WorldWideScience

Sample records for early 20th century

  1. Beneath Moral Economy: Informal assistance in early 20th century Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Saaritsa, Sakari

    2008-01-01

    The study concerns informal assistance between households as a form of social security in early 20th century Finland. Its sources consist of oral histories, tax, demographic and welfare records and household budgets. According to the study, the popular ideology related to informal assistance excluded outsiders, idealized shared poverty, relied on familiarity and reciprocity, and appealed to material imperative. It turned necessity into a virtue. In different historical situations, entitlement...

  2. Ministers on the Lecture Circuit: Education, Entertainment and Religion in Early 20th Century America

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa Gonzalez

    2014-01-01

    In the early 20th century, some American ministers were eager participants in the Chautauqua and Lyceum lecture circuits that flourished across the Midwest and beyond. Ministers expressed their vocation in the public arena, and the Redpath Chautauqua collection shows how part of this public life was conducted. In their role as lecturers in multiple educational and civic venues, ministers functioned as experts on the Bible, as well as supporting American ideals that were loosely connected to P...

  3. [German-Japanese scientific exchange in urology in the early 20th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halling, T; Umehara, H; Moll, F

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the importance of the German language and German culture and institutional development of urology in Japan in the early 20th century, starting from the development of the medical school for Japanese in Germany and their function in the process of modernization of the Meiji period (1868-1912). Examples of bi-directional German-Japanese relations in medicine, which also included an integrated knowledge transfer, are shown. The study is based mainly on Japanese and German sources about Japanese physicians in Germany as well as contemporary publications in German and international medical journals. Methodologically, the article combines quantitative analysis with individual biographical aspects. PMID:24452403

  4. Late 19th and Early 20th-Century Urban Rail Transit Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    The last decades of the 19th century and those of the early 20th century were the heyday of urban rail transit around the world. These remarkable maps from the University of Chicago Library's Map Collection illustrate the history of such matters between the 1860s and the 1920s. On its homepage, the site offers a bit of historical context on the development of such systems and visitors would do well to read this area first. In total there are almost two dozen maps, including one of London's District Railway in 1885 and a fine map of Chicago's street car lines in 1897. Visitors can look over the provenance information for each document or read a brief description of each map as well.

  5. Late 19th- and Early 20th-Century Asian Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    The map library at the University of Chicago has thousands of maps documenting everything from the growth of early cities in the Islamic world to the ethnographic breakdown of Chicago's neighborhoods. In the past several years, the library has been working to digitize some of its maps that document Asian cities in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The growth of some of these cities in the past century or so has been explosive; cities such as Beijing and Kolkata (Calcutta) would be unrecognizable to a time traveller deposited in their current urban form. Visitors will find two dozen maps here, which they can browse them as they see fit. The program used to look at the maps, Zoomify, allows visitors to zoom in quite closely to look at topographic and other details. Some of the highlights here include a 1922 planning map of Bangkok, a map of Bombay from 1919, and a tour guide map of Peshawar city from 1921.

  6. Socialization into a Civilization: The Dewey-Kaplan Synthesis in American Jewish Schooling in the Early 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Benjamin M.

    2009-01-01

    This historical study focuses on how John Dewey's theory of education as socialization and Mordecai Kaplan's theory of Judaism as a civilization together served as an ideological base and pedagogical framework for the creation of "progressive," "reconstructed" American Jewish school programs in the early 20th century (1910s-1930s). In the main,…

  7. Representations of Technology in the "Technical Stories" for Children of Otto Witt, Early 20th Century Swedish Technology Educator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axell, Cecilia; Hallström, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    Children's fiction in school libraries have played and still play a role in mediating representations of technology and attitudes towards technology to schoolchildren. In early 20th century Sweden, elementary education, including textbooks and literature that were used in teaching, accounted for the main mediation of technological knowledge…

  8. Performance expectations of early 20th century urban American building foundations

    OpenAIRE

    Laefer, Debra F.

    2008-01-01

    Foundation reuse is a tricky business at the best of times. For structures predating the mid-20th century, the challenge is exacerbated by the presence of a variety of foundation types, techniques, and materials no longer in current usage, such as lime based mortar. Accordingly, the modern engineer is presented with the difficulty of making decisions about assessment and intervention strategies for construction systems, geometries, and methods for which there is no applicable current building...

  9. Representations of technology in the “Technical Stories” for children of Otto Witt, early 20th century Swedish technology educator

    OpenAIRE

    Axell, Cecilia; Hallstro?m, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    Children's fiction in school libraries have played and still play a role in mediating representations of technology and attitudes towards technology to schoolchildren. In early 20th century Sweden, elementary education, including textbooks and literature that were used in teaching, accounted for the main mediation of technological knowledge to schoolchildren. An investigation of children's literature for schools is therefore important in order to understand what was considered worth knowing a...

  10. Spanish Flu and Early 20th-Century Expansion of a Coronary Heart Disease–Prone Subpopulation

    OpenAIRE

    Azambuja, Maria Ine?s Reinert

    2004-01-01

    According to Stephen Jay Gould, “we have a strong preference for seeing trends as entities moving somewhere.” However, trends may instead be the product of relative expansions and contractions of different subpopulations constituting the system. Variation in attributes of coronary heart disease cases during the decline in coronary heart disease mortality suggests a change in the primary source-subpopulation of cases over time. It is proposed that an early 20th-century expansion of a coron...

  11. Exploring 20th Century London

    Science.gov (United States)

    From the expansion of the Underground to the waves of new arrivals from the British colonies, London was greatly transformed through the 20th century. Recently, several London institutions, including the Museum of London, combed through their respective resources to create this interactive exhibit and archive that would tell visitors a bit about the city's evolution during those 100 years. The materials can be viewed through three sections: "Timeline", "Themes", and "Places". In the "Timeline" section, visitors can browse through featured objects and also learn about major events during the period. Moving on, the "Themes" area organizes the city's recent past into topical areas that focus on art and design, the built environment, ethnic communities, and leisure activities. The "Places" section features a clickable map of London's boroughs which reveals artifacts from each of these respective areas.

  12. Christian Faith in Bing Xin’s Early Life: Tradition and Western Values in the Early 20th Century China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia CANUTI

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available  AbstractAmong Chinese writers of the 20th century, Xie Wanying ??? (1900–1999, known with her pen name Bing Xin ??, has been considered by literary critics as “the writer of love” and “the philosopher of love”. Nevertheless, this label seems to have ignored an element that could let us identify important conflicts within her works, that can be attributed to her contacts and relations with people and institutions linked to the Christian faith. Therefore, in the first period of Bing Xin’s literary production (1920–1930, this peculiar aspect of Western culture, the Christian belief, seems to be for her the expression of a definitely alternative and unconventional way to achieve truth in the early 20th century China.Keywords: Bing Xin ??, Western culture, Christian religion, tradition, poetryIzvle?ekXie Wanying ??? (1900–1999, kitajsko književnico 20. stoletja, ki je znana pod psevdonimom Bing Xin ??, so literarni kritiki ozna?evali kot »pesnico ljubezni« in »filozofinjo ljubezni«. Vendar ta oznaka ni upoštevala elementa, ki nam lahko omogo?i vpogled v pomembne konflikte, vsebovane v njenih delih, in ki je povezan z njenimi odnosi z ljudmi in institucijami krš?anske cerkve. V zgodnjem obdobju njenega literarnega ustvarjanja (1920–1930 je ta zna?ilni vidik zahodne kulture, namre? krš?anska vera, zanjo o?itno predstavljal izraz nedvomno alternativnega in nekonvencionalnega iskanja resnice na Kitajskem v za?etku 20. stoletja.Klju?ne besede: Bing Xin ??, zahodna kultura, krš?anska vera, tradicija, poezija

  13. Russian folk costume in the works of historians of 19th - early 20th centuries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Syrjenko

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on historical studies of Russian folk costume in the works of the XIX - early XX centuries. The features marked the most significant issues in the works of the period. Reflects the author's approach to the study of people's everyday issues of culture, part of which is costume.

  14. Exploring glacial change - flying in the tailwind of the early 20th century Greenland explorers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjork, A. A.; Kjaer, K. H.

    In the early 1930s Greenlandic explorers and scientists began using airplanes as an effective mean of surveying and mapping the hitherto unknown and inaccessible lands. By replacing the dogsled and the drawing board with the seaplane and camera, huge areas could now be covered. Here in the 21st Century the photographs now serve as a snapshot of the state of the glaciers, and possess unique scientific value as they stand as the first testimony of hundreds of Greenlandic glaciers. In the summer of 2013, we flew in the paths of the early flights and captured the changes that occurred during the last 80 years. To revisit all the historic glaciers would be a near impossible, not to mention extremely expensive task, so we targeted the most important glaciers in terms of present mass loss as well as the most aesthetically appealing historical images. The result is a then-and-now comparison that vividly captures both the raw beauty of the land and the ongoing often dramatic glacial changes. As the historic flights covered nearly half the Greenlandic coast line, we capture both areas of massive retreat and areas of still stand and even advance.

  15. "Winged sponges": houseflies as carriers of typhoid fever in 19th- and early 20th-century military camps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, Vincent J

    2006-01-01

    Typhoid fever was the scourge of 19th- and early 20th-century armies. During the Spanish-American War (1898) and the Anglo-Boer War (1899- 1902), typhoid killed more soldiers than enemy bullets. Walter Reed and his coworkers investigated the cause of the typhoid epidemics in the U.S. Army camps and concluded that, next to human contact, the housefly (Musca domestica) was the most active agent in the spread of the disease. British medical officers in South Africa, facing even worse typhoid epidemics, reached the same conclusion. The experiences of the American and British armies finally convinced the medical profession and public health authorities that these insects conveyed typhoid. The housefly was now seen as a health menace. Military and civilian sanitarians waged fly-eradication campaigns that prevented the housefly's access to breeding places (especially human excrement), and that protected food and drink from contamination. Currently, M. domestica is recognized as the mechanical vector of a wide variety of viral, bacterial, and protozoal pathogens. Fly control is still an important public health measure in the 21st century, especially in developing countries. PMID:16489276

  16. Views of Europe among Serbian political and cultural elite in late 20th and early 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakši? Božidar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of his own previous research the author examines views of Europe held by the Serbian political and cultural elite in the late 20th and early 21st century. Unable to meet the challenges of the historical moment, this elite has brought Serbia into open conflict with its closest neighbors and exposed its citizens to international sanctions. War-mongering propaganda of the major state-controlled media was developing feelings of xenophobia and frustration among citizens. The collusion between authoritarian government and war profiteers was systematically destroying the lives of Serbian citizens, bringing them to the brink of material impoverishment and spiritual misery. The process of dissolution of the common Yugoslav state is coming to its end in the first decade of this century. Just as it lacked wisdom political will or strength to prevent armed conflicts and crimes, the Serbian elite today is unable to condemn war crimes, to face disastrous consequences of its own policies, and to help Serbian citizens find their way to prosperity.

  17. Conservation of 19th and early 20th century oil paintings - in situ studies using the environmental scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Most 19th and early 20th century oil paintings suffer from fading, discolouration, pitting, cracking swelling or the loss of material due to the embrittlement or the extreme friability of the paint layers. As a consequence of this deterioration, they require special care by experienced conservators to ensure their continued preservation. These aging processes are a consequence of (i) chemical interactions between pigments, oils and binders used by the artist and (ii) the action of air, water and ultra-violet irradiation on these materials. The influence of chemical interactions is pertinent for paintings of this era as the industrial revolution brought forth new colourful chemicals that were quickly adopted as pigments with varying success. The conservation of oil paintings requires an understanding of the individual structure of each work of art and what mechanisms underlie its deterioration. This generally involves the need for (i) correct identification of the pigments used by the artist, (ii) a detailed knowledge of the chemical interaction between these pigments, (iii) an understanding of the artist's method of mixing colours and laying paint on the canvas and (iv) a detailed knowledge of the role of the atmosphere, moisture and UV irradiation on painting deterioration. In addition to dealing with the deterioration that occurs within the painting, conservators spend a large portion of their time correcting earlier failed conservation attempts. Most oilier failed conservation attempts. Most oil paintings from this era are valuable from an artistic or historic perspective and only an extremely small sample may be excised from the work, hence microscopy is an indispensable technique in art preservation. Optical microscopy is the core analysis technique used, however, in recent years a limited number of conservators have begun to use Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) technology to examine paint layers to take advantage of the accurate and rapid identification of elements present in layers of paints it allows. X-ray diffraction (XRD) can be used to ascertain pigments based on their crystal structure but this technique is generally ruled out due to the relatively large sample required for accurate identification. In this project techniques have been developed to examine the chemical interaction of pigments in oil paintings using the ESEM. The ultimate aim is to investigate these aging and degradation processes in situ under accelerated conditions using the controlled gas phase and temperature capabilities of this instrument. The ESEM also allows direct observation of the effects of sudden and slow changes in the relative humidity as well as the exposure to UV radiation on paint layers under controlled conditions. Other complementary techniques have been used to both characterise the pigments and linseed oils used in this work and to examine the chemical interactions in constructed paint layers. XRD has been used to characterise the dry pigments used in 19th and early 20th century oil paintings and GC-MS was used to characterize a range of linseed oils. Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Thermogravimetry have been used to study the drying kinetics of all the linseed oils used in this work on their own and in combination with pigments to establish the optimum conditions for ESEM analysis. Paint layers have been constructed using similar materials and methods as were used by oil painters in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Dry inorganic pigments of the type used in that era were obtained from an art supplier and chemical suppliers. Each pigment was ground in three types of linseed oil using the traditional muller and glass plate. These were applied in layers to glass slides to avoid influence from ground media or canvas and allowed to dry in the air and in an oven. Pigments that were known to interact strongly were placed in paint layers in direct contact with one another to encourage chemical interaction between the various pigments. In this paper, the key results to date of the present study

