core site (Sajama) for most soil-related elements. Regional crustal dust load in the deposits was found to be overwhelming during dry season, obfuscating the contribution of biomass burning material. Marked temporal trends from the onset of 20th century to more recent years were identified for the concentrations of several trace species of anthropic origin, especially for Cu, As, Zn, Cd, Co, Ni and Cr. Among these elements, Cu shows average wet season crustal enrichment factors above 103, while the others range between 102 to about 5×102. P and K show moderate average wet season enrichment factors, suggesting an impact of natural biogenic emissions from the Amazon Basin. Pb has multiple anthropic sources in the region, from mining activities in the beginning of 20th century to automotive fuel after 1950's. From the large number of samples analyzed from Illimani, it was possible to derive an effective chemical characterization of the deposited background Andean soil dust aerosol during 20th century.

A. Correia; R. Freydier; R. J. Delmas; J. C. Simões; J.-D. Taupin; B. Dupré; P. Artaxo

2003-01-01

202

The Roots of Separate and Unequal: The Virginia and West Virginia Heritage--17th to 20th Century.  

Science.gov (United States)

Analyses of the Brown decision often overstate its importance. For centuries before it was handed down, white Americans regarded blacks as inferior. During the time of slavery, white men (including those of apparent stature, such as Jefferson and Lincoln) felt that for some reason society could do to black people that which it could not do to any…

Higginbotham, A. Leon

203

Fsiles de novela: paleontologa y literatura en la argentina de fines del siglo XIX y principios del siglo/ Fossils as fictional characters: Argentine paleontology and literature in the late 19th century and the beginnings of the 20th century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La literatura argentina de la segunda mitad del siglo XIX y comienzos del siglo XX refiri la presencia de mamferos fsiles cenozoicos en las pampas. Gliptodontes y megaterios devinieron en personajes de los textos de Eduardo Ladislao Holmberg, William Henry Hudson, Eduarda y Lucio Victorio Mansilla, Leopoldo Lugones, Geoffroy Franois Daireux, Horacio Quiroga, Hugo Wast, Ezequiel Martnez Estrada, Leopoldo Marechal y Manuel Mujica Lainez. Estos autores contextualizaron a los (more) vertebrados fsiles en escenas humorsticas o realistas, como iconos de la grandeza de la Pampa y la nacin o parodia de estereotipos culturales locales. Abstract in english Argentine literature from the second half of the 19th century and the early 20th century referred to the presence of Cenozoic fossil mammals in the pampas. Glyptodons and megatheriums became characters in the texts of Eduardo Ladislao Holmberg, William Henry Hudson, Eduarda y Lucio Victorio Mansilla, Leopoldo Lugones, Geoffroy Franois Daireux, Horacio Quiroga, Hugo Wast, Ezequiel Martnez Estrada, Leopoldo Marechal and Manuel Mujica Lainez. These authors contextualize the (more) fossil vertebrates in humoristic or realistic scenes, as icons of the greatness of the nation and the Pampa, or as a parody of local cultural stereotypes.

Ottone, Eduardo G.

2011-09-01

204

Fsiles de novela: paleontologa y literatura en la argentina de fines del siglo XIX y principios del siglo Fossils as fictional characters: Argentine paleontology and literature in the late 19th century and the beginnings of the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La literatura argentina de la segunda mitad del siglo XIX y comienzos del siglo XX refiri la presencia de mamferos fsiles cenozoicos en las pampas. Gliptodontes y megaterios devinieron en personajes de los textos de Eduardo Ladislao Holmberg, William Henry Hudson, Eduarda y Lucio Victorio Mansilla, Leopoldo Lugones, Geoffroy Franois Daireux, Horacio Quiroga, Hugo Wast, Ezequiel Martnez Estrada, Leopoldo Marechal y Manuel Mujica Lainez. Estos autores contextualizaron a los vertebrados fsiles en escenas humorsticas o realistas, como iconos de la grandeza de la Pampa y la nacin o parodia de estereotipos culturales locales.Argentine literature from the second half of the 19th century and the early 20th century referred to the presence of Cenozoic fossil mammals in the pampas. Glyptodons and megatheriums became characters in the texts of Eduardo Ladislao Holmberg, William Henry Hudson, Eduarda y Lucio Victorio Mansilla, Leopoldo Lugones, Geoffroy Franois Daireux, Horacio Quiroga, Hugo Wast, Ezequiel Martnez Estrada, Leopoldo Marechal and Manuel Mujica Lainez. These authors contextualize the fossil vertebrates in humoristic or realistic scenes, as icons of the greatness of the nation and the Pampa, or as a parody of local cultural stereotypes.

Eduardo G. Ottone

2011-01-01

205

Gravity wave momentum flux generation close to mid-latitude Andes in mesoscale simulations of late 20th and 21st centuries  

Science.gov (United States)

Adequate representations of diverse dynamical processes in general circulation models (GCM) are necessary to obtain reliable simulations of the present and the future. The parameterization of orographic gravity wave drag (GWD) is one of the critical components of GCM. It is therefore convenient to evaluate whether standard orographic GWD parameterizations are appropriate. One alternative is to study the generation of gravity waves (GW) with horizontal resolutions that are higher than those used in current GCM simulations. Here we assess the seasonal pattern of topographic GW momentum flux (GWMF) generation for the late 20th and 21st centuries in a downscaling using the Rossby Centre regional atmospheric model under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change A1B emission conditions. We focus on one of the world's strongest extra-tropical GW zones, the Andes Mountains at mid-latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere. The presence of two GCM sub-grid scale structures locally contributing to GWMF (one positive and one negative) is found to the East of the mountains. For the late 21st century the strength of these structures during the GW high season increases around 23% with respect to the late 20th century, but the GWMF average over GCM grid cell scales remains negative and nearly constant around -0.015 Pa. This constitutes a steady significant contribution during GW high season, which is not related to the GWMF released by individual sporadic strong GW events. This characteristic agrees with the fact that no statistically significant variation in GWMF at source level has been observed in recent GCM simulations of atmospheric change induced by increases in greenhouse gases.

Alexander, P.; Ruscica, R.; Sörensson, A. A.; Menéndez, C. G.

2011-10-01

206

Simulations of 20th and 21st century Arctic cloud amount in the global climate models assessed in the IPCC AR4  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Simulations of late 20th and 21st century Arctic cloud amount from 20 global climate models (GCMs) in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 (CMIP3) dataset are synthesized and assessed. Under recent climatic conditions, GCMs realistically simulate the spatial distribution of Arctic clouds, the magnitude of cloudiness during the warmest seasons (summer-autumn), and the prevalence of low clouds as the predominant type. The greatest intermodel spread and most pronounced model error of excessive cloudiness coincides with the coldest seasons (winter-spring) and locations (perennial ice pack, Greenland, and the Canadian Archipelago). Under greenhouse forcing (SRES A1B emissions scenario) the Arctic is expected to become cloudier, especially during autumn and over sea ice, in tandem with cloud decreases in middle latitudes. Projected cloud changes for the late 21st century depend strongly on the simulated modern (late 20th century) annual cycle of Arctic cloud amount: GCMs that correctly simulate more clouds during summer than winter at present also tend to simulate more clouds in the future. The simulated Arctic cloud changes display a tripole structure aloft, with largest increases concentrated at low levels (below 700 hPa) and high levels (above 400 hPa) but little change in the middle troposphere. The changes in cloud radiative forcing suggest that the cloud changes are a positive feedback annually but negative during summer. Of potential explanations for the simulated Arctic cloud response, local evaporation is the leading candidate based on its high correlation with the cloud changes. The polar cloud changes are also significantly correlated with model resolution: GCMs with higher spatial resolution tend to produce larger future cloud increases. (orig.)

Vavrus, Steve [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Center for Climatic Research, Madison, WI (United States); Waliser, Duane [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, MS 183-501, Water and Carbon Cycles Group, Pasadena, CA (United States); Schweiger, Axel [University of Washington, Polar Science Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Francis, Jennifer [Rutgers University, J. J. Howard Marine Laboratory, Highlands, NJ (United States)

2009-12-15

207

São Paulo e a Ideologia Higienista entre os séculos XIX e XX: a utopia da civilidade/ Hygienism in Sao Paulo between 19th and 20th centuries: the civilizing utopia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese No contexto da modernidade, situamos o período entre o final do Século XIX e início do XX, em São Paulo, mais precisamente nos primórdios da República, quando houve um processo de higiene e limpeza social, associado à pobreza e, ao mesmo tempo, a um desejo utópico de uma cidade limpa e saudável, como ideologia elitista. Abstract in english In this paper, we analyze, within the context of modernity, the period between the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century in São Paulo. More precisely, the early days of the Republic, when a process of hygiene and 'social cleansing' took place, which was associated with poverty, and, at the same time, with a utopian desire for a clean and healthy city as an ideology of elites.

Oliveira Sobrinho, Afonso Soares de

2013-04-01

208

Effects of aerosol and greenhouse gasses on the summertime Asian monsoon rainfall trend in the 20th century  

Science.gov (United States)

To evaluate anthropogenic effects on summertime Asian monsoon precipitation changes in the twentieth century, we compared atmosphere-ocean coupled model experiments with different external forcings. A linear trend of precipitation over the Asian monsoon region in each experiment indicated that the effect of anthropogenic forcing dominated that of natural forcing (Fig1(a), (b)). The contributions of increased greenhouse gases and anthropogenic aerosols were both significant, but their polarity was opposite (Fig1(c), (d)). We found that the twentieth-century precipitation trend remote from the anthropogenic aerosol emission source had a large projection onto the principal mode of natural variability (Fig1(e)). The impact of increased greenhouse gases and anthropogenic aerosols tended to appear as a modulation of the natural variability. Aerosol processes are important to consider for precise evaluations of changes in Asian monsoon precipitation in the twentieth century. Figure 1. (a-d): 100 year trends of precipitation (colors in units of mm day-1/100 years) and wind at the 850 hPa level (vectors in units of ms-1/100 years) for experiments with (a) full, (b) only anthropogenic, (c) only greenhouse gasses, and (d) only aerosols forcing. Shadings denote the 95% significance level, judged by the Mann-Kendall test. The contour intervals of precipitation are 0.5 mm/day/100 years for (a) and (b), and 0.3 mm/day/100 years for (c) and (d). Panel (e): Precipitation anomalies associated with the leading EOF of precipitation in the control experiment, obtained by regressing seasonal-mean anomalies on to the principal component time series. The area used for the EOF analysis is denoted by a rectangle: 40E-160E, 15S-40N.

Arai, M.; Miyasaka, T.; Nozawa, T.; Nagashima, T.; Kimoto, M.

2009-12-01

209

[Amand Valeur and Raymond Delaby: the work of two "Béhaliens" pharmacists in organic chemistry in the 20th century].  

Science.gov (United States)

At the end of the 19th century, Auguste Béhal, student of Wurtz and Friedel, imposes the atomic theory, in the French higher education. Béhal then will teach and direct the work of many students called Béhaliens. Among the latter, one finds Amand Valeur and Raymond Delaby which are originating in the same birthplace as Béhal: Lens. These two chemist-pharmacists, as Béhal, will teach or carry out their research in the same place as them professor: the Ecole supérieure de pharmacie. Their work illustrates well the concerns of the researchers of the time. Moreover, they are polyvalent chemists: organic, inorganic, medicinal, etc. PMID:19824346

Leclercq, Loïc

2009-04-01

210

Estimation of the Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance for the 20th and 21st centuries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Results from a regional climate simulation (1970–2006) over the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) reveals that more than 97% of the interannual variability of the modelled Surface Mass Balance (SMB) can be explained by the GrIS summer temperature anomaly and the GrIS annual precipitation anomaly. This multiple regression is then used to empirically estimate the GrIS SMB since 1900 from climatological time series. The projected SMB changes in the 21st century are investigated with the set of simulations performed with atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) of the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC AR4). These estimates show that the high surface mass loss rates of recent years are not unprecedented in the GrIS history of the last hundred years. The minimum SMB rate seems to have occurred earlier in the 1930s and corresponds to a zero SMB rate. The AOGCMs project that the SMB rate of the 1930s would be common at the end of 2100. The temperature would be higher than in the 1930s but the increase of accumulation in the 21st century would partly offset the acceleration of surface melt due to the temperature increase. However, these assumptions are based on an empirical multiple regression only validated for recent/current climatic conditions, and the accuracy and time homogeneity of the data sets and AOGCM results used in these estimations constitute a large uncertainty.

X. Fettweis; E. Hanna; H. Gallée; P. Huybrechts; M. Erpicum

2008-01-01

211

From family planning to population policy: A paradigm shift in Serbian demography at the end of the 20th century  

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Full Text Available This paper traces changes in the dominant paradigm of Serbian demography that took palace in the context of major socio-political changes during the late twentieth century. The changes are traced both in the realm of research and social policy. It is argued that demographic transition theory remained the main explanatory model but that its modified version which gives precedence to ideational vs. structural variables gained the dominant status. In the realm of social policy the ideology of family planning was replaced by population policy ideology. It is further argued that alarming discourses and sharp rhetoric about population problems did not result in formulation of a system of specific measures of population policy. Thus, the author claims, demographic discourses that at the time saturated public spaces were constitutive for - gender and national -identity politics and not inconsequential for social policy.

Drezgi? Rada

2008-01-01

212

From social pathologies to individual psyches: psychiatry navigating socio-political currents in 20th-century Latvia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The paper explores psychiatry's responses to the twentieth-century socio-political currents in Latvia by focusing on social objectives, clinical ideologies, and institutional contexts of Soviet mental health care. The tradition of German biological psychiatry in which Baltic psychiatrists had been trained blended well with the materialistic monism of Soviet psychoneurology. Pavlov's teaching of the second signal system was well suited to Soviet ideological needs: speech stimuli were seen as a vehicle for moulding the individual's mind. The transformation in diagnostic practices during the 1970s and 1980s reflected the demise of optimism about the capacity of the self to model itself to the needs of the society. Latvian psychiatry was prepared to embrace more individualistic and pessimistic theories of the self.

L?se A

2011-03-01

213

From social pathologies to individual psyches: psychiatry navigating socio-political currents in 20th-century Latvia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper explores psychiatry's responses to the twentieth-century socio-political currents in Latvia by focusing on social objectives, clinical ideologies, and institutional contexts of Soviet mental health care. The tradition of German biological psychiatry in which Baltic psychiatrists had been trained blended well with the materialistic monism of Soviet psychoneurology. Pavlov's teaching of the second signal system was well suited to Soviet ideological needs: speech stimuli were seen as a vehicle for moulding the individual's mind. The transformation in diagnostic practices during the 1970s and 1980s reflected the demise of optimism about the capacity of the self to model itself to the needs of the society. Latvian psychiatry was prepared to embrace more individualistic and pessimistic theories of the self. PMID:21879575

L?se, Agita

2011-03-01

214

[Elements for an history of the therapeutic community in Western psychiatry of the 2nd half of the 20th century].  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on a critique of the traditional ruling of mental hospital, therapeutic community is an innovative model elaborated in Great Britain during World War II. According to this approach, all the relationships at work inside the institution have a big impact on the patients' state. One of the favoured tools of the therapeutic community lies in regular meetings common to patients and staff, but also reserved to professionals. During these sessions small and big problems are intended to be discussed and resolved collectively. The constitution of this approach as a model and its diffusion in continental European psychiatry during the second half of the 20th century is described in this paper. Four stages are distinguished: the genesis, the constitution of a distinct approach and diffusion in Continental Europe, the radicalisation and criticism by the antipsychiatric movement, the institutionalisation and decline. PMID:21425658

Fussinger, Catherine

2010-01-01

215

[Elements for an history of the therapeutic community in Western psychiatry of the 2nd half of the 20th century].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Based on a critique of the traditional ruling of mental hospital, therapeutic community is an innovative model elaborated in Great Britain during World War II. According to this approach, all the relationships at work inside the institution have a big impact on the patients' state. One of the favoured tools of the therapeutic community lies in regular meetings common to patients and staff, but also reserved to professionals. During these sessions small and big problems are intended to be discussed and resolved collectively. The constitution of this approach as a model and its diffusion in continental European psychiatry during the second half of the 20th century is described in this paper. Four stages are distinguished: the genesis, the constitution of a distinct approach and diffusion in Continental Europe, the radicalisation and criticism by the antipsychiatric movement, the institutionalisation and decline.

Fussinger C

2010-01-01

216

Using Angle calculations to demonstrate vowel shifts : A diachronic investigation of the short vowel system in 20th Century RP (UK)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper gives an overview of the long-term trends of diachronic changes evident within the short vowel system of RP during the 20th century. more specifically, it focusses on changing juxtapositions of the TRAP, STRUT and LOT, FOOT vowel centroid positions. The paper uses geometric calculations to give precise and replicable representations of the vowel system and the generational changes apparent in the data. While FOOT-fronting is well known in British English (Torgersen 1997), less is known about the historical trajectory of the STRUT vowel in response to the encroachment of the TRAP vowel whose lowering and backing are also well-documented (Wells 1982). The discussion draws out differences between 'phonetic' and 'sociolinguistic' stances on the interpretation of acoustic vowel data in formant plots

Fabricius, Anne

2008-01-01

217

Modelling borehole temperatures in Southern Norway – insights into permafrost dynamics during the 20th and 21st century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A transient heat flow model was used to simulate both past and future ground temperatures of mountain permafrost and associated active layer thickness in Southern Norway. The model was forced by reconstructed air temperature starting from 1860, approximately coinciding with the Little Ice Age in the region. The impact of climate warming on mountain permafrost until 2100 is assessed by using downscaled air temperatures from a multi-model ensemble for the A1B scenario. For 13 borehole locations, records over three consecutive years of ground temperatures, air temperatures and snow cover data are available for model calibration and validation. The boreholes are located at different elevations and in substrates with different thermal properties. With an increase of air temperature of ~+1.5 °C over 1860–2010 and an additional warming of +2.8 °C until 2100, we simulate the evolution of ground temperatures for the borehole locations. According to model results, the active-layer thickness has increased since 1860 by 0.5–5 m and >10 m for the sites Juvvasshøe and Tron, respectively. The simulations also suggest that at an elevation of about 1900 m a.s.l. permafrost will degrade until the end of this century with a probability of 55–75% given the chosen A1B scenario.

T. Hipp; B. Etzelmüller; H. Farbrot; T. V. Schuler; S. Westermann

2012-01-01

218

Modelling the temperature evolution of permafrost and seasonal frost in southern Norway during the 20th and 21st century  

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Full Text Available A heat flow model was used to simulate both past and future ground temperatures of mountain permafrost in Southern Norway. A reconstructed air temperature series back to 1860 was used to evaluate the permafrost evolution since the end of the Little Ice Age in the region. The impact of a changing climate on discontinuous mountain permafrost until 2100 is predicted by using downscaled temperatures from an ensemble of downscaled climate models for the A1B scenario. From 13 borehole locations two consecutive years of ground temperature, air temperature and snow cover data are available for model calibration and validation. The boreholes are located at different elevations and in substrates having different thermal properties. With an increase of air temperature of ~+1.5 °C over 1860–2010 and an additional warming of +2.8 °C towards 2100 in air temperature, we simulate the evolution of ground temperatures for the borehole locations. According to model results, the active-layer thickness has increased since 1860 by about 0.5–5 m and >10 m for the sites Juvvass and Tron, respectively. The simulations also suggest that at an elevation of about 1900 m a.s.l. permafrost will degrade until the end of this century with a likelihood of 55–75% given the chosen A1B scenario.

T. Hipp; B. Etzelmüller; H. Farbrot; T. V. Schuler

2011-01-01

219

[Links between profession and family in the community of Lithuanian pharmacists at the end of 19th and the beginning of 20th centuries].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Little research has been carried out in the sphere of the relations between a pharmaceutical career and family in the historiography of pharmacy history. A peculiar influence of family on the choice of the pharmaceutical way of life came into existence in the period of Lithuanian national revival at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th. This article aims to reveal the relations between a Lithuanian family and pharmaceutical career, to analyze the influence of political, social, economic factors on these relations. At the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th the resistance of Lithuanian peasants against Russification, Polonification manifested in their objective to form Lithuanian intelligentsia. Priestly seminaries became the major centre for preparing new Lithuanian intelligentsia. It was prestigious to become a priest. Moreover, this profession guaranteed material wealth. Young people often left the seminary and started their work in pharmacies where they got a shelter and small 5 rubles earning of a pharmacy apprentice. Such runaways from parents settled in the university cities of czarist Russia and had a purpose to become self-dependent (i.e. to get education) without parents' support. The choice of a woman-pharmacist career, however, was greatly influenced by the profession of her husband. Some educated Lithuanian pharmacists encouraged their wives to choose the same specialty as theirs but such occasions were rare. Sometimes it happened so that pharmacists married, but there were only few Lithuanian women-pharmacists or assistants of pharmacists, and in the period of Lithuanian national revival the point of view on ethnically mixed families was negative. This article discusses about the career of women-pharmacists and the influence of family on the choice of a profession, as well as Lithuanian point of view on ethnically mixed families of pharmacists.

Gudiene V

2005-01-01

220

Geochemical response of a closed-lake basin to 20th century recurring droughts/wet intervals in the subtropical Pampean Plains of South America  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Laguna Mar Chiquita is a highly variable closed saline lake located in the Pampean Plains of central Argentina. Presently is the largest saline lake in South America (? 6,000 km2) and also one of the largest in the world. During the 20th century the hydrological balance of the region was characterized by contrasting scenarios. Well-defined wet or dry climatic phases had ruled the lake level fluctuations and the rivers discharge, mainly controlling the geochemical composition of sediments. Sediments accumulated during positive hydrological balances (i.e., high lake level) are mainly composed of allogenic mineral due to higher riverine inputs into the lake. This fluvial-dominated lake phases are recorded as sediments enriched in Al2O3, SiO2, K2O, Fe2O3 and TiO2 and in trace elements such as Co, Cr, Cs, Rb, Sc, Hf, Ta, Th as well as rare earth elements (REE). Sediments accumulated during dry phases (i.e., low lake levels and high salinity) are evaporite mineral-rich with elevated concentrations of CaO, MnO, MgO, and P2O5. High contents of As and U are probably due to a co-precitation during high evaporative phases. The calibration of the sediment chemical composition of Laguna Mar Chiquita to well-defined water-level fluctuations of the 20th century shows that elemental geochemistry can be a useful proxy to study former lake-water fluctuations. It may further provide a comparative model to evaluate past environmental conditions in other saline lacustrine basins.

Eduardo L. PIOVANO; Favio E. LARIZZATTI; Deborah I.T. FÁVARO; Sonia M.B. OLIVEIRA; Sandra R. DAMATTO; Barbara P. MAZZILLI; Daniel ARIZTEGUI

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

[Internal migration in Spain in the 20th century: a new focus for the study of social inequalities in health].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Catalonia and the Basque Country received substantial immigration quotas from the rest of Spain during the twentieth century. This study aimed to analyze inequalities in health by birthplace (the population born in the same region or other autonomous regions) in these two geographical areas. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study in the non-institutionalized population aged 50 to 79 years, with data from the health surveys of Catalonia 2006 (n=5,483) and the Basque Country 2007 (n=3,424). We used log-binomial models to estimate the prevalence ratios (PR) of poor self-rated health by birthplace, stratified by sex and social class, and successively adjusted for age, social class and educational attainment. RESULTS: Immigrants from other autonomous regions had poorer self-rated health than the native-born population, both in the Basque Country (age-adjusted PR in men 1.30, 95% CI 1.11-1.54; women 1.42, 95% CI 1.25-1.62,) and in Catalonia (PR in men 1.41, 95% CI 1.26-1.62; PR in women 1.25, 95% CI 1.16-1.35). PRs were reduced but remained significant after adjustment for social class and educational attainment and stratification by manual or non-manual social class. CONCLUSIONS: In both communities there are health inequalities that are detrimental to the immigrant population from the rest of Spain, which constitutes approximately half of the population in the studied age cohorts. Future studies should explore the persistence of these inequalities in other health indicators and their reproduction in second generations, and identify entry points for preventive policies.

Martín U; Malmusi D; Bacigalupe A; Esnaola S

2012-01-01

222

Reconstructing the population dynamics of sprat (Sprattus sprattus balticus) in the Baltic Sea in the 20th century  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Long time-series of population dynamics are increasingly needed in order to understand human impacts on marine ecosystems and support their sustainable management. In this study, the estimates of sprat (Sprattus sprattus balticus) biomass in the Baltic Sea were extended back from the beginning of ICES stock assessments in 1974 to the early 1900s. The analyses identified peaks in sprat spawner biomass in the beginning of the 1930s, 1960s, and 1970s at ?900 kt. Only a half of that biomass was estimated for the late 1930s, for the period from the late 1940s to the mid-1950s, and for the mid-1960s. For the 1900s, fisheries landings suggest a relatively high biomass, similar to the early 1930s. The exploitation rate of sprat was low until the development of pelagic fisheries in the 1960s. Spatially resolved analyses from the 1960s onwards demonstrate changes in the distribution of sprat biomass over time. The average body weight of sprat by age in the 1950s to 1970s was higher than at present, but lower than during the 1980s to 1990s. The results of this study facilitate new analyses of the effects of climate, predation, and anthropogenic drivers on sprat, and contribute to setting long-term management strategies for the Baltic Sea.

Eero, Margit

2012-01-01

223

Sexualidade e medicina: a revolução do século XX: the 20th-century sexual revolution/ Sexuality and medicine  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O artigo discute a contribuição da medicina, segundo o controle normativo e tecnológico da sexualidade feminina e do processo reprodutivo (parto, aleitamento, contracepção e tratamento das infertilidades) para a construção, durante o século XX, de um novo modelo de reprodução (biológica e social), calcado em uma mudança radical das identidades e das relações e formas de união entre os sexos (desagregação de laços matrimoniais tradicionais, crescimento da (more) s uniões consensuais, monogamia serial, etc.). Este modelo se sustenta em uma separação radical entre sexualidade e reprodução correlata de um modelo único e horizontal de sexualidade (contrariamente ao modelo hierárquico dos dois sexos do século XIX), dirigida primordialmente para o prazer e progressivamente desvinculada dos laços sociais e afetos que lhes são correspondentes. Discute, além da contribuição da medicina (notadamente a partir dos efeitos da reprodução assistida) e da sexologia (universalização do imperativo do orgasmo), a contribuição da epidemiologia (por meio das pesquisas relacionadas à AIDS) para a transformação de uma normal moral sobre a sexualidade em uma norma abstrata e meramente estatística. Abstract in english This paper discusses the role of medicine, ranging from the normative and technological control of women's sexuality and reproductive process (childbirth, breastfeeding, contraception, and treatment of infertility) through the construction of a new (biological and social) reproductive model, based on a radical change of identities, relations, and forms of union between the sexes (a break with the traditional concept of marriage, growth of open unions, serial monogamy, etc (more) .). This model is sustained by a radical distinction between sexuality and reproduction, related to a unique and horizontal model of sexuality (in opposition to the hierarchical 19th-century two-sexes model); the new model focuses mainly on pleasure and moves progressively away from social ties and affection. In addition to the contribution of medicine (notably through assisted reproduction) and sexology (universalization of the orgasm imperative), the paper also discusses the contribution of epidemiology (through AIDS-related research) to the transformation of a moral sexual norm into an abstract and merely statistical standard.