  18. Historiography for Educational Leadership in Mathematics: Content Analysis of a 1904 K-8 Mathematics Series and the Early 20th Century Context of Its Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Math education is as important today as it was 100 years ago when the early 20th century was transforming from the old world into an era of factories, airplanes, atomic energy, and medical breakthroughs. Educational leaders of the era were wrestling with how long children should stay in school, meeting the diverse needs of an influx of immigrants,…

  19. Silas Weir mitchell on epilepsy therapy in the late 19th to early 20th centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkholder, David B; Boes, Christopher J

    2014-11-01

    Silas Weir Mitchell (1829-1914), one of the fathers of American neurology, is well known for many contributions to neurology. However, his efforts in epilepsy are overshadowed by his other accomplishments. Mitchell introduced a new bromide preparation, lithium bromide, as a viable therapy. His most widely accepted contribution to the field was the introduction of inhaled amyl nitrite for early termination of seizures accompanied by an appropriate aura. Despite the prevalent views on lifestyle modification as a treatment for epilepsy during this time period, as well as Mitchell's own development of the "rest cure" for certain disease states, he was not a proponent of these types of interventions for epilepsy, nor did he support interventions focused on other organ systems, such as abdominal or gynecologic surgery. Mitchell had distinct opinions on the treatment of epilepsy, and helped to advance its therapeutics during his career. PMID:25384100

  20. Mathematical logic in the 20th century

    CERN Document Server

    Sacks, Gerald E

    2003-01-01

    This invaluable book is a collection of 31 important both inideas and results papers published by mathematical logicians inthe 20th Century. The papers have been selected by Professor Gerald ESacks. Some of the authors are Gödel, Kleene, Tarski, A Robinson,Kreisel, Cohen, Morley, Shelah, Hrushovski and Woodin.

  1. Antimatter and 20th century science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gary

    2005-03-01

    This article gives an outline of the history of antimatter from the concept first introduced in 1898 up to the present day and is intended to complement the article 'Antihydrogen on Tap’ on page 229. It is hoped that it will provide enough historical background material along with interesting snippets of information for teachers to feel informed about the topic when in the classroom. Antimatter is the perfect example of 20th century science incorporating quantum mechanics and relativity, and showing progression from a theoretical idea to mass production within the space of 100 years. The final section is about using the idea of antihydrogen in the classroom.

  2. Weyl geometry in late 20th century physics

    CERN Document Server

    Scholz, Erhard

    2011-01-01

    Weyl's original scale geometry of 1918 ("purely infinitesimal geometry") was withdrawn from physical theory in the early 1920s. It had a comeback in the last third of the 20th century in different contexts: scalar tensor theories of gravity, foundations of physics (gravity, quantum mechanics), elementary particle physics, and cosmology. Here we survey the last two segments. It seems that Weyl geometry continues to have an open research potential for the foundations of physics after the turn of the century.

  3. Fighting the 'microbe of sporting mania': Australian science and Antarctic exploration in the early 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Peder

    2004-09-01

    The 'Heroic Age' of Antarctic exploration, which occurred during the first 15 years of the 20th century, captured headlines around the world. Australia was no exception, especially as Australian scientists played important roles in several expeditions. Through participation in the British Antarctic Expedition of 1907-1909, two Australian scientists - T.W. Edgeworth David (1858-1934) and Douglas Mawson (1882-1958) - became genuine national heroes, mainly through being members of the first party to reach the South Magnetic Pole area. At a superficial level, the vehicle of Antarctic exploration placed science at the forefront of public awareness, fulfilling David's ambition for greater recognition of science and scientists, especially considering the high level of public interest in sport. However, although David and Mawson gave Antarctic exploration a scientific veneer, simply through their status as scientists, the public viewed them as heroes because they had endured great hardships and conquered a point on the map in the name of science and the Empire. PMID:15350762

  4. Studies of the Orthodox canon law in the Baltic area in the second half of the 19th/early 20th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorskaya A.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the emergence of canon law as a science and academic discipline in the Baltic area in the second half of 19th/early 20th centuries. The author emphasizes the role of the Tartu University in the organizational development of ecclesiastical law in legal education system of the Russian Empire. The article describes the general religious situation in the Baltic area and explores the role of the personality of a scientist in the development of a research area.

  5. Musical instrument technology of the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Paul

    2001-05-01

    This paper presents a brief history of the technical development of musical instruments during the 20th century. Starting with early electronic instruments (such as the Theremin-1917) invented prior to the organization of ASA, the history includes the development of electronic organs, synthesizers, and computer music. This paper provides an introduction to the session, giving a framework for the papers which follow in the session.

  6. Weyl geometry in late 20th century physics

    OpenAIRE

    Scholz, Erhard

    2011-01-01

    Weyl's original scale geometry of 1918 ("purely infinitesimal geometry") was withdrawn from physical theory in the early 1920s. It had a comeback in the last third of the 20th century in different contexts: scalar tensor theories of gravity, foundations of physics (gravity, quantum mechanics), elementary particle physics, and cosmology. Here we survey the last two segments. It seems that Weyl geometry continues to have an open research potential for the foundations of physic...

  7. The epidemic of the 20(th) century: coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalen, James E; Alpert, Joseph S; Goldberg, Robert J; Weinstein, Ronald S

    2014-09-01

    Heart disease was an uncommon cause of death in the US at the beginning of the 20th century. By mid-century it had become the commonest cause. After peaking in the mid-1960s, the number of heart disease deaths began a marked decline that has persisted to the present. The increase in heart disease deaths from the early 20th century until the 1960s was due to an increase in the prevalence of coronary atherosclerosis with resultant coronary heart disease, as documented by autopsy studies. This increase was associated with an increase in smoking and dietary changes leading to an increase in serum cholesterol levels. In addition, the ability to diagnose acute myocardial infarction with the aid of the electrocardiogram increased the recognition of coronary heart disease before death. The substantial decrease in coronary heart disease deaths after the mid-1960s is best explained by the decreased incidence, and case fatality rate, of acute myocardial infarction and a decrease in out-of-hospital sudden coronary heart disease deaths. These decreases are very likely explained by a decrease in coronary atherosclerosis due to primary prevention, and a decrease in the progression of nonobstructive coronary atherosclerosis to obstructive coronary heart disease due to efforts of primary and secondary prevention. In addition, more effective treatment of patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction has led to a substantial decrease in deaths due to acute myocardial infarction. It is very likely that the 20th century was the only century in which heart disease was the most common cause of death in America. PMID:24811552

  8. Preconditions and Reasons of Religions Educational and Missionary Activities of the Russian Orthodox Church in the Late 19th – Early 20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelena D. Mikhailova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to studying the reasons and preconditions for religions, educational and missionary activities of the Russian Orthodox Church in the late 19th – early 20th centuries. Basing on the archive records, the author shows that most important preconditions for enhancing religions – educational activities were the following: the destruction of traditional patriarchal life of the masses, which was based on religions values, the need to overcome “religions ignorance” of a significant part of Orthodox population, the rapid religions dissent in the Russian Empire. Analysis of reasons for their wide spread shows that it wasn’t the cause of foreign influence or any kind of social protest. Studying contemporary opinions as well as specific facts of provincial parish life led to the conclusion that there existed a wide complex of preconditions that influenced the growth of “protest” forms of religion.

  9. Early 20th Century Education in the United States: The Role of the Brothers of Holy Cross

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Philip C.

    2007-01-01

    The French Revolution bears an ironic responsibility for generating works of charity. To counteract the devastating social effects of that late 18th century uprising, numerous religious communities were founded in France, among them the Congregation of Holy Cross. The Congregation of Holy Cross, the founding religious community behind the…

  10. Dietary Changes in Sweden and Belgium During the Late 20th and Early 21st Century and Their Implications for Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Geeraert, Friedel

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the changing food consumption patterns in Sweden and Belgium during the latter half of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century and the implications as seen from a sustainability point of view, both from a qualitative and quantitative perspective. It is shown that changes in agriculture, food processing, distribution and consumption during the period under assessment were considerable and had a clear impact on the food consumption pattern in both cou...

  11. Analysis of Early 20th century Chromatic Modal Music with the use of the Generative Theory of Tonal Music - Pitch Space and Prolongational issues in selected modal idioms

    OpenAIRE

    Tsougras, Costas

    2009-01-01

    The Generative Theory of Tonal Music in its original form (Lerdahl & Jackendoff 1983) applied to music belonging to the Western tonal idiom only. However, during the last decade, theoretical and analytical research has been conducted on its application on diatonic or chromatic modal music. More specifically, Lerdahl addresses chromatic pitch spaces in chapters 6 & 7 of his "Tonal Pitch Space" (2001) and conducts analyses of late 19th century and 20th century music, while Temperley (The Cognit...

  12. Australian Literature Database: A Collection of 18th, 19th and early 20th century Australian texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Part of the metasite of the Scholarly Electronic Text and Image Service (SETIS) at the University of Sydney Library, this site allows users to access hundreds of complete texts of literary and historical works written by Australians in the last three centuries. Included here are poems, short stories, novels, reference works, memoirs, historical narratives and documents, and much more. The texts can be browsed or searched with options allowing users to search or limit searches by date, publisher, author, title, genre, gender of author, or opening lines. A limited number of historically valuable texts are displayed in page image format; the rest are offered in standard .html. Since many of these texts can be difficult for students and researchers not on the southern continent to find, the database is all the more valuable to those doing work in this field.

  13. The early vs the late 20th century Arctic warming: The role of energy and aerosol fluxes in reanalysis driven datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegmann, Martin; Broennimann, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    During the last two decades, the Arctic was put into the scientific focus as one of the most impacted regions worldwide concerning anthropogenic global warming. However, the warming between 1920 and 1940 proofs the importance of internal variability on yearly and decadal scale. Therefore, it is important to further investigate the role of external and internal forcings on the Arctic climate attribute process and causes leading to changes in the Arctic climate regime (Serreze & Barry 2009). Although much research effort was spent to understand the links and influences of and on the Arctic climate, there is still a need for further insights concerning this topic. Especially the results and discussion about anthropogenic global warming and Arctic amplification put the Arctic into the public and academic focus (Serreze & Barry 2011). However, the early 20th century Arctic warming, although discovered immediately, was scientifically forgotten until recently (Delworth & Knutson 2000, Bengtsson et al 2004, Grant et al 2009, Bekryaev et al 2010). The comparison of this earlier Arctic warming and the recent warming period grants a chance to deepen knowledge about the drivers of Arctic climate and can be used to evaluate the anthropogenic impact. The authors use the Twentieth Century Reanalysis (20CR) dataset and a nudged, reanalysis-driven Aerosol Global Circulation Model (A-GCM) to investigate the impact of atmospheric energy and aerosol fluxes into the Arctic during the 20th century. The 20CR dataset covers the period of 1871 - 2010 with a temporal resolution of 6hr and a spatial resolution of 2° x 2°. For the first time, this dataset (and ist 56 ensemble member) is used to compute the atmospheric energy flux, consisting of sensble heat, latent heat, potential energy and kinetic energy. The values are integrated around 70° N and between 1000 - 100 hPa. Aerosol fluxes for the same domain but for the years 1957 - 2000 are calculated based on the A-GCM nudged to the ECMWF 40 year Re-analysis (ERA) and correlated to circulation patterns. Based on these dataset we analyze timeseries and patterns of several variables, with a focus on the temperature changes in the Arctic domain. We show that the 20CR can recreate recent sensible heat fluxes, meaning from the 1950s onward. Before this timeperiod 20CR exhibits a strong positive energy influx between 1920 and 1930, which is difficult to validate, however probably arises due to missrepresentation of local wind maxima, mostly over the Canadian Arctic. The authors highlight the impact of this flaw by investigating snow cover and atmospheric stability over the Arctic. Finally, the two datasets are compared and exemplary extreme events in aerosol fluxes are analysed in terms of warming impact and the related circulation patterns. Possible implications for the future use of 20CR are discussed, together with the impact of our findings for the interpretation of the early 20th warming in todays context.

  14. Is susceptibility to chronic rheumatic heart disease determined in early infancy? An analysis of mortality in Britain during the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, D.I.W.; Osmond, C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The reason why some individuals but not others are susceptible to rheumatic fever and chronic rheumatic heart disease is not understood. Because of the substantial evidence that poverty is an important determinant of the disease and must operate in early life, we have investigated the role of the early environment in an ecological study using 20th century mortality as an index of disease prevalence. Methods: We analysed 37,321 deaths from rheumatic heart disease in England and Wales during 1968–78. We compared the geographical distribution of deaths with previous infant mortality records from 1911 onwards. These records included details of mortality at different ages and from different causes. They also included data on housing and population density. Results: Mortality from rheumatic heart disease showed a strong correlation with past infant mortality that was consistently stronger with postneonatal mortality (deaths from one month to one year) than with neonatal mortality (deaths during the first month of life). Areas with high infant mortality from diarrhoea or bronchitis had the highest subsequent mortality from rheumatic heart disease. Although rheumatic heart disease was linked with early overcrowding, regression analyses suggested that overcrowding could not per se explain the infant mortality associations. Conclusions: Chronic rheumatic heart disease may have its origins in early infancy. Our findings raise the possibility that susceptibility to rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease may be linked with infection in the postneonatal period. Alternatively, they may be explained by the operation of environmental factors that both predispose to infection in infancy and the subsequent liability to heart disease. PMID:25780799

  15. Manuscripts and Broadsheets. Narrative Genres and the Communication Circuit among Working-Class Youth in early 20th-Century Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsti Salmi-Niklander

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the hazy boundary between folklore and literature, orality and literacy is explored in relation to the individual and the community. How do people who belong to the first generation of active writers in their family and community express their own experiences through fictional narratives and the literary tradition? This question is explored in relation to the working-class youth in the small industrial community of Karkkila (Högforsin southern Finland. The most important research materials are the editions of hand-written newspapers written by these young people from 1914 to 1925.My theoretical background is derived from both folklore studies and book history. Inspired by the research of Robert Darnton, I have outlined the communication circuit of the working-class youth during the early 20th century, discussing the position of the manuscript tradition (hand-written newspapers, ballad books, minutes in relation to the printed texts(books, newspapers, broadsheets and the oral tradition. In my article I focus on the narratives of love in the manuscripts written by the working-class youth. How do they work with the ideas and narrative genres and themes adopted from the printed media and the oral tradition? I outline fictionalization of personal experiences and localization of fictional, printed texts as two basic narrative strategies utilized in these processes.

  16. The burgeoning presbyopic population: an emerging 20th century phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pointer, J S

    1998-07-01

    Improved social welfare in the wake of the 'industrial revolution' set in train in mid-18th century Britain an escalation in population numbers which has been sustained through to the end of the 20th century--and is projected to continue into the 21st century. However, within the total population envelope the percentage-contribution of certain age groupings shows a striking pattern when viewed across nearly five centuries. For 350 years, up to the end of the 19th century, the over--40 year old section of the population comprised a steady 25% of the total population count of England (latterly England and Wales): over the same period the 60-plus section contributed nearly 10% of the total. Throughout the ten decades of the 20th century these proportions have both increased, such that with the arrival of the next millennium a two-fold increase in the percentage-contribution of both age groups will have occurred: nearly one-half (over 24 million) of the population of England and Wales will be aged over 40, or more than one-fifth (around 11 million) will be aged over 60 years. This 'ageing' of the general population will have economic and socio-medical implications both at home and abroad, since this is a demographic trend which is present/projected in all countries of the European Union (as presently constituted). The future practise of optometry will certainly be touched by these changes. Naturally a potential increase in demand for presbyopic refractive corrections from the growing volume of aged 40-plus individuals is possible. However of greater significance is the certain increase in age-related oculo-visual problems arising from within the growing aged 60-plus population. Greater acknowledgement and utilisation of the optometrist's skills, currently being reappraised through the profession's participation in 'collaborative care' schemes, may indicate the direction in which optometry should move in the early 21st century to remain a valuable--and valued--health care profession. PMID:9829105

  17. Rational Number Theory in the 20th Century

    CERN Document Server

    Narkiewicz, Wladyslaw

    2012-01-01

    The last one hundred years have seen many important achievements in the classical part of number theory. After the proof of the Prime Number Theorem in 1896, a quick development of analytical tools led to the invention of various new methods, like Brun's sieve method and the circle method of Hardy, Littlewood and Ramanujan; developments in topics such as prime and additive number theory, and the solution of Fermat's problem. "Rational Number Theory in the 20th Century: From PNT to FLT" offers a short survey of 20th century developments in classical number theory, documenting between

  18. Geodiversity and biodiversity interactions in the sand landscapes of the Netherlands on 19th and early 20th century landscape paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungerius, Pieter; van den Ancker, Hanneke

    2014-05-01

    Sand landscapes occupy about half of the territory of the Netherlands. Apart from an insignificant amount of Tertiary deposits, these sands are of Pleistocene and Holocene age. They include Saalian push moraines, Weichselian cover sands and Holocene drift sands. To these geological landscapes, cultural variants should be added such as the essen, i.e. a landscape with plaggen soils, and reclaimed lands (e.g. former moors). Not included are the coastal sands, which we dealt with in an earlier EGU contribution (van den Ancker & Jungerius 2012). Nature and man created a wide variety of sceneries that inspired painters in the 19th and early 20th century (Jungerius et al. 2012). Painter communities on the sandy soils flourished in Oosterbeek/Wolfheze, Laren/Blaricum, Nijkerk, Nunspeet/Elspeet, Hattem and Heeze. Many of the landscape paintings are found in the database of Simonis en Buunk that can be freely consulted on line (http//www.simonis&buunk.com). For this presentation we selected specimens that show geodiversity-biodiversity relationships, some of which have changed since. Painters of push moraines were attracted by the rolling terrain, the dry valleys and occasionally the colourful podzol soil profiles. Popular themes in the cover sands were the undulating relief and heathlands with herds of sheep, sandy footpaths and country roads with erosion phenomena. The dynamics of erosion captivated the painters of Holocene drift sand scenery, as did the bare fields of cultivated lands. Their paintings show the rural areas that since the beginning of the 20th century lost their traditional charm in large-scale re-allotment schemes and artificial nature-building project, that changed geodiversity-biodiversity relationships. Changes in the sandy terrains that can be inferred from the paintings are on a landscape scale, the scale of the landform and vegetation type, and are illustrated by changes in colour, pattern, structure and texture. Examples are: · active drift sands with erosional phenomena, most vanished as a result of afforestation and eutrophic precipitation; · wetland heath habitats, that largely disappeared due to reclamation and regional lowering of the groundwater table; · grazing of herded sheep of local breed on geo-structured heathlands, that is recently re-introduced for nature mangement purposes; · smaller agricultural plots on undulating 'essen' with crops such as buckwheat and wheat, now replaced by level terrain and maize monocultures; · monumental old trees on the oldest landscape paintings, often on river banks, are notably absent on later paintings. References Jungerius P, van den Ancker H, Wevers N 2012. The contribution of Dutch landscape painters to the conservation of geoheritage. Geology Today 28,3. Hanneke van den Ancker & Pieter Dirk Jungerius, 2012. Landscape paintings, a tool for research, planning and management of the coastal zone. Presentation General Assembly European Geosciences Union EGU - SSS, Vienna.

  19. Contagious Rhythm: Infectious Diseases of 20th Century Musicians

    OpenAIRE

    Sartin, Jeffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    Infectious diseases have led to illness and death for many famous musicians, from the classical period to the rock ’n’ roll era. By the 20th century, as public health improved and orchestral composers began living more settled lives, infections among American and European musicians became less prominent. By mid-century, however, seminal jazz musicians famously pursued lifestyles characterized by drug and alcohol abuse. Among the consequences of this risky lifestyle were tuberculosis, syph...

  20. A 20th century acceleration in global sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Church

    Global mean sea level from 1870 to 2004 was estimated using tide-gauge data and reductions of large matrices of satellite spatial data. It was found that the sea level likely rose 195 millimeters. This yields a 20th century rate of sea level rise of 1.7 +/- 0.3 millimeters per year. If the rate of acceleration were to remain constant, the sea level would rise about 300 millimeters above current values by 2100.

  1. No limits : the 20th century discourse of economic growth

    OpenAIRE

    Friman, Eva

    2002-01-01

    The breakthrough of the concept of economic growth in economics marks a paradigm shift in thinking about the economy and its place in 'reality.' This thesis analyzes the 20th century discourse of economic growth, focusing its unlimited connotations. The thesis consists of four case studies, two introductory parts and a concluding dis­cussion. Part II first gives an etymological outline of how the concept 'growth' transformed: from signifying natural processes, to become crucial within econom...

  2. [The 20th century: 100 years of misfortune and splendor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urdaneta-Carruyo, Eliéxer

    2005-01-01

    The 20th century has been one of the most intense and convulsive periods in the History of humanity. A century of paradoxes and contrasts, it began with optimism, it witnessed the apocalypse of two world wars, and finished with unimaginable scientific progress that gave us a new civilization that we cannot yet grasp. In this century, significant events happened that shaped our time and projected their results toward an immediate future. Some of these were providential in understanding man's life, fighting against illnesses and prolonging life, and others were of undeniable social importance for humanity. Some knowledge was based on the work of others. Philosophy was embedded in mathematics, as was science in philosophy, while politics and the economy exercised so decisive an influence in our way of feeling and living that culture and society were affected to the core. Within that century the biggest technological revolution of all the time was also created, as transcendent as it was unimaginable, which put mankind on the road to the stars with the moon landing and in the process created the information society whose signature symbol, the internet, emerged as a new demiurge. However, the 20th century, with all its misfortune and splendor, paradoxes and contrasts, creation and destruction, was the most transcendent in the whole of history and it bequeaths to the future a promising horizon in the search for a renovated meaning of life and a yearning for peaceful coexistence for the whole humanity. PMID:15754756

  3. Modern Medicine Environment and Adaptation of Korean Trader for Medicinal Herbs From the Late 19th Century to the Early 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Jeongpil

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the late 18th century, the Korean traditional medicine trade witnessed a steady growth. There were lots of stores which sold Korean medicinal herbs in Seoul and every major towns had at least one or more stores in Korea, which led to a subsequent growth of people involved in the trade. However, Korean medicine merchants encountered a new environment with the influx of western medicines after the Opening of Ports and the execution of modern medicine policies. Such change of atmosphere led the merchants to seek new breakthroughs. Some of the merchants found the answer in producing and selling patent medicine. The people in the industry had little knowledge of western medicine, so that they had little choice but to combine their experience of Korean medicine with whatever information they had about western counterpart. Such resolution generated a new kind of medicine known as patent medicine. Patent medicine businessmen observed the new medicine policies of the Korean Empire. Some visionary ones even sought to eagerly utilize the trademark system to secure the selling route. The Japanese colonial government strengthened the medicine policies. It revised the legislature and mobilized administrative powers to manage and control the industry. However, such colonial policies in the 1910s implicated certain limits due to its lack of understanding of Korean medicine industry. Also, the colonial government showed poor efforts in introducing modern medicine facilities and systems, so that the ground was set for the patent medicine business to flourish. Patent medicine enjoyed a high turnover. So, the entrepreneurs endeavored to promote the sales in whatever means necessary. The most basic form of advertisement was through the newspaper. Indirect promotion through newspaper articles, issuing medicine flyers, free gift draw, reputation of an influential expert were widely used for its sales. Consequently, patent medicine industry in the 1910s saw a healthy prosperity. One example of such golden days was the case of Hwapyungdangyakbabg(one of the biggest patent medicine companies, which won a third place along with Kyungsungbangjik, which was the top Korean company at that time, in the advertisement design contest hosted by the classified department of Dong-a Daily in 1926. But actually, a few Japanese medicine merchants led the industry. So prosperity of Korean medicine merchant had its limits.

  4. [Modern medicine environment and adaptation of Korean trader for medicinal herbs from the late 19th century to the early 20th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jeongpil

    2006-12-01

    Since the late 18th century, the Korean traditional medicine trade witnessed a steady growth. There were lots of stores which sold Korean medicinal herbs in Seoul and every major towns had at least one or more stores in Korea, which led to a subsequent growth of people involved in the trade. However, Korean medicine merchants encountered a new environment with the influx of western medicines after the Opening of Ports and the execution of modern medicine policies. Such change of atmosphere led the merchants to seek new breakthroughs. Some of the merchants found the answer in producing and selling patent medicine. The people in the industry had little knowledge of western medicine, so that they had little choice but to combine their experience of Korean medicine with whatever information they had about western counterpart. Such resolution generated a new kind of medicine known as patent medicine. Patent medicine businessmen observed the new medicine policies of the Korean Empire. Some visionary ones even sought to eagerly utilize the trademark system to secure the selling route. The Japanese colonial government strengthened the medicine policies. It revised the legislature and mobilized administrative powers to manage and control the industry. However, such colonial policies in the 1910s implicated certain limits due to its lack of understanding of Korean medicine industry. Also, the colonial government showed poor efforts in introducing modern medicine facilities and systems, so that the ground was set for the patent medicine business to flourish. Patent medicine enjoyed a high turnover. So, the entrepreneurs endeavored to promote the sales in whatever means necessary. The most basic form of advertisement was through the newspaper. Indirect promotion through newspaper articles, issuing medicine flyers, free gift draw, reputation of an influential expert were widely used for its sales. Consequently, patent medicine industry in the 1910s saw a healthy prosperity. One example of such golden days was the case of Hwuapyungdangyakbabg (one of the biggest patent medicine companies), which won a third place along with Kyungsungbangjik, which was the top Korean company at that time, in the advertisement design contest hosted by the classified department of Dong-a Daily in 1926. But actually, a few Japanese medicine merchants led the industry. So prosperity of Korean medicine merchant had its limits. PMID:17575704

  5. Fox-hunting in the 20th century British culture

    OpenAIRE

    Kor?i?nkova?, Martina

    2008-01-01

    The paper focuses on the character and position of fox hunting especially at the beginning of the 20th century in Great Britain. The main features, such as the participating social class, the etiquette and the whole atmosphere of the hunt, its rules and customs, and finally, the roles of participants and animals in the hunts, are analyzed. The findings are presented on the novel Memoirs of a Fox-hunting Man by Siegfried Sassoon. The work also focuses on the change of the position of tradition...