Loyola, Maria Andréa

2003-08-01

224

Modelling borehole temperatures in Southern Norway – insights into permafrost dynamics during the 20th and 21st century  

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Full Text Available This study aims at quantifying the thermal response of mountain permafrost in southern Norway to changes in climate since 1860 and until 2100. A transient one-dimensional heat flow model was used to simulate ground temperatures and associated active layer thicknesses for nine borehole locations, which are located at different elevations and in substrates with different thermal properties. The model was forced by reconstructed air temperatures starting from 1860, which approximately coincides with the end of the Little Ice Age in the region. The impact of climate warming on mountain permafrost to 2100 is assessed by using downscaled air temperatures from a multi-model ensemble for the A1B scenario. Borehole records over three consecutive years of ground temperatures, air temperatures and snow cover data served for model calibration and validation. With an increase of air temperature of ~1.5 °C over 1860–2010 and an additional warming of ~2.8 °C until 2100, we simulate the evolution of ground temperatures for each borehole location. In 1860 the lower limit of permafrost was estimated to be ca. 200 m lower than observed today. According to the model, since the approximate end of the Little Ice Age, the active-layer thickness has increased by 0.5–5 m and >10 m for the sites Juvvasshøe and Tron, respectively. The most pronounced increases in active layer thickness were modelled for the last two decades since 1990 with increase rates of +2 cm yr?1 to +87 cm yr?1 (20–430%). According to the A1B climate scenario, degradation of mountain permafrost is suggested to occur throughout the 21st century at most of the sites below ca. 1800 m a.s.l. At the highest locations at 1900 m a.s.l., permafrost degradation is likely to occur with a probability of 55–75% by 2100. This implies that mountain permafrost in southern Norway is likely to be confined to the highest peaks in the western part of the country.

T. Hipp; B. Etzelmüller; H. Farbrot; T. V. Schuler; S. Westermann

2012-01-01

225

The challenge of antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus : lessons from hospital nurseries in the mid-20th century.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the late 1940s, epidemics of antibiotic-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus began to plague postpartum nurseries in hospitals across the United States. Exacerbated by overcrowding and nursing shortages, resistant S. aureus outbreaks posed a novel challenge to physicians and nurses heavily reliant on antibiotics as both prophylaxis and treatment. This paper explores the investigation of the reservoir, mode of transmission, and virulence of S. aureus during major hospital outbreaks and the subsequent implementation of novel infection control measures from the late 1940s through the early 1960s. The exploration of these measures reveals a shift in infection control policy as hospitals, faced with the failure of antibiotics to slow S. aureus outbreaks, implemented laboratory culture routines, modified nursery structure and layout, and altered nursing staff procedures to counter various forms of S. aureus transmission. Showcasing the need for widespread epidemiologic surveillance, ultimately manifesting itself in specialized "hospital epidemiology" training promoted in the 1970s, the challenges faced by hospital nurses in the 1950s prove highly relevant to the continued struggle with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and other resistant nosocomial infections.

Shaffer RK

2013-06-01

226

Establishment and evolution of the radiation risk concept for the man and human population in the 20th century  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The concept of radiation risk (RR) is the main basis for human protection from the harmful effect of ionizing radiation. It concerns the expected unfavorable health effects upon the irradiated person and probably upon his/her progeny. The early period of the history of RR evaluation was grounded on the assessment of acute skin reactions (erythema, epilation, dermatitis, ulceration) and on the measures (erythema dose) taken to diminish them. The second period covers the appraisal, based on estimation of different somatic effects and expected heredity ( genetic effects). They could be avoided if irradiation does not exceed the maximum permissible dose - the concept of zero RR. The current (third) period estimates both irradiation effects: deterministic effects that have a dose-related threshold and stochastic non-threshold effects. The ultimate goal of radiation protection is to exclude all deterministic effects and to diminish probability of stochastic effects (carcinogenesis and heredity effects) down to an acceptable level. Seven postulates describe the modern concept of RR for the man and human population: globalization irreversibility, accumulation, non-threshold harm, stochastic, non-specificity and acceptance of the risk

2003-01-01

227

Socio-metabolic transitions during the 20th century and their impacts on the scale of human resource use  

Science.gov (United States)

By talking about socio-metabolic transitions, we focus on changes in the energetic base of socio-economic systems, leading to fundamental changes in social and environmental relations. This refers to the historical shift from a biomass-based (agrarian) economy to a fossil fuel based (industrial) economy just as much as to a future shift from fossil fuels to renewable energy carriers. The classic example for the historical transition is the United Kingdom, where the increasing use of fossil fuels over the last 250 years follows a perfectly S-shaped curve, with a declining importance of biomass over the same period. In the course of this transition, population increased seven-fold, energy and materials use per capita tripled and income rose by a factor of 19. Today the UK, as other mature industrial economies, has reached a certain metabolic saturation - which indicates that it has finished its transition into the fossil fuel based economy. In our presentation, • We will first show that this pattern of a socio-metabolic transition can be identified for most high income industrial countries: the later the transition started, the faster it proceeded. The turning point for the stabilization of metabolic rates in all of them happened in the early 1970ies. • Next, we will show that this was not just a "historical" transition, however. Currently, a substantial number of countries comprising more than half of the world's population are following a similar transitional pathway at an accelerating pace. Based on empirical data on physical resource use we can show that these so-called emerging economies are currently in the take-off or acceleration phase of the very same transition. • Finally, we will show how the currently observed global trend of increasing annual resource extraction (biomass, fossil fuels, metals and minerals) is a result of a superposition of processes in countries which are in the stabilization and in the acceleration phase of this transition process, while the next transition (away from fossil fuels) is yet barely visible. A continuation on this global pathway, by recent UNEP scenarios, would lead to a tripling of annual resource extraction by 2050. This urgently calls for a next socio-metabolic transition away from fossil fuels and away from wastefully high metabolic rates - a transition on a par with the grand transitions between socio-metabolic regimes in human history.

Fischer Kowalski, M.; Haas, W.; Wiedenhofer, D.; Krausmann, F.

2012-04-01

228

Nueva localidad en Chile para Menodora linoides Phil. (Oleaceae), especie considerada extinta en el siglo XX New locality in Chile for Menodora Linoides Phil. (Oleaceae), species considered extint in the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An area in the Andes of the Valparaíso Region is indicated as a new locality for the species Menodora linoides Phil., an endemic and unique representative of the Oleaceae family in Chile. The plant described in 1863, was considered extinct in the 20th century, but has been collected twice in the present century

Mélica Muñoz-Schick; Andrés Moreira-Muñoz; Pedro León-Lobos

2006-01-01

229

Nueva localidad en Chile para Menodora linoides Phil. (Oleaceae), especie considerada extinta en el siglo XX/ New locality in Chile for Menodora Linoides Phil. (Oleaceae), species considered extint in the 20th century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english An area in the Andes of the Valparaíso Region is indicated as a new locality for the species Menodora linoides Phil., an endemic and unique representative of the Oleaceae family in Chile. The plant described in 1863, was considered extinct in the 20th century, but has been collected twice in the present century

Muñoz-Schick, Mélica; Moreira-Muñoz, Andrés; León-Lobos, Pedro

2006-12-01

230

Procesos de escolarización en los inicios del siglo XX: La instrucción rudimentaria en México/ Schooling processes at the beginning of the 20th century: Rudimentary education in Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La escolarización de masas fue un asunto público que ocupó la atención de intelectuales, políticos y pedagogos en la transición del siglo XIX al XX. La obligatoriedad de la enseñanza representó un paso importante aunque insuficiente: más de 50 por ciento de la población en edad escolar seguía siendo analfabeta y la oferta educativa se concentraba en las ciudades en un país donde 70 por ciento de la población vivía en el campo. En el proceso de construir la e (more) scolarización pública de masas se traza una curva de pensamiento que muestra replanteamientos en las concepciones sobre "el pueblo" y las formas de vincularlo con el desarrollo de la nación. El artículo enfoca la instrucción rudimentaria de principios del siglo XX y propone que esta experiencia de escolarización preparó para una "ruptura relativa" en la constelación de ideas sobre quién es el pueblo y cómo educarlo entre finales del XIX y la escuela rural que despunta en la posrevolución. Abstract in english The schooling of the masses has been a public affair that took up the attention of intellectuals, politicians and educators during the transition period between the 19th and the 20th Century. The introduction of compulsory education represented an important, although unsatisfactory step: more than 50 percent of the population in school age was still illiterate and the educational offer was greater in the towns in a country where 70 percent of the population lived in the c (more) ountry. This process of building up the public schooling of masses shows a thinking curve that makes necessary to rethink the conceptions about "the people" and the ways to connect it with the development of the nation. The article focuses on the rudimentary education of the beginnings of the 20th Century and proposes that this schooling experiment was the starting point for a "relative breaking-of" within the constellation of ideas about who is the people and how to educate it between the end of the 19th Century and the rural school that comes up affer the Mexican Revolution.

Granja Castro, Josefina

2010-01-01

231

Interpretaciones sobre el desarrollo económico de México en el siglo XX/ Interpretations on the economic development of México in the 20th century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se analiza la relevancia de profundizar en la investigación histórica en México en el siglo XX, desde una perspectiva de historia económica, pues a inicios del siglo XXI estamos en condiciones de emprender un balance desapasionado de las luces y sombras del desarrollo económico mexicano y así lograr una comprensión de las tendencias generales de la economía en el largo plazo. Asimismo se sugieren algunas hipótesis de interpretación y un breve estado de la cuesti (more) ón. El autor enfatiza la reflexión y discusión sobre la historia económica reciente, que es, paradójicamente la menos estudiada. Abstract in english The relevancy is analyzed of penetrating into the historical investigation into Mexico into the 20th century, from a perspective of economic history, since to beginnings of the 21st century we are in conditions to undertake a lacking in passion balance sheet of the lights and shades of the economic Mexican and like that development to achieve a comprehension of the general trends of the economy in the long term. Are suggested some hypothesis of interpretation and a brief (more) condition of the question. Likewise the author emphasizes the reflection and discussion on the economic recent history, which is paradoxically the least studied.

Lomelí Vanegas, Leonardo

2012-12-01

232

20th-Century doubling in dust archived in an Antarctic Peninsula ice core parallels climate change and desertification in South America.  

Science.gov (United States)

Crustal dust in the atmosphere impacts Earth's radiative forcing directly by modifying the radiation budget and affecting cloud nucleation and optical properties, and indirectly through ocean fertilization, which alters carbon sequestration. Increased dust in the atmosphere has been linked to decreased global air temperature in past ice core studies of glacial to interglacial transitions. We present a continuous ice core record of aluminum deposition during recent centuries in the northern Antarctic Peninsula, the most rapidly warming region of the Southern Hemisphere; such a record has not been reported previously. This record shows that aluminosilicate dust deposition more than doubled during the 20th century, coincident with the approximately 1 degrees C Southern Hemisphere warming: a pattern in parallel with increasing air temperatures, decreasing relative humidity, and widespread desertification in Patagonia and northern Argentina. These results have far-reaching implications for understanding the forces driving dust generation and impacts of changing dust levels on climate both in the recent past and future. PMID:17389397

McConnell, Joseph R; Aristarain, Alberto J; Banta, J Ryan; Edwards, P Ross; Simões, Jefferson C

2007-03-26

233

Changes in mercury and cadmium concentrations and the feeding behaviour of beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) near Somerset Island, Canada, during the 20th century.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) continues to be an important food species for Arctic communities, despite concerns about its high mercury (Hg) content. We investigated whether Hg and cadmium (Cd) concentrations had changed during the 20th century in beluga near Somerset Island in the central Canadian Arctic, using well-preserved teeth collected from historical sites (dating to the late 19th century and 1926-1947) and during subsistence hunts in the late 1990s. Mercury concentrations in both historical and modern teeth were correlated with animal age, but 1990s beluga exhibited a significantly more rapid accumulation with age than late 19th century animals, indicating that Hg concentrations or bioavailability in their food chain had increased during the last century. The geometric mean tooth Hg concentration in modern 30 year old animals was 7.7 times higher than in the late 19th century, which corresponds to threefold higher concentrations in muktuk and muscle. Teeth from 1926 to 1947 were similar in Hg content to the late 19th century, suggesting that the increase had occurred sometime after the 1940s. In contrast, tooth Cd was not correlated with animal age and decreased during the last 100 years, indicating that anthropogenic Cd was negligible in this population. Late 19th century beluga displayed a greater range of prey selection (tooth delta15N values: 15.6-20.5 per thousand) than modern animals (delta15N: 17.2-21.1 per thousand). To prevent this difference from confounding the temporal Hg comparison, the Hg-age relationships discussed above were based on historical animals, which overlapped isotopically with the modern group. Tooth delta13C also changed to isotopically more depleted values in modern animals, with the most likely explanation being a significant shift to more pelagic-based feeding. Industrial Hg pollution is a plausible explanation for the recent Hg increase. However, without further investigation of the relationship between the range exploitation of modern beluga and their possible exposure to regional marine food chains with (naturally) higher Hg contents than their historical counterparts, we cannot unequivocally conclude that the increase was anthropogenically driven.

Outridge PM; Hobson KA; Savelle JM

2005-11-01

234

FROM 19th CENTURY PROPAGANDA BY THE DEED TO 20th CENTURY (IM)MEDIATION: JOSEPH CONRAD’S THE SECRET AGENT AND DON DELILLO’S MAO II  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper is intended to comment on the relation between terrorist violence and the mass media in various temporal segments of human experience. The starting premise is represented by the hypothesis of a symbiosis between the two elements, which has long been one of the essential principles in the field of terrorology. The focus will first be laid on the forms the respective relation assumed at the end of the nineteenth century and on the manner in which literature recorded this relation. The second part of the paper will dwell on the (im)mediating function of the mass media in relation to 20th century terrorist violence.

Valentina STÎNG?

2010-01-01

235

Exílio massivo, inclusão e exclusão política no século XX/ Mass exile and political inclusion and exclusion in 20th century/ Exils massifs, inclusion et exclusion politique au XXe siècle  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Due to the strategies implemented by post-Independence Ibero-American states to curtail political participation, exile was mainly reserved as a privilege for ostracized members of the elite, who drew on their support networks in the process. The late 19th and early 20th centuries witnessed a process of "mass exile", expressed by a growing number of exiles from different social classes, excluded due to their participation in politics and public spheres. The expansion of in (more) stitutional exclusion spawned solidarity networks and increasing attention by the international community towards politics in the exiles' home countries. Old domestic political issues found a transnational echo, based on a growing concern over human rights violations and political persecution. This process produced a radical transformation in the structure, impact, and functioning of political exile from Ibero-American countries.

Roniger, Luis

2010-01-01

236

The Concerns Underlying Sex Education for Young People in France During the First Half of the 20th Century: Morality, demography and public health  

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Full Text Available During the first half of the 20th century, the issue of sex education for young people was the topic of virulent debate. Increasing proposals for sex education in schools, along with lectures and information leaflets, were quickly opposed by Catholic circles, which did not reject sex education in principle but sought to control its form and content. Yet no matter which form or content was chosen, sex education remained underpinned by considerations about the future of the population and the state of public health, particularly the resurgence of syphilis, as well as moral principles. The concerns underlying sex education were morality, demography and public health, which set limits on what was desirable and undesirable in this area and guided the objectives it was to achieve. Sex education was therefore conceived as an instrument for the reproduction and preservation of the race but was not supposed to become an instrument of debauchery. This is confirmed by an analysis of the proposed systems, which differed according to the sexes.

Virginie De Luca Barrusse

2011-01-01

237

A bicicleta, o ciclismo e as mulheres na transição dos séculos XIX e XX Bicycle, cycling and women in the 19th to 20th centuries' transition  

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Full Text Available Este artigo tem por objetivo discutir as relações entre a nova configuração da presença social das mulheres (e nesse cenário as posições de líderes dos movimentos por direitos civis femininos), a nova dinâmica social marcada pela valorização das atividades públicas de lazer (da qual o ciclismo é um exemplo privilegiado) e um novo invento (a bicicleta) na transição dos séculos XIX e XX. Inicialmente abordaremos os casos específicos da Europa (com destaque para a França) e dos Estados Unidos, buscando recuperar as pioneiras discussões e ocorrências acerca do envolvimento de mulheres com o ciclismo. Posteriormente, discutiremos o caso específico do Rio de Janeiro, a maior cidade e a capital do país à época, cujos dirigentes tinham aspirações de constituí-la na metrópole moderna brasileira.This article aims to discuss the relationships between the new configuration of the women social presence (and, in this scenario, the positions of leaders of feminine civil rights' movements), the new social dynamics marked by the valorization of public leisure activities (of which cycling is a remarkable example) and a new invention (the bicycle) in the 19th to 20th centuries' transition. Initially, we discuss specific cases of Europe (mainly those of France) and United States, searching to recover the pioneer discussions and occurrences concerning the involvement of women with cycling. Later, we discuss the specific case of Rio de Janeiro, the biggest city and capital of the country at that time, whose leaders had aspirations to constitute in the Brazilian modern metropolis.

Victor Andrade de Melo; André Schetino

2009-01-01

238

Between Egyptian "national purity" and "local flexibility": prostitution in al-Mahalla al-Kubra in the first half of the 20th century.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article traces prostitution in al-Mahalla in the first half of the 20th century as a regulated urban practice until the trade was outlawed in Egypt in 1949. Studying prostitution during this period of exceptionally rapid growth and transformation not only provides a window on a particular type of illicit sexuality and public morality in a colonial context, it also gives us a hint as to gender relations and inter-communal relations on the invisible marginalized part of a provincial local community, and how it was socially transformed. I argue that the regulation of prostitution in Egypt in 1882 and 1905 created a sphere for a power contest between the colonial state and the local community, between nationalist discourse and the local way of life, and between public morality and private space. While nationalist discourse constructed one virtuous nation, the local community accepted the licensed prostitution quarter, and resisted secret prostitution. The people of the town actively and continually shifted boundaries on what was public and what was private, what was the state's responsibility and what was communal liability.

Hammad H

2011-01-01

239

La parasitología y la entomología en la narrativa latinoamericana del siglo XX Parasitology and entomology in the 20th century Latin American narrative  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present reviev of twelve pieces produced by distinguished 20th century Latin American writers Jorge Luis Borges from Argentina, Jorge Amado and João Ubaldo Ribeiro from Brazil, José Donoso from Chile, Gabriel García Márquez from Colombia, Alejo Carpentier from Cuba, Miguel Angel Asturias from Guatemala, Octavio Paz from Mexico, Mario Vargas Llosa from Perú, Horacio Quiroga and Mario Benedetti from Uruguay and Arturo Uslar-Pietri from Venezuela ­ paragraphs or parts of paragraphs in which parasitological or entomological situations of the most varied hues are referred to or described, have been extracted in a selective form. Sometimes in these descriptions appear, local or regional expressions, without ignoring colorful folkloric representations. For a easier interpretation these or part of these paragraph sentences have been arranged by thematic similarities. In a varied and kaleidoscopic vision, it will be possible to find protozooses (malaria, Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, amibiasis), helminthiases (ascariasis, hydatidosis, trichinosis, schistosomiasis, cysticercosis, onchocerciasis), parasitoses produced by arthropods (pediculosis, scabies, tungiasis, myiasis), passing progressivelly to hemaphagous arthropods (mosquitoes, gnats, horse flies, bedbugs, ticks), venomous arthropods (Latrodectus spiders, scorpions, wasps, bees), mechanical vectors (flies and cockroaches), culminating with a conjuction of bucolic arthropods (butterflies, crickets, grasshoppers cicadas, ants, centipedes, beetles, glowworms, dragonflies).

Hugo Schenone

2000-01-01

240

La parasitología y la entomología en la narrativa latinoamericana del siglo XX/ Parasitology and entomology in the 20th century Latin American narrative  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english In the present reviev of twelve pieces produced by distinguished 20th century Latin American writers Jorge Luis Borges from Argentina, Jorge Amado and João Ubaldo Ribeiro from Brazil, José Donoso from Chile, Gabriel García Márquez from Colombia, Alejo Carpentier from Cuba, Miguel Angel Asturias from Guatemala, Octavio Paz from Mexico, Mario Vargas Llosa from Perú, Horacio Quiroga and Mario Benedetti from Uruguay and Arturo Uslar-Pietri from Venezuela ­ paragraphs (more) or parts of paragraphs in which parasitological or entomological situations of the most varied hues are referred to or described, have been extracted in a selective form. Sometimes in these descriptions appear, local or regional expressions, without ignoring colorful folkloric representations. For a easier interpretation these or part of these paragraph sentences have been arranged by thematic similarities. In a varied and kaleidoscopic vision, it will be possible to find protozooses (malaria, Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, amibiasis), helminthiases (ascariasis, hydatidosis, trichinosis, schistosomiasis, cysticercosis, onchocerciasis), parasitoses produced by arthropods (pediculosis, scabies, tungiasis, myiasis), passing progressivelly to hemaphagous arthropods (mosquitoes, gnats, horse flies, bedbugs, ticks), venomous arthropods (Latrodectus spiders, scorpions, wasps, bees), mechanical vectors (flies and cockroaches), culminating with a conjuction of bucolic arthropods (butterflies, crickets, grasshoppers cicadas, ants, centipedes, beetles, glowworms, dragonflies).

Schenone, Hugo

2000-07-01

 
 
 
 
241

Trabalho de mulheres executivas no Brasil no final do século XX The work of executive women in Brazil in the late 20th century  

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Full Text Available O artigo tece considerações sobre o trabalho das mulheres executivas no Brasil, no final do século XX. Na primeira parte, com base em estatísticas oficiais (Censos e Pesquisas Domiciliares, dados do Ministério do Trabalho, Ministério da Educação e outros), apresenta algumas tendências gerais da inserção laboral das brasileiras nesse período, visando compor o cenário no qual o trabalho das executivas surge e se consolida. Na segunda parte, é realizada breve análise da presença de executivas em cargos de diretoria em empresas brasileiras do setor formal, no ano 2000, com base em dados do Ministério do Trabalho. Na terceira e última, são apresentados resultados de entrevistas realizadas com 10 executivas de empresas diversas do mercado de trabalho.The article presents some comments on the work of executive women in Brazil during the late 20th century. In the first section, based on official statistics (Census and Household Surveys, data from the Ministry of Labor, Ministry of Education and others), it presents some general trends of labor insertion of Brazilian women in that period, aiming at building the context in which the work of executive women emerged and was consolidated. The second part presents a short analysis of the presence of executive women in top level positions in Brazilian corporations of the formal economy, in 2000, based on data from the Ministry of Labor. The third and last section presents the results of interviews with 10 executive women of different corporations.

Cristina Bruschini; Andrea Brandão Puppin

2004-01-01

242

Continuidades e rupturas no papel da mulher brasileira no século XX Continuities and changes in the role of brazilian woman in the 20th century  

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Full Text Available O século XX, em muitas sociedades, caracteriza-se por movimento de constantes alterações em valores, práticas e papéis; contudo, a literatura tem evidenciado também continuidades em todos esses aspectos. O presente artigo tem como objetivo analisar as mudanças e continuidades no papel da mulher, principalmente no contexto familiar brasileiro, com base em dados de pesquisas realizadas na região sudeste. Os dados são provenientes de entrevistas realizadas com homens e mulheres de diversas faixas etárias, nascidos a partir do final do século XIX até meados dos anos 70. Os resultados enfatizam a nova forma de a mulher ser considerada. A imagem de ser frágil e necessitado de proteção, sob o domínio dos sentimentos, atuando na intimidade e presa aos cuidados com a prole, ganha outros contornos, fazendo dela um ser em construção, na busca de seu desenvolvimento e realização de potencialidades. Os caminhos traçados pela evolução marcam, contudo, continuidades ao lado de rupturas.In many societies, the 20th century is characterized by constant changes in values, practices, and roles. However, the literature has shown the existence of continuities in all of them. The purpose of this article is to analyze changes and continuities in the role of woman, especially in the family context, based on research data collected in the Southeast of Brazil. Data were obtained from interviews carried out with men and women who were born from the end of 19th century until 70's. The results emphasize the new role of woman nowadays. The image of being a fragile, sentimental and caring about her children is replaced by one of a woman in development who seeks to fulfill her potentialities. However, the pathways tracked by the evolution of the role of woman mark both continuities and discontinuities.

Zélia Maria Mendes Biasoli-Alves

2000-01-01

243

Interannual-to-decadal variability of the stratosphere during the 20th century: ensemble simulations with a chemistry-climate model  

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Full Text Available Interannual-to-decadal variability in stratospheric ozone and climate have a number of common sources, such as variations in solar irradiance, stratospheric aerosol loading due to volcanic eruptions, El Niño Southern Oscillation variability and the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO). Currently available data records as well as model simulations addressing stratospheric chemical climate variability mostly cover only the past few decades, which is often insufficient to address natural interannual-to-decadal variability. Here we make use of recently reconstructed and re-evaluated data products to force and validate transient ensemble model simulations (nine members) across the twentieth century computed by means of the chemistry-climate model SOCOL. The forcings included sea surface temperatures, sea ice, solar irradiance, stratospheric aerosols, QBO, changes in land properties, greenhouse gases, ozone depleting substances, and emissions of carbon monoxides, and nitrogen oxides. The transient simulations are in good agreement with observations, reconstructions and reanalyses and allow quantification of interannual-to-decadal variability during the 20th century. All ensemble members are able to capture the low-frequency variability in tropical and mid-latitudinal total ozone as well as in the strength of the subtropical jet, suggesting a realistic response to external forcings in this area. The region of the northern polar vortex exhibits a large internal model variability that is found in the frequency, seasonality, and strength of major warmings as well as in the strength of the modeled polar vortex. Results from process-oriented analysis, such as correlation between the vertical Eliassen Palm flux (EP flux) component and polar variables as well as stratospheric ozone trends, are of comparable magnitude to those observed and are consistent in all analysed ensemble members. Yet, trend estimates of the vertical EP flux component vary greatly among ensemble members precluding any robust conclusions. This suggests that internal variability in models must be accounted for in order to quantify the atmospheric model response in wave energy upon external forcings.