  6. The semiconductor revolution in the 20th century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review is based on the plenary lecture presented by the author at the German–Russian Scientific Symposium 'Chemistry Shaping the Future' held in November, 2012, at the Central House of Scientists in Moscow. The review considers the background and milestones of the revolutionary development of semiconductor electronics in the 20th century, including the discovery of the transistor and semiconductor laser. The role of heterostructures and quantum size effects is highlighted. The significance of semiconductor solar energy converters for solving energy problems is discussed. The bibliography includes 32 references

  7. Spitsbergen landscape under 20th century climate change: Sørkapp Land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaja, Wieslaw

    2004-08-01

    A reaction of the European Arctic landscape to a climate change on the scale of a typical middle-sized region is outlined. A wide scope of the methods was used, first of all field mapping and observations. Glaciers are important in the Sørkapp Land landscape because they cover the majority of its territory and undergo quick recessions as a result of the 20th century warming. Glacial recession influence intensively: relief with Quaternary deposits, waters, animals, vegetation and soils. The most important landscape changes in the 20th century are: uplift of the equilibrium line altitude on glaciers by 100-200 m; large glacial recession in both surface and volume; significant decrease of the land area due to recession of tidewater glaciers; lengthening of the coastline, and especially of glacial cliffs; development of the land water network; start of the plant succession in areas abandoned by glaciers. No isostatic uplift has taken place in Sørkapp Land since the Little Ice Age. PMID:15387062

  8. FRUIT GROWING IN ROMANIA IN THE 20TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G ROPAN

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, fruit growing has an old and rich tradition. During the 20th century, the Romanian fruit growing witnessed dramatic changes. The acreage grown with fruit trees was 340,100 ha in 1927, 184,200 ha in 1950, 428,400 ha in 1970 and 239,900 ha in 1999. Total fruit yield varied during this period of time between 401,100 tons in 1950 and 2,183,000 tons in 1993. In spite of the fact that in 1993 was produced the highest total fruit yield, the average fruit consumption/capita was only of 35.7 kg which is significantly lower than that considered optimal for adult people in temperate zones (62 kg/capita. The main reason of this situation is the poor varietal structure of fruits in which plum trees represented more than 40% of all the fruit trees grown. Another reason would be the low yields/ha registered in all species and cultivars of fruit trees grown in Romania in the last 30-40 years. With a very serious shrink of acreages grown with fruit trees in 1999, the average consumption/capita is expected to become totally unfavorable. There are not many solutions to this problems and one of them certainly means the significant increase of average yields in all fruit species grown in Romania, at least to the level of those achieved in industrial orchards of Western Europe.

  9. The Top Ten Astronomical 'breakthroughs' of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hughes, D. W.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Astronomy was revolutionized in the 20th century. The electron was discovered in 1897 and this transformed spectroscopy and introduced plasma and magnetohydrodynamic physics and astro-chemistry. Einstein’s E = mc2, solved the problem of stellar energy generation and spawned the study of elemental nuclear synthesis. Large telescopes led to a boom in astronomical spectroscopic and photometric data collection, leading to such cornerstones as the Hertzprung-Russell diagram and the mass-luminosity relationship, and to the realization that the Universe contained a multitude of galaxies and was expanding. Radio astronomy was introduced and the advent of the space age saw the astronomical wavelength range expand into the ultraviolet, X-ray and gamma-ray regions, as well as the infrared and millimetre. We also startedwandering around roaming the Solar System instead of merely glimpsing its members from the bottom of our warm, turbulent atmosphere. Astronomical “breakthroughs” abounded. We have asked astronomers to select their “top ten” and these are listed and discussed in this paper.

  10. The dawning of the theory of equilibrium figures: a brief historical account from the 17th through the 20th century

    CERN Document Server

    Iurato, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    A brief but complete historical survey of the theory of equilibrium figures from its early origins, dating back to 17th-century, until the late 20th-century developments, with a view towards its applications, is carried out.

  11. The Loss of Balance between the Art and Science of Management: Observations on the British Experience of Education for Management in the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerriero Wilson, Robbie

    2015-01-01

    This essay considers the developments in education for management in 20th-century Britain. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, that is, the highpoint of the United Kingdom's economic success, management was considered more of an art than a science, and formal education specifically for management was limited. After the Second World…

  12. Global physical water scarcity trajectories for the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummu, Matti; de Moel, Hans; Eisner, Stefanie; Flörke, Martina; Siebert, Stefan; Varis, Olli

    2014-05-01

    Food security and the overall wellbeing of human kind are threatened by overexploitation of our freshwater resources. Water scarcity is not only a threat to people, but also to many of the planet's key ecosystems. Due to increasing population pressure, changing water consumption behaviour, and climate change, the threat is projected to become even worse in the future. Water can be physically scarce in two ways: population-driven water shortage occurs in areas where a large population has to depend on a limited resources (indicated by m3/capita/yr), while demand-driven water stress is related to the excessive use of otherwise sufficient water resources (indicated by demand/supply ratio). Although many studies have increased our understanding of current water scarcity and how this may increase in the future, the understanding of trajectories with the past development of the water scarcity is less well understood. To date, studies of past water resources have focused on either water shortage or water stress. We aim to calculate global water scarcity, both water stress and water shortage, for the period 1900-2005. We can thus provide, for the first time, continuous regional trends and local analyses of trajectories of water scarcity for the entire 20th century. By including both dimensions of water scarcity, we can increase the understanding of reasons behind the scarcity. We found that in year 1900 13% of the population (i.e. 0.22 billion people) was living in areas that suffer some kind of water scarcity (0.2), while in year 2005 this percentage has increased to 57% (3.80 billion). Especially the population suffering from both high water stress (ratio >0.4) and high water shortage (resources. WaterGAP was forced with WATCH data. For the past population, we used HYDE dataset. The water scarcity results are plotted in Falkenmark's water scarcity matrix, which combines water stress and water shortage, to illustrate trajectories of how water scarcity develops for different regions. Insights into these trajectories can help to understand possible measures to alleviate water scarcity for different regions and support macro-scale analysis and planning to tackle with the future challenges in terms of water scarcity.

  13. Simulation of Daily Soil Moisture Content and Reconstruction of Drought Events from the Early 20th Century in Seoul, Korea, using a Hydrological Simulation Model, BROOK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Shik Kim

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available To understand day-to-day fluctuations in soil moisture content in Seoul, I simulated daily soil moisturecontent from 1908 to 2009 using long-term climatic precipitation and temperature data collected at the Surface SynopticMeteorological Station in Seoul for the last 98 years with a hydrological simulation model, BROOK. The output data setfrom the BROOK model allowed me to examine day-to-day fluctuations and the severity and duration of droughts in theSeoul area. Although the soil moisture content is highly dependent on the occurrence of precipitation, the pattern ofchanges in daily soil moisture content was clearly quite different from that of precipitation. Generally, there were severalphases in the dynamics of daily soil moisture content. The period from mid-May to late June can be categorized as theinitial period of decreasing soil moisture content. With the initiation of the monsoon season in late June, soil moisturecontent sharply increases until mid-July. From the termination of the rainy season in mid-July, daily soil moisture contentdecreases again. Highly stochastic events of typhoons from late June to October bring large amount of rain to the Koreanpeninsula, culminating in late August, and increase the soil moisture content again from late August to early September.From early September until early October, another sharp decrease in soil moisture content was observed. The periodfrom early October to mid-May of the next year can be categorized as a recharging period when soil moisture contentshows an increasing trend. It is interesting to note that no statistically significant increase in mean annual soil moisturecontent in Seoul, Korea was observed over the last 98 years. By simulating daily soil moisture content, I was also able toreconstruct drought phenomena to understand the severity and duration of droughts in Seoul area. During the periodfrom 1908 to 2009, droughts in the years 1913, 1979, 1939, and 2006 were categorized as ‘severe’ and those in 1988and 1982 were categorized as ‘extreme’. This information provides ecologists with further potential to interpret naturalphenomenon, including tree growth and the decline of tree species in Korea.

  14. Ionizing radiation in the 20th century and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation and radioactivity have been subjected to very different evaluations since their discovery in the late 19th century. This is due to their potential effects, which are beneficial in medical diagnosis and treatment as well as in technical applications, and cause damage at high doses. In the light of the early finding that high doses are harmful, some first concepts limiting the exposure to manmade radiation were elaborated in the twenties of the last century. They were based on effects detectable at an early stage, and were lowered step by step as far as dose limits were concerned. The question about possible genetic effects, which was still open in the fifties, and the definition of the linear dose - effect hypothesis, resulted in further decreases of limits. It is doubtful to what extent current levels can be justified and are able to protect the health and lives of people, given the limited financial resources available to protect the public. In connection with the debate about the peaceful uses of nuclear power and the necessary final storage of radioactive waste, possibly in repositories in deep underground geologic formations, attention should be drawn to two natural facts: Natural sources annually release 2 to 5 orders of magnitude more radioactive substances into the atmosphere than all manmade sources taken together. The cumulated activities released by all nuclear power plants worldwide today roughly correspond to the natural activay roughly correspond to the natural activities of approx. 3 km3 of terrestrial rock in some 500 years. Accordingly, the human contribution to the natural flow of radioactivity is rather minimal, especially as it can be controlled and limited. (orig.)

  15. Review of Science and American Literature in the 20th and 21st Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Moss

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Review of Maniez, Claire, Ronan Ludot-Vlasak, and Frederic Dumas, eds., Science and American Literature in the 20th and 21st Centuries: From Henry Adams to John Adams (Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2012

  16. Temperature changes in Poland from the 16th to the 20th centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybylak, Rajmund; Majorowicz, Jacek; Wójcik, Gabriel; Zielski, Andrzej; Choryczewski, Waldemar; Marciniak, Kazimierz; Nowosad, Wiesaw; Oliski, Piotr; Syta, Krzysztof

    2005-05-01

    A standardized tree-ring width chronology of the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) along with different types of documentary evidence (e.g. annals, chronicles, diaries, private correspondence, records of public administration, early newspapers) have been used to reconstruct air temperature in Poland. The ground surface temperature (GST) history has been reconstructed based on the continuous temperature logs from 13 wells, using a new method developed recently by Harris and Chapman (1998; Journal of Geophysical Research 103: 7371-7383) which is compared with the functional space inversion (FSI) method applied to all available Polish temperature-depth profiles analysed before.Response function calculations conducted for trees growing in Poland (except in mountainous regions) reveal a statistically significant correlation between the annual ring widths of the Scots pine and the monthly mean air temperatures, particularly from February and March, but also from January and April. Therefore, it was only possible to reconstruct the mean January-April air temperature.The following periods featured a warm late winter/early spring: 1530-90, 1656-70 (the warmest period), 1820-50, 1910-40, and after 1985. On the other hand, a cold January-April occurred in the following periods: 1600-50, 1760-75, 1800-15, 1880-1900, and 1950-80.Reconstructions of thermal conditions using documentary evidence were carried out for winter (December-February) and summer (June-August) from 1501 to 1840 and, therefore, their results cannot be directly compared with reconstructions based on tree-ring widths. Winter temperatures in this period were colder than air temperature in the 20th century. On the other hand, historical summers were generally warmer than those occurring in the 20th century. Such situations dominated in the 16th and 17th centuries, as well as at the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries. Throughout almost the entire period from 1501 to 1840, the thermal continentality of the climate in Poland was greater than in the 20th century.GST reconstructions show that its average pre-instrumental level (1500-1778) is about 0.9-1.5 °C lower than the mean air temperature for the period 1951-81. Lower amplitude of GST warming (0.9 +/- 0.1 °C) results from the individual and simultaneous inversions of well temperature data using the FSI method. A very good correspondence of the results has been found between series of annual mean GSTs from the FSI method and mean seasonal air temperatures reconstructed using documentary evidence.

  17. ???????????? ?? ??????? ??????? ? ????????????? ????? ?? 20 ??? : The theology of the Divine energies in 20th century Orthodox thought

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan

    2012-01-01

    The dissertation was part of an individual doctoral research program as an external scholar in the Faculty of Theology at Sofia University, Bulgaria. It suggests a comprehensive study of the concept of energy in Orthodox theology and physics. It consists of a historical, dogmatic and empirical component. The first chapter discusses the re-emergence of the distinction between Divine essence and energies in Orthodox theology by focusing on the sophiological controversy in the first half of 20th century with a specific emphasis on the theology of Fr. Georges Florovsky and Fr. Sergius Bulgakov. The analysis points out the role of Fr. G. Florovsky for the rediscovery of the teaching on the Divine essence and energies as one of his key theological contributions by focusing on some of his letters to Bulgakov that were written as early as 1925 and on his work Creature and creaturehood (1927). The analysis suggests that these early works have determined the main direction of Orthodox theological reflection in the 20thcentury. Chapter II of the dissertation focuses on a comparative analysis of the theological insights of three key Orthodox theologians: Metropolitan John Zizioulas (1931 ?), Fr. Dumitru Staniloae (1903 ? 1993) and Fr. John Romanides (1927?2001). Metropolitan John Zizioulas is a Greek theologian who is currently the main theological representative of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, New Rome. Fr. D. Staniloae is a Romanian theologian who provided one of the most comprehensive theological syntheses in the 20th century. Fr. Romanides is a Greek-born American theologian who returned to Greece and became one of the main drivers of the renewal of Greek Orthodox theology in the 20th century. These three theologians have significantly contributed to Orthodox theology in the 20th century and have addressed the teaching on the Divine energies in different ways. Fr. D. Staniloae and Fr. John Romanides included the teaching on the Divine energies as an integral part of their theological systems. Metr. John Zizioulas adopted a different approach trying to demonstrate that the teaching on the Divine energies is not essential in Orthodox theology. The dissertation suggests a comparative analysis of the three theologians to show that neglecting the teaching on the energies leads to a narrower understanding of both spiritual life and the Church. Chapter III provides a parallel study of the term energy in Orthodox theology and physics. Its intention is to build on existing works and established knowledge to provide a basis for the development of an interdisciplinary analytical framework in contribution to the ongoing contemporary dialogue between science and theology. The Chapter starts with a discussion of the methodological grounds for the parallel exploration of the concept of energy in Orthodox theology and physics by focusing on the ‘analogical isomorphism’ approach. Afterwards it provides a more detailed articulation of the ways the concept of energy is used in physics and Orthodox theology by concentrating on the history, content and major issues related to two debates, the first one, between two monks - Barlaam the Calabrian and St Gregory Palamas - in 14th century Byzantium, and, the second, between two great physicists - Niels Bohr and Albert Einstein - in the 20th century. The qualitative comparative analysis approach was found to be particularly fruitful. It builds on insights from Eastern Christian (Byzantine) theology, philosophy of science and philosophy of religion to suggest an analysis of the way of using language in theology and quantum mechanics. The Chapter concludes by summarizing the observations emerging from the analysis and a number of conclusions related to their potential value for the science-theology dialogue.

  18. Effects of Irrigation on Global Climate During the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puma, M. J.; Cook, B. I.

    2010-01-01

    Various studies have documented the effects of modern ]day irrigation on regional and global climate, but none, to date, have considered the time ]varying impact of steadily increasing irrigation rates on climate during the 20th century. We investigate the impacts of observed irrigation changes over this century with two ensemble simulations using an atmosphere general circulation model. Both ensembles are forced with transient climate forcings and observed sea surface temperatures from 1902 to 2000; one ensemble includes irrigation specified by a time ]varying data set of irrigation water withdrawals. Early in the century, irrigation is primarily localized over southern and eastern Asia, leading to significant cooling in boreal summer (June.August) over these regions. This cooling spreads and intensifies by century fs end, following the rapid expansion of irrigation over North America, Europe, and Asia. Irrigation also leads to boreal winter (December.February) warming over parts of North America and Asia in the latter part of the century, due to enhanced downward longwave fluxes from increased near ]surface humidity. Precipitation increases occur primarily downwind of the major irrigation areas, although precipitation in parts of India decreases due to a weaker summer monsoon. Irrigation begins to significantly reduce temperatures and temperature trends during boreal summer over the Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes and tropics beginning around 1950; significant increases in precipitation occur in these same latitude bands. These trends reveal the varying importance of irrigation ]climate interactions and suggest that future climate studies should account for irrigation, especially in regions with unsustainable irrigation resources.

  19. Ottoman Greek Education System and Greek Girls' Schools in Istanbul (19th and 20th Centuries)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daglar Macar, Oya

    2010-01-01

    Modernization efforts in education, which were initiated in the 19th century, can be seen as forerunners of the modernization attempts in the Republic period. In this article, Greek education system in the Ottoman Empire will be discussed and the effects and importance of the changes observed in Greek girls' education in 19th and 20th centuries on…

  20. The Metaphysical Structure of Education in the 20th Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchester, Ian

    1999-01-01

    Lists presuppositions or assumptions that have been fundamental to educational thought in this century. Explores the "metaphysics of education" through a historical comparison and contrast of Eastern and Western educational thought and development. Discusses universal schooling as necessary for economic success and industrialization in the…

  1. The International "Trial of the 20th Century": Nuremberg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemerinsky, Erwin

    1999-01-01

    Considers the Nuremberg trials to be the "Trial of the Century." Highlights the series of 13 trials in which Nazi leaders, officials, judges, and others were tried, and most convicted, for war crimes. Relates that these trials had far-reaching effects in that they showed that moral obligations transcend national boundaries. (CMK)

  2. Social mobilisation and national consciousness in 20th century Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Krawchenko, Bohdan

    1982-01-01

    ?The thesis analyses social and political change in twentieth-century Ukraine and its impact on the development of the national consciousness of Ukrainians. In the pre-revolutionary era Ukrainians had a weak sense of national identity because the strategic sectors of society were dominated by non-Ukrainian minority and because the infrastructures of national life were poorly developed. The 1917 revolution saw the rise of a Ukrainian national movement which, while unable to ...

  3. Pilk ingliskeelse kirjanduse tõlgetele 18. sajandi lõpust 20. sajandi algusveerandini / A Look at Estonian Translations of English Literature from the late 18th Century to the Early 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista Mits

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to provide an overview of translations of English literature into Estonian between 1779 and 1917. There is an attempt to analyse the texts by describing them on the basis of, or in their departure from, a text or texts that chronologically and logically precede them. The discussion includes the nature of the transfer and the changes that have been made to the text, either because they existed in the source or mediating text or because of the expectations or requirements in the receptor, i.e. Estonian culture. The translated texts are seen in their historical-cultural context. For the analysis, a corpus of translated texts – religious, fiction, drama and non-fiction (published in a book form was compiled. The general orientation of Estonia until the 1880s was to the German cultural sphere. So the first translations of English literature were made via a mediating language, which was German. English Puritan writers were introduced by the Pietist missionaries with the aim of spreading their teachings in the second half of the 18th century. At about the same time the narrative element was introduced into stories with religious content. Some internationally popular stories, e.g. the Inkle and Yarico story, later robinsonades, stories of slavery and plant at ion life, as well as Amer ican Indian st or ies wer e also t r anslat ed fr om Ger man. However, until  1875  ver  y  few  translations  of  English  literature  into  E stonian were  published.  The  last quarter of the 19th century saw an explosion in literary production: there was a substantial increase  both  in  the  number  of  translations  of  English  literature  into  E stonian  as  well  as diversification of genres. This continued into the first decade of the 20th  centur y,  when  the sociopolitical situation in Estonia changed. In addition, books came to be translated directly from  English,  although  many  translations  of  English  literature  were  still  made  via  German and, to a lesser extent, via Russian, Swedish or Finnish. Thus, English literature often reached the Estonian audiences in a mediated form. The selection of authors and books, the structure of the texts and the overall meaning and tone of the texts often depended on the mediating text or culture. However, many changes were made by the translator: explanations of new words and phrases, pronunciations, references to the Estonian reader, etc. Here paratexts are quite important: the titles often explained the content or the purpose of the book and referred to the language from which the book was translated. In the prefaces, translators or publishers explained their aims or connected the book to discussions in society (e.g. the translator of Uncle Tom’s Cabin connected it to anabolitionist argument of slavery as a moral evil; on the other hand, the editor connected it to the Estonian fight for freedom; the translation of The Pathfinder was related to the polemics in the Estonian newspapers over migration. However, in very many cases it was difficult to positively identify the mediating or source language or text and to establish whether it was a translation of English literature.

  4. Catholic nursing sisters and brothers and racial justice in mid-20th-century America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Barbra Mann

    2009-01-01

    This historical article considers nursing's work for social justice in the 1960s civil rights movement through the lens of religious sisters and brothers who advocated for racial equality. The article examines Catholic nurses' work with African Americans in the mid-20th century that took place amid the prevailing social conditions of poverty and racial disempowerment, conditions that were linked to serious health consequences. Historical methodology is used within the framework of "bearing witness," a term often used in relation to the civil rights movement and one the sisters themselves employed. Two situations involving nurses in the mid-20th century are examined: the civil rights movement in Selma, Alabama, and the actions for racial justice in Chicago, Illinois. The thoughts and actions of Catholic sister and brother nurses in the mid-20th century are chronicled, including those few sister nurses who stepped outside their ordinary roles in an attempt to change an unjust system entirely. PMID:19461224

  5. A brief history of 20th century dam construction and a look into the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Giesen, Nick

    2010-05-01

    In this presentation, an overview is given of global dam building activities in the 20th century. Political, economical and hydrological factors shaped the building of large dams. The development of the relations between these three factors and dam building over time is examined. One can argue whether or not history is simply "one damn thing after another" but the second half of the 20th century suggests that history is at least reflected by the construction of one dam after another. The financial crisis of the 1930's started the first construction wave of large hydropower dams in the United States. This wave continued into the Second World War. During the Cold War, the weapon race between the USA and USSR was accompanied by a parallel neck-and-neck race in dam construction. By the 1970's, dam construction in the USA tapered off, while that in the USSR continued until its political disintegration. In China, we see two spurts in dam development, the first one coinciding with the disastrous Great Leap Forward and the second with the liberalization of the Chinese economy after the fall of the Berlin Wall. Economic and political events thus shaped to an important extent decisions surrounding the construction of large dams. Clearly, there are some hydrological prerequisites for the construction of dams. The six largest dam building nations are USSR, Canada, USA, China, Brazil, and India, all large countries with ample water resources and mountain ranges. Australia has relatively little reservoir storage for the simple fact that most of this country is flat and dry. A few countries have relatively large amounts of reservoir storage. Especially Uganda (Owens Falls), Ghana (Akosombo), and Zimbabwe (Kariba) are examples of small countries where gorges in major rivers were "natural" places for large dams and reservoirs to be built early on. It seems that, deserts aside, the average potential storage capacity lies for most continents around 10 cm or about 50% of the total yearly continental runoff. Some of the least developed countries, such as Papua New Guinea, Congo DR, and Myanmar, still have large hydropower development potential. In most countries, however, dam construction seems to have reached its peak. For the presentation, use is made of GapMinder software (www.gapminder.org), which provides direct insight in the dynamic and multi-dimensonial aspects of 20th century dam construction.

  6. Modelling the 20th and 21st century evolution of Hoffellsjökull glacier, SE-Vatnajökull, Iceland

    OpenAIRE

    Aðalgeirsdo?ttir, G.; Guðmundsson, S.; Bjo?rnsson, H.; Pa?lsson, F.; Jo?hannesson, T.; Hannesdo?ttir, H.; Sigurðsson, S. Þ.; Berthier, E.

    2011-01-01

    The Little Ice Age maximum extent of glaciers in Iceland was reached about 1890 AD and most glaciers in the country have retreated during the 20th century. A model for the surface mass balance and the flow of glaciers is used to reconstruct the 20th century retreat history of Hoffellsjökull, a south-flowing outlet glacier of the ice cap Vatnajökull, which is located close to the southeastern coast of Iceland. The bedrock topography was surveyed with radio-echo soundings in 2001. A wealth of...

  7. Mongolian Tree Rings and 20th-Century Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoby; D'Arrigo; Davaajamts

    1996-08-01

    A 450-year tree-ring width chronology of Siberian pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour) growing at timberline (2450 meters) in the Tarvagatay Mountains in west central Mongolia shows wide annual growth rings for the recent century. Ecological site observations and comparisons with instrumental temperature records indicate that the ring widths of these trees are sensitive to annual temperature variations. Low-frequency variations in the Tarvagatay tree-ring record are similar to those in a reconstruction of Arctic annual temperatures, which is based on 20 tree-ring width series from northern North America, Scandinavia, and western Russia. The results indicate that recent warming is unusual relative to temperatures of the past 450 years. PMID:8670411

  8. Radiation legacy of the 20th century: Environmental restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of events in the twentieth century, mainly related to the development of nuclear energy, mankind has been forced to deal with the restoration of the environments which contain radioactive residues. The International Conference RADLEG-200 was particularly focused on the radioactive legacy of the countries of the former Soviet Union and eastern Europe. By means of reviews and case studies the conference assessed the overall situation with respect to the contaminated sites and sources of potential environmental contamination and evaluated the achievements of rehabilitation and remediation programmes as well as identifying future needs in this field. The Conference was attended by 266 participants from 16 countries and 6 international organizations with 49 papers presented orally and 64 presented as posters. This publication contains the 49 orally presented papers, each of them was indexed separately

  9. A history of leprosy in Iran during the 19th and 20th centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Mohammad Hossein; Bahadori, Moslem

    2011-11-01

    From ancient time leprosy has been regarded as a terrifying, stigmatized disease; nevertheless, its cause remained unidentified up to the late 19th century. For centuries numerous leprosy victims worldwide suffered from its morbidity and were socially isolated. The afflicted individuals were segregated because they were considered 'unclean' and had to live in leper colonies, generally under very poor conditions. Physicians believed that leprosy was an incurable, highly contagious, and hereditary disease. In 1873 the Norwegian physician, Gerhard Armauer Hansen (1841-1912), ended the myth of leprosy and discovered its causative agent, known as Mycobacterium leprae. Hansen's discovery was a great triumph in the fight against leprosy. In the 1930's, the first effective antileprosy drug, dapsone, was introduced and in the early 1980's multi-drug therapy was popularized because of high efficacy in resistant cases. Here, we have presented a brief look at the history of leprosy in the world with special focus on the historical account of leprosy in Iran, particularly during the 19th and 20th centuries. PMID:22039850

  10. Serbian schools and teaching of Serbian language in Greece in the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojevi? Gordana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this work is Serbian schools and the teaching of Serbian language in Greece in the 20th century. During the first half of the 20th century the existence of Serbian people in Turkey (later in Greece was acknowledged through school and church. Thanks to the Serbian schools, Serbs as an invisible minority became a visible one. In the second half of the 20th century there is primarily a teaching of Serbian language as a foreign language. During this period, Serbian was accepted primarily by Greeks at courses and private classes. At the beginning of the nineties in the 20th century because of the war in the territory of Yugoslavia, a large number of refugees went to Greece. Teaching of Serbian as a native language was organized only ten years later (at the beginning of 21st century. In some places, the schools are located in consular sections and have the assistance of the country of origin (Thessalonica, Katerini while in Hani (Crete immigrants organized them-selves without the assistance from the country of origin. By studying Serbian schools and the teaching of Serbian language, this work considers relation towards language as a symbol of ethnic identity - at the individual level, at the level of receiving country and at the level of country of origin.