A. M. Fischer; M. Schraner; E. Rozanov; P. Kenzelmann; C. Schnadt Poberaj; D. Brunner; A. Lustenberger; B. P. Luo; G. E. Bodeker; T. Egorova; W. Schmutz; T. Peter; S. Brönnimann

2008-01-01

244

A doença meningocócica em São Paulo, Brasil, no século XX: características epidemiológicas Meningococcal disease in São Paulo, Brazil, in the 20th century: epidemiological characteristics  

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Full Text Available Este estudo analisa o comportamento epidemiológico da doença meningocócica na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil, ao longo do século XX. Utilizando dados de prontuários, atestados de óbito e do sistema de vigilância epidemiológica os autores descrevem a tendência secular da doença, sua variação sazonal, a distribuição espacial e por idade e sexo. A tendência secular mostra incidência constante nos períodos endêmicos, interrompida pela presença de epidemias. As quatro epidemias registradas durante o século XX ocorreram em momentos de graves perturbações sociais e foram produzidas pelos sorogrupos A, A e C, e B e C. A variação sazonal com exacerbação no outono/inverno mantém-se constante durante todo o século. A distribuição espacial acompanha os deslocamentos da população pobre no espaço urbano. A distribuição por idade e sexo mantém-se inalterada em todos os períodos endêmicos, mostrando maior risco entre os menores de um ano e decréscimos acentuados à proporção que aumenta a idade. Os períodos epidêmicos, com exceção do último, mostram alteração significante na distribuição etária, com aumento do risco entre jovens e adultos jovens, e ocorrência de casos em todas as faixas etárias.This study analyzes the epidemiological behavior of meningococcal disease in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, over the course of the 20th century. Applying data from patient records, death certificates, and epidemiological surveillance, the authors describe trends in the disease throughout the century, seasonal variations, and incidence distribution by area, age, and gender. The temporal trends show constant incidence during endemic periods, interrupted by epidemic events. Four epidemic events during the last century occurred in circumstances of serious social disturbances and were caused by serogroups A (the first two), A and C, and B and C, respectively. Seasonal variations involved aggravation during autumn and winter throughout the entire century. Geographic distribution followed the displacement of the poor population in the urban territory. Age and gender distribution remained unaltered during all the endemic periods, showing an increased risk associated with younger age. The epidemic periods (except for the last) showed major alterations in age and gender distribution, with an increased risk among young people and youth adults and occurrence in all age brackets.

José Cássio de Moraes; Rita Barradas Barata

2005-01-01

245

[Bernard Schapiro--an orthodox Jew as an early andrologist in the 20th century].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The unusual history and professional background of one of the first andrologists is reported. Bernhard Schapiro, born in 1888 in Dvinsk in Latvia, then a city in the Russian Pale of Settlements for Jews, grew up as an orthodox (hassidic) Jew receiving exclusively talmudic lessons until he was 18 years old. During the final years of this period of life he was educated at the famous Slobodka Talmud Academy Kenesset Israel in Kovno where he absorbed the ideals of Musar-doctrines, thus being influenced for the rest of his life. The Rogachover Gaon J. Rozin supported his desire to study medicine. After a brief stay in Frankfurt/Main he acquired by own efforts the necessary general knowledge to matriculate for access to university. Medical studies at Zurich University (1913-1919) were followed by a one-year-internship at a dermatologic department in Breslau/Silesia. The thesis for his doctorate at Zurich University in 1920 was on, Relations between Nodular Erythema and Tuberculosis'. He spent two years training in dermatology at Breslau University under Jadassohn. Back in Berlin, he married and had four children, while he worked at Magnus Hirschfeld's Institute for Sexual Sciences. After initial clinical studies in venerology he more and more turned to andrological problems, including treatment of underdeveloped male genitals, premature ejaculation and impotence in general. In this context he tested the new drug Praehormon and developed the two remedies Testifortan and Praejaculin. He was the first to describe the effect of anterior pituitary lobe hormone on the descent of cryptorchid testicles, thus initiating a treatment modality still in motion today. When Hitler came to power he and his family were spared as Swiss citizens, but he lost his base for working after the Institute was looted. He established an andrologic practice at Zurich. What he had witnessed in Germany caused him to set up a Swiss branch of Mizrachi, the spiritually based center of Zionism in Switzerland. He left Europe in 1940 for New York/USA. After compulsory repetition of medical exams in a new language he managed to establish a new existence as andrologist. His practice flourished, the more as he was trusted to treat Jewish patients according to Jewish Law. The decisive step brought him to Jerusalem, in 1951, where he founded and headed an Endocrinologic Department of the University, pursuing andrologic questions, until his death on December 31, 1966. What actually controlled his life can be read on his tombstone: 'He remained a pupil of Slobodka all the days of his life'.

Borgwardt G

2002-01-01

246

Emplacement of ideas. The development of geographical thought in Brazil in the early 20th century  

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Full Text Available This paper looks at the circulation of modern geographical ideas in Brazil. The focus is on the relationship between geographical source models and the target model of domestic modernization. Three corresponding "mechanisms" provided the translation from one to the other: gradualism, adaptation and essentialism.

Lia Osorio Machado

1998-01-01

247

Población, actividad y paro en la segunda mitad del siglo XX en Extremadura / Population, activity and unemployment in the second half of the 20th century in Extremadura  

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Full Text Available Resumen: A lo largo de la segunda mitad del siglo XX se han producido las más profundas transformaciones de la historia regional, impulsadas tanto por factores exógenos como endógenos de toda índole. Se ha pasado de una economía agraria de subsistencia a una economía competitiva de los servicios y del conocimiento, lo que ha supuesto enormes excedentes de mano de obra agraria hasta el final de siglo. Excedentes que fueron engrosando la intensa sangría emigratoria de los sesenta y setenta, que arrastró al 40% de la población regional. Sin embargo, desde comienzos de los ochenta, la población ha tendido a estabilizarse. Pero la emigración ya había provocado un estrangulamiento irreparable en las edades activas y de procreación, un fuerte descenso de la natalidad acentuado por la caída de la fecundidad posteriormente y un profundo envejecimiento. Por otra parte, la retención de los efectivos jóvenes y adultos en sus lugares de origen, junto a otros factores, incrementaron el paro hasta niveles desconocidos, si bien es un fenómeno que se ha conseguido paliar en buena medida en los últimos años del siglo. El futuro se presenta incierto, pues aunque no existe ningún núcleo abandonado, el envejecimiento, la baja natalidad y el paro están hipotecando el desarrollo endógeno de los núcleos rurales de la región.Summary: Along the second half of the 20th century the deepest transformations of the regional history have been produced so much by factors exogenous as endogenous of every kind. It has passed of an agrarian economy of subsistence to a competitive economy of the services and of the knowledge, what has supposed enormous excesses of agrarian unemployment to the end of century. Surplus that enlarged the great volume of emigrant population of the sixties and seventy that supposed the 40% of the regional population. Nevertheless, from beginnings of the eighty, the population is being stabilized. But the emigration already had caused an irreparable strangulation in the active ages and of procreation and a strong descent of the birthrate accentuated by the fall of the fertility and a deep aging. On the other hand, the retention of the young and adult population in its places of origin, next to other factors, it has increased the unemployment to unknown levels, though is a phenomenon that has managed to alleviate itself in good measure in recent years of the century. The future is presented uncertain, therefore although no nucleus abandoned exists, the aging, the low birthrate and the unemployment are mortgaging the endogenous development of the rural nuclei of the region.

José L. Gurría Gascón; Ana Nieto Masot; Ana Mª Hernández Carretero

2009-01-01

248

Under the Sign of the Body: Technology, Commodification and Embodied Consciousness in Late 20th Century Germany Unter dem Zeichen des Körpers: Technik, Kommodifizierung und verkörpertes Bewusstsein im späten 20. Jahrhundert in Deutschland  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study explores the hype surrounding the healthy lifestyle technologies most prominently pushed by the fitness and wellness ideologies. The framework of my investigation is (West-)Germany during the last two decades of the 20th century. From a theoretical perspective, I show how the convergence ...

Bingle, Gwen

249

A reversão do hiato de gênero na educação brasileira no século XX Reversal of the gender gap in Brazilian education in the 20th century  

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Full Text Available A redução do hiato de gênero e o maior acesso das mulheres à educação são objetivos explícitos da IV Conferência da Mulher (1995), do Fórum Mundial de Educação (2000) e da Cúpula do Milênio (2000). As conferências internacionais promovidas pela Organização das Nações Unidas recomendam ações para eliminar as discriminações contra o sexo feminino em todos os campos de atividade, especialmente na educação. O hiato de gênero e o déficit educacional das mulheres sempre fizeram parte da realidade brasileira. Contudo, as mulheres conseguiram eliminar e reverter esse hiato ao longo do século XX. Este artigo tem como objetivo principal analisar quando se deu a reversão do hiato de gênero na educação no Brasil. Para isso, apresentaremos as informações educacionais dos censos demográficos de 1960 a 2000, segundo níveis de escolaridade, desagregadas por sexo e por coortes de nascimento. Essa metodologia nos permitirá acompanhar a evolução do hiato de gênero das coortes nascidas após 1890 até o ano 1995.The reduction of the gender gap and the improvement in female access to education were explicit objectives of the IV Conference on Women (1995), of the World Education Forum (2000) and of the Millennium Summit (2000). All International Conferences promoted by the United Nations Organization (UN) recommend actions to eradicate discrimination against women in all fields of activity, especially education. The gender gap and the education deficit among women have always been part of the Brazilian reality. However, women have been able to eliminate and reverse this gap throughout the 20th century. The main purpose of this article is to analyze when the reversion of the gender gap in Brazilian education occurred. In order to do so, we will present information obtained from demographic censuses from 1960 to 2000, based on schooling levels disaggregated by gender and birth cohorts. This methodology will allow us to track the evolution of the gender gap in birth cohorts after 1890 until 1995.

Kaizô Iwakami Beltrão; José Eustáquio Diniz Alves

2009-01-01

250

A reversão do hiato de gênero na educação brasileira no século XX/ Reversal of the gender gap in Brazilian education in the 20th century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A redução do hiato de gênero e o maior acesso das mulheres à educação são objetivos explícitos da IV Conferência da Mulher (1995), do Fórum Mundial de Educação (2000) e da Cúpula do Milênio (2000). As conferências internacionais promovidas pela Organização das Nações Unidas recomendam ações para eliminar as discriminações contra o sexo feminino em todos os campos de atividade, especialmente na educação. O hiato de gênero e o déficit educacional (more) das mulheres sempre fizeram parte da realidade brasileira. Contudo, as mulheres conseguiram eliminar e reverter esse hiato ao longo do século XX. Este artigo tem como objetivo principal analisar quando se deu a reversão do hiato de gênero na educação no Brasil. Para isso, apresentaremos as informações educacionais dos censos demográficos de 1960 a 2000, segundo níveis de escolaridade, desagregadas por sexo e por coortes de nascimento. Essa metodologia nos permitirá acompanhar a evolução do hiato de gênero das coortes nascidas após 1890 até o ano 1995. Abstract in english The reduction of the gender gap and the improvement in female access to education were explicit objectives of the IV Conference on Women (1995), of the World Education Forum (2000) and of the Millennium Summit (2000). All International Conferences promoted by the United Nations Organization (UN) recommend actions to eradicate discrimination against women in all fields of activity, especially education. The gender gap and the education deficit among women have always been (more) part of the Brazilian reality. However, women have been able to eliminate and reverse this gap throughout the 20th century. The main purpose of this article is to analyze when the reversion of the gender gap in Brazilian education occurred. In order to do so, we will present information obtained from demographic censuses from 1960 to 2000, based on schooling levels disaggregated by gender and birth cohorts. This methodology will allow us to track the evolution of the gender gap in birth cohorts after 1890 until 1995.

Beltrão, Kaizô Iwakami; Alves, José Eustáquio Diniz

2009-04-01

251

A bicicleta, o ciclismo e as mulheres na transição dos séculos XIX e XX/ Bicycle, cycling and women in the 19th to 20th centuries' transition  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este artigo tem por objetivo discutir as relações entre a nova configuração da presença social das mulheres (e nesse cenário as posições de líderes dos movimentos por direitos civis femininos), a nova dinâmica social marcada pela valorização das atividades públicas de lazer (da qual o ciclismo é um exemplo privilegiado) e um novo invento (a bicicleta) na transição dos séculos XIX e XX. Inicialmente abordaremos os casos específicos da Europa (com destaque (more) para a França) e dos Estados Unidos, buscando recuperar as pioneiras discussões e ocorrências acerca do envolvimento de mulheres com o ciclismo. Posteriormente, discutiremos o caso específico do Rio de Janeiro, a maior cidade e a capital do país à época, cujos dirigentes tinham aspirações de constituí-la na metrópole moderna brasileira. Abstract in english This article aims to discuss the relationships between the new configuration of the women social presence (and, in this scenario, the positions of leaders of feminine civil rights' movements), the new social dynamics marked by the valorization of public leisure activities (of which cycling is a remarkable example) and a new invention (the bicycle) in the 19th to 20th centuries' transition. Initially, we discuss specific cases of Europe (mainly those of France) and United (more) States, searching to recover the pioneer discussions and occurrences concerning the involvement of women with cycling. Later, we discuss the specific case of Rio de Janeiro, the biggest city and capital of the country at that time, whose leaders had aspirations to constitute in the Brazilian modern metropolis.

Melo, Victor Andrade de; Schetino, André

2009-04-01

252

Lovro Stepišnik and the development of travelling librarianship in Slovenia at the turn of the 19th to the 20th century  

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Full Text Available Purpose: Travelling library service is a field of librarianship which has not been thoroughly explored yet either in Slovenia or abroad. The most interesting question is who the beginner was and how the idea of a travelling library service has been introduced to Slovenia.Methodology/approach: The analysis of primary and secondary resources served to represent the life and work of Lovro Stepišnik as well as a short introduction to the history of travelling librarianship in Slovenia at the turn of the 19th to the 20th century.Results: The findings show that the hypothesis on Lovro Stepišnik as the first travelling librarian in Slovenia could be confirmed. After establishing the library together with the Reading society in the year 1863, either Stepišnik or his assistant, delivered baskets of books to rural readers. At the same time, some initiatives on private travelling libraries based on American and European practices emerged. The aim of the first travelling libraries was to stimulate reading and literacy among rural population, especially in the areas without reading societies and on the borders with German speaking population,in order to stimulate national consciousness and the use of the Slovenian language.Research limitation: The research was limited to the selected primary resources of selected serial publication in the Slovenian language. Some difficulties due to the variety of terms and archaic expressions were identified.Originality/practical implications: The short study should stimulate the research in the development of travelling libraries in Slovenia.

Polona Vozel; Branka Badovinac

2011-01-01

253

Surface and thickness variations of Brenva Glacier tongue (Mont Blanc, Italian Alps) in the second half of the 20th century by historical maps and aerial photogrammetry comparisons  

Science.gov (United States)

Aim of this contribution is the evaluation of volumetric and surface variations of Brenva Glacier (Mont Blanc, Italian Alps) during the second half of the 20th century, by GIS-based processing of maps and aerial photogrammetry technique. Brenva Glacier is a typical debris covered glacier, located in a valley on the S-E side of the Mont Blanc. The glacier covers a surface of 7 kmq and shows a length of 7,6 km at maximum. The glacier snout reaches 1415 m a.s.l., which is the lowest glacier terminus of the Italian Alps. To evaluate glacier variations different historical maps were used: 1) The 1959 Map, at the scale 1:5.000, by EIRA (Ente Italiano Rilievi Aerofotogrammetrici, Firenze), from terrestrial photogrammetric survey, published in the Bollettino del Comitato Glaciologico Italiano, 2, n. 19, 1971. 2) The 1971 Map, at the scale 1:5.000, from aerial photogrammetry (Alifoto, Torino) published in the Bollettino del Comitato Glaciologico Italiano, 2, n. 20, 1972. 3) The 1988 Map, at the scale 1:10.000, (Region Aosta Valley, Regional Technical Map) from 1983 aerial photogrammetric survey. 4) The 1999 Map, at the scale 1:10.000, (Region Aosta Valley, Regional Technical Map) from 1991 aerial photogrammetry survey. For the same purpose the following aereal photographs were used: 1) The 1975 image, CGR (Italian General Company aerial Surveys) flight RAVDA (Administrative Autonomous Region Aosta Valley), at the scale 1:17.000. 2) The 1991 image, CGR (Italian General Company aerial Surveys) flight RAVDA (Administrative Autonomous Region Aosta Valley), at the scale 1:17.000. Aerial imageries have been acquired over a long period from 1975 to 1991. The black and white images were scanned at suitable resolution if compared with the imagery scale and several models, representing the glacier tongue area, oriented using the inner and outer orientation parameters delivered with the images, were produced. The digital photogrammetric system, after orientation and matching, produces a digital surface model with a degree of accuracy varing among the glacier and the surrounding area. Comparison with available cartography may be performed if digital ortophoto is being generated from the photogrammetric processing in a well defined reference system. Accuracy in volumetric changes estimations is nevertheless of fundamental importance being derived from the comparison of different metodologies with related single accuracies. By using GIS sofware the maps and ortophotos were managed after digitalisation; Digital Elevation Models were produced and their comparison allowed: 1) to quantify surface and volume variations 2) to elaborate thematic maps about ice thickness and debris areal distribution variations 4) to elaborate topographic longitudinal and transverse profiles to underline glacier changes The preliminary results about volumetric and thickness variations obtained from maps are the following: a) 1959-1971: the glacier tongue increased in volume of about 15 millions mc of ice that correspond to an increase in thickness of about 20 m of ice with maximum values of about 40-50 m. b)1971-1983: the glacier tongue increased in volume of about 18 millions mc of ice that is to say a mean increase in thickness of a little more than 20 m of ice. In the same time the glacier advanced of about 200 m (Italian Glaciological Committee data), probably this advancing phase was related to the ablation reduction caused by the emispheric climate cooling occurred during the second half of the 20th century. It influenced the mass balance trend of a large number of glaciers in the North Emisphere between the 70s and the 80s of the 20 th century c)1983-1991: for this period a negative volumetric variation of about 8 millions mc of ice was calculated equal to a thickness decreasing of about 10 m of ice. The managing of orthopotos by GIS software to obtain DEMs is in progress and its results will confirm or add arguments to discuss them. The final results will allow to compare Brenva recent evolution to that of some other italian debris covered glaciers such as Mia

D Agata, C.; Zanutta, A.; Muzzu Martis, D.; Mancini, F.; Smiraglia, C.

2003-04-01

254

BOOKSELLER AS A CULTURAL AGENT: BOOK TRADE IN ESTONIA IN THE SECOND HALF OF THE 19TH AND AT THE BEGINNING OF THE 20TH CENTURY  

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Full Text Available The article handles general developments and changes in book trade which took place in Estonia during the second half of the 19th century. The aim is to show the formation of bookshops trading with Estonian books and to analyse the activities of Estonian booksellers.The survey is based on the research literature and on the master thesis by Signe Jantson “Raamatukaubandus Eestis aastatel 1850–1917: raamatukauplused ja nende omanikud” (Book trade in Estonia 1850–1917: bookshops and their owners) [9]. In this study great importance wasattached to the national and social origin of bookshop owners and their activities. Up to the middle of the 19th century the book production and dissemination in Estonia was in the hands of Baltic German entrepreneurs and depended on the political and economic developments not only in Russia but also in Germany. In the middle of the 19th century there were only 5 bookshops in Estonia located in bigger towns – Tallinn and Tartu. In 1870 the number of bookshops reached 13. The greater ascent can be noticed in the last decade of the period – 1870–1880 when 20 new bookshops were opened. In 1867 Heinrich Laakmann, a German origin publisher and the printing shop owner opened the first bookshop in Tartu to sell Estonian language books. The economic and political reforms as well as the national awakening movement favoured the engagement of Estonians in the sphere of book production and dissemination. Increasing publishing of Estonian language books enabled the development of trade. At the end of the national awakening period most of the bookshop owners were already of Estonian origin. Since 1870ies the number of Estonian bookshops started to grow and at the end of the 19th century they outnumbered German and Russian shops. In all over Europe book trade concentrated into the big cities (in the case of Estonia in Tallinn and Tartu), but bookshops were opened also in the rural area (small towns and villages). Altogether 263 bookshops were founded in the second half of the 19th and at the beginning of the 20th century and 283 persons became bookshop owners (at least for some years). These figures allow to conclude that book trade was a popular sphere of activity. The most intensive was foundation of bookshops during 1898–1904. Legally it was not difficult to get a permission to open a bookshop but only few shops (31%) operated more than ten years; most often was that small shops operated up to five years. Trading with books did not guarantee sufficient income and the bookshop owners were often engaged in other spheres, mainly in book production and publishing. Majority of the Estonian origin bookshop owners derived from the peasant families and made up the first generation in book trade business. The newcomers had not enough education nor experience in the field. The most important achievement can be seen in the fact that bookshops were opened in all over Estonia that guaranteed dissemination of Estonian language books to all stratums of the society.

Jantson, Signe; Reimo, Tiiu

2006-01-01

255

[Education on medical anthropology and intercultural health in Mexico: from the 20th century cultural indigenism to the 21st century interculturality].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The study of the health/disease/healthcare process from the socio-medical aspect is the field of the medical anthropology. In Mexico, this medical specialty had its origins at the end of the 19th century. Since then, many educational reforms occurred associated to the political processes and the recognition and better understanding of Mexican pluricultural society; allowing expansion, diversification and consolidation of medical anthropology as an specialty. This review presents the historical evolution of the academic courses on this field, the educators that influenced its consolidation, and the current situation of the available academic programs on medical anthropology. The diversity of specialties from those health sciences that are associated to medical anthropology is emphasized.

Campos-Navarro R

2010-03-01

256

APPRECIATIONS REGARDING EXTERNAL CAPITAL IN ROMANIAN ECONOMY IN THE SECOND HALF OF THE 19TH CENTURY AND THE FIRST TWO DECADES OF THE 20TH CENTURY  

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Full Text Available The study with the mentioned title outlines the specifici ty of the Romanian world related to its level ofdevelopment and to the interest of foreign capital in capitalizing the potential of the Romanian economy. In the middleof the 19th century the foreign capital penetrates the Romanian economy only in form of some state loans awardedunder onerous conditions. In the second half of the 19th century, the foreign capital is present in the Romanianeconomy in form of direct investments in the large manufacturing industry but it has not a decisive role in theeconomical evolution of our country. Foreign capital manifested an extreme interest and was very present in the oilindustry, especially after passing the Mine Law in 1895. Thus, after approximately one decade and half from enactingthe mentioned law, the capital investments in the oil industry had the following structure: German – 39,3%, French –15,0%, Dutch – 10,1%, American – 6,8%, Italian – 6,1%, Belgian – 3,6%, English – 2,7%. In this structure, theRomanian capital owned 14,1%.The accumulation of capital, which, in our country evolved under the circumstances mentioned and throughthe known methods, determined the gradual transformation of the market economy in a capitalist economy. Theshortage of own capital, accumulation of which was limited by the fac tors reminded above, offered the foreign capitalthe opportunity to penetrate the market and at the same time it imposed the resort to this one.The foreign capital contributed as well to maintain the Romanian economy, in the context of its gearing intothe world’s economical circuit, in a status of a peripheral and dependent economy, movement of which took place alsounder the influence of foreign economical powers. Watched in time, the consequences of the foreign capital’spenetration represented a part of the cost of modernizing the Romanian economy.

Maria MURE?AN; Oana Mihaela V?SIOIU

2008-01-01

257

Migration in the Swiss Alps and Swiss Jura from the Middle Ages to the mid-20th century: a brief review  

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Full Text Available This paper aims at retracing the important phases of migrations in the alpine regions and the Jura from the Middle Ages up to the middle of the 20th century. Migration has always functioned as a necessary complement to the resources of the inhabitants of the upland regions and it increases when the economic disparity with the lowlands becomes more marked. A striking characteristic of such migration is the great diversity that can be observed, since not only the destinations of the migrants varied from community to community, but also different forms of mobility coexisted within the same territory. Migration might be seasonal, pluriannual, lifelong or even definitive. It is also notable that the various types of migration can be observed to be part of a plurisecular tradition, apart from some significant exceptions, such as the emigration of the Walser, enforced migrations and the new types of migration as from the second half of the nineteenth century. The mobility of part of the population was also a consequence of modifications deriving from changes in the prevalent type of production (animal husbandry instead of the cultivation of cereals), as well as from demographic factors. In addition to these factors one can observe the role played by political institutions throughout the period under study: seigneurial power in the Middle Ages, the communal and cantonal instances until the second half of the nineteenth century, and afterwards the federal authorities.Cette contribution vise à montrer les grandes phases des mouvements migratoires du Moyen Age au milieu du XXe siècle dans les mondes alpin et jurassien suisses. La migration a toujours été une complémentarité nécessaire aux ressources de la montagne, et elle s'amplifie lorsque les disparités économiques avec le plat pays s'accroissent. Elle se caractérise par une forte diversité, puisque non seulement les destinations et les aires d'établissement des migrants peuvent varier fortement d'une commune à l'autre, mais aussi parce qu'au sein d'un même territoire ont toujours coexisté des formes différentes de mobilité, saisonnières, pluriannuelles, viagères ou définitives. Un aspect remarquable de ces types de migration est qu’ils s'inscrivent dans une très longue tradition pluriséculaire, avec quelques exceptions notables, ainsi les migrations des Walser, les migrations forcées et les nouvelles formes de la migration dès la seconde moitié du XIXe siècle. La mobilité est imposée aussi par les modifications des formes prévalantes de production (élevage plutôt qu'emblavures), de même que par les facteurs démographiques. A ces facteurs s'ajoute celui du rôle des institutions politiques tout au long de la période étudiée, seigneuriales au Moyen Age, communales et cantonales jusque dans la seconde moitié du XIXe siècle, puis fédérales.