  11. Increasing cloud cover in the 20th century: review and new findings in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sanchez-Lorenzo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Visual observations of clouds have been performed since the establishment of meteorological observatories during the early instrumental period, and have become more systematic and reliable after the mid-19th century due to the establishment of the first national weather services. During the last decades a large number of studies have documented the trends of the total cloud cover (TCC and cloudy types; most of these studies focus on the trends since the second half of the 20th century. Due to the lower reliability of former observations, and the fact that most of this data is not accessible in digital format, there is a lack of studies focusing on the trends of cloudiness since the mid-19th century. In the first part, this work attempts to review previous studies analyzing TCC changes with information covering at least the first half of the 20th century. Then, the study analyses a database of cloudiness observations in Southern Europe (Spain since the second half of the 19th century. Specifically, monthly TCC series were reconstructed since 1866 by means of a so-called parameter of cloudiness, calculated from the number of cloudless and overcast days. These estimated TCC series show a high interannual and decadal correlation with the observed TCC series originally measured in oktas. After assessing the temporal homogeneity of the estimated TCC series, the mean annual and seasonal series for the whole of Spain and several subregions were calculated. The mean annual TCC shows a general tendency to increase from the beginning of the series until the 1960s; at this point, the trend becomes negative. The linear trend for the annual mean series, estimated over the 1866–2010 period, is a highly remarkable (and statistically significant increase of +0.44% per decade, which implies an overall increase of more than +6% during the analyzed period. These results are in line with the majority of the trends observed in many areas of the world in previous studies, especially for the records before the 1950s when a widespread increase of TCC can been considered as a common feature.

  12. Increasing cloud cover in the 20th century: review and new findings in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sanchez-Lorenzo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Visual observations of clouds have been performed since the establishment of meteorological observatories during the early instrumental period, and have become more systematic and reliable after the mid-19th century due to the establishment of the first national weather services. During the last decades a large number of studies have documented the trends of the total cloud cover (TCC and cloudy types; most of these studies are focused on the trends since the second half of the 20th century. Due to the lower reliability of former observations, and the fact that most of this data is not accessible in digital format, there is a lack of studies focusing on the trends of cloudiness since the mid-19th century. In the first part, this work attempts to review the previous studies analyzing TCC changes with information covering at least the first half of the 20th century. Then, the study analyses a database of cloudiness observations in Southern Europe (Spain since the second third of the 19th century. Specifically, monthly TCC series were reconstructed since 1866 by means of a so-called parameter of cloudiness, calculated from the number of cloudless and overcast days. This estimated TCC series show a high interannual and decadal correlation with the observed TCC series originally measured in oktas. After assessing the temporal homogeneity of the estimated TCC series, the mean annual and seasonal series for the whole of Spain and several subregions were calculated. The mean annual TCC shows a general tendency to increase from the beginning of the series until the 1960s; at this point, the trend becomes negative. The linear trend for the annual mean series, estimated over the 1866–2010 period, is a highly remarkable (and statistically significant increase of +0.44% per decade, which implies an overall increase of more than +6% during the analyzed period. These results are in line with the major part of the previous trends observed at many areas of the World, especially for the records before the 1950s, when a widespread increase of TCC can been considered as a common feature.

  13. Soviet Planetary Missions in the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntress, Wesley T., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    One of the great losses of the past decade in space exploration has been the disappearance of the Soviet/Russian from the scene in robotic lunar and planetary exploration. Soviet robotic missions to the Moon and planets were cloaked in secrecy until the early 1980s, and only after the collapse of the USSR has reliable information become available on the full history of Soviet lunar and planetary exploration missions. The author has compiled information on all lunar and planetary missions launched by the Soviet Union from 1958 to 1996, successes and failures, with the assistance of V. I. Moroz of the Institute of Space Research and I. L. Shevalev of the Lavochkin Association in Moscow. This paper will present a tabular compilation of these missions that is shortly to be published in Kosmicheskie issledovaniya. The Soviet program to explore the Solar System was bolder, more innovative, and more tragic than any contemporaries in the West could have imagined.

  14. The wings of Daedalus: The convergence of myth and technology in 20th century culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowitt, Mark E.; Kaplan, Michael S.

    1993-11-01

    In the second half of the 20th century, age-old human fantasies of leaving the Earth and touching the stars have been fulfilled by advances in space science and technology, whose roots are threaded through our history. Current advances are so explosive that the fundamental orientation of Western culture is being radically altered.

  15. Defining Health Activism: From MADD to Mad Activists: Health Activism in the 20th Century

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Jean

    2011-01-01

    Health Activism in the 20th Century: A History of Medicine Symposium at Yale University School of Medicine in October 2010 highlighted a variety of issues concerning the social history of medicine, including race, gender, sexual orientation, and disability. A watershed moment in a burgeoning interdisciplinary field, this symposium could pave the way for extensive future discourse.

  16. Professions, Generations and reproductive dynamics of a French Alpine population (16th – 20th centuries).

    OpenAIRE

    Rabino, Emma

    2005-01-01

    As part of a survey of the biological history of Alpine populations, the lineages of all the families of the Vallouise valley (a French ‘department’ of the Hautes Alpes) have been reconstructed over several centuries. The genealogies have been included in a computerized population record, known as ‘Vallouise in the Briançon area (14th–20th centuries)’, using the French–Canadian programme Analypop. Most of the professions of the family heads were included in the files. In this stu...

  17. ???History of Cholera Outbreaks in Iran during the 19th and 20th Centuries

    OpenAIRE

    Azizi, Mh; Azizi, F.

    2010-01-01

    Cholera is an acute infectious disease with high mortality if left untreated. Historically, between the 19th and 20th centuries seven great pandemics of cholera occurred and worldwide, thousands of people died. Based on an old theory, cholera was considered an air-born disease and the emergence of its outbreaks were attributed to bad weather or miasma. However later in the 18th century, British physician John Snow (1813-1858) explained the association of a terrible cholera outbreak in Lond...

  18. Temperature variability in Serbia in the second half of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanovi? Milan M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available According to data of IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel for Climatic Change, the global surface air temperature increased to 0,6 ± 0,2 °C in the 20th century. Weber G. R., (1995 quotes that there is a trend of cold in the last 60 years in the middle latitudes including Europe, too. Starting from already mentioned perplexities we have tried to perceive the problem of climate variability in Serbia in the second half of the 20th century, when it came to very important increasing of concentration of CO2. With that aim we observed the decade values of average annual temperatures in the network of 20 climatic stations. In the period 1951 - 1990 a decrease of temperature was registered in 13 stations while in other stations an increase was less than 0,1 °C. Explorers from Bulgaria (Alexandrov V., 2000 and Hungary (Domonkos P., Zoboki J., 2000 came to similar results, too. However, if we take in account the last decade 20th century the number of stations with positive changes is enlarged on 15. Stations that have small changes and those with decrease of temperature were localized in the south and south eastern part of the country, and they are mainly coincided with before separated climatic regions with maritime pluviometric regime (Radovanovi? M., 2001. Using Dzerdzevskis B. L., (1975 division on three main types of circulation in the north hemisphere, we found that the increase of temperatures in the last decade 20th century is above all caused by change of dominant type of circulation from the south meridian to zonal. An analysis of seasonal changes showed that in the last five decades 20th century it came to decrease of winter temperatures in almost half of the stations in contrast with results of paleoclimatics models of possible greenhouse effect.

  19. Observed 20th century desert dust variability: impact on climate and biogeochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Mahowald

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Desert dust perturbs climate by directly and indirectly interacting with incoming solar and outgoing long wave radiation, thereby changing precipitation and temperature, in addition to modifying ocean and land biogeochemistry. While we know that desert dust is sensitive to perturbations in climate and human land use, previous studies have been unable to determine whether humans were increasing or decreasing desert dust in the global average. Here we present observational estimates of desert dust based on paleodata proxies showing a doubling of desert dust during the 20th century over much, but not all the globe. Large uncertainties remain in estimates of desert dust variability over 20th century due to limited data. Using these observational estimates of desert dust change in combination with ocean, atmosphere and land models, we calculate the net radiative effect of these observed changes (top of atmosphere over the 20th century to be ?0.14 ± 0.11 W/m2 (1990–1999 vs. 1905–1914. The estimated radiative change due to dust is especially strong between the heavily loaded 1980–1989 and the less heavily loaded 1955–1964 time periods (?0.57 ± 0.46 W/m2, which model simulations suggest may have reduced the rate of temperature increase between these time periods by 0.11 °C. Model simulations also indicate strong regional shifts in precipitation and temperature from desert dust changes, causing 6 ppm (12 PgC reduction in model carbon uptake by the terrestrial biosphere over the 20th century. Desert dust carries iron, an important micronutrient for ocean biogeochemistry that can modulate ocean carbon storage; here we show that dust deposition trends increase ocean productivity by an estimated 6% over the 20th century, drawing down an additional 4 ppm (8 PgC of carbon dioxide into the oceans. Thus, perturbations to desert dust over the 20th century inferred from observations are potentially important for climate and biogeochemistry, and our understanding of these changes and their impacts should continue to be refined.

  20. Changes of air-sea coupling in the North Atlantic over the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yun; Wu, Lixin

    2015-04-01

    Changes of air-sea coupling in the North Atlantic Ocean over the 20th century are investigated using reanalysis data, climate model simulations, and observational data. It is found that the ocean-to-atmosphere feedback over the North Atlantic is significantly intensified in the second half of the 20th century. This coupled feedback is characterized by the association between the summer North Atlantic Horseshoe (NAH) SST anomalies and the following winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The intensification is likely associated with the enhancement of the North Atlantic storm tracks as well as the NAH SST anomalies. Our study also reveals that most IPCC AR4 climate models fail to capture the observed NAO/NAH coupled feedback.

  1. Numerical Simulation of the Water Cycle Change Over the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Schubert, Siegfried D.

    2003-01-01

    We have used numerical models to test the impact of the change in Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration on the global circulation, particularly focusing on the hydrologic cycle, namely the global cycling of water and continental recycling of water. We have run four numerical simulations using mean annual SST from the early part of the 20th century (1900-1920) and the later part (1980-2000). In addition, we vary the CO2 concentrations for these periods as well. The duration of the simulations is 15 years, and the spatial resolution is 2 degrees. We use passive tracers to study the geographical sources of water. Surface evaporation from predetermined continental and oceanic regions provides the source of water for each passive tracer. In this way, we compute the percent of precipitation of each region over the globe. This can also be used to estimate precipitation recycling. In addition, we are using the passive tracers to independently compute the global cycling of water (compared to the traditional, Q/P calculation).

  2. Ibn Khaldun and Some Classic Views in 20th Century Linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Yaqub Samarah

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The Muqaddimah of Ibn Khaldun or the Prolegomena (in Greek, is a book written by the Arab North African’s Ibn Khaldun who records an early view of universal history. We need to point out that some modern thinkers view it as the first work dealing with the: philosophy of history, or the social sciences of sociology, demography, historiography or cultural history, and economics. We need to add that the Muqaddimah also deals with Islamic theology, political theory and the natural sciences of biology and chemistry. Ibn Khaldun wrote the work in 1377 as the preface or first book of his planned world history, the Kitab al-Ibar (lit. Book of Advice, but already in his lifetime it became regarded as an independent work. The following article will try to make a comparison between Ibn Khaldun’s linguistic work in his Muqaddimah and some Western linguists i.e., Chomsky and Bloomfield. We have found that it is really mazing and interesting to show that there are some ideas, concepts, etc., discussed by Ibn Khaldun, appears again by some linguists who live in the 20th century.

  3. The Philosophy of education in Catalonia in the 20th century : dialectics, synthetics and vitalists

    OpenAIRE

    Laudo Castillo, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    This text is a contribution to the history of philosophy of contemporary education, which presents three major currents in educational philosophy in Catalonia in the 20th century. In the beginning it deals with the line of thinkers represented by Eugenid’Ors and OctaviFullat, who understood education as a dialectic between two poles or opposites in constant conflict.Then it will analyze the synthetic view following Jaume Balmes and the constantly modernizing pedagogy from Cardenal Mercier i...

  4. Interpreting Mathematics in Physics: Charting the Applications of SU(2) in 20th Century Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Ronald; Joshi, G. C.