Anne-Lise Head-König

2011-01-01

258

As influências da psicanálise na educação brasileira no início do século XX The influences of psychoanalysis on Brazilian education in the beginning of the 20th century  

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Full Text Available O presente artigo tem por objetivo discutir, a partir de um vértice histórico, a relação entre educação e psicanálise no Brasil. Partindo de um estudo qualitativo, fundamentado na análise bibliográfica relativa à produção psicanalítica dedicada à educação produzida no país nas primeiras décadas do século XX, são discutidas as contribuições da psicanálise na transformação das práticas educacionais. Os resultados indicam que a psicanálise esteve presente na educação de duas formas: inicialmente, pela divulgação de informações teóricas relativas aos conceitos psicanalíticos e às características do desenvolvimento emocional da criança, por intermédio de livros e cursos destinados a educadores, e, posteriormente, através da criação de uma prática de assistência ao escolar com problemas de aprendizagem ou comportamento, desenvolvida em clínicas de orientação infantil, que consistia na avaliação da criança e na orientação de pais e professores. Conclui-se que a psicanálise, enquanto fundamento teórico e prático, forneceu elementos que contribuíram para a sustentação dos pressupostos filosóficos da "Escola Nova", que surgiu, a partir da década de 1920, como alternativa ao ensino tradicional.The present article aims at discussing, from a historical point of view, the relationship between education and psychoanalysis in Brazil. Starting from a qualitative study, based on the bibliographical analysis relative to the psychoanalytic production dedicated to education produced in this country in the first decades of the 20th century, the contributions of psychoanalysis in the transformation of the educational practices are discussed. The results show that psychoanalysis was present in education in two ways: firstly by turning public the theoretical information related to psychoanalytic concepts and to the characteristics of child emotional development, through books and courses designed for educators and, afterwards, through the creation of an assistance practice to scholars with learning or behavior problems, developed in child orientation clinics, which consisted on child evaluation and parents and teachers orientation. We conclude that psychoanalysis, while a theoretical and practical fundament, supplied elements which contributed to the support of the philosophic presumptions of a new educational model that came up as from 1920 as an alternative to traditional teaching.

Jorge Luís Ferreira Abrão

2006-01-01

259

The place occupied by early measurement (20th minute) of the thyroid uptake of sup(99m)Tc pertechnetate in thyroid pathology  

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The place occupied by early measurement (20th minute) of the thyroid uptake of sup(99m)Tc pertechnetate is situated for different types of thyroid condition (hypo-, normo- and hyperthyroidism). The use of technetium is simple in practice because only the cervical and crural radioactivity measurements are required. Like all simplified methods it involves risks of errors but lends itself to systematic routine use. The practical advantages of this isotope, which in view of its short half-life appears with iodine 123 as the nearly ideal tracer for thyroid exploration at present are outlined. The thyroid gland can be studied both functionally and scintigraphically at the cost of minimum irradiation, which is a great advantage. The fact that a number of data may be obtained in less than an hour (including scintigraphy) is a particularly valuable asset. However the method has its limits. For example a diagnosis of hyper or hypothyroidism based on the technetium uptake at the 20th minute alone is out of the question. A zero uptake may be observed in the presence of Basedow's disease or conversely a high uptake in hypo- or euthyroid cases. Discrimination is satisfactory between hyper and euthyroid but not between eu- and hypothyroid subjects. Technological progress however promises a routine use of 123 I and 99mTc together, the two isotopes serving to explore two different phases of the thyroid metabolism.

1977-01-01

260

Conformando uma Argentina leitora: educação pública, bibliotecas e mercado editorial entre fins do século XIX e meados do século XX Building a reading Argentina: state schools, libraries and the publishing market in late -19th century and in the first half of 20th century  

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Full Text Available Este artigo pretende lançar luz sobre políticas públicas de promoção da leitura que tiveram lugar na Argentina de fins do século XIX e primeira metade do XX, e sobre a forma como essas interagiram com o mercado editorial em desenvolvimento no país. A preocupação em cultivar e orientar desde cedo nos cidadãos a prática da leitura fez das crianças alvo privilegiado de iniciativas educacionais e editoriais, às quais dedicarei particular atenção.This article aims at shedding light on public policies of reading practices’ promotion, that took place in Argentina in late 19th century and in the first half of 20th century, and on the way they affected the country’s developing publishing market. The purpose of motivating reading practices since the citizens’ early years turned children into an important goal of educational and publishing initiatives, which shall here receive special focus.

Gabriela Pellegrino Soares

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Psicanálise e psiquiatria nos inícios do século XX: a apropriação do conceito de esquizofrenia no trabalho de Hermelino Lopes Rodrigues/ Psicoanálisis y psiquiatría en inicio del siglo XX: a apropriación del concepto de esquizofrenia en el trabajo de Hermelino Lopes Rodrigues/ Psychanalyse et psychiatrie au début du XX siècle: l'assimilation du concept de schizophrénie dans le travail de Hermelino Lopes Rodrigues/ Psychoanalysis and psychiatry in the early 20th century: appropriation of the concept of schizophrenia in the work of Hermelino Lopes Rodrigues  

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Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O trabalho tem como principal objetivo descrever e analisar as contribuições do médico psiquiatra Hermelino Lopes Rodrigues (18991971), na apropriação do conceito de esquizofrenia no Brasil, nas primeiras décadas do século XX. Suas contribuições possuem clara influência das ideias do psiquiatra suíço Eugen Bleuler (1857-1939), na transição entre o conceito de demência precoce e esquizofrenia. O trabalho também procura destacar a inédita leitura que Lopes (more) Rodrigues fez do texto de Eugen Bleuler, ressaltando a influência de aspectos psicológicos e biográficos no estudo do doente esquizofrênico. Abstract in spanish El trabajo tiene como principal objetivo describir y analizar las contribuciones del médico psiquiatra Hermelino Lopes Rodrigues (1899-1971) en la apropiación del concepto de esquizofrenia en Brasil, en las primeras décadas del siglo XX. Sus contribuciones tienen claramente la influencia de las ideas del psiquiatra suizo Eugen Bleuler (1857-1939), en la transición entre el concepto de demencia precoz y el de esquizofrenia. El trabajo también trata de destacar la lect (more) ura poco común que Lopes Rodrigues hizo del texto de Eugen Bleuler, resaltando la influencia de los aspectos biográficos y psicológicos en el estudio de los pacientes esquizofrénicos. Abstract in english The main objective of this article is to describe and analyze the contributions of the psychiatrist Hermelino Lopes Rodrigues (1899-1971) in appropriating the concept of schizophrenia in Brazil in the early decades of the 20th century. His thinking was clearly influenced by the Swiss psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler (1857-1939) regarding the transition from the concept of dementia praecox to that of schizophrenia. The article also seeks to highlight the unprecedented reading th (more) at Lopes Rodrigues made of Bleuler's texts and highlights the influence of biographical and psychological aspects in schizophrenic patients.

Silveira, Renato Diniz

2009-09-01

262

Historia de la salud publica en México: siglos XIX y XX/ History of public health in Mexico: 19th and 20th centuries  

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Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A evolução da saúde pública mexicana foi gradual. Nos séculos XIX e XX desenvolveu-se paralelamente às mudanças políticas e sociais do país. Na primeira metade do século XIX o cuidado com os doentes dependia parcialmente da caridade religiosa. Depois, instituiu-se a beneficiência pública, consolidada pelo presidente Benito Juárez (1856), forma de atendimento continuada por Porfirio Díaz (1880-1910). A partir da Revolução (1910-1917) surgiu o princípio de (more) assistência pública como obrigação do Estado para com a sociedade. Atualmente, a assistência à saúde, e a seguridade social conjugam-se em um conceito de medicina institucional que compreende a investigação, o ensino e os serviços prestados à sociedade. Este trabalho é uma análise do desenvolvimento da saúde pública mexicana nos dois últimos séculos. Faz referência às doenças e seu controle, ao aparecimento das instituições e à evolução do conceito de saúde pública na história mexicana. Abstract in english During the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, its growth accompanied the country?s political and social changes. In the early half of the nineteenth century, care for the sick depended in part on religious charity. So-called public beneficial care was later introduced and consolidated under president Benito Juárez (1856) and then continued under Porfirio Díaz (1880-1910). The Mexican Revolution (1910-1917) brought the notion that public-health assistance is the State? (more) ?s social responsibility. Health care and social security are now both part of so-called "institutional medicine," which also encompasses research and teaching on public health. This analysis of public-health care in Mexico examines the question of diseases and their control, the emergence of institutions, and the development of the concept of public health.

Rodríguez de Romo, Ana Cecilia; Rodríguez Pérez, Martha Eugenia

1998-10-01

263

How unusual was late 20th century El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)? Assessing evidence from tree-ring, coral, ice-core and documentary palaeoarchives, A.D. 1525-2002  

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Full Text Available Multiple proxy records (tree-ring, coral, ice and documentary) were examined to isolate ENSO signals associated with both phases of the phenomenon for the period A.D. 1525-2002. To avoid making large-scale inferences from single proxy analysis, regional signals were aggregated into a network of high-resolution records, revealing large-scale trends in the frequency, magnitude and duration of pre-instrumental ENSO using novel applications of percentile analysis. Here we use the newly introduced coupled ocean-atmosphere ENSO index (CEI) as a baseline for the calibration of proxy records. The reconstruction revealed 83 extreme or very strong ENSO episodes since A.D. 1525, expanding considerably on existing ENSO event chronologies. Significantly, excerpts of the most comprehensive list of La Niña events complied to date are presented, indicating peak activity during the 16th to mid 17th and 20th centuries. Although extreme events are seen throughout the 478-year reconstruction, 43% of the extreme ENSO events noted since A.D. 1525 occur during the 20th century, with an obvious bias towards enhanced El Niño conditions in recent decades. Of the total number of extreme event years reconstructed, 30% of all reconstructed ENSO event years occur post-1940 alone suggesting that recent ENSO variability appears anomalous in the context of the past five centuries.

J. L. Gergis; A. M. Fowler

2006-01-01

264

A variação "tu" e "você" no português brasileiro oitocentista e novecentista: reflexões sobre a categoria social gênero/ The variation between "tu" and "você" in 19th and 20th Century Brazilian Portuguese: discussions on the social category gender  

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Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Neste texto, discute-se a relevância da categoria social gênero para a interpretação do processo de inserção do Você no Português Brasileiro. Com base na análise de missivas pessoais oitocentistas e novecentistas redigidas por brasileiros cultos e integrantes de uma mesma família brasileira (a família Pedreira Ferraz-Magalhães), cujos perfis sociolinguísticos foram identificados (LOBO, 2001), discutem-se os resultados de um estudo de painel (LABOV, 1994), vol (more) tado para sincronias passadas do PB, em relação às formas Tu e Você como sujeitos pronominais. Evidencia-se que o Você, empregado informalmente em cartas brasileiras entre os anos 20 e 30 do século XX, está em avançado estágio de mudança linguística, sendo tal processo conduzido pelas mulheres. À discussão, acrescentam-se os resultados do estudo da variação Tu/Você, feito por Pereira (2012) com base em cartas redigidas por brasileiros da ilustre família Penna, em fins do século XIX e na primeira metade do século XX, expondo o gênero como uma categoria social propulsora da inserção do Você no sistema pronominal do Português Brasileiro oitocentista e novecentista. Abstract in english In this text, the social category Gender is discussed in order to interpret the embedding process of Você in Brazilian Portuguese (BP). Based on the analysis of 19th and 20th century personal letters, written by educated Brazilians, members of a same Brazilian family (the Pedreira Ferraz-Magalhães family), whose sociolinguistic profiles have been identified (LOBO, 2001), the results of a panel study (LABOV, 1994) are discussed. These are focused on past synchronies of B (more) P, related to the forms of Tu and Você as pronominal subjects. The result is that Você, used informally in Brazilian letters between the 20s and 30s of the 20th Century, is in an advanced stage of linguistic change, this process being led by women. The results of the Tu/Você variation study, performed by Pereira (2012) can be added to this discussion, based on letters written by Brazilians from the distinguished Penna family towards the end of the 19th and the first half of the 20th centuries. The letters expound Gender as a propelling social category of the embedding of Você in the pronominal system of 19th and 20th century Brazilian Portuguese.

Rumeu, Márcia Cristina de Brito

2013-01-01

265

As contribuições de Charcot e de Marsden para o desenvolvimento dos distúrbios do movimento nos séculos XIX e XX Contributions of Charcot and Marsden to the development of movement disorders in the 19th and 20th centuries  

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Full Text Available Charcot contribuiu significativamente no século XIX na descrição de várias enfermidades neurológicas, em particular na área dos distúrbios do movimento. Charcot contribuiu de forma exponencial na descrição clínica minuciosa da doença de Parkinson, além de introduzir o primeiro tratamento farmacológico. Na área das hipercinesias realizou estudos sobre a síndrome de Tourette, o diagnóstico diferencial dos tremores, das coréias e o estudo inicial sobre startle. Marsden, recentemente falecido, destacou-se no século XX com inúmeras publicações na área dos movimentos anormais.São contribuições seminais os estudos sobre a doença de Parkinson, distonias, mioclonias , tremor essencial, a descrição das síndromes " Painful Legs Moving Toes ", "Gait Ignition Failure" e o "Tremor Primário da Escrita". As contribuições de Charcot no século XIX e de Marsden no século XX na área dos distúrbios do movimento permitem concluir que ambos foram as figuras mais representativas desta área nos últimos dois séculos.Charcot described many neurological diseases in the 19th century, particularly in movement disorders.Charcot contributed in the clinical description of Parkinson's disease, and introduced its first pharmacological treatment. He also studied the hyperkinesias, e.g. of Tourette syndrome, differential diagnosis of tremors, dystonias, choreas and startle disease. Marsden, who died recently, was an exponent in the study of Movement Disorders, with many publications in this field in the 20th century. His most important contributions are definitions and classifications of movement disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, dystonia, myoclonus, essential tremor, the description of the syndromes "Painful Legs Moving Toes", "Gait Ignition Failure" and "Primary Writing Tremor". The contributions of Charcot in the 19th century and Marsden in the 20th century to the movement disorders allow us to conclude that both of them were the most representative icons in this field in the past two centuries.

Hélio A.G. Teive; Jorge A.A. Zavala; Fábio M. Iwamoto; Daniel Sá; Hipólito Carraro Júnior; Lineu Cesar Werneck

2001-01-01

266

Noor-Eesti enesekoloniseerimisprojekt. Teine osa Olulised kirjandusmõtteviisid . The Self-Colonization Project of Young Estonia. Part II. Modes of Literary Thinking and Relations with Colonialism in Estonian Literature of the beginning of the 20th century  

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Full Text Available The topic of this article is the literary discourse of Young Estonia; its relations with other important Estonian literary discourses from the beginning of the 20th century, and its relations with colonial cultural discourse. First, I give an overview of the basic positions of the Young Estonians’ literary discourse, the main shapers of which were Friedebert Tuglas, Gustav Suits, later on Johannes Semper as well. Next, I present the basic principles of three Estonian literary discourses from the beginning of the 20th century, which were also important to the Young Estonians: nationalist-naturalistic (close-to-life); socialist/ class-based, and 20th century modernist. The Young Estonians began as nationalists and/or socialists. During the formation of Young Estonia’s discourse at the end of the first and beginning of the second decade of the 20th century, 20th century modernism began, which the Young Estonians regarded first and foremost with irony. The Young Estonians’ literary discourse is a mixture of aestheticism, decadence, symbolism, romanticism, and classicism. The point of departure for the Young Estonian approach to literature was eurocentrism. They took a superior and negative view of existing Estonian literature, which they regarded as having fallen drastically behind Europe. Since it was unable to build on its own foundation, it had to borrow from Europe. The discourse’s understandings of cultural values – theory, reading, knowledge, ready-made culture, derive from the centrality of the dynamic of borrowing. New culture could be created freely, without the support of previous local tradition; it was to be an elite culture, while the writer remained an individualist. Literature was to follow the principle of art for art’s sake; aesthetics and the form of the work of art were basic criteria. The formal ideals of the work of art were classicist: unity, integrity (wholeness), harmony, order, logic, etc. Thirdly, I outline the basic positions of colonial thinking about culture, and compare the Young Estonian approaches to literature with colonial thought. The foundation of colonialism is eurocentrism: if Europe is the core; everything else belongs to the periphery, and regarded from the outset as of lesser inherent worth: colonialism is characterized by a superior and negative attitude toward local culture. The colonizing culture interprets its own values and experiences as universals; these are congruent with the outlines of what is deemed to be ”European” culture. The mission of colonialism is to bring the periphery into the sphere of influence of the enlightened core. Though colonial thinking does not commit itself to any specific artistic movement or style, its most important tenet with regard to evaluating art is classicist, emphasizing enduring values and good ”handiwork”. The bases for the creation of colonial culture are ready-made models and categories, and the outcome of colonization is culture constructed according to a model. The outcome of the analysis is that the Young Estonian way of thinking is in close consonance with the colonial way of thinking. Those attitudes that Young Estonians did not adopt, or those they relinquished and discarded, are in opposition to it. My own basic claim is that the Young Estonians unconsciously carried a colonial way of thinking, and that they might be considered to be self-colonizers.

Tiit Hennoste

2008-01-01

267

A reconstruction of the Cape (South African) fur seal harvest 1653-1899 and a comparison with the 20th-century harvest  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The Cape fur seal was an abundant resource in southern Africa, when first discovered by itinerant sailing vessels in the late 16th century. Seals were slaughtered indiscriminately by the sailors for skins, meat and oil for three centuries from around 1600 to 1899. Government controls over the sealing industry were first introduced as late as 1893, by which time at least 23 seal colonies had become extinct and the seal population had been significantly reduced. This paper (more) reconstructs the historical seal harvest from the time of arrival of the first settlers in 1652 up to 1899. These data are then compared with modern harvest data from 1900 to 2000, illustrating the marked increase in the harvest from about 1950, and the concomitant recovery of the seal population to a level of around 1.5-2 million animals.

David, Jeremy; van Sittert, Lance

2008-04-01

268

[Physical anthropology and human "zoos": the exhibition of natives as a scientific popularization practice on the threshold of the 20th century].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

All along the nineteenth century different anthropological exhibitions were held in many countries, in which people from a number of indigenous communities, especially transported from their homeland for the occasion, were exhibited publicly, both for citizenship's instruction and for specialists's "in vivo" studies on human biology. This paper presents a brief description of some of these scientific shows, and tries to relate them to contemporary human biology theories.

Arteaga JS

2010-01-01

269

Narrativas e imágenes del turismo en Petrópolis, Brasil, a principios del siglo XX/ Narratives and Images of Tourism in Petrópolis, Brazil, At the beginning of the 20th Century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Este trabajo es un análisis histórico de los inicios del turismo organizado en la ciudad de Petrópolis a través de los textos e imágenes publicadas a principios del siglo XX. El objetivo general del trabajo fue analizar a través de una perspectiva histórica la forma en que se originó la construcción de la llamada "naturaleza turística" de Petrópolis, El objetivo específico, pretendió comprender e identificar las principales narrativas e imágenes que sustenta (more) n esa construcción cultural, destacando su origen entre los años 1900 y 1930. El estudio fue realizado a través de la bibliografía técnico-científica existente; y también se utilizó la investigación documental e iconográfica, que incluía narrativas e imágenes del turismo en Petrópolis en sus inicios. Se pretendió no sólo insertar a Petrópolis en una posible cronología histórica del turismo brasileño, sino también sensibilizar a los investigadores del área sobre la necesidad de invertir en estudios empíricos de naturaleza histórica en el campo del turismo en los diferentes municipios brasileños, así como en Brasil como un todo. Abstract in english This paper is an historical analysis of the early organized tourism in the city of Petrópolis through the narratives and images produced at the beginning of the 20th century. As a general objective, this paper intended to analyze how the construction of the so-called "tourist nature" of Petrópolis originated, by means of a historical perspective. The specific objective was to understand and identify the main narratives and images which support this cultural construction (more) , emphasizing its origins between 1900 and 1930. The study was developed with the resource of the existing technical and scientific literature as well as documentary and iconographic research which depicted narratives and images of tourism in Petrópolis at the outset of its organization. The aim of this work was not only to propose the insertion of Petrópolis in a possible chronology of Brazilian tourism, but also to provoke and sensitize researchers of the field to the need of investments in empirical researches of historical nature in the field of tourism in the different Brazilian cities, as well as in Brazil as a whole.

Daibert, André Barcelos Damasceno

2011-02-01

270

Generalized War and the National Security Doctrine. German Military Thought in Latin America during the last third of the 20th century  

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Full Text Available This paper analyzes the concept of generalized war, which played a key role in the development of the National Security Doctrine –implemented in Latin America during the last third of the twentieth century–. The interpretation of generalized war by theorists of National Security Doctrine mixed different previous ideas: absolute war –from Von Clausewitz-, total war –from Ludendorff- and atomic war -from Cold War times-. The confusing nature of such concepts could have distorted the development of the very concept of generalised war. And it is likely that the influence of two relevant German authors -Von Clausewitz and Ludendorff- in building the concept this study focuses on was more important than what can be thought at first sight. The theoretical misconceptions, along with the excessive enthusiasm that war generated among classical theorists and the forced interpretation of political and social realities, gave way to a justification of the excesses of the National Security regimes.

Pedro Rivas-Nieto; Roberto Gelado-Marcos

2012-01-01

271

A noção de modelo na virada do século XIX para o século XX/ The notion of model at the turn of the 20th century  

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Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este artigo descreve o modo pelo qual a noção de modelo começou a ingressar na ciência, em particular na física, no final do século XIX. Este é talvez o primeiro domínio científico a fazer uso explícito e consciente dessa noção, para o qual o uso de modelos significou o abandono de toda e qualquer tentativa de representar fielmente os fenômenos naturais. Em questão, estava a representação dos fenômenos elétricos e magnéticos por meio de analogias. Abstract in english This article describes the way in which the idea of model began to be discussed in science, in particular in physics, towards the end of the 19th century. Physics is perhaps the first scientific domain that explicitly and consciously made use of models in a way that was understood to involve abandoning any attempt faithfully to represent natural phenomena. The representation of electromagnetic phenomena by means of analogies was in question.

Roque, Tatiana; Videira, Antonio Augusto Passos

2013-06-01

272

Physical anthropology and human «zoos»: The exhibition of natives as a scientific popularization practice on the threshold of the 20th century  

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Full Text Available All along the nineteenth century different anthropological exhibitions were held in many countries, in which people from a number of indigenous communities, especially transported from their homeland for the occasion, were exhibited publicly, both for citizenship’s instruction and for specialist’s in vivo studies on Human Biology. This paper presents a brief description of some of these scientific shows, and tries to relate them to contemporary human biology theories.Durante todo el siglo XIX se celebraron en numerosos países diversas exposiciones de carácter «científico» en las que miembros de diferentes comunidades indígenas, especialmente transportadas desde sus tierras, eran exhibidos públicamente, tanto para instrucción del público lego como para el estudio in vivo por parte de especialistas en biología humana. Este trabajo presenta una breve descripción de algunas de estás exhibiciones y trata de ponerlas en relación con el discurso teórico de la biología humana del periodo.

Sánchez Arteaga, Juanma

2010-01-01

273

The Pronunciation of Hebrew in the Western Sephardic Settlements (16th-20th Centuries). Second Part: The Pronunciation of the Consonant ‘Ayin  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to ascertain when the Italian Jewish communities and the Western Portuguese “Nations” adopted the nasal-guttural pronunciation of the ‘ayin, variously represented as gn, ng, ngh, hg. In 16th century Ferrara and Venice, the phonetic value of this consonant was zero or close to zero. Only at the very end of the 16th century, some authors in Italy graphically represented it as ng. In the same period, an Amsterdam author introduced new graphemes and expressed the ‘ayin as gh or hg, while a Hamburg scholar published a grammar-book where he gave the name of this consonant as Hgain. The new graphemes were not adopted by the majority of authors, who continued to represent it by a simple h, or left it without notation. Both in Italy and in Northern Europe, the h > gn shift was rather discontinuous.Estudio de la adopción de la pronunciación naso-gutural de la consonante ‘ayin y de su variada representación gráfica entre los judíos de Italia y de las «Naciones» judías hispano-portuguesas. Durante el siglo XVI, el valor fonético de esa consonante era o tendía a cero. A fines de ese siglo y a comienzos del XVII, algunos autores en Italia la representan como ng. Un autor coetáneo en Amsterdam introduce nuevos grafemas, tales como gh o hg, mientras que otro autor de Hamburgo publicaba una gramática en la que denomina Hgain esta consonante. Los nuevos grafemas no fueron adoptados por la mayoría de autores que continuaron representando dicha consonante por una h. Tanto en Italia como en el norte de Europa el cambio h > gn fue discontinuo.

di Leone Leoni, Aron

2008-01-01

274

L’Homme, un itinéraire vietnamien. Humanisme et sujet humain au xxe siècle Man, a Vietnamese Itinerary. Humanism and the Human Subject in the 20th Century  

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Full Text Available Cette étude interroge la confrontation qui s’est instaurée au Vietnam depuis le milieu du xixe siècle – et sans doute bien avant – entre la conception de l’homme-individu importée par les Occidentaux en Asie orientale et les philosophies du sujet qui s’y étaient développées depuis l’antiquité chinoise. Cette confrontation a-t-elle abouti dans la culture vietnamienne à une réévaluation socialement acceptée du statut du sujet et sur une nouvelle figure de l’humanisme ? Quel bilan provisoire dresser ?This paper examines the mid 19th century encounter in Vietnamese culture of the concept of the individual imported by Westerners to Far East Asia with the philosophical tradition of the human subject that has developed in China since the classic period. Did this conflictual encounter result in a new, socially acceptable evaluation of the human statute and in a renewed Vietnamese humanism? This article concludes with a provisional assessment of a cultural confrontation.

Daniel Hémery

2009-01-01

275

Trends in surface air temperature and temperature extremes in the Great Basin during the 20th century from ground-based observations  

Science.gov (United States)

We analyzed trends in surface air temperature and temperature extremes in the Great Basin during 1901-2010. We found that annual average daily minimum temperature increased significantly (0.9 ± 0.2°C) during the study period, with daily maximum temperature increasing only slightly. The asymmetric increase in daily minimum and maximum temperature resulted in daily diurnal temperature range (DTR) decreasing significantly from 1901 to 2010. Seasonally, increases in daily minimum temperature and decreases in DTR occurred in winter, summer, and autumn, but the rate of increase was faster in winter. In contrast, daily maximum temperature showed no significant trend in any season. These trends in temperature measures, however, were not monotonic with decadal periods that included either reversal or acceleration of century-scale trends. The trend magnitudes in temperatures were not significantly associated with elevations. Increases in daily minimum temperature resulted in a decrease in the number of frost days (-0.14 ± 0.04 day yr-1) and cool nights (-0.09 ± 0.04 night yr-1) from 1901 to 2010, while the number of warm days (0.11 ± 0.04 day yr-1) and warm nights (0.19 ± 0.03 night yr-1) increased significantly. Surprisingly, the number of cool days and the length of the growing season showed no significant trend during the study period. Thus, the results of this study suggest that continuation of the overall warming trend would lead to markedly warmer conditions in upcoming decades.

Tang, Guoping; Arnone, John A.

2013-05-01

276

Notas para una historia de la desnutrición en la Iberoamérica del siglo XX Notes for a history of the malnutrition in the Latin America of the 20th century  

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Full Text Available El trabajo analiza los principales determinantes y las características de la desnutrición en América Latina durante la segunda mitad del siglo XX. En primer lugar, se explican las bases del problema moderno del hambre y la desnutrición, tanto en su dimensión fisiológica como social, al destacarse su condición de calamidad social y de expresión biológica del subdesarrollo y de las desigualdades sociales. En segundo lugar, a partir de testimonios contemporáneos, se exponen las principales características de la desnutrición que ha afectado a la población iberoamericana, y las causas que la explican. Por último, a modo de conclusión, se subrayan las consecuencias negativas de no haber aprovechado la oportunidad que conllevaba el reto de superar los factores condicionantes de la malnutrición por defecto, y haber finalizado el siglo XX con un panorama epidemiológico nutricional donde los problemas del hambre y la desnutrición conviven con fenómenos como los de la obesidad de la pobreza.The work analyzes the principal determinants and the characteristics of the malnutrition in Latin America during the second half of the 20th century. First, are explained the bases of the modern problem of the hunger and the malnutrition (undernourishment), so much in his physiological as social dimension, on having been outlined his condition of social calamity and of biological expression of the underdevelopment and of the social inequalities. Secondly, from contemporary testimonies, there are exposed the principal characteristics of the malnutrition that has affected the Latin-American population, and the causes that explain it. Finally, like conclusion, are underlined the negative consequences of not having taken advantage of the opportunity that was carrying the challenge of overcoming the determining factors of the malnutrition (undernourishment), and to have finished the 20th century with an epidemiological nutritional panorama where the problems of the hunger and the malnutrition coexist with phenomena as those of the obesity of the poverty.

J. Bernabeu-Mestre

2010-01-01

277

Notas para una historia de la desnutrición en la Iberoamérica del siglo XX/ Notes for a history of the malnutrition in the Latin America of the 20th century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El trabajo analiza los principales determinantes y las características de la desnutrición en América Latina durante la segunda mitad del siglo XX. En primer lugar, se explican las bases del problema moderno del hambre y la desnutrición, tanto en su dimensión fisiológica como social, al destacarse su condición de calamidad social y de expresión biológica del subdesarrollo y de las desigualdades sociales. En segundo lugar, a partir de testimonios contemporáneos, s (more) e exponen las principales características de la desnutrición que ha afectado a la población iberoamericana, y las causas que la explican. Por último, a modo de conclusión, se subrayan las consecuencias negativas de no haber aprovechado la oportunidad que conllevaba el reto de superar los factores condicionantes de la malnutrición por defecto, y haber finalizado el siglo XX con un panorama epidemiológico nutricional donde los problemas del hambre y la desnutrición conviven con fenómenos como los de la obesidad de la pobreza. Abstract in english The work analyzes the principal determinants and the characteristics of the malnutrition in Latin America during the second half of the 20th century. First, are explained the bases of the modern problem of the hunger and the malnutrition (undernourishment), so much in his physiological as social dimension, on having been outlined his condition of social calamity and of biological expression of the underdevelopment and of the social inequalities. Secondly, from contemporar (more) y testimonies, there are exposed the principal characteristics of the malnutrition that has affected the Latin-American population, and the causes that explain it. Finally, like conclusion, are underlined the negative consequences of not having taken advantage of the opportunity that was carrying the challenge of overcoming the determining factors of the malnutrition (undernourishment), and to have finished the 20th century with an epidemiological nutritional panorama where the problems of the hunger and the malnutrition coexist with phenomena as those of the obesity of the poverty.

Bernabeu-Mestre, J.; Red de Malnutrición en Iberoamérica del Programa de Ciencia y Tecnología para el Desarrollo (Red Mel-CYTED)

2010-10-01

278

EVOLUCION DE LA NUTRICION Y ALIMENTACION EN CHILE EN EL SIGLO XX NUTRITION AND FEEDING TRENDS IN CHILE IN THE 20TH CENTURY  

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Full Text Available Este artículo da una visión del desarrollo de la nutrición y la alimentación en Chile en el siglo XX. Se presenta la nutrición y la alimentación relacionada con la solución de problemas multidisciplinarios, integrada con salud, considerada un derecho humano, que en Chile ha motivado un compromiso del gobierno, de la comunidad y de los grupos profesionales y académicos. Se destaca a los profesionales que tuvieron la visión de incorporar la nutrición a campos pediátricos, clínicos de la salud pública y bioquímica como "precursores de la nutrición", cuyas actividades se iniciaron alrededor de 1940. Se enumeran 8 Centros que se desarrollaron antes de 1970 y se unieron para acciones comunes. Posterior a la Reforma universitaria las 4 instituciones creadas por sus discípulos. Se destaca la labor de los creadores de estos Centros y la visionaria orientación del Laboratorio de Investigaciones Pediátricas del INTA y de CONIN-CREDES junto a innumerables profesionales. Países desarrollados han destacado la experiencia chilena como un ejemplo para el mundo en desarrollo y como "el modelo chileno". La virtual erradicación de la desnutrición infantil ha permitido reorientar los esfuerzos y recursos a las enfermedades crónicas. Se señala el rol de las instituciones académicas en el desarrollo de políticas y programas nutricionales, investigación, desarrollo de programas y entrenamiento de profesionales de la salud, educación y agricultura. La formación de nutricionistas por las escuelas respectivas y la creación de postítulos y postgradosIn this article the authors give their vision of the development of food and nutrition activities during the XXth century. Food and nutrition are seen related with solution of multidisciplinary problems and integrated with health, considered as a human right, which has motivated a deep compromise of the government, community and academic profesionals. Special mention is given to those who incorporate the starting nutrition approach, about 1940, to pediatrics, clinical fields, public health, biochemistry. and so on. They are recognized as "precursors of nutrition" in Chile. Eight special centers developed prior to 1970, worked in an academic relationship, and later after the University reform (1967- 1970), four main Food and Nutrition institutions prevail until now. The work of these centers and the inspiring orientation of the Laboratory of Pediatric Investigation, of INTA, CONIN-CREDES, CONPAN and others has been recognized and presented as an experience, which might be a useful model for developing countries. The virtual erradication of undernutrition in Chile has allowed to re-orient efforts and resources to chronic diseases of the epidemiologic transition. The academic institutions have play a mayor rol in policies, programs, research, training of health, education and agriculture professionals, with post-graduate courses and programs, mainly to nutritionists and other health profesionals

Sergio Valiente B.; Ricardo Uauy D.

2002-01-01

279

L’évolution des charpentes d’églises du Val d’Oise, du XIe au XXe siècle The development of church roofs in Val d'Oise from 11th to 20th century  

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Full Text Available De 2003 à 2006, un inventaire des charpentes des églises du Val d’Oise a été réalisé dans le cadre du SDAVO afin de définir les lignes générales de l’évolution des structures et des techniques de charpenterie du XIe au XXe s. Cet inventaire a permis d’observer 150 charpentes, toutes époques confondues, et d’étudier plus précisément celles qui apparaissaient comme les plus représentatives de chaque type identifié et de chaque période. Si plusieurs charpentes romanes inédites ont été relevées, celles-ci demeurent à l’état de réemploi et appartiennent à un répertoire relativement connu. Les charpentes gothiques du premier tiers du XIIIe s. sont nombreuses (12% du corpus) et pour la plupart inédites. Plusieurs d’entre elles témoignent de la parfaite maîtrise du concept des fermes et pannes vers 1230 et de sa large diffusion dans l’architecture religieuse en Île-de-France dès cette période, au détriment des chevrons-formant-fermes qui survivent jusqu’au XVIe s. uniquement pour des voûtes. Les charpentes post-médiévales dénoncent une baisse de la qualité des bois d’œuvre qui s’accompagnent, à l’approche du XIXe s., d’une perte des compétences techniques en charpenterie.From 2003 to 2006 a study of church roofs in Val d'Oise was performed within the framework of SDAVO to to outline the development of structures and techniques of carpentry from 11th to 20th century. 150 roofs were observed, from all periods, with particular emphasis on those that most typified each type and period. If several unknown Romanesque roofs were discovered, the rest belong to a relatively known repertoire. There are a large number of Gothic roofs of the first third of 13th century (12% of the corpus) and for the most part unpublished. Several of them show a perfect mastery of 'fermes et pannes' (bent and purlins) towards 1230 and of its widespread nature in the religious architecture in Ile-de-France in this period, to the detriment of 'chevrons-formant-fermes' (common rafters forming a bent) which survive until 16th century only for their vaulting. The post-medieval roofs betray a drop in the quality of wood used, which accompanied the loss of carpentry skills at the beginning of 20th century.

Frédéric Epaud; Vincent Bernard

2009-01-01

280

An increase in the upper tree-limit of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) in the Alps since the mid-20th century: A land-use change phenomenon  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Global environmental changes observed during recent decades are likely to have had an impact on the distribution of species. Currently, silver fir (Abies alba) is becoming established in the subalpine forests of the west central Alps at elevations higher than 2000m a.s.l.; prior to the 1970s its upper altitudinal limit was 2000m. Several hypotheses could explain this recent expansion of the upper tree-limit. Silver fir regeneration could be linked (1) to land-use changes or (2) to current climatic warming. Using dendrochronology, the age structure of 31 forest plots containing at least one silver fir was examined in order to elucidate the population dynamics of subalpine communities. This allowed us to decipher the timing of fir regeneration in relation to the mean age of the stands examined and of the other tree-canopy species present. The majority of the firs germinated sporadically since 1950, before the regional temperature increase. The pattern of fir recruitment did not appear to relate to altitude, but followed a pattern characteristic of secondary succession. The age structures identified showed an exponential increase in tree-density during the 20th century; the stands were first dominated by Larix decidua during the 18th and 19th centuries, and then by Pinus cembra during the 20th century. In most stands, fir regeneration occurred after Larix and before P. cembra dominated, following a similar pattern to Picea abies regeneration. The number of local inhabitants and temperature both exhibited a negative relationship with fir tree recruitment, thus supporting the land-use change hypothesis. There has been a significant upward shift of the altitudinal range of fir, amounting to an increase of about 300m since 1950. This followed the abandonment of low-productivity land. This trend is likely to continue during the 21st century, because of new agricultural and forestry practices which involve limited intervention in low-productivity areas and may be because of the effects of global warming.

Chauchard Sandrine; Beilhe Fabien; Denis Nicole; Carcaillet Christopher

2010-03-01

 
 
 
 
281

Trends of extramarital births in Serbia in the second half of the 20th and at the beginning of the 21st century in the wider European context  

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Full Text Available The paper analyses the phenomenon of extramarital births in Serbia in the period of 1950-2008. Great changes that European countries have been undergoing in the last half-century related to fertility and family forms were also followed by an intense increase in the share of extramarital births. This is also true for Serbia (excluding Kosovo), where the share of extramarital births in total live births for the period of 1950-2008 increased almost 3 times (from 8.0% to 22.8%), and their number increased by a fifth (from 13,1 to 15,7 thousand). At the beginning of the observed period, significant differences existed in the percentage shares of extramarital births in the main regions, with the share in Vojvodina several times that of Central Serbia. Subsequent divergent dynamics led to the disappearance of regional differences and, after 1970, the level of extramarital fertility was mostly balanced. From a European aspect, the increase in the share of extramarital births in Serbia was moderate, with Serbia being one of the few countries that also recorded a decrease in the share of extramarital births in the last four decades (between 1970 and 1980). In comparison with other European countries, position of Serbia changed during the observed period from the top towards the bottom of the list, so that it was in its lower half in 2008. During the 1990s, as well as at the beginning of the 2000s, the greatest increase in the share of extramarital births in Europe was recorded in countries in transition. In the paper, the changes in the marital status of the population were treated as one of the determinants of the increase of extramarital births in Serbia. The paper also points out the similarities and differences between births in cohabitation and marriage, and legal aspects related to extramarital unions and extramarital births were also analyzed. The conclusions about the degree of presence of births in stable partner unions were made indirectly, based on the results of survey research and the latest available data on recognition children by their fathers. Since approximately three fifths of extramarital children at the beginning of the 2000s were not recognized, it was assumed that they were born in unstable unions and that they were brought up by their mothers alone. At the same time, the small level of cohabitations, discovered through survey research on the representative sample, shows that the increase in extramarital births was not proportionally followed by an increase in cohabitation. Therefore, based on indirect indicators, the authors conclude that the phenomenon of extramarital birth in Serbia was not the result of an advanced transition in partner relationships and abandoning of marriage as the partner union in which children are born. At the same time, the importance of understanding the social context of births was pointed out on the example of the Czech Republic, as a country in transition.

Stankovi? Biljana; Penev Goran

2010-01-01

282

AGS 20th anniversary celebration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] On May 22, 1980, a symposium was held at Brookhaven to celebrate the 20th birthday of the AGS, to recall its beginnings, and to review major discoveries that have been made with its beams. The talks at the symposium are recorded in this volume

1980-01-01

283

AGS 20th anniversary celebration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On May 22, 1980, a symposium was held at Brookhaven to celebrate the 20th birthday of the AGS, to recall its beginnings, and to review major discoveries that have been made with its beams. The talks at the symposium are recorded in this volume.

Baggett, N.V. (ed.)

1980-05-22

284

Objetos de ensino: a renovação pedagógica e material da escola primária no Brasil, no século XX/ Objects of learning: the pedagogic and material renovation of elementary school in Brazil, in the 20th century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste texto é analisar o papel dos objetos de ensino nas proposições de renovação da escola primária durante o século XX assinalando as mudanças na composição material das escolas tendo em vista os objetos que foram introduzidos e ressaltados como relevantes para a modernização da educação e aqueles que permaneceram ou foram redefinidos em termos de finalidades e usos. Pretende-se, dessa forma, examinar três momentos significativos de implantaç? (more) ?o de inovações na escola elementar: a modernização pelo método intuitivo na virada do século XIX para o século XX, as proposições da Escola Nova nas décadas de 1930 a 1950 e a renovação representada pela Tecnologia Educacional nas décadas de 1960 e 1970. Abstract in english This article aims at analyzing the role of the objects of learning in the propositions for innovation of primary schools during the 20th century, highlighting the changes in the composition of school subjects having in mind the objects that were introduced and marked out as relevant for school modernization and those that remained or were redefined in terms of their finality and uses. The examination of three significant moments of the implementation of innovations in the (more) elementary school is intended: the modernization by the intuitive method at the turn of the century; the propositions of "Escola Nova" between the 1930s and the 1950s; and the renovation represented by educational technology in the 1960s and 1970s.

Souza, Rosa Fátima de

2013-09-01

285

Negócio à moda antiga: tropas de comércio em Diamantina nos meados do século XX/ Older forms of business: troops of trade in Diamantina in the middle of the 20th Century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este artigo analisa uma variedade de aspectos relacionados à atuação das tropas de comércio nas Minas Gerais ao longo dos séculos XIX e XX. Agente central da economia mineira por largo tempo, ressalta-se o conjunto de narrativas dos viajantes estrangeiros sobre o fenômeno do tropeirismo oitocentista, o que ajuda a compreender certos sentidos sociais e culturais implicados no objeto em tela. A partir das memórias de antigos almocreves do Alto Jequitinhonha, procura- (more) se demonstrar, também a notável longevidade alcançada pelas tropas de comércio na região de Diamantina, fenômeno que persistiu até os anos 1950. Abstract in english The authors analyze a variety of issues relative to the activities of trading caravans in the State of Minas Gerais over the 19th and 20th centuries. These caravans were a main attribute of this State's economy for a long time. A collection of foreign travelers' stories about the phenomenon of the nineteenth century drover is also highlighted, which helps in understanding certain social and cultural meanings concerning it. Through the memoirs of the old muleskinners from (more) Alto Jequitinhonha, the authors also seek to demonstrate their remarkable longevity in Diamantina, a phenomenon that persisted until the 1950s.

Lopes, Marcos Antônio; Martins, Marcos Lobato

2011-06-01

286

Gute alte Zeit? Kindheit im frühen 20. Jahrhundert Good Old Times? Childhood in the Early 20th Century  

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Full Text Available Die 1959 geborene Historikerin Inge Friedl ließ Menschen über ihre Kindheit erzählen und hat für dieses Buch Berichte aus insgesamt zehn verschiedenen Familien aus Salzburg, Oberösterreich und der Steiermark gesammelt. Die interviewten Männer und Frauen wurden zwischen 1909 und 1948 geboren, lebten als Bauern oder einfache Handwerker in armseligen Verhältnissen auf dem Land und schwanken in ihren Erzählungen zwischen Nostalgie und nüchternen Rückblicken auf ein hartes Leben.The historian Inge Friedl, born in 1959, encouraged people to talk about their childhood and this book collects her reports from a total of ten different families from Salzburg, Upper Austria, and Styria. The men and women interviewed were born between 1909 and 1948, lived as farmers or simple tradespeople in poor conditions in the countryside, and in their stories they vacillate between nostalgia and a sobering look back at a hard life.

Bernadette Gotthardt

2008-01-01

287

Mortalidad materna en las primeras décadas del siglo xx Maternal Mortality during the early decades of 20th century  

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Full Text Available Objetivo: describir la mortalidad materna ocurrida entre 1910 y 1949. Métodos: investigación descriptiva y documental. Resultados: en las cuatro primeras décadas estudiadas de 1910 a 1949, la mortalidad materna en Cuba mostró un descenso de 51,0 %, desde tasas de 493,4 por 100 000 nacidos vivos en la década 1910-1919 a tasas de 242,2 en la década de 1940-1949, en una época en la que no existían los antibióticos ni los bancos de sangre, ni tampoco se había generalizado la atención prenatal. Estas cifras no deben considerarse demasiado elevadas en aquellos años en un país subdesarrollado. El notable descenso de una década a otra, es testimonio de la lucha contra sus principales causas, llevada a cabo por profesores y discípulos, por el desarrollo obtenido por las mujeres, las facilidades del transporte, la disponibilidad de médicos, enfermeras y comadronas y el alcance obtenido por los medios masivos de comunicación como la radio y la prensa escrita. Se muestran los descensos obtenidos en las principales causas de muerte como la infección puerperal, las muertes por hemorragia y las debidas a eclampsia convulsiva y preclampsia. Conclusiones: el comportamiento de las cifras analizadas no es una simple coincidencia con la aplicación en Cuba de los nuevos cambios en la medicina en general, y en la atención materna en particular, sino también la influencia que tuvo en la salud el desarrollo económico y social de la nación.Objective: to describe cases of maternal deaths between 1910 and 1949. Methods: descriptive and documentary research. Results: in the first four decades surveyed from 1910 to 1949, maternal mortality in Cuba showed a decrease of 51.0 % from rates of 493.4 per 100 000 live births from 1910 to 1919 at a rate of 242.2 during 1940-1949, at a time when there were no antibiotics or blood banks, nor was widespread prenatal care. These figures should not be considered as too high in those years in an underdeveloped country. The sharp decline during these decades is an evidence of the fight against the main causes, conducted by teachers and pupils, by the work achieved by women, the availability of doctors, nurses, midwives and means of transportation, and the extended scope of mass media such as radio and print media. The declines in the leading causes of death as puerperal infection, bleeding and deaths due to preeclampsia and convulsive eclampsia are shown in the study. Conclusions: the behavior of the data examined is not a mere coincidence with the implementation of the new changes in medical general practice in general in Cuba, and particularly maternal care, but also influence it had on the health and social-economic development of the whole nation.

Ubaldo Farnot; Norma Eneida Rios

2013-01-01

289

Armenians and 20th century genocide - Debates  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Somalia has been one of the UN member countries who lingers from the presence of terrorist groups in its territory, that exert tremendous influence in the daily life of its society and economy. Al Shabaab is well known in the horn of Africa, particularly in Somalia, for its terrorist training and strong affiliation with other terrorist groups in Nigeria and Al-Qaeda. The Harakat Shabaab Al Mujahidin, also known as Al-Shabaab. has completely controlled the central and southern part of Somalia including some of its important sea ports, which are vital for the country’s economy. Although Ethiopian and Somali military forces attempted to rout the group in a two week war between December 2006 and January 2007, Al Shabaab, with its 14,500 militants, still continues to maintain control over strategic locations, not only in Somalia, but also throughout the horn of Africa. The paper delves into the recent events and attacks either undertaken or influenced by Al-Shabaab, including a snap shot of its threat to humanitarian aid personnel as well as the Africa Union troops who are desperately trying to lower the intensity of conflict along the Somalia Kenya border area and Al-Shabaab’s actions to secure financial resources.

Maria Immacolata Macioti

2011-01-01

290

[Allelic diversity at gliadin-coding gene loci in cultivars of spring durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) bred in Russia and former Soviet Republics in the 20th century  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Allelic diversity at five gliadin-coding gene loci has been studied in the most important spring durum wheat cultivars released in Russia and former Soviet republics in the 20th century (66 cultivars). Seven, 5, 8, 13, and 2 allelic variants of blocks of gliadin components controlled by the loci Gli-A1d, Gli-B1d, Gli-A2d, Gli-B2d, and Gli-B5d, respectively, have been identified. The allelic diversity did not exhibit a consistent trend during the period studied. Nei's diversity index (H) was 0.68 in the period from 1929 to 1950, increased to 0.70 in 1951-1980, and decreased to 0.58 after the year 1981. It has been found that the most frequent alleles in this collection are relatively rare in other regions of the world, which suggests unique ways of the formation of the diversity of durum wheat cultivars in the former Soviet Union. The efficiency of electrophoresis of storage proteins as a method for identification of durum wheat cultivars by the gliadin electrophoretic pattern has been estimated.

Mel'nikova NV; Kudriavtsev AM

2009-10-01

291

[Allelic diversity at gliadin-coding gene loci in cultivars of spring durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) bred in Russia and former Soviet Republics in the 20th century].  

Science.gov (United States)

Allelic diversity at five gliadin-coding gene loci has been studied in the most important spring durum wheat cultivars released in Russia and former Soviet republics in the 20th century (66 cultivars). Seven, 5, 8, 13, and 2 allelic variants of blocks of gliadin components controlled by the loci Gli-A1d, Gli-B1d, Gli-A2d, Gli-B2d, and Gli-B5d, respectively, have been identified. The allelic diversity did not exhibit a consistent trend during the period studied. Nei's diversity index (H) was 0.68 in the period from 1929 to 1950, increased to 0.70 in 1951-1980, and decreased to 0.58 after the year 1981. It has been found that the most frequent alleles in this collection are relatively rare in other regions of the world, which suggests unique ways of the formation of the diversity of durum wheat cultivars in the former Soviet Union. The efficiency of electrophoresis of storage proteins as a method for identification of durum wheat cultivars by the gliadin electrophoretic pattern has been estimated. PMID:19947548

Mel'nikova, N V; Kudriavtsev, A M

2009-10-01

292

Facets of friendship in Friedrich Nietzsche’s work and in the philosophical ethics of the 20th century / Facetas de amistad en la obra de Friedrich Nietzsche y en la ética filosófica del siglo xx  

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Full Text Available The article takes as its starting point a concept that Nietzsche recovered from “philosophical oblivion”, namely friendship, and presents an investigation of the philosophical significance that the German philosopher finds in friendship, highlighting facets that interrelate main themes in his work. Friendship opens up an ethical way to selfovercoming, in which each human being, accompanied by another, has the opportunity to reach beyond his or hers own limitations. The article confronts this interpretation of friendship with Nietzsche’s vision of the superman and shows the relevance of the ethics of friendship to philosophical ethics in the 20th. Century represented by Hans-Georg Gadamer and Emmanuel Lévinas.////Partiendo de un concepto poco estudiado en la obra de Nietzsche, perorescatado por él del “olvido filosófico”, la amistad, el artículo indaga en el significado filosófico que tiene la amistad para el filósofo alemán y cómo las diferentes facetas, que él aprecia en ella, relacionan entre sí temas importantes en su obra. La amistad abre un camino ético hacia la autosuperación, en el que cada ser humano, acompañado por otro, tiene la oportunidad de llegar más allá de sus propias limitaciones. El artículo confronta esta interpretación con la visión nietzscheana del superhombre y muestra la relevancia de la ética de la amistad para dos representantes de la ética filosófica del siglo xx, Hans-Georg Gadamer y Emmanuel Lévinas.

Jonas Holst

2011-01-01

293

As mulheres e as práticas corporais em clubes da cidade de São Paulo do início do século XX/ The women and the corporal practices at Sao Paulo city clubs during the beginning of 20th century  

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Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese No Brasil a condição feminina na década de 1920 era determinada pela exclusão da vida pública e dedicação a vida privada. Neste mesmo período o movimento feminista lutou pelo direito das mulheres à cidadania, a uma existência legal fora de casa. Na Educação Física os discursos apontam uma mulher fisicamente ativa, dentro de propósitos eugenistas e higienistas. O atletismo, a dança clássica e o basquetebol começaram a ser considerados atividades saudáveis (more) para mulheres. O objetivo deste trabalho é discutir como se deu a participação da mulher nas práticas corporais em clubes na década de 1920 na cidade de São Paulo. Abstract in english The woman condition at 20?s was determined by a discourse that, based in the public life and dedication to a private life. At the same time the Feminist Movement fight to the rights of the women to citizenship and a social life outside. Among Physical Education, the discourses added a woman physically active. The athletics?, classic dance and basketball started to be consider health activities to women. The subjective of this paper is to discuss how it was the women participation at the corporal practices in clubs at 20?s of 20th Century in Sao Paulo.

Rubio, Katia

2009-01-01

294

Paradoxos da identidade: a política de orientação sexual no século XX/ Paradoxes of identity: sexual orientation politics in thr 20th. century/ Paradoxes de l'identite: la politique de l'orientation sexuelle au XXè siecle  

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Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Trabalhando com a perspectiva do construcionismo social sobre a sexualidade, este artigo tem por objetivo problematizar o surgimento das identidades sexuais modernas. Identifico, por um lado, a "invenção" da homossexualidade (e, portanto, da heterossexualidade) na produção discursiva da sociedade vitoriana. Por outro lado, discuto a forma em que essa nova categoria torna-se base de uma luta política que reivindica a diversidade sexual, enfocando principalmente a evolução de políticas de orientação sexual na sociedade norte-americana do século XX. Abstract in english This article works from the perspective of social constructivism on sexuality with the aim of discussing the emergence of modern "sexual identities". I identify, on the one hand, the "invention" of homosexuality (and, consequently, of heterosexuality) in the discursive production of Victorian society. On the other hand, I discuss the form in which this new category becomes the basis of a political strife that vindicates sexual diversity, focusing mainly on the evolution of sexual orientation politics in 20th. century North American society.