    2006-01-01

    The role mathematics plays within physics has been of sustained interest for physicists as well as for philosophers and historians of science. We explore this topic by tracing the role the mathematical structure associated with SU(2) has played in three key episodes in 20th century physics - intrinsic spin, isospin, and gauge theory and electro-weak unification. We also briefly consider its role in loop quantum gravity. Each episode has led to new physical notions of a space...

  5. Trends and extremes of drought indices throughout the 20th century in the Mediterranean

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, P. M.; Trigo, R. M.; Aizpurua, P.; Nieto, R.; Gimeno, L.; Garcia-herrera, R.

    2011-01-01

    Average monthly precipitation, the original Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and a recent adaptation to Europe, the Self Calibrated PDSI (scPDSI) have been used here to analyse the spatial and temporal evolution of drought conditions in the Mediterranean during the 20th century. Monthly, seasonal and annual trends were computed for the period 1901–2000 and also for the first and second halves of this period. The statistical significance of trends was obtained with a modified version of ...

  6. Give and Take: Political Competition, Participation and Public Finance in 20th Century Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Aidt, Toke S.; Eterovic, Dalibor

    2007-01-01

    Rational choice models predict that political competition and political participation have opposite effects on the size of government. We investigate these theories using data from a panel of 18 Latin American countries during the 20th century. Our research builds evidence for the prediction that reforms enhancing political competition tend to limit the size of government. Furthermore, we find that reforms which remove literacy requirements from franchise laws are associated with government e...

  7. Trends in coastal upwelling intensity during the late 20th century

    OpenAIRE

    Narayan, N.; Paul, A.; Mulitza, S.; Schulz, M.

    2010-01-01

    This study presents linear trends of coastal upwelling intensity in the later part of the 20th century (1960–2001) employing various indices of upwelling, derived from meridional wind stress and sea surface temperature. The analysis was conducted in the four major coastal upwelling regions in the world, which are off North-West Africa, Lüderitz, California and Peru. The trends in meridional wind stress showed a steady increase of intensity from 1960–2001, which was also reflected in the ...

  8. Catholic Nursing Sisters and Brothers and Racial Justice in Mid-20th-Century America

    OpenAIRE

    Wall, Barbra Mann

    2009-01-01

    This historical article considers nursing’s work for social justice in the 1960s civil rights movement through the lens of religious sisters and brothers who advocated for racial equality. The article examines Catholic nurses’ work with African Americans in the mid-20th century that took place amid the prevailing social conditions of poverty and racial disempowerment, conditions that were linked to serious health consequences. Historical methodology is used within the framework of “bear...

  9. Project Management (PM) Prosperity: A Second Half of the 20th Century Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kyriakopoulos, Grigorios L.

    2011-01-01

    The present study firstly adopts a holistic approach upon the project management (PM) principles that prevail in the relevant business, services, and high-technological environments during the second half of the 20th century. Particularly, this study presents and chronically categorizes existing literature works that are exploring the project management, in combination to other affiliated managerial and administrative tools. The bibliographical overview was implemented through bibliographical...

  10. Language & authoritarianism in the 20th century: The cases of Estonia and Catalonia

    OpenAIRE

    Delaney Michael Skerrett

    2010-01-01

    The 20th century saw the Soviet and Francoist regimes enforce their respective ideologies in Estonia and the Catalan-speaking territories in Spain. In both cases, the autochthonous language suffered under the stringent control of the mechanisms of censorship and repression. In fact, Soviet and Spanish leaders—representing both extremes of the political spectrum—tried to replace the use of the autochthonous language in many sociolinguistic domains with their own—Russian and (Castilian) S...

  11. Breve historia de la observación de aves en México en el siglo XX y principios del siglo XXI / A brief history of birdwatching in Mexico in the 20th and early 21st century

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Héctor, Gómez de Silva; Ernesto, Alvarado Reyes.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Un observador de aves es una persona que dedica tiempo a observar aves en el medio natural, principalmente con fines recreativos. La observación de aves en México ha aumentado significativamente en los últimos años; sin embargo, el contexto y el desarrollo histórico de la observación de aves en Méxi [...] co no han sido descritos. En este artículo, describimos brevemente la influencia del desarrollo inicial de la observación de aves en los Estados Unidos de América, los primeros observadores de aves que visitaron México, las circunstancias que inspiraron a los primeros observadores de aves mexicanos, y algunos adelantos recientes. Nuestros comentarios están enfocados al siglo XX, tratando con más detalle aspectos ocurridos antes de mediados de la década de los 1970s. Abstract in english A birdwatcher or birder is a person who spends time observing birds in the wild mainly for recreation. Birdwatching has increased significantly in Mexico in recent years, yet the context and history of birdwatching in Mexico have not been described. In this paper we briefly describe the influence of [...] the initial development of birdwatching in the United States, the first birdwatchers who visited Mexico, the circumstances that influenced the first Mexican birdwatchers to carry out this activity, and a few recent developments. Our comments focus on the 20th century, particularly on events prior to the mid-1970s.

  12. The process of Danish nurses’ professionalization and patterns of thought in the 20th century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beedholm, Kirsten; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses how the professionalization process is reflected in the way Danish nursing textbooks present ‘nursing’ to new members of the profession during the 20th century. The discus-sion is based on a discourse analysis of seven Danish textbooks on basic nursing published be-tween 1904 and 1996. The analysis was inspired by the work of Michel Foucault, in particular the concepts of rupture and rules of formation. First, we explain how the dominating role of the human body in nursing textbooks disappears in the mid-20th century. This transformation can of course be attributed to changes in tasks and responsibilities for nurses or to the implementation of increasing amounts of knowledge and theories from other disciplines than medicine into the nurses’ knowledge base. However, inspired by Foucault, we consider these historical changes to be the conditions of possibilities and not causes. The second part of the analysis shows that along with ‘the disappearance of the body’, a second discursive change appears: the role of doctors and medicine changes fundamentally from about mid-20th century. Finally, we argue that this discursive reorganization enabling new patterns of thought to emerge was driven by a professional interest in describing nursing as an independent profession.

  13. Life on Other Worlds: The 20th Century Extraterrestrial Life Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Life on Other Worlds: The 20th Century Extra-terrestrial Life Debate is a condensed version, aimed at a more general audience, of the author's 1996 book, The Biological Universe: The Twentieth Century Extraterrestrial Life Debate and the Limits of Science. The focus indicated by the subtitle has been for the most part retained, although some of the more detailed philosophical analysis of ideas about extraterrestrial life has been omitted. References and footnotes have also been dropped. Added are a few brief comments on the ALH84001/life-on-Mars debate, which began shortly after the original book was published.

  14. From Moore to Cavino : the invisible cities of 20th Century planning

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Eduardo Jorge Cabral Dos Santos; Silva, Ana Carina Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    The contrast between the social and urban Utopia of Thomas Moore and the English Society of the sixteenth century can be used as an excuse to reflect on the concept of Utopia as an idea that is not possible to concretize when it is proposed but can be feasible some years later. In the planning of 20th-Century New Towns we often find a strong component of Utopia due to the inadequacy to the social and/or technical conditions of the moment. The contrast between the ideal plan and the constru...

  15. Glaciers and climate in northern Sweden during the 19th and 20th century

    OpenAIRE

    Klingbjer, Per

    2004-01-01

    Our understanding of the climate of northern Sweden during the late Holocene is largely dependent on proxy-data series. These datasets remain spatially and temporally sparse and instrumental series are rare prior to the mid 19th century. Nevertheless, the glaciology and paleo-glaciology of the region has a strong potential significance for the exploration of climate change scenarios, past and future. The aim of this thesis is to investigate the 19th and 20th century climate in the northern Sw...

  16. The Evolution of Spine Surgery in Greece in the Second Half of the 20th Century

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantinos Markatos; Nikolaos Efstathopoulos; Konstantina Arkoudi; Kaseta, Maria K.; Georgios Androutsos; Vassilios Nikolaou

    2014-01-01

    Spine Surgery began its evolution in the beginning of the 19th century in order to reach nowadays the point of being considered an important subspecialty of Neurosurgery and Orthopaedics. The purpose of this historical review is the search and evaluation of the progress in spine surgery in the second half of the 20th century. This review concerns the evolution of this field in Greece. Special references are made to the achievements of this field, to the departments that practised it, to physi...

  17. Las asociaciones católicas para trabajadores y el ejercicio de la"ciudadanía política": Córdoba a principios del siglo XX / Catholic Workers Associations and"Political Citizenship": Córdoba in the early 20th Century

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gardenia, Vidal.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la participación de los afiliados para elegir sus autoridades en tres asociaciones católicas para trabajadores -Círculo de Obreros de Córdoba, Asociación Artesanos de San José y Sociedad Católica Popular Italiana- en las primeras décadas del siglo XX en Córdoba, Argentina. La r [...] econstrucción realizada permite indicar que, más allá del sistema electoral indirecto aplicado en los tres casos, existen diferencias notables que contribuyeron de modo diverso a la internalización del concepto y práctica de la"ciudadanía política", en forma complementaria a la aplicada por los partidos desde 1912. Desde una postura electoral muy restrictiva y principalmente dedicada al fomento de la ritualidad religiosa hasta otras que permitían que todos los socios tuvieran el derecho de elegir y ser elegidos, el ejercicio político a nivel asociativo tuvo variaciones notables. Del mismo modo, la mayor amplitud de debate en el interior de las asambleas generales de socios coincidió, como era de esperar, con las instituciones cuyo sistema de representación era menos restringido. Abstract in english This paper examines the participation of the members of three catholic workers association -Círculo de Obreros de Córdoba, Asociación Artesanos de San José and Sociedad Católica Popular Italiana- to choose their authorities in Córdoba, Argentina during the first decades of the 20th Century. The stud [...] y allows us to know that, besides, the indirect electoral system applied in the three cases, there are important differences which contributed in different ways to the appropriation of the concept and practice of political citizenship inaugurated in 1912. A diversity of electoral procedures can be found: from a very restricted political position more interested in religion and catholic rituals to one which granted all members the right to choose and be chosen. In the same way, the more "democratic" associations corresponded, as could be expected, to those where internal debate was more regular.

  18. A short history of ocean acidification science in the 20th century: a chemist's view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Brewer

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This review covers the development of ocean acidification science, with an emphasis on the creation of ocean chemical knowledge, through the course of the 20th century. This begins with the creation of the pH scale by Sørensen in 1909 and ends with the widespread knowledge of the impact of the "High CO2 Ocean" by then well underway as the trajectory along the IPCC scenario pathways continues. By mid-century the massive role of the ocean in absorbing fossil fuel CO2 was known to specialists, but not appreciated by the greater scientific community. By the end of the century the trade-offs between the beneficial role of the ocean in absorbing some 90% of all heat created, and the accumulation of some 50% of all fossil fuel CO2 emitted, and the impacts on marine life were becoming clear. This paper documents the evolution of knowledge throughout this period.

  19. From waste to opportunity : ethanol in Sweden during the first half of the 20th century

    OpenAIRE

    Sundin, Bo

    2007-01-01

    At the beginning of the 20th century the pulp industry in Sweden faced major problems with waste. Pine and spruce contain at the best 40 % cellulose. The remainder was released into the air and water, causing major environmental problems. In 1909 two Swedish engineers patented a method to ferment sulphite lye into alcohol. Apart for consumption, the alcohol could be used as fuel. The rest of the lye, reduced of it’s saccariferous contents, was expected to become the basis of a new chemical ...

  20. Advances in stability theory at the end of the 20th century

    CERN Document Server

    Martynyuk, AA

    2003-01-01

    This volume presents surveys and research papers on various aspects of modern stability theory, including discussions on modern applications of the theory, all contributed by experts in the field. The volume consists of four sections that explore the following directions in the development of stability theory: progress in stability theory by first approximation; contemporary developments in Lyapunov''s idea of the direct method; the stability of solutions to periodic differential systems; and selected applications. Advances in Stability Theory at the End of the 20th Century will interest postgraduates and researchers in engineering fields as well as those in mathematics.

  1. Reconstructing 20th Century SST Variability in the Southwest Pacific: A Replication Study Using Multiple Coral Sr/Ca Records From New Caledonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delong, K. L.; Quinn, T. M.; Taylor, F. W.

    2006-12-01

    Coral-based climate reconstructions typically have not used multiple cores from a region to capture and replicate a climate signal largely because of concerns focused on coral conservation, analytical expense, and time constraints. Coral Sr/Ca reproducibility through the 20th century was investigated using three intra-colony and three inter-colony coral records, from the reefs offshore of the Amédée Island, New Caledonia. The coral Sr/Ca signal is highly reproducible; the average absolute offset between coeval monthly Sr/Ca determinations between any two coral Sr/Ca time series is 0.036 mmol/mol (~0.65 °C), which is coral Sr/Ca measurements. The stack average of the monthly coral Sr/Ca variations and monthly anomalies are significantly correlated with monthly in situ SST (r = -0.95, -0.56, respectively, p coral Sr/Ca-SST reconstruction exhibits decadal-scale fluctuations that exceed those observed in the gridded SST time series, which may reflect true differences between the SST at a shallow reef site and those averaged over a 1°-grid box or they may reflect inadequacies in the methodology used to create the gridded SST product when few observations are available. A warming trend of ~0.65 °C is observed in the coral Sr/Ca-SST record, which is consistent with estimates of warming of the tropical surface oceans over the 20th century. Monthly coral Sr/Ca records and a seasonally resolved coral ?18O record from this site share variance in the later half of the 20th century, but not in the early 20th century, suggestive of a change in seawater ?18O. The 20th century trend in the coral ?18O record is consistent with a 20th century freshening of surface seawater at Amédée.