Adelman, Míriam

2000-06-01

295

La necesidad de una teoría crítica de la modernización ante las realidades de la segunda mitad del siglo XX/ The Need for a Critical Modernization Theory in the Light of Realities of the Second Half of the 20th Century  

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Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Después del contacto permanente con la exitosa civilización occidental, los países del Tercer Mundo se han consagrado a un desarrollo acelerado en la segunda mitad del siglo XX, que ha significado el mayor cambio social en toda su historia. En general el resultado es una evolución imitativa, que es percibida, sin embargo, como algo propio y autónomo. Una teoría crítica de la modernización es importante para analizar las luces y las sombras de esta evolución de acuerdo a un sentido común guiado críticamente. Abstract in english After permanent contact with successful western civilization, Third World countries devoted themselves to accelerated development in the second half of the 20th century, resulting in the greatest social change in their entire history. In general, the result was an imitative evolution, which was perceived, nevertheless, as something of its own and autonomous. A critical modernization theory is important for analyzing the positive and negative aspects of this evolution according to critically oriented common sense.

Mansilla, H.C.F

2008-04-01

296

Uma história das práticas alimentares de trabalhadores paulistanos em dois momentos do século XX A history of practices in nourishment among workers in São Paulo city in two moments of the 20th century  

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Full Text Available A partir de uma discussão sobre estudos que lidaram com os temas alimentares nas Ciências Humanas, este artigo aponta as possibilidades das Pesquisas de Padrão de Vida como fontes para uma história social da alimentação entre trabalhadores que viviam em São Paulo durante a primeira metade do século XX. Apresento os métodos de aplicação, as intenções dessas pesquisas e o perfil das famílias. Em seguida, os produtos e as quantidades consumidas pelas famílias são analisados em temporalidades distintas, tentando verificar o impacto da industrialização, da renda e da propaganda.Based on studies about food issues in the Humanities, this article indicates the possibilities of the Living Standards Research as sources for a social history of nourishment between workers living in Sao Paulo during the first half of the 20th century. I present the methods of application, the intentions of this research and the profile of families analyzed. After, I analyze the products and quantities consumed by families in different times, trying to understand the impact of industrialization, wage income and advertisement.

Jaime Rodrigues

2011-01-01

297

Algumas hipóteses comparativas entre Brasil e Argentina no século XX/ Some comparative hypotheses on Brazil and Argentina during the 20th century/ Des hypothèses comparatives entre le Brésil et l'Argentine au XXème siècle  

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Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Comparar trajetórias políticas ao longo de um século supõe um esforço muito maior de esquecimento do que de memória. Tentarei aqui converter uma grande quantidade de matérias analíticas muito heterogêneas em algumas conjeturas "popperianas". Elas podem provir de qualquer parte e podem ser submetidas à corroboração ou à refutação. Ou seja, trata-se de um processo inverso à tarefa estritamente acadêmica. Em certamedida, estou recomeçando "desde o zero" o m (more) eu trabalho. É verdade que a história democrática argentina, no século XX, é mais longa do que a brasileira. Todavia, essa diferença não invalida a comparação. Minha hipótese concisa é a seguinte: na política democrática brasileira, a dimensão institucional é dominante - as instituições, de fato, representam o lugar em que se dão as interações e em que os atores coletivos configuram-se. Em compensação, nessas instituições, a inclusão tanto social como política tem sido fraca. No entanto, no caso argentino, a dimensão inclusiva tem sido dominante, com o prejuízo indubitável da dimensão institucional. Na política democrática argentina, participaram "todos". Na política democrática brasileira até 1964, a estabilidade baseou-se na exclusão - por exemplo, das massas rurais. Estas hipóteses podem estar corretas ou erradas, mas, em qualquer caso, importa dizer que não as estabeleci ex nihilo, como vindas do nada, nem diacrônica, nem sincronicamente. Diacronicamente, porque a história do século XX sustenta-se, é obvio, na do XIX; sincronicamente, porque com certeza cada uma das hipóteses ou conjeturas que discuti aqui pode imbricar-se com os processos do próprio século XX, com os dramas, as lutas, as lideranças, os conflitos, as controvérsias, as gestões de governo, os períodos de depressão e de prosperidade e as esperanças, tudo, enfim, o que constitui a história desse século. Abstract in english Comparing political trajectories over the course of a century demands more forgetting than remembering. I will make an attempt here to convert a considerable amount of very heterogeneous analytical material into some "Popperian" conjectures. They may emerge from anywhere within and may be subjected to corroboration or refutation. In other words, this process is precisely the reverse of the one that informs strictly academic tasks. To some extent, I begin my work "from scr (more) atch". It may be true that the history of democracy in Argentina is longer than that of Brazil. Nonetheless, this difference does not invalidate comparison. My concise hypothesis is the following: in Brazilian democratic politics, the institutional dimension prevails - institutions, in fact, represent the place in which interactions occur and collective actors take shape. In compensation, within these institutions, both social and political inclusion has been weak. However, in the Argentine case, the inclusive dimension has been dominant, in clear detriment to the one. In Argentine democratic politics, "everyone" was included. In Brazilian democratic politics until 1964, stability was based on exclusion - for example, the exclusion of the rural masses. These hypotheses may be correct or incorrect but in any case, it is important to emphasize that they have not been established ex nihilo, as if coming from nowhere and neither diachronic nor synchronic. Diachronic, insofar as the history of the 20th century is sustained, obviously, in the history of the preceding one; synchronic, because each of the hypotheses or conjectures discussed here are undeniably embedded in processes that are proper to the 20th century, its dramas, struggles, leaders, conflicts, controversies, political administrations, periods of depression and prosperity and hopes; in short, all that makes up the history of the century.

Palermo, Vicente

2009-06-01

298

Contribution of the Faculty of Pharmacy of Santiago de Compostela to the development of the spanish scientific research in the first third of the 20th century (1900-1936)  

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Full Text Available The Faculty of Pharmacy of Santiago de Compostela was founded in 1857, but research activities did not start until the beginning of the 20th century. The new Spanish regulations promoting the experimentation at universities and the stages of professors and recently graduated students outside Spain contributed to generate a remarkable research group in a provincial university. The excessive university centralism at that time in Spain and the characteristics of the headquarters of the faculty —a 16th century Renaissance palace— hindered, in general, the research development. However, the scientific spirit of professors and students, and their work were imposed and they achieved an estimable status in pharmacy research in Galicia. The facilities were the staff's highest priority and it raised more than a protest. A remarkable investment in apparatuses and laboratory materials was carried out and researchers started to publish original research papers in local journals, such as the «Revista de farmacia», published by their own University. In the previous years to the Spanish Civil War (1936) the research status in drug development and the background of the staff and students were important, allowing them to join the military laboratory that Franco’s army created at the faculty of pharmacy. The research work continued in a small scale and was specially focused on the production of «copy drugs» copying European specific drugs which were scarce at that time. The first third of the 20th century was the germ of the great research prestige that the Faculty of Pharmacy of Santiago de Compostela enjoys at present.La Facultad de Farmacia de Santiago de Compostela se fundó en 1857, pero no fue hasta comienzos del siglo XX cuando comenzó a desarrollar una labor de investigación en medicamentos. Las nuevas reglamentaciones que fomentaban la experimentación en los laboratorios universitarios y la formación de profesores y recién licenciados en el extranjero, contribuyeron a generar un grupo investigador notable dentro de una Facultad de provincias. La excesiva centralización en materia universitaria de la época y las características de la sede de la Facultad —un palacio renacentista del siglo XVI— dificultaron, en general, el desarrollo de la investigación. Sin embargo, el espíritu científico de profesores y alumnos, y su trabajo se impusieron y lograron un estatus digno en investigación de medicamentos en Galicia. En estos años comenzaron a publicarse trabajos originales principalmente en la «Revista de Farmacia», publicada por la propia Universidad compostelana. En los años precedentes a la guerra civil española (1936) el nivel alcanzado en investigación y desarrollo de medicamentos era importante, favoreciendo el hecho de que, una vez comenzada la contienda, el personal de la Facultad trabajó en el laboratorio de farmacia militar en el que fue transformada por el ejército franquista. Durante este período la labor investigadora continuó, aunque a menor escala, y orientada a la obtención de «medicamentos copia» de otros específicos que escaseaban en tiempos de guerra. Durante el primer tercio del siglo XX se desarrolló el germen del prestigio investigador del que goza en la actualidad la Facultad de Farmacia compostelana.

Brasa Arias, Beatriz; Sanmartín Míguez, Santiago; Landín, Mariana

2010-01-01

299

A mortalidade por doenças infecciosas no início e no final do século XX no Município de São Paulo Deaths due to infectious diseases in the beginning and the end of the 20th century in the City of São Paulo  

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Full Text Available A melhora das condições de vida do homem durante o século XX contribuiu para transformações da estrutura demográfica e para mudanças dos padrões de morbi-mortalidade. Com o objetivo de discutir essas mudanças, pretende-se comparar os dados de mortalidade do Município de São Paulo em 1901, 1960 e 2000. As causas de morte foram obtidas das seguintes fontes: Anuários Estatísticos da FSEADE, para 1901; Anuário de 1961 do Departamento de Estatística do Estado e CD-ROM de Mortalidade do Ministério da Saúde, para o ano de 2000. Os demais dados - de população, de nascidos vivos, coeficientes de mortalidade geral e infantil - foram obtidos do CD-ROM "500 anos de Divisão territorial e 100 anos de Estatísticas Demográficas Municipais" da FSEADE. Do início até o final do século XX, a população do Município de São Paulo aumentou 36 vezes, o número de nascimentos quase 24 e o número de óbitos 13,6 vezes. No entanto, as taxas de mortalidade diminuíram, a mortalidade geral foi 2,6 vezes menor no ano 2000 e a mortalidade infantil 11,3 vezes menor. A proporção de óbitos por doenças infecciosas declina de 45,7% do total de óbitos em 1901 para 9,7% em 2000. Em 1901, entre as 10 principais causas de morte no Município, 5 eram doenças infecciosas, correspondendo a 37% das mortes; em 1960, apareciam nesta lista apenas 3 doenças infecciosas (16,1% dos óbitos), e em 2000 apenas a pneumonia constava entre as principais causas de morte. Doenças como tétano, difteria, coqueluche, sarampo e escarlatina mostraram-se controladas no final do período. No entanto, a pneumonia, a tuberculose, a septicemia e a aids ainda se situam entre as que merecem especial atenção na área de saúde pública.The changes in living conditions during the 20th century have contributed to change morbidity and mortality standards, and the population structure. This study aims to present and discuss these changes by comparing mortality data of the City of São Paulo from 1901, 1960 and 2000. Mortality data were collected from Annual Statistical Reports of Fundação SEADE (State Data Analysis System Foundation), for 1901; from Annual Statistical Reports of the State Department of Statistics, for 1961; and from a CD-ROM of the Ministry of Health, for 2000. The population data, number of newborns and infant mortality rates were collected from the CD-ROM "500 anos de Divisão Territorial e 100 Anos de Estatísticas Demográficas Municipais" (500 years of Territory Division and 100 Years of Municipal Demographic Statistics) of FSEADE. During the 20th century, the population of the City of São Paulo increased 36-fold, the number of newborns 24-fold and deaths 13.6-fold. On the other hand, mortality rates decreased, general mortality was 2.6 times lower and infant mortality was 11.3 lower in 2000 when compared to 1901. The proportion of deaths due to infectious diseases decreased from 45.7% of total deaths in 1901 to 9.7% in 2000. Taking into consideration the 10 main causes of death for 1901, 5 were infectious diseases, corresponding to 37% of all deaths. In 1960 there were only 3 infectious diseases among the main causes of deaths, accounting for 16.1% of all deaths, and in 2000 only pneumonia was among the 10 main causes of death. Tetanus, diphtheria, whooping cough, measles, and scarlet fever were controlled in this period. Nevertheless, infectious diseases as pneumonia, septicemia, tuberculosis, and AIDS still deserve special attention from public health authorities.

Cássia Maria Buchalla; Eliseu Alves Waldman; Ruy Laurenti

2003-01-01

300

A mortalidade por doenças infecciosas no início e no final do século XX no Município de São Paulo/ Deaths due to infectious diseases in the beginning and the end of the 20th century in the City of São Paulo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A melhora das condições de vida do homem durante o século XX contribuiu para transformações da estrutura demográfica e para mudanças dos padrões de morbi-mortalidade. Com o objetivo de discutir essas mudanças, pretende-se comparar os dados de mortalidade do Município de São Paulo em 1901, 1960 e 2000. As causas de morte foram obtidas das seguintes fontes: Anuários Estatísticos da FSEADE, para 1901; Anuário de 1961 do Departamento de Estatística do Estado e (more) CD-ROM de Mortalidade do Ministério da Saúde, para o ano de 2000. Os demais dados - de população, de nascidos vivos, coeficientes de mortalidade geral e infantil - foram obtidos do CD-ROM "500 anos de Divisão territorial e 100 anos de Estatísticas Demográficas Municipais" da FSEADE. Do início até o final do século XX, a população do Município de São Paulo aumentou 36 vezes, o número de nascimentos quase 24 e o número de óbitos 13,6 vezes. No entanto, as taxas de mortalidade diminuíram, a mortalidade geral foi 2,6 vezes menor no ano 2000 e a mortalidade infantil 11,3 vezes menor. A proporção de óbitos por doenças infecciosas declina de 45,7% do total de óbitos em 1901 para 9,7% em 2000. Em 1901, entre as 10 principais causas de morte no Município, 5 eram doenças infecciosas, correspondendo a 37% das mortes; em 1960, apareciam nesta lista apenas 3 doenças infecciosas (16,1% dos óbitos), e em 2000 apenas a pneumonia constava entre as principais causas de morte. Doenças como tétano, difteria, coqueluche, sarampo e escarlatina mostraram-se controladas no final do período. No entanto, a pneumonia, a tuberculose, a septicemia e a aids ainda se situam entre as que merecem especial atenção na área de saúde pública. Abstract in english The changes in living conditions during the 20th century have contributed to change morbidity and mortality standards, and the population structure. This study aims to present and discuss these changes by comparing mortality data of the City of São Paulo from 1901, 1960 and 2000. Mortality data were collected from Annual Statistical Reports of Fundação SEADE (State Data Analysis System Foundation), for 1901; from Annual Statistical Reports of the State Department of St (more) atistics, for 1961; and from a CD-ROM of the Ministry of Health, for 2000. The population data, number of newborns and infant mortality rates were collected from the CD-ROM "500 anos de Divisão Territorial e 100 Anos de Estatísticas Demográficas Municipais" (500 years of Territory Division and 100 Years of Municipal Demographic Statistics) of FSEADE. During the 20th century, the population of the City of São Paulo increased 36-fold, the number of newborns 24-fold and deaths 13.6-fold. On the other hand, mortality rates decreased, general mortality was 2.6 times lower and infant mortality was 11.3 lower in 2000 when compared to 1901. The proportion of deaths due to infectious diseases decreased from 45.7% of total deaths in 1901 to 9.7% in 2000. Taking into consideration the 10 main causes of death for 1901, 5 were infectious diseases, corresponding to 37% of all deaths. In 1960 there were only 3 infectious diseases among the main causes of deaths, accounting for 16.1% of all deaths, and in 2000 only pneumonia was among the 10 main causes of death. Tetanus, diphtheria, whooping cough, measles, and scarlet fever were controlled in this period. Nevertheless, infectious diseases as pneumonia, septicemia, tuberculosis, and AIDS still deserve special attention from public health authorities.

Buchalla, Cássia Maria; Waldman, Eliseu Alves; Laurenti, Ruy

2003-12-01

 
 
 
 
301

Controle social, mundo do trabalho e as Conferências Nacionais de Saúde da virada do século XX Social Control, work world and the National Conferences of Health at the turn of the 20th century  

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Full Text Available A prática do controle social no campo da saúde do trabalhador vem enfrentando as barreiras impostas pela globalização e pela reestruturação d(n)o mundo do trabalho, seja pelo enfraquecimento dos sindicatos de trabalhadores, seja pela ausência de representantes das várias categorias de trabalhadores sem vínculo formal de trabalho, pertencentes ao expressivo mercado informal/precarizado. Na virada do século XX, as grandes Conferências Nacionais de Saúde foram marcadas por contextos políticos com diferenças significativas, o que favoreceu a falta de articulação entre as bases representativas, que se ocupavam principalmente com as demandas fragmentadas e interesses particularistas. Refletir sobre como se configura a legítima representação das classes de trabalhadores, sejam elas pertencentes ao mercado formal ou informal/precarizado, faz-se necessário diante das evidências de que o arranjo atual vem impedindo o aprofundamento dos assuntos específicos da saúde do trabalhador.The practice of social control in the field of the worker's health has been facing barriers imposed by the globalization and the restructuring in the work world, either because of the weakness of the workers' unions, or by the absence of representatives of the various workers categories without formal work bond, belonging to the expressive informal/precarious market. In the beginning of the 20th century, big National Conferences of Health were marked by political contexts with significant differences, favoring the lack of articulation among the representative bases that were engaged mainly in fragmented demands and particulars interests. To contemplate on as the legitimate representation of the workers' classes is configured, either belonging to the formal market, or informal/precarious, is necessary against the evidences that the current arrangement is impeding the deepening of the specific worker's health issues.

Francisco Antonio de Castro Lacaz; Solange Maria Ribeiro Flório

2009-01-01

302

APPROACH TO THE VILLAGE IN RUSSIAN AND TURKISH LITERATURE IN THE SECOND HALF OF THE 20TH CENTURY 20.YÜZYILIN ?K?NC? YARISINDA RUS EDEB?YATINDA VE TÜRK EDEB?YATINDA KÖYE YAKLA?IM  

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Full Text Available In world literature, some subjects are formed according to the society, culture and geographical factors. The village subjects in Turkish and Russian literature also based on these basics. ‘ Village literature’ which became very considerable in both countries for a period in the past occurred in the second half of the 20th century. It cannot be considered as a coincidence, it has been actually the result of the literacy interaction and socialism which became effective in most of the countries in the world in that period. It is approached with the socialist and realistic conception to the country life and country folk hereafter in spite of the fact that village and country folk have been illustrated in the works of both literature before. In this work, approaches to the country life in Russian and Turkish literature and also how their conceptions has been reflected on the literature will be evaluated. Dünya edebiyatlar?nda baz? konular toplumlara, kültürlere ve co?rafi faktörlere göre ?ekillenirler. Rus ve Türk edebiyat?ndaki köy konusu da bu temellere dayan?r. Her iki ülkede de bir döneme ad?n? yazd?ran “köy edebiyat?” 20. yüzy?l?n ikinci yar?s?na denk gelir. Bu durum bir tesadüf de?il o dönemde dünyan?n birçok ülkesinde etkili olan sosyalizmin ve edebi etkile?iminin bir sonucudur. Her iki edebiyat?n ürünlerinde daha önce köy ve köy insan? anlat?lm?? olmas?na ra?men köy ya?am? ve insan?na art?k sosyalist gerçekçilik dü?üncesi ile yakla??l?r. Bu çal??mada, iki edebiyat?n köye yakla??mlar? ve bu konudaki dü?üncelerinin edebiyata nas?l yans?t?ld??? de?erlendirilecektir.

Reyhan ÇEL?K

2009-01-01

303

Un « régime méditerranéen » bon à penser The good « Mediterranean diet »: medical and social readability of food practices among Italian migrants in the United-States and Switzerland (20th century)  

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Full Text Available Les habitudes alimentaires des Italiens installés aux Etats-Unis et en Suisse ont été intéressées au cours du 20e siècle par une mutation de l’attitude des sociétés hôtes, hier hostiles mais aujourd’hui largement imprégnées de cet héritage gastronomique. Décrypté naguère à travers certains poncifs assignés aux peuples méridionaux (irrationalité, pusillanimité, etc.), le présumé conservatisme culinaire des Italiens, du Sud en particulier, y était perçu comme un syndrome quasi pathologique, devenant la cible des politiques sociales et de santé. Avec le temps, cette culture alimentaire « sans qualités » s’est vue amendée du stigmate de son origine puis ennoblie par la promotion du modèle de consommation dit méditerranéen. La déconstruction diachronique des lectures américaines et helvétiques des habitudes alimentaires des migrants italiens met en exergue, outre l’inversion de certaines catégories normatives, un rapport de (bio)pouvoir spécifique entre culture d’accueil et d’origine soulevant l’utilité d’une réflexion épistémologique sur la construction sociale actuelle de la santé et du goût « méditerranéens ».Dietary habits of Italians settled in the US and in Switzerland have been interested during the 20th century by a mutation of host society attitude, formerly hostile but now full of this gastronomic heritage. The presumed culinary conservatism of southern Italians, represented through classical clichés (irrationality, pusillanimity, etc.), was diagnosed as a pathological-like syndrome and became in that sense a target for social and health policies. With the passing of time, this « propertiless » dietary culture lost the infamous marks of its origins and got ennobled by the promotion of the Mediterranean consumption model. The diachronic deconstruction of American and Swiss interpretations of Italian migrants dietary habits underline, besides the inversion of some normative categories, a specific relation of (bio)power between host and native cultures. This analysis raises the interest of an epistemological reflexion about the current social construction of « Mediterranean » health and taste.

Salvatore Bevilacqua

2010-01-01

304

Development of the Structure of Lithuanian Gardens and Parks from the 16th to the 20th Centuries Lietuvos sod? ir park? strukt?ros raida nuo XVI iki XX a.  

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Full Text Available The historical development of Lithuanian parks cannot be separated from the historical evolution of our cities and towns and formation of their urbanistic structure. The beginnings of creating garden art in Lithuania, the same as in West Europe, are mentioned in medieval castles and monasteries. A strong influence on the developement of the history of Renaissance gardens was exerted by new models of garden theory, which were formed and formulated by famous European architects, artists, scientists, philosophers. The traditions of antique art were revived, new scientific inventions had an influence on garden art. During the 17th–18th centuries a lot of residences and manors were built, and they played an important role in the urbanisation of the country. In the 17th–18th centuries the tendencies in the Italian art of garden parks in West Europe were taken over by French baroque. In the junction of the 18th and 19th centuries the planning of cities and towns and urbanistic development in the territories of Lithuania and East Europe took place due to bizarre and geometralised influence of the baroque epoch. In the 19th century scenery parks were created next to mansions in Lithuanian towns by famous scenery specialists of that time from West Europe. In the junction of 19th and 20th centuries important geopolitical processes in Lithuania and Europe took place not only in the urbanisation of cities, but also in the planning of parks and their art tendencies. Due to the growth of cities, their urbanised territories and strengthening of social attitude towards a surrounding environment, the boundaries of park art spread into the public areas of cities. At the end of the paper there is a scheme which summarises the development and influence of park structure on city development and formation .Article in LithuanianNagrin?jama Lietuvos park? istorin? raida neatsiejama nuo m?s? miest? ir miesteli? istorin?s evoliucijos ir j? urbanistin?s strukt?ros formavimosi. XVII a., ger?jant LDK ekonominei ir geopolitinei situacijai, didikai ?m? statytis savo rezidencijas miest? periferijoje. XVII a. pabaigoje galima ap?iuopti tam tikr? „laisv?jimo“ tendencij?, kai sodo teritorija ple?iasi už gynybini? miesto sien?, bandant sukurti naujus urbanistinius darinius, pasitelkiant menines ir technines galimybes. Per XVII–XVIII a. prie LDK miest? buvo pastatyta nemažai rezidencij? ir dvar?, kurie formavo šalies urbanizacij? ir atliko svarb? vaidmen? urbanizuojant šal?. Barokiniai park? ansambliai dažniausiai b?davo traktuojami kaip nauji urbanistiniai vienetai su r?m? ansambliais. Prie toki? vienet? atsiradimo prisid?jo žem?naudos kaita, geopolitin? situacija bei išpuosel?tas estetikos suvokimas. XIX–XX a. pradžioje ne tik kuriami nauji peizažiniai parkai šalia miest? ar miesteli? nuostabiose vaizdingose gamtos vietov?se, bet ir pertvarkomi, rekonstruojami renesansiniai bei barokiniai parkai. Augant miestams, did?jant j? urbanizuotoms teritorijoms ir stipr?jant visuomeniškam poži?riui ? supan?i? aplink?, park? meno ribos prasipl?t? ? visuomenines miest? erdves. XIX–XX a. pr. sparti miest? pl?tra Europoje ir Lietuvoje ?trauk? park? teritorijas ? savo urbanistin? erdv? ir esant tam tikram „dialogui“ k?r? nauj? gamtin? ir urbanizuot? strukt?r? su tre?iuoju dalyviu – visuomene.Straipsnis lietuvi? kalba

Albinas Mocevi?ius

2009-01-01

305

Comprehensive global amino acid sequence analysis of PB1F2 protein of influenza A H5N1 viruses and the influenza A virus subtypes responsible for the 20th-century pandemics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: PB1F2 is the 11th protein of influenza A virus translated from +1 alternate reading frame of PB1 gene. Since the discovery, varying sizes and functions of the PB1F2 protein of influenza A viruses have been reported. Selection of PB1 gene segment in the pandemics, variable size and pleiotropic effect of PB1F2 intrigued us to analyze amino acid sequences of this protein in various influenza A viruses. METHODS: Amino acid sequences for PB1F2 protein of influenza A H5N1, H1N1, H2N2, and H3N2 subtypes were obtained from Influenza Research Database. Multiple sequence alignments of the PB1F2 protein sequences of the aforementioned subtypes were used to determine the size, variable and conserved domains and to perform mutational analysis. RESULTS: Analysis showed that 96·4% of the H5N1 influenza viruses harbored full-length PB1F2 protein. Except for the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus, all the subtypes of the 20th-century pandemic influenza viruses contained full-length PB1F2 protein. Through the years, PB1F2 protein of the H1N1 and H3N2 viruses has undergone much variation. PB1F2 protein sequences of H5N1 viruses showed both human- and avian host-specific conserved domains. Global database of PB1F2 protein revealed that N66S mutation was present only in 3·8% of the H5N1 strains. We found a novel mutation, N84S in the PB1F2 protein of 9·35% of the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 influenza viruses. CONCLUSIONS: Varying sizes and mutations of the PB1F2 protein in different influenza A virus subtypes with pandemic potential were obtained. There was genetic divergence of the protein in various hosts which highlighted the host-specific evolution of the virus. However, studies are required to correlate this sequence variability with the virulence and pathogenicity.

Pasricha G; Mishra AC; Chakrabarti AK

2013-07-01

306

Lietuvi? muzikos tautiškumo problema. Pietry?i? Lietuvos liaudies melodijos XX a. I pus?s fonografo ?rašuose | The problem of the national style in Lithuanian music. South Eastern Lithuanian folk melodics in phonograph recordings from the 1st half of the 20th century  

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Full Text Available In this article, several issues are discussed and related, namely, the phonograph recordings that have recently started being released with Lithuanian folk music from the first half of the 20th century; the folk melodies of the South Eastern Lithuania and the impact from the melodies of the eastern neighbors observed; the formation of professional Lithuanian music, a considerable part of which comprised harmonized folksongs in the beginning of the 20th century. According to the author, the first sound documents were recorded at the turning point, when the centuries-long formation of the Lithuanian folk music dialects was over and the decline of the regional differences started. However, folk music dialects did not vanish without the trace, but were integrated into the professional music culture instead. The change of the Lithuanian music culture in the first half of the 20th century was not a spontaneous process, as the ethnologists and composers began influencing the continuation or break in the traditions. The article is based on the sound recordings, collections of the folk music, the ethno-musicological research, and the written heritage of Eduard Wolter, Aukusti Robert Niemi, Jonas Basanavi?ius, Mikalojus Konstantinas ?iurlionis, Jonas Balys and Zenonas Slavi?nas.

Aust? Nakien?

2006-01-01

307

Participación española en los Congresos de la Sociedad Internacional de Urología en el siglo XX/ The Spanish participation in the Congresses of the International Society of Urology during the 20th Century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Con ocasión del centenario de la constitución en 1907 de la denominada primero Asociación y, más tarde, Sociedad Internacional de Urología, señalamos los temas tratados y analizamos la presencia de urólogos españoles en el acto fundacional así como el papel desempeñado y sus aportaciones en los congresos de la Sociedad celebrados en el siglo XX. Métodos: Entresacamos datos de la información recogida en diferentes publicaciones periódicas, de las mem (more) orias de algunos de los participantes y de las actas de los congresos. Resultados: Hemos obtenido notas de la reunión constitutiva de la Asociación Internacional y de sus dos congresos y luego de los veinticinco de la Sociedad. Extraemos, principalmente de las actas editadas por el secretario de la reunión, la asistencia de los urólogos españoles y su contribución con ponencias o comunicaciones así como la relevancia que han tenido al desempeñar cargos en el seno de la organización. Conclusiones: Desde 1907 la presencia de urólogos españoles tanto en la Asociación como en la Sociedad Internacional de Urología ha sido constante. En la primera mitad del siglo, años en los que nuestra Urología se encontraba en un periodo de consolidación, fueron los responsables de los principales servicios urológicos de los grandes hospitales del país los que podían transmitir su experiencia con un nivel y calidad equiparables a los del resto de los europeos. En la segunda, una vez recuperadas las naciones de los episodios bélicos, prosigue la actividad científica con una creciente aportación española conforme se extiende por todo el país la creación de los Hospitales de la Seguridad Social con servicios jerarquizados de Urología en los que se realiza el estudio y el análisis de sus casuísticas y se inician la investigación clínica y experimental, lo que permite que las comunicaciones españolas se incrementen de modo notable sobre todo en los congresos celebrados en poblaciones de habla castellana o en los europeos. Como consecuencia de su participación, en España se han desarrollado tres de los veinticinco congresos organizados en el siglo XX. La presencia española en los órganos rectores de la Sociedad se vio favorecida con la presidencia del profesor D. Salvador Gil Vernet por dos periodos consecutivos. Abstract in english Objectives: With the occasion of the Centenary of the Constitution in 1907 of the International Society of Urology, initially named Association, we point at the topics treated and analyze the presence of the Spanish urologists in the foundation act as well as their role and contributions in the meetings during the 20th century. Methods: We obtained the data from the information in various periodic publications, from the memories of some participant urologists and from the (more) meeting records. Results: We obtained notes from the foundation meeting of the International Association and two congresses, and also from the 25 congresses of the Society. We mainly extract data from the records edited by the meeting secretary, about the assistance of Spanish urologists and their contribution with conferences or communications and also about the relevance they have had holding positions within the organization. Conclusions: From 1907 the presence of Spanish urologists both in the Association and the International Society of Urology has been a constant. During the first half of the century, a time when our Urology was in a period of consolidation, the people in charge of the main urology departments in big hospitals in our country where the ones that could transmit their experience, with a level and quality comparable with the rest of Europeans. During the second half, once the nations recovered from wars, the scienti.c activity continued with an increasing Spanish contribution, which extended all over the country with the creation of the net of Social Security hospitals. They had hierarchical urology departments that performed study and analysis of their case series and started

Pérez Albacete, Mariano; Tornero Ruíz, Jesús; Server Pastor, Gerardo; Ponce de León Castell, Ignacio

2007-10-01

308

A Comparative Study of Variation of the Pterion of Human Skulls from 13th and 20th Century Anatolia Un Estudio Comparativo de la Variación del Pterion en Cráneos Humanos de los Siglos 13 y 20 de Anatolia  

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Full Text Available The pterion is a commonly used anthropologic and neurosurgical landmark defined as the junction of the sphenoid, temporal, parietal and frontal bones. It is commonly classified into four types based on sutural pattern: sphenoparietal, in which the sphenoid and parietal bones are in direct contact; frontotemporal, in which the frontal and temporal bones are in direct contact; stellate, in which all four bones come into contact at a point; and epipteric, in which a small sutural bone is found between the parietal bone and the greater wing of the sphenoid bone. In the present study, 44 Anatolian skulls from two different eras, Byzantine (13th century) and contemporary (20th century), were investigated for morphology and location of the pterion. Sphenoparietal was the most common form, comprising 87.5% and 89.2% in the Byzantine and contemporary groups, respectively. The frequencies of the epipteric type of pterion were 6.25% and 3.6% in the Byzantine and contemporary groups, respectively. Measurements of the location of the pterion were made by using stainless steel calipers and Scion Image software. There were no significant differences in digital and manual measurements between the right and left sides of the skulls in both groups. However, the distance from the pterion to the inion was significantly greater in the manual measurements compared to the digital measurements. Anatomical variations of the pterion, which are of interest to anthropologists, forensic pathologists and surgeons, deserve further investigation in other populations from different geographical areas.El pterion es un punto comúnmente usado como punto de referencia antropológico y neuroquirúrgico, correspondiendo a la unión de los huesos esfenoides, temporal, parietal y frontal. Generalmente es clasificado en 4 tipos basado en padrones suturales: esfenoparietal, en el cual los huesos esfenoides y parietal están directamente en contacto; frontotemporal, en el cual el frontal y el temporal se encuentran en contacto directo; estrellado, en el cual los cuatro huesos mencionados se contactan directamente en un punto y epiptérico, en el cual un pequeño hueso sutural se encuentra entre el hueso parietal y el ala mayor del esfenoides. En el presente estudio, investigamos la morfología y la localización del pterion en 44 cráneos Anatolian de diferentes épocas, Bizantina (Siglo XIII) y contemporánea (Siglo XX). La forma más común que se encontró fue la Esfenoparietal, con un 87,5 % para los del grupo Bizantino y 89,2 % para los de la era contemporánea. La frecuencia del tipo epiptérico fue de 6,25 % y 3,6 %, respectivamente. Se realizaron medidas de la posición del pterion utilizando un caliper y un software de imágenes. No hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas en las mediciones manuales y digitales entre los lados derecho e izquierdo de los cráneos de ambos grupos. Sin embargo, la distancia desde el pterion al inion fue significativamente mayor en las medidas manuales comparadas con las digitales. Las variaciones anatómicas del pterion, las cuales son de interés para antropólogos, patólogos forenses y cirujanos, son un tema de investigación a desarrollar en otras poblaciones de diferentes áreas geográficas.

Ari Ilknur; Kafa Ilker Mustafa; Bakirci Sinan

2009-01-01

309

Dietary reconstruction and reservoir correction of 14C dates on bones from pagan and early Christian graves in Iceland : Proceedings of the 20th International Radiocarbon Conference  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this study, ?13C and ?15N of bone samples from 83 skeletons (79 humans, 2 horses, and 2 dogs) excavated from pagan and early Christian graves from 21 localities in Iceland are used to reconstruct diet of the early settlers in Iceland and possible differences in diet depending on the distance between the excavation site and the seashore. We have radiocarbon dated 47 of these skeletons and used the carbon isotopic composition (?13C) to estimate and correct for the marine reservoir effect (the 14C difference between terrestrial and mixed marine organisms). The reservoir-corrected ages lie in the range of AD 780?1270 (68.2% probability). Reservoir age corrections were checked by comparing 14C dates of a horse (terrestrial diet), a dog (highly marine diet), and a human (mixed diet) from the same burial. The range in measured marine protein percentage in individual diet is from about 10% up to 55%, mostly depending on the geographical position (distance from the sea) of the excavation site. We had access to the skeleton (AAR-5908) of the Sk?lholt bishop P?ll J?nsson whose remains are enshrined at the Episcopal residence in Sk?lholt, southern Iceland. According to written sources, the bishop died in AD 1211. Using our dietary reconstruction, his bones were about 17% marine, which is within the range of human skeletons from the same area, and the reservoir-corrected calibrated 14C age of the skeleton is in accord with the historical date.

Sveinbjörnsdóttir, Árný E; Heinemeier, Jan

2010-01-01

310

A imprensa negra e o futebol em São Paulo no início do século XX/ The Black Press and the soccer in São Paulo in the beginning of the 20th century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Em São Paulo, na primeira metade do século XX, havia associações destinadas à promoção de atividades culturais e esportivas para os negros, que surgiram diante da necessidade de denunciar as práticas discriminatórias e promover a sociabilidade étnica através do atletismo, do boxe e, sobretudo, do futebol. Uma delas era a Imprensa Negra. Neste artigo, os autores buscaram compreender as estratégias da Imprensa Negra para noticiar a participação do negro no eme (more) rgente campo do futebol. Utilizando a perspectiva teórica da História Cultural, se ocuparam dos conteúdos das matérias dos jornais da Imprensa Negra, disponíveis na Biblioteca Nacional na forma de microfilmes. O objetivo foi observar a continuidade e a regularidade do discurso, os pontos de afrontamento e de disputa simbólica em torno da negociação da construção identitária da "raça negra" no esporte e captar, através das mensagens emitidas por esses órgãos da imprensa, as estratégias de distinção utilizadas por esse grupo étnico/racial em torno da contestação das representações negativas ou construção de representações positivas sobre o negro no emergente campo do futebol. Concluíram que o sentimento de consciência racial, a necessidade de se integrar à nação e o desejo de ascensão social eram os motivos que mantinham unidos os negros através daquelas associações. A Imprensa Negra procurou construir uma representação identitária do negro que privilegiasse o capital futebolístico, sem se esquecer dos predicados morais como a disciplina, a higiene e a ordem. A estratégia de divulgação dos feitos de sucesso dos negros no campo esportivo promovia uma identidade positiva do negro no futebol, em conformidade com as demandas daquele contexto: uma nação higienizada e disciplinada na esteira do projeto nacional que via no futebol um meio de expressão positiva da brasilidade. Abstract in english In the first half of the 20th century, in São Paulo, there were associations dedicated to promote cultural and sport activities for the African American people. They emerged to denounce discriminatory practices and to promote ethnic sociability through athletics, boxing and, especially, soccer. One of them was the Black Press. In this article, the authors sought to understand the strategies of the Black Press to report the participation of black people in the emerging fi (more) eld of soccer. The contents of the Black Press, available in the National Library in the form of microfilms, were analyzed using the theoretical perspective of the Cultural History. The objective was to observe the continuity and regularity of the speech, the points of confrontation and symbolic dispute around the negotiation of the identity construction of "black" in the sport and identify, by means of the messages sent by those media outlets, the strategies of distinction used by the ethnic / racial group around the defense against negative representations or construction of positive representations of blacks in the emerging field of soccer. They concluded that the feeling of the racial consciousness, the need to integrate themselves with the nation and the desire for social mobility were the reasons that held the African Americans together through those associations. Thence, the "Black Press" tried to build a representation of black identity that emphasized the soccer resources, without forgetting moral matters as discipline, hygiene and order. The dissemination of the achievements of blacks in sports promoted a positive identity of black man in soccer, in accordance with the demands of that context: a sanitized and disciplined nation in accordance with the national project that understood soccer as a mean of positive expression of "Brazilianness".

Abrahão, Bruno Otávio de Lacerda; Soares, Antonio Jorge Gonçalves

2012-03-01

311

A imprensa negra e o futebol em São Paulo no início do século XX The Black Press and the soccer in São Paulo in the beginning of the 20th century  

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Full Text Available Em São Paulo, na primeira metade do século XX, havia associações destinadas à promoção de atividades culturais e esportivas para os negros, que surgiram diante da necessidade de denunciar as práticas discriminatórias e promover a sociabilidade étnica através do atletismo, do boxe e, sobretudo, do futebol. Uma delas era a Imprensa Negra. Neste artigo, os autores buscaram compreender as estratégias da Imprensa Negra para noticiar a participação do negro no emergente campo do futebol. Utilizando a perspectiva teórica da História Cultural, se ocuparam dos conteúdos das matérias dos jornais da Imprensa Negra, disponíveis na Biblioteca Nacional na forma de microfilmes. O objetivo foi observar a continuidade e a regularidade do discurso, os pontos de afrontamento e de disputa simbólica em torno da negociação da construção identitária da "raça negra" no esporte e captar, através das mensagens emitidas por esses órgãos da imprensa, as estratégias de distinção utilizadas por esse grupo étnico/racial em torno da contestação das representações negativas ou construção de representações positivas sobre o negro no emergente campo do futebol. Concluíram que o sentimento de consciência racial, a necessidade de se integrar à nação e o desejo de ascensão social eram os motivos que mantinham unidos os negros através daquelas associações. A Imprensa Negra procurou construir uma representação identitária do negro que privilegiasse o capital futebolístico, sem se esquecer dos predicados morais como a disciplina, a higiene e a ordem. A estratégia de divulgação dos feitos de sucesso dos negros no campo esportivo promovia uma identidade positiva do negro no futebol, em conformidade com as demandas daquele contexto: uma nação higienizada e disciplinada na esteira do projeto nacional que via no futebol um meio de expressão positiva da brasilidade.In the first half of the 20th century, in São Paulo, there were associations dedicated to promote cultural and sport activities for the African American people. They emerged to denounce discriminatory practices and to promote ethnic sociability through athletics, boxing and, especially, soccer. One of them was the Black Press. In this article, the authors sought to understand the strategies of the Black Press to report the participation of black people in the emerging field of soccer. The contents of the Black Press, available in the National Library in the form of microfilms, were analyzed using the theoretical perspective of the Cultural History. The objective was to observe the continuity and regularity of the speech, the points of confrontation and symbolic dispute around the negotiation of the identity construction of "black" in the sport and identify, by means of the messages sent by those media outlets, the strategies of distinction used by the ethnic / racial group around the defense against negative representations or construction of positive representations of blacks in the emerging field of soccer. They concluded that the feeling of the racial consciousness, the need to integrate themselves with the nation and the desire for social mobility were the reasons that held the African Americans together through those associations. Thence, the "Black Press" tried to build a representation of black identity that emphasized the soccer resources, without forgetting moral matters as discipline, hygiene and order. The dissemination of the achievements of blacks in sports promoted a positive identity of black man in soccer, in accordance with the demands of that context: a sanitized and disciplined nation in accordance with the national project that understood soccer as a mean of positive expression of "Brazilianness".

Bruno Otávio de Lacerda Abrahão; Antonio Jorge Gonçalves Soares

2012-01-01

312

Paradigmas de control de la malaria en Guatemala, siglos XX y XXI, de la erradicación a la eliminación/ Paradigms of the malarial control in Guatemala in the 20th and 21st centuries moving from eradication to elimination  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La malaria continúa siendo un problema de salud pública mundial. Durante los siglos XX y XXI el abordaje de esta enfermedad sufrió cambios paradigmáticos muy interesantes, pero principalmente estuvo influenciado por los descubrimientos relacionados con la segunda guerra mundial, la situación económica mundial, el advenimiento de nuevas estrategias de control y el abordaje de la enfermedad por medio de la participación comunitaria y el sector de la salud. El propós (more) ito de este trabajo es presentar los cambios de paradigmas desde una óptica vertical o erradicación, a una horizontal o eliminación, y desde lo positivista cuantitativo a lo mixto, en el abordaje de la malaria en Guatemala. Se realiza una reseña histórica de la malaria y se discuten los aspectos bioéticos del uso del insecticida dicloro-difenil-tricloroetano a nivel mundial. En los países desarrollados fueron justificadas las intervenciones de erradicación con el rociamiento intradomiciliar del insecticida citado y completarlas con el diagnóstico y tratamiento de la malaria; la realidad en la mayoría de los países en vías de desarrollo, fue diferente, puesto que no pudieron mantener los programas de erradicación por problemas financieros, un ejemplo claro de iniquidad global. Guatemala en esta década trabaja en la fase de preeliminación-eliminación, con buenos resultados, lo que marca un cambio de paradigma e indica que las medidas contra la malaria deben ser horizontales y favorecer el trabajo intra e intersectorial. Abstract in english Malaria remains a world health problem. During the 20th and 21st centuries, the approach to this disease underwent very interesting paradigmatic changes, but they were influenced by breakthroughs derived from the Second World Wear, the international economic situations, the advent of new monitoring strategies and the approach to the disease based on the community and the health sector involvement. The objective of this paper was to present changes in paradigms form a vert (more) ical perspective or eradication to a horizontal viewpoint or elimination, and from a quantitative positivist to a combined standpoint in addressing malaria in Guatemala. A historical account of malaria was made and the bioethical aspects of the use of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane worldwide were discussed. The eradicating interventions by using the insecticidal spraying of houses were backed up in the developed countries. This was supplemented with the diagnosis and treatment of malaria. However, the situation was different in most of the developing countries, since their financial restrictions did not make possible to keep the eradication programs, being a clear example of the global inequality. In the present decade, Guatemala is going through the pre-elimination-elimination phase and it works with good results, which is indicative of a change in paradigm and shows that actions against malaria should be horizontal in order to encourage the intrasectorial and the intersectorial work.

Juárez, Jaime

2013-06-01

313

Antiikvärsimõõdud eesti tõlgetes 19. sajandi lõpul – 20. sajandi esimesel poolel / Ancient Meters in Estonian Translations at the End of the 19th Century – the First Half of the 20th Century  

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Full Text Available Although ancient verse has also been translated into Estonian with different non-equimetrical strategies, from the very beginning the equimetrical way of translation has prevailed, the purpose of which has been to convey the meter of a source text in the target text. Ancient meters are found in the Estonian tradition of translation from the end of the 19th century, when several authors undertook the translation of voluminous hexametrical texts. During the following decades, hexameter became an important meter both in original and translated poetry, first in accentual-syllabic or syllabic-accentual versification systems, later different quantitative forms were added. In the case of Estonian quantitative hexameter, a two-way evolution can be observed: the aim of the first direction is to accommodate hexameter in the prosodic reality of the Estonian language and develop a form that allows licences in the metrical structure rather than deform language, the aim of the second is to create a verse form, which, first of all, follows the patterns of ancient verse and, if necessary, forms artificial rules of quantity in order to accommodate Estonian language with the structure of hexameter.The incidence of other ancient meters, including different Ionic and Aeolic verse forms, is considerably lower. During the obser ved period, Aeolic meter s are conveyed in two dif fe -rent forms: in syllabic-accentual verse, where quantity plays only a rhythmic role, and syllabic-accentual-quantitative form, where the number of syllables is always strictly fixed, the distribution of accent s is governed by cer tain rule s, while quantit y is more impor tant in strong positions and less regulated in weak positions.At the same time, we come across non-equimetrical translations as well, where instead of the original meter some other verse form has been chosen for the translation. Such rendition can be a functional equivalent, but sometimes it is just the result of a random choice. On the other hand, mostly in the case of poems in hexameter or elegiac distichs, the verseto-prose translation strategy is also used.Therefore, we can see that during the observed period ancient meters were translated with a variety of strategies. There were many different experiments and some of these resulted in a vital and sustainable tradition still viable in Estonian poetry translation.

Maria-Kristiina Lotman

2012-01-01

314

El derecho a la educación en México: del liberalismo decimonónico al neoliberalismo del siglo XXI/ The Right to Education in Mexico: From 19th-century Liberalism to the Neo-liberalism of the 20th Century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Este artículo intenta responder a la pregunta sobre los alcances que el derecho humano a la educación ha tenido en la Constitución mexicana y en las posibilidades concretas de ejercicio de este derecho para los mexicanos en el último siglo y medio. Con ese doble propósito, se describen someramente tres grandes momentos de la historia mexicana donde se generan cambios significativos tanto en el texto constitucional que se refiere a la educación como en las estrategia (more) s y políticas concretas que amplían o restringen el acceso a ella. Éstos pueden identificarse a partir de la reforma de 1857, la de 1934 y las de los años noventa (1992 y 1993), incluyendo como parte de este último periodo la modificación sobre la obligatoriedad de la educación media superior (2012). Se presentan y analizan los textos correspondientes pero, sobre todo, se busca mostrar sus conexiones con la forma en que en cada momento -dando cuenta del contexto de confrontaciones, acuerdos y resistencias frente a cambios decisivos- se concibe y se traduce en los hechos el derecho a la educación. Abstract in english This article attempts to answer questions about the scope of the human right to education as established in Mexico's Constitution and in the Mexican population's possibilities to exercise that right during the past one and one-half centuries. With this double purpose, a description is given of three major moments in Mexican history when significant changes were generated in constitutional texts that refer to education, as well as in the concrete policies and strategies th (more) at broaden or restrict access to education. Such changes can be identified as the reforms of 1857, 1934, and the 1990s (1992 and 1993); the final period includes the modification of the compulsory nature of high school education (2012). The corresponding texts are presented and analyzed, but above all, an effort is made to show their connections with the way the right to education-in a context of confrontations, agreements, and resistance to decisive change-is conceived and translated into fact.

Aboites, Hugo

2012-06-01

315

Happy 20th Birthday, World Wide Web!  

CERN Document Server

On 13 March CERN celebrated the 20th anniversary of the World Wide Web. Check out the video interview with Web creator Tim Berners-Lee and find out more about the both the history and future of the Web. To celebrate CERN also launched a brand new website, CERNland, for kids.

2009-01-01

316

Uma doença que não perdoa: a tuberculose e sua terapêutica no sul do Brasil e na Itália, em fins do século XIX e inícios do XX An unforgiving disease: the tuberculosis and its therapeutic in South Brazil and Italy, at the end of 19th century and beginning of 20th century  

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Full Text Available A tuberculose, em fins do século XIX e inícios do XX, constituiu-se como uma grande epidemia que ceifou a vida de milhares de pessoas. Embora fosse incurável, a imprensa fazia publicidade de uma série de tratamentos desenvolvidos em diversas regiões do mundo. Este artigo pretende discutir a trajetória da doença a partir de terapêuticas propostas por dois médicos italianos, Edoardo Maragliano e Carlo Forlanini, as quais tiveram uma boa receptividade no Rio Grande do Sul. O primeiro ficou conhecido por uma vacina, mas especialmente por seu soro; o segundo desenvolveu o procedimento conhecido como pneumotórax artificial. A intenção é a de abordar o contexto vivido pelo estado do RS e pela Itália com relação à tuberculose, percebendo caminhos que se cruzaram para o cuidado de enfermos, que muito pouco podiam fazer após a confirmação de seu diagnóstico.The tuberculosis, at the end of 19th century and beginning of 20th century, has been a large epidemic that has ended with a thousand's lifes. Although it was incurable, the press made publicity of a series of treatments developed in several regions of the world. This article intend to discuss the diseases path made by therapeutics proposed by two italian doctors, Edoardo Maragliano e Carlo Forlanini, who have had a good receptivity in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The first one has been known for a vaccine, but also because of his serum; the second one has developed the procedure known as artificial pneumothorax. The aim is to approach the context lived at the state of RS and in Italy in relation to the tuberculosis, realizing the paths that have been crossed to the ills care, who could make not much after the diagnosis confirmation.

Lorena Almeida Gill

2012-01-01

317

Today`s control systems evolved from early pioneers` dreams  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the last 100 years, power plant controls have evolved from manual operation and simple instruments to automatic state-of-the-art computerized control systems using smart instruments. This article traces the evolution of controls. The topics of the article include early control systems, developments in the early 20th century, Bailey controls, and developments in the late 20th century.

Smith, D.J.

1996-04-01

318

De la dominación colonial a la fabricación de la nación: Las categorías étnico-raciales en los censos e informes y sus usos políticos en Belice, siglos XIX-XX From Colonial Domination to the Forging of a Nation: Ethnic-racial Categories in Censuses and Reports and their Political Uses in Belize, 19th-20th Centuries  

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Full Text Available Este texto presenta un análisis de los procesos de clasificación y categorización étnico-raciales de la población de Belice a lo largo de los siglos XIX y XX, apoyándose en los censos demográficos y en los informes de gobierno. No nos interesamos tanto en las cifras como tales, sino en las categorías de conteo y su evolución, como indicadores de las lógicas políticas de construcción de una sociedad colonial y luego nacional. Mientras que para el XIX los censos dan cuenta de las distintas formas de manejo de la población (transición de la esclavitud a la libertad, afirmación o negación de la diversidad étnico-racial), los informes administrativos dibujan un modelo demográfico-territorial estático y estereotipado como herramienta de gestión política. Para el siglo XX, se analiza el difícil camino hacia la independencia y los cambios introducidos por el nuevo Estado beliceño (categorías, metodología, actores) en el proceso de construcción de una "identidad nacional".This text presents an analysis of the processes of erhnic-racial classification and categorization of the population of Belize in the 19th and 20th centuries, based on demographic censuses and government reports. We are not so much interested in figures as such as in the counting categories and their evolution, as indicators of the political logics of constructing a colonial and then a national society. By the 19th century, censuses reflect the different ways of managing the population (transition from slavery to freedom, affirmation or denial of ethnic-racial diversity), the administrative reports outline a static demographic-territorial model stereotypes as a tool for political management. In the 20th century, they analyze the difficult road co independence and the changes introduced by the new Belize state (categories, methodology, actors) in the process of constructing a "national identity."