  2. Modelling the 20th and 21st century evolution of Hoffellsjökull glacier, SE-Vatnajökull, Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Aðalgeirsdóttir

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The Little Ice Age maximum extent of glaciers in Iceland was reached about 1890 AD and most glaciers in the country have retreated during the 20th century. A model for the surface mass balance and the flow of glaciers is used to reconstruct the 20th century retreat history of Hoffellsjökull, a south-flowing outlet glacier of the ice cap Vatnajökull, which is located close to the southeastern coast of Iceland. The bedrock topography was surveyed with radio-echo soundings in 2001. A wealth of data are available to force and constrain the model, e.g. surface elevation maps from ~1890, 1936, 1946, 1989, 2001, 2008 and 2010, mass balance observations conducted in 1936–1938 and after 2001, energy balance measurements after 2001, and glacier surface velocity derived by kinematic and differential GPS surveys and correlation of SPOT5 images. The approximately 20% volume loss of this glacier in the period 1895–2010 is realistically simulated with the model. After calibration of the model with past observations, it is used to simulate the future response of the glacier during the 21st century. The mass balance model was forced with an ensemble of temperature and precipitation scenarios derived from 10 global and 3 regional climate model simulations using the A1B emission scenario. If the average climate of 2000–2009 is maintained into the future, the volume of the glacier is projected to be reduced by 30% with respect to the present at the end of this century. If the climate warms, as suggested by most of the climate change scenarios, the model projects this glacier to almost disappear by the end of the 21st century. Runoff from the glacier is predicted to increase for the next 30–40 yr and decrease after that as a consequence of the diminishing ice-covered area.

  3. Greeks’ Identities in Smyrna, 19th - 20th Century Local and Global Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelia Boubougiatzi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this research we pose an historic question about the Greek identities that have been grown and excelled in Smyrna, in the late of 19th-20th century. The basic elements for the construction of the Greek identity were the orthodox Christian religion, the language, the origins from ancient times, and the education. The awakening of the Greek national consciousness in the years of the Ottoman Rule relied mainly on the use of the Greek language, as it was grow, secretly or openly, by the church.The historical context refers to the 19th and the 20th century and we focus on the construction of the Greek Identities. The specific historic place is Smyra.The methodology that we use is the historic qualitative analysis of historic archives. We assume that the factors that compromise the Greek identity come from the religion, the education, the ethnicity, the culture, the citizenship, the locality and the relations with the other population they lived with.

  4. Multi-season climate synchronized forest fires throughout the 20th century, northern Rockies, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Penelope; Heyerdahl, Emily K; Gibson, Carly E

    2008-03-01

    We inferred climate drivers of 20th-century years with regionally synchronous forest fires in the U.S. northern Rockies. We derived annual fire extent from an existing fire atlas that includes 5038 fire polygons recorded from 12,070,086 ha, or 71% of the forested land in Idaho and Montana west of the Continental Divide. The 11 regional-fire years, those exceeding the 90th percentile in annual fire extent from 1900 to 2003 (>102,314 ha or approximately 1% of the fire atlas recording area), were concentrated early and late in the century (six from 1900 to 1934 and five from 1988 to 2003). During both periods, regional-fire years were ones when warm springs were followed by warm, dry summers and also when the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) was positive. Spring snowpack was likely reduced during warm springs and when PDO was positive, resulting in longer fire seasons. Regional-fire years did not vary with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) or with climate in antecedent years. The long mid-20th century period lacking regional-fire years (1935-1987) had generally cool springs, generally negative PDO, and a lack of extremely dry summers; also, this was a period of active fire suppression. The climate drivers of regionally synchronous fire that we inferred are congruent with those of previous centuries in this region, suggesting a strong influence of spring and summer climate on fire activity throughout the 20th century despite major land-use change and fire suppression efforts. The relatively cool, moist climate during the mid-century gap in regional-fire years likely contributed to the success of fire suppression during that period. In every regional-fire year, fires burned across a range of vegetation types. Given our results and the projections for warmer springs and continued warm, dry summers, forests of the U.S. northern Rockies are likely to experience synchronous, large fires in the future. PMID:18459335

  5. Drought in the Bulgarian low regions during the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleva, E.; Alexandrov, V.

    2008-03-01

    In this study, the long-term variations in precipitation in the Bulgarian low regions: the Danube Plain in north Bulgaria and the Thracian Lowland in south Bulgaria, were analysed. Some quantitative criteria were also used to compare drought frequency and intensity between the two regions and between different years. Analyses of the rainy conditions in the selected regions during the 20th century were carried out. The last century can be split into several wet and dry sub-periods with duration of 10-15 years. The long-term variations of the Ped and PAI drought indices are also considered in the paper. In addition, the drought conditions in the Danube Plain and the Thracian Lowland were estimated using the de Marton aridity index. The results obtained show that the latter index can also be applied for the detection of drought periods in the regions considered.

  6. The Evolution of Spine Surgery in Greece in the Second Half of the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Markatos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Spine Surgery began its evolution in the beginning of the 19th century in order to reach nowadays the point of being considered an important subspecialty of Neurosurgery and Orthopaedics. The purpose of this historical review is the search and evaluation of the progress in spine surgery in the second half of the 20th century. This review concerns the evolution of this field in Greece. Special references are made to the achievements of this field, to the departments that practised it, to physicians and surgeons (orthopaedic surgeons, neurosurgeons, radiologists and rheumatologists who developed this subspecialty and to clinical and scientific work of this time period. Eventually, the progress of medicine and technology who led to the first achievements of this subspecialty are shown and also that this progress followed the development of the National Healthcare System. In Greece, with small exceptions, the new techniques emerged with a certain delay.

  7. „One-way ticket” Romanian Migration at the beginning of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Bocancea

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Unlike the new age of migration that we are experiencing now, the social mobility specific to the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century may be defined by the expression “one way ticket”; the immigrant, usually a man, used to leave his country of origin and settle for good in his host-country (he did not look for his happiness from state to state, as it happens now. The Romanian migration of that time was directed mainly towards the New World (particularly to the USA, and less to Canada. This paper is an attempt to sketch the image of Romanian emigration by taking into account the peculiarities determined by: emigration causes, geographical predominance, social composition, occupational options in the host-country, and the structure of Romanian immigrant communities.

  8. High resolution sedimentary record of dinoflagellate cysts reflects decadal variability and 20th century warming in the Santa Barbara Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringué, Manuel; Pospelova, Vera; Field, David B.

    2014-12-01

    We present a continuous record of dinoflagellate cysts from a core of laminated sediments collected in the Santa Barbara Basin (SBB), off Southern California. The core spans the last ?260 years and is analysed at biennial (two-year) resolution. Variations in dinoflagellate cyst assemblages are compared with 20th century historical changes, and are used to examine changes in primary productivity and species composition, which are bound to the variability in upwelling and sea-surface temperature (SST) in the region. Cysts produced by heterotrophic dinoflagellates dominate the assemblages. In particular, Brigantedinium spp. (on average 64.2% of the assemblages) are commonly associated with high levels of primary productivity, typically observed under active upwelling conditions, when nutrient supply is higher. Other heterotrophic taxa such as cysts of Protoperidinium americanum, Protoperidinium fukuyoi, Protoperidinium minutum and Archaeperidinium saanichi, all Echinidinium species, Quinquecuspis concreta and Selenopemphix undulata are more abundant in the early part of the record (?1750s-1870s). These taxa are generally associated with high primary productivity and are observed predominantly during intervals marked by relatively variable conditions of SST, stratification and nutrient loading. The 20th century is marked by an increase in several species of autotrophic affinity, primarily Lingulodinium machaerophorum and Spiniferites ramosus. In recent surface sediments from the region, these species are more abundant in the Southern California Bight, and they are associated with conditions of relaxed upwelling in the SBB (typically observed during summer and fall), when SST is higher and nutrient supply is moderate. Their increasing concentrations since the early 20th century reflect warmer SST and possibly stronger stratification during the warmest season. Taken together, the changes in cyst assemblages provide further evidence that persistently warmer conditions in the SBB began affecting marine populations by the late 1920s. Decadal-scale variations in primary productivity are encoded in the heterotrophic dinoflagellate cyst record, with higher (lower) concentrations of heterotrophic taxa occurring during "cool" ("warm") phases of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) index. Wavelet analysis of heterotrophic taxa concentrations suggests a weaker influence of the PDO on biota of the region during the 19th century.

  9. Corpus methods and their reflection in linguistic theories of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Krek

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the 20th century structuralism established itself as the central linguistic theory, in the first half mainly through its originator Ferdinand de Saussure, and in the second half with the figure of Noam Chomsky. The latter consistently refused to acknowledge analysis of extensive quantity of texts as a valuable method, and favoured linguistic intuition of a native speaker instead. In parallel with structuralism other trends in linguistics emerged which pointed to the inadequateness of the prevailing linguistic paradigm and to theoretical insights which were only possible after the systematic analysis of large quantities of texts. The paper discusses some of the dilemmas stemming from this dichotomy and places corpus linguistics in a broader linguistic context.

  10. Atomic Pioneers Book 3 From the Late 19th to the Mid-20th Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiebert, Ray [University of Maryland; Hiebert, Roselyn

    1973-01-01

    This book tells the story of the atom by presenting a brief account of the lives and work of 24 atomic scientists who brought the world into the complex Age of the Atom by mid-20th century. The 24 are: Albert Einstein, James Franck, Max Born, Peter J.W. Debye, Niels Bohr, George von Hevesy, Henry G.J. Moseley, Gustav Hertz, Erwin Schrodinger, Otto Stern, James Chadwick, Arthur H. Compton, Louis Victor de Broglie, Harold C. Urey, John D. Cockcroft, Patrick M.S. Blackett, Isidor I. Rabi, Leo Szilard, Jean Frederic Joliot-Curie, Irene Joliot-Curie, Wolfgang Pauli, Ernest O. Lawrence, Enrico Fermi, and Robert J. Van de Graaff.

  11. Standing Up to Giants: Thailand’s Exit from 20th Century War Partnerships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palapan Kampan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the U.S.-Thai relationship through various changes, paying close attention to strategic military operations within the Kingdom and into neighbouring countries. Multifaceted impacts of American outsourcing and corporate expansion are discussed. Thailand’s role in the War on Terror amid domestic political turmoil and global economic uncertainty draw questions of the value of the 20th century relationship model. Controversy about undeclared wars within the United States supports argument that Thailand should further remove itself from American-led foreign wars. As the ASEAN partnership continues to play a more dominant role in Thai government policy, with regional concerns more relevant than transpacific issues, Thailand is urged to revise legislation to protect its own security and interests. Such a focus is expected to reestablish Thailand as a regional leader.

  12. Late 20th Century Freshening in the Central Tropical Pacific Inferred from Modern Coral Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhati, I. S.; Cobb, K. M.; Charles, C. D.

    2006-12-01

    Modern coral oxygen isotopic records from the central tropical Pacific (Cobb et al., 2001; Evans et al., 1999) are characterized by a trend towards lighter oxygen isotopic (d18O) values in the late 20th century. It is important to identify the physical changes that underlie this trend: warming sea-surface temperatures (SST) and/or decreasing salinity would both lead to more negative coral d18O. Here, we present new monthly Sr/Ca records from Palmyra (6ºN, 162ºW) and Christmas (2ºN, 157ºW) for the period 1950-1998 (~50 years) and 1970-1998 (~30 years), respectively. Sr/Ca data from Palmyra Island exhibit interannual anomalies of ±0.15mmol/mol about a mean of 8.96mmol/mol, with no resolvable trend (given analytical error of ±0.027mmol/mol (±0.3%)(1?)). We combine our new Sr/Ca records with published d18O records to reconstruct the history of d18O of seawater (d18Osw) in the central tropical Pacific over the last decades. The d18Osw records imply that significant freshening took place in the central tropical Pacific during the late 20th century. We investigate whether the freshening is a result of 1) enhanced convection associated with a reduction in the tropical Pacific zonal SST gradient, or 2) a change in the intensity or/and location of the Intertropical Convergence Zone, through a comparison of the Christmas coral, the Palmyra coral, and available instrumental data. Reference: Evans, M.N., R.G. Fairbanks, and J.L. Rubenstone. 1999. The thermal oceanographic signal of ENSO reconstructed from a Kiritimati Island coral. J. Geophys. Res. 104: 13,409-13,421.

  13. Missionários da 'boa imprensa': a revista Ave Maria e os desafios da imprensa católica nos primeiros anos do século XX / 'Good press' missionaires: Ave Maria magazine and the challenges of the catholic press in the early years of the 20th century

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcos, Gonçalves.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo discute o papel da imprensa católica no Brasil de primeiros anos do século XX. De modo especial, focaliza o desempenho da revista mariana popular Ave Maria, fundada em 1898. Discute como o catolicismo institucional brasileiro, ao consagrar um projeto fundado na criação e expansão da imprens [...] a confessional, pretendeu defender com eficácia os múltiplos interesses da Igreja, em face de progressivas exigências políticas e culturais. Abstract in english This article emphasises the role of catholic press in Brazil in the early years of the 20th century. In a particular way, it focuses the performance of the popular Marian magazine Ave Maria, founded in 1898. This