Elisabeth Cunin; Odile Hoffmann

2012-01-01

319

De la dominación colonial a la fabricación de la nación: Las categorías étnico-raciales en los censos e informes y sus usos políticos en Belice, siglos XIX-XX/ From Colonial Domination to the Forging of a Nation: Ethnic-racial Categories in Censuses and Reports and their Political Uses in Belize, 19th-20th Centuries  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Este texto presenta un análisis de los procesos de clasificación y categorización étnico-raciales de la población de Belice a lo largo de los siglos XIX y XX, apoyándose en los censos demográficos y en los informes de gobierno. No nos interesamos tanto en las cifras como tales, sino en las categorías de conteo y su evolución, como indicadores de las lógicas políticas de construcción de una sociedad colonial y luego nacional. Mientras que para el XIX los censos (more) dan cuenta de las distintas formas de manejo de la población (transición de la esclavitud a la libertad, afirmación o negación de la diversidad étnico-racial), los informes administrativos dibujan un modelo demográfico-territorial estático y estereotipado como herramienta de gestión política. Para el siglo XX, se analiza el difícil camino hacia la independencia y los cambios introducidos por el nuevo Estado beliceño (categorías, metodología, actores) en el proceso de construcción de una "identidad nacional". Abstract in english This text presents an analysis of the processes of erhnic-racial classification and categorization of the population of Belize in the 19th and 20th centuries, based on demographic censuses and government reports. We are not so much interested in figures as such as in the counting categories and their evolution, as indicators of the political logics of constructing a colonial and then a national society. By the 19th century, censuses reflect the different ways of managing (more) the population (transition from slavery to freedom, affirmation or denial of ethnic-racial diversity), the administrative reports outline a static demographic-territorial model stereotypes as a tool for political management. In the 20th century, they analyze the difficult road co independence and the changes introduced by the new Belize state (categories, methodology, actors) in the process of constructing a "national identity."

Cunin, Elisabeth; Hoffmann, Odile

2012-04-01

320

Los aymaras del norte de Chile entre los siglos XIX y XX: Un recuento histórico/ The Aymaras of Northern Chile in the 19th and 20th centuries: An historical account  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El presente artículo tiene como finalidad sintetizar la historia aymara del norte chileno entre los siglos XIX y XX, en base a una revisión de la producción científica social e histórica desarrollada en el norte de Chile. El objetivo es sistematizar la historia regional aymara contemporánea en un texto para su difusión. Abstract in english This article offers a panorama of aymara history in northern Chile between the nineteenth and twentieth century, based on local sources and an analysis of recent historiographic documentation. The aim is to reconstruct contemporary Aymara regional history, sistematically, in an article aimed at a wide audience.

Díaz Araya, Alberto; Tapia Ladino, Marcela

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Some Features of the Development of Lithuanian Sacral Architecture in 20th–21st Centuries Kai kurie Lietuvos sakralin?s architekt?ros raidos bruožai XX–XXI a.  

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Full Text Available The development of Lithuanian sacral architecture in the XX century has suffered from some heavy interruptions. During five decades of soviet occupation the spread of religious mind was inhibited. There were not built almost any churches in that period. That determined a lack of creative experience for architects in the last decade of XX century. The result of these circumstances was a complicated regeneration of sacral architecture traditions. The main purpose of this article is to review various features of Lithuanian sacral architecture development in the mentioned period and to illustrate some positive and negative samples .Article in LithuanianLietuvos sakralin?s architekt?ros raida XX a. vyko fragmentiškai, patirdama ilg? s?stingio period?. Okupacijos periodu d?l religin?s minties persekiojimo nauj? bažny?i? nebuvo statoma. Tai l?m? sunk? ir kartais chaotišk? sakralin?s architekt?ros atgimim? XX a. pabaigoje. Tod?l šio straipsnio tikslas yra aprašyti kai kuriuos Lietuvos sakralin?s architekt?ros bruožus min?tu laikotarpiu, pateikiant teigiamus ir neigiamus pavyzdžius, atskleisti skirting? architekt? ind?l? formuojant lietuviškos sakralin?s architekt?ros tradicijas.Straipsnis lietuvi? kalba

Linas Kr?gelis

2009-01-01

322

Ciencia y persuasión social en la medicalización de la infancia en España, siglos XIX-XX/ Science and social persuasion in the medicalization of childhood in 19th- and 20th-century Spain  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Este trabajo indaga la conversión en rutinaria de la visita del médico de niños en España. Estudia la sustitución de modelos de atención al embarazo, parto y crianza, tradicionalmente opacos para varones y objeto de cuidados mediante agentes populares, por otros accesibles a la medicina académica. A partir de la situación existente a nivel popular en el último tercio del siglo XIX, exploramos la repercusión de campañas de divulgación científica - entendidas c (more) omo crítica sin cuartel a lo que se construyó como cultura popular - y la proliferación de dispositivos asistenciales gratuitos. La oferta de vigilancia sobre la alimentación de lactantes permitió familiarizar a las madres con la asistencia facultativa en la enfermedad, hasta que, en la segunda mitad del siglo XX, la Pediatría se centró preferentemente en las patologías y la Puericultura dejó de ser especialidad médica para convertirse en identidad profesional subalterna. Abstract in english The article explores how childhood visits to doctors first became routine in Spain. The introduction of new models of prenatal care, childbirth, and childrearing required the extension of academic medicine into a terrain traditionally occupied by practitioners of popular medicine. Focusing on the status quo for most of the population in the final third of the nineteenth century, the study examines the repercussion of the era's scientific outreach campaigns (expressions of (more) harsh criticism of what popular culture had constructed) and the spread of free health assistance. In particular, it highlights how attention to the nutritional needs of nursing mothers helped these women gain familiarity with the medical assistance available in the case of illness - so much so that by the second half of the twentieth century, the issues of health education and promotion had been relegated to a secondary plane within the medical profession.

Rodríguez Ocaña, Esteban; Perdiguero, Enrique

2006-06-01

323

Health and socio-demographic conditions as determinants of marriage and social mobility: Male partner choice in Sardinia, late 19th-early 20th century  

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Full Text Available This paper makes use of data collected from military registers and marriage certificates for the population of Alghero, in Sardinia, for the period 1866-1925, with the aim of investigating the role played by physical characteristics and health in the possibility of social mobility through marriage. Our findings demonstrate that, whereas physical defects and ill health had little impact on the chances of marrying an illiterate woman, these factors did have a negative effect on the chances of marrying a woman who was literate. In a context in which intergenerational social mobility remained limited and the family had the final say on marriage arrangements, it is likely that only healthy individuals were selected for marriages regarded as strategic for the purposes of forming and strengthening family alliances, and/or improving the social position within the community.

Marco Breschi; Matteo Manfredini; Stanislao Mazzoni

2010-01-01

324

Ethical and Moral Issues in Russian Everyday Culture of the Late 19th and the Early 20th Centuries within the Context of the Book Culture  

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Full Text Available The Russian everyday culture is considered in relation to the impact of ethical ideas and principles presented both in Russian writings and works translated into Russian. The author analyses in detail the ethical views of the Danish philosopher H. Høffding especially those related to women’s social status, gender division of labour, and marriage, and also addresses presentation of ethical standards and related etiquette rules in contemporary Russian literature.

Saiko Elena

2012-01-01

325

Violeta Parra: tensiones y transgresiones de una mujer popular de mediados del siglo XX Violeta Parra: Tensions and Transgressions in the Mid 20th Century of a Woman from the Popular World  

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Full Text Available La obra artística de Violeta Parra presenta, en diversos niveles, una compleja problematización de los esquemas sociales de la primera mitad del siglo XX. Este trabajo busca examinar los modos en los que esta folclorista transita por los esquemas de género que recaían sobre los hombres y mujeres de la época, dando lugar a una mirada crítica e irreverente en la que la tradición cultural y la innovación confluyen, tanto en lo que respecta al contenido de sus textos como en el plano expresivo de su musicalidad.Violeta Parra's artistic work presents on different levels the complex problem of unraveling the social schemes of the first half of the twentieth century. This article examines the ways in which this "folclorista" moved through the gender schemes corresponding to men and women of that epoch. This movement opened a space for a both critical and irreverent view in which cultural tradition and innovation converge, both regarding the contents other texts as well as the expression of their musicality.

Carla Pinochet Cobos

2010-01-01

326

L’introduction de la médecine moderne dans le monde arabe The introduction of modern medicine in the Arab world: between time of urgency and time of learning (19th-20th centuries)  

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Full Text Available L’État, colonial ou autochtone, a joué un rôle majeur dans le processus d’occidentalisation du temps au XIXe siècle. Le champ de la santé permet de suivre le processus par lequel de nouveaux dispositifs (École de médecine, dispensaires, campagnes de vaccination et de lutte contre les épidémies) introduisent non seulement un nouveau temps compté par l’horloge, la régularité des horaires de rendez-vous, mais aussi, de façon plus abstraite, l’idée de prévention et l’ébauche d’un souci de soi qui permet de se projeter dans l’avenir pour préserver sa santé.The State, whether colonial or native, has played a key role in the process of westernization of time in the 19th century. The field of health allows us to observe the process through which new institutions like schools of medicine, clinics, vaccination campaigns and campaigns against epidemics introduce a new counted time and the regularity of schedules for appointments. In a more abstract way, it introduces the idea of prevention and a first idea of self care that allows the individual to project himself into the future, in order to preserve his health.

Sylvia Chiffoleau

2012-01-01

327

Violeta Parra: tensiones y transgresiones de una mujer popular de mediados del siglo XX/ Violeta Parra: Tensions and Transgressions in the Mid 20th Century of a Woman from the Popular World  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La obra artística de Violeta Parra presenta, en diversos niveles, una compleja problematización de los esquemas sociales de la primera mitad del siglo XX. Este trabajo busca examinar los modos en los que esta folclorista transita por los esquemas de género que recaían sobre los hombres y mujeres de la época, dando lugar a una mirada crítica e irreverente en la que la tradición cultural y la innovación confluyen, tanto en lo que respecta al contenido de sus textos como en el plano expresivo de su musicalidad. Abstract in english Violeta Parra's artistic work presents on different levels the complex problem of unraveling the social schemes of the first half of the twentieth century. This article examines the ways in which this "folclorista" moved through the gender schemes corresponding to men and women of that epoch. This movement opened a space for a both critical and irreverent view in which cultural tradition and innovation converge, both regarding the contents other texts as well as the expression of their musicality.

Pinochet Cobos, Carla

2010-06-01

328

Les trajectoires archivées des experts de la modernisation rurale alpine (XIXe-XXe siècles) Exploring the archives on the trajectories of 19th and 20th century experts in rural Alpine modernization  

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Full Text Available Cet article propose une résolution historienne de la question des parcours individuels dans leurs contextes, inscrite dans l'historiographie des études prosopographiques visant à saisir les caractéristiques sociales d’un groupe par le biais d’une comparaison des itinéraires biographiques qui le constitue. Opérant un détour méthodologique et épistémologique, elle se retourne vers l’opération historiographique telle qu’a pu la définir Paul Ricoeur, et le processus d’enquête tel qu’en rend compte Jean-Claude Passeron. Il s’agit de présenter un usage possible des bases de données relationnelles en histoire qui ne se limite pas à faciliter la décomposition des sources en évènements biographiques. Conservant la lieutenance des informations extraites envers le document historique, l’outil peut être mobilisé dans la perspective d’une reconstitution des rapports individuels qui président à la formation et la conservation de chaque type d’archive. L'étude prend alors pour objet les trajectoires d'individus amenés à se reconnaître et/ou à être reconnus comme les experts de la modernisation agricole des Alpes. La politique de Restauration des Terrains de Montagne de la fin du XIXe siècle dans les Alpes occidentales françaises et la politique de Reconstitution agricole après la Seconde Guerre mondiale sur le Plateau du Vercors, s’effectuent toutes les deux sur la base d’enquêtes menées par des experts, produisant ainsi les archives à partir desquelles se dessinent les trajectoires des individus.The purpose of this contribution is to suggest a historian’s way of dealing with individual careers and social context in the past. The main historical background is rooted in prosopographic studies that arrived from the United-States in the mid-1970s. We focus on social groups, using the comparative method to grasp their social characteristics. After a theoretical detour through Paul Ricœur’s historiography and Jean-Claude Passeron’s survey process, we present possible relational databases, not restricted to breaking historical sources down into series of biographical events. Fieldwork concerned a specific social group bringing together individuals who figure as experts of modernization in the rural Alpine world. Both politics of mountain reforestation at the end of 19th century, and of farm reconstruction after World War II produced many surveys, thanks to which experts’ trajectories, rather than being predetermined careers, can be reconstituted.

Sylvain Brunier; Nicolas Krautberger

2010-01-01

329

Migraciones internas en España durante el siglo XX: un nuevo eje para el estudio de las desigualdades sociales en salud Internal migration in Spain in the 20th century: a new focus for the study of social inequalities in health  

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Full Text Available Objetivo: Catalunya y Euskadi recibieron durante el siglo XX importantes contingentes de inmigración del resto de España. El objetivo es analizar las desigualdades en salud según el lugar de nacimiento (población autóctona y nacida en otras comunidades autónomas). Métodos: Estudio transversal sobre población no institucionalizada de 50 a 79 años de edad, con datos de las encuestas de salud de Catalunya 2006 (n=5.483) y de Euskadi 2007 (n=3.424). Se utilizaron modelos log-binomiales para calcular las razones de prevalencia (RP) de mala salud percibida según el lugar de nacimiento, estratificadas por sexo y clase social, y ajustadas sucesivamente por edad, clase social y nivel de estudios. Resultados Las personas procedentes de otras comunidades autónomas valoraban peor su salud que las autóctonas, tanto en Euskadi (RP ajustada por edad en hombres de 1,30, intervalo de confianza del 95% [IC95%] 1,11-1,54; y en mujeres RP de 1,42 e IC95% de 1,25-1,62) como en Catalunya (en hombres RP 1,41 e IC95% de 1,26-1,62; en mujeres RP de 1,25 e IC95% de 1,16-1,35). Las RP se redujeron, pero permanecieron significativas tras ajustar por clase social y nivel de estudios, y estratificando por clase social manual y no manual. Conclusiones: En ambas comunidades existen desigualdades en salud en detrimento de la población procedente del resto de España, que constituye alrededor de la mitad de la población en las cohortes de edad estudiadas. Futuros estudios deberían explorar la persistencia de estas desigualdades en otros indicadores de salud y su reproducción en las segundas generaciones, así como identificar puntos de entrada para políticas preventivas.Objective: Catalonia and the Basque Country received substantial immigration quotas from the rest of Spain during the twentieth century. This study aimed to analyze inequalities in health by birthplace (the population born in the same region or other autonomous regions) in these two geographical areas. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in the non-institutionalized population aged 50 to 79 years, with data from the health surveys of Catalonia 2006 (n=5,483) and the Basque Country 2007 (n=3,424). We used log-binomial models to estimate the prevalence ratios (PR) of poor self-rated health by birthplace, stratified by sex and social class, and successively adjusted for age, social class and educational attainment. Results: Immigrants from other autonomous regions had poorer self-rated health than the native-born population, both in the Basque Country (age-adjusted PR in men 1.30, 95% CI 1.11-1.54; women 1.42, 95% CI 1.25-1.62,) and in Catalonia (PR in men 1.41, 95% CI 1.26-1.62; PR in women 1.25, 95% CI 1.16-1.35). PRs were reduced but remained significant after adjustment for social class and educational attainment and stratification by manual or non-manual social class. Conclusions: In both communities there are health inequalities that are detrimental to the immigrant population from the rest of Spain, which constitutes approximately half of the population in the studied age cohorts. Future studies should explore the persistence of these inequalities in other health indicators and their reproduction in second generations, and identify entry points for preventive policies.

Unai Martín; Davide Malmusi; Amaia Bacigalupe; Santiago Esnaola

2012-01-01

330

First Cirulating Beams (20th November 2009 onwards)  

CERN Multimedia

Following the "splash" events of 6th/7th November the time has come to circulate the proton beams all around the LHC. This started in the early evening (Geneva time) on Friday 20th November and by midnight the beam had been circulated in both directions around the ring. Within a couple of days beam lifetimes were up to several hours, both beams were circulating at the same time, beams had been ramped to higher energies and first collisions (at 900 GeV centre of mass) had taken place.

Collaboration, CMS

2009-01-01

331

Das Interviewarchiv "Jugend im 20. Jahrhundert" des POSOPA e.V. The Interview Archive "Youth in the 20th Century" at the POSOPA e.V. El archivo de entrevista "Juventud en el Siglo XX" en POSOPA e.V.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Eingangs beschreibt der Beitrag kurz den Träger des Archivs und seine Interviewbestände. Der POSOPA e.V. als Träger des Interviewarchivs ist eine kleine außeruniversitäre gemeinnützige Einrichtung, die eine Forschungsbibliothek und ein Spezialarchiv mit dem Schwerpunkt auf historischer Jugend- und Sozialisationsforschung unterhält, Forschungsprojekte an der Schnittstelle von qualitativer Sozialforschung, historischer Erziehungswissenschaft und Geschichtswissenschaft durchführt und Publikationen herausgibt. Das Interviewarchiv umfasst derzeit etwa 340 Interviews mit Persönlichkeiten, die in ihrer Jugend Jugendorganisationen oder -bewegungen angehörten oder im späteren Lebensalter in der Jugendarbeit oder der Jugendpolitik wirkten. Die Interviews entstanden seit Beginn der achtziger Jahre überwiegend im Kontext mehrerer Forschungsprojekte zu jugendgeschichtlichen Fragen. Dabei handelt es sich um narrative lebensgeschichtliche Interviews mit dem Focus auf der Jugendzeit der Interviewpartner. Die Berichtszeiträume reichen vom Kaiserreich bis in die neunziger Jahre. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0003103The first part of the contribution briefly describes POSOPA e.V., the organizing institution of the archives and its corpus of interviews. The POSOPA e.V. is a small non-profit organization, that has a specialized library for historical youth and socialization research. POSOPA e.V. also arranges interdisciplinary research touching on qualitative social research, historical pedagogics and historiography. Currently, the archives contains approximately 340 interviews with individuals, who were members of youth-organizations or were engaged in youth work or youth policy. The interviews were generated during various research projects since the early eighties. They were all carried out as narrative biographical interviews focused on the youth and adolescence period of the interviewees. The narrations approximately cover the time span from 1910 to the 1990s. Some possibilities and problems of physical long-term data-protection are discussed in the second part of the contribution, followed by some reflections concerning how to ensure accessability to the corpus of interviews. In conclusion, some suggestions are made on how to improve cooperation among institutions which are archiving qualitative biographical data. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0003103La primera parte de la contribución describe brevemente POSOPA e.V., la institución organizadora de los archivos y su corpus de entrevistas. El POSOPA e.V. es una organización pequeña sin fines de lucro que tiene una biblioteca especializada para investigación sobre historia y socialización de la juventud. POSOPA e.V. también organiza investigación interdisciplinaria sobre investigación social cualitativa, pedagogía histórica e historiografía. En la actualidad los archivos contienen aproximadamente 340 entrevistas con individuos que fueron miembros de organizaciones de jóvenes o que estuvieron involucrados en trabajo juvenil o políticas sobre juventud. Las entrevistas fueron generadas durante varios proyectos de investigación iniciados desde principios de los ochenta. Todos se llevaron a cabo como entrevistas biográficas narrativas enfocadas en el período de la juventud y la adolescencia de los entrevistados. Las narraciones cubren un período aproximado que abarca desde 1910 hasta los noventa. En la segunda parte de la contribución se discuten algunas posibilidades y problemas relativos a la protección física de los datos a largo plazo, seguido de algunas reflexiones concernientes a cómo garantizar la accesibilidad al corpus de las entrevistas. En conclusión, se presentan algunas sugerencias sobre cómo mejorar la cooperación entre instituciones que están archivando datos biográficos cualitativos. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0003103

Roland Gröschel

2000-01-01

332

A Indústria e o Comércio da Cortiça em Portugal Durante o Século XX/ Industry and the Trade of Cork in Portugal During the 20th Century/ L'Industrie et le Commerce du Liège au Portugal dans le 20ième Siècle  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Apresenta-se uma retrospectiva da importância económica da indústria corticeira, bem como da sua evolução desde o início do século passado até ao presente, tendo como referência quatro períodos - até à década de 60, da década de 60 até 1974, de 1974 até à adesão à CEE (1986) e desta até aos nossos dias. É feita também uma descrição resumida deste sector nos dias de hoje, onde se descreve a situação da Floresta e da Indústria Preparadora, Transfo (more) rmadora, Granuladora e Aglomeradora. Finalmente, é apresentado o Comércio Externo Português, referindo a evolução das nossas Exportações e Importações, particularizando os valores por países, por valor e massa e por classes de produtos. Abstract in english We present a retrospective of the economic importance of cork industry, as well as its evolution since the beginning of the last century to the present, having as reference four periods - until the 60 decade, from the 60 decade up to 1974, from 1974 to the adhesion to EEC (1986) and from then to the end of the 20th century. A summarized description of this sector in our days is also made, describing the situation of the Forest and Preparer Industry, Manufacturer, Crusher (more) and Blender Industries. Finally, we present the Portuguese External Trade, referring the evolution of our Exports and Imports, particularizing the values by countries, by value and mass and by classes of products.

Pestana, Miguel; Tinoco, Isabel

2009-06-01

333

The history of 20th century malaria control in Peru.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Malaria has been part of Peruvian life since at least the 1500s. While Peru gave the world quinine, one of the first treatments for malaria, its history is pockmarked with endemic malaria and occasional epidemics. In this review, major increases in Peruvian malaria incidence over the past hundred years are described, as well as the human factors that have facilitated these events, and concerted private and governmental efforts to control malaria. Political support for malaria control has varied and unexpected events like vector and parasite resistance have adversely impacted morbidity and mortality. Though the ready availability of novel insecticides like DDT and efficacious medications reduced malaria to very low levels for a decade after the post eradication era, malaria reemerged as an important modern day challenge to Peruvian public health. Its reemergence sparked collaboration between domestic and international partners towards the elimination of malaria in Peru.

Griffing SM; Gamboa D; Udhayakumar V

2013-08-01

334

[Aging well in the 20th century: a psychosocial perspective].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Aging well refers to retaining or restoring well-being in the face of various age-related changes in later life. This process is influenced by the quality of social relationships and active adaptation to loss and change. According to recent studies from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam, more older adults are maintaining relationships with friends, colleagues and other non-kin longer. Greater diversity in their social networks contributes to happiness and morale, and provides protection against anxiety, depression and loneliness. There is also a slight increase in mastery and in cognitive functioning among new cohorts of older adults. These developments promote adaptation to declines in health and loss of the partner. These improvements are found less frequently among those with lower education, lower incomes, and/or small networks. Several interventions have proven to be effective for these disadvantaged groups: a visiting service for widows and widowers and two self-management interventions for chronically ill or physically vulnerable older adults.

Stevens NL

2013-06-01

335

World population, world health and security: 20th century trends.  

Science.gov (United States)

The connection between infectious disease control and national security is now firmly entrenched. This article takes a historical look at another security issue once prominent in debate on foreign policy and international relations, but now more or less absent: overpopulation. It explores the nature of the debate on population as a security question, and its complicated historical relation to the development of world health. PMID:18272731

Bashford, A

2008-03-01

336

World population, world health and security: 20th century trends.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The connection between infectious disease control and national security is now firmly entrenched. This article takes a historical look at another security issue once prominent in debate on foreign policy and international relations, but now more or less absent: overpopulation. It explores the nature of the debate on population as a security question, and its complicated historical relation to the development of world health.

Bashford A

2008-03-01

337

20th Century – an interstice of the extremes?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper focuses on both fascism and communism in an attempt to analyze them as politics „pioneering” phenomena. My goal is to see the way fascism and communism as historical realities, ideal-types, and as tropes were perceived, understood, and defined. The multiple nature of the two concepts when used by opponents and proponents comes under scrutiny and helps me understand the legacy of the recent past, including stereotypes, prejudgments, stigmas, a metaphoric and polemic type of discourse and so on, over post war historical writing.

Mihai Chioveanu

2013-01-01

338

Dirac in 20th century physics: a centenary assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Current views on Dirac's creative heritage and on his role in the formation and development of quantum physics and in shaping the physical picture of the world are discussed. Dirac's fundamental ideas in later life (1948 - 1984) and their current development are given considerable attention. (from the history of physics)

Sanyuk, Valerii I; Sukhanov, Alexander D [Peoples Friendship University of Russia, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2003-09-30

339

Oil and the Best Brain of the 20th Century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available If you meet someone at a party who says that he is Napoleon, you don’t start discussing cavalry tactics at Waterloo ? Professor Robert SolowWell that depends, Robert. If he is the gentleman who gave the party, and you would like to receive another invitation from him some day, you might feel it wise to suggest that if his boys had been riding elephants or dinosaurs instead of horses, he might have enjoyed another few years in swinging Paris instead of being turned over to that nasty Sir Hudson Lowe on St. Helena. [...

Ferdinand E. Banks

2010-01-01

340

Progress of coal science in the 20th century  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The development of coal science is reviewed, especially in a political and technological context. Its interaction with the progress of other scientific and engineering disciplines is considered. The growth and status of knowledge is illustrated by consideration of studies of chemical structure and structural models of coal, reactions based on bond cleavage, and the physical structure of char and coke and heterogeneous reactions. 48 refs.

Heek, K.H. van [Essen (Germany)

1999-07-01

 
 
 
 
341

20th century intraseasonal Asian monsoon dynamics viewed from Isomap  

Science.gov (United States)

The Asian summer monsoon is a high-dimensional and highly nonlinear phenomenon involving considerable moisture transport towards land from the ocean, and is critical for the whole region. We have used daily ECMWF reanalysis (ERA-40) sea-level pressure (SLP) anomalies on the seasonal cycle, over the region 50-145° E, 20° S-35° N, to study the nonlinearity of the Asian monsoon using Isomap. We have focused on the two-dimensional embedding of the SLP anomalies for ease of interpretation. Unlike the unimodality obtained from tests performed in empirical orthogonal function space, the probability density function, within the two-dimensional Isomap space, turns out to be bimodal. But a clustering procedure applied to the SLP data reveals support for three clusters, which are identified using a three-component bivariate Gaussian mixture model. The modes are found to appear similar to active and break phases of the monsoon over South Asia in addition to a third phase, which shows active conditions over the western North Pacific. Using the low-level wind field anomalies, the active phase over South Asia is found to be characterised by a strengthening and an eastward extension of the Somali jet. However during the break phase, the Somali jet is weakened near southern India, while the monsoon trough in northern India also weakens. Interpretation is aided using the APHRODITE gridded land precipitation product for monsoon Asia. The effect of large-scale seasonal mean monsoon and lower boundary forcing, in the form of ENSO, is also investigated and discussed. The outcome here is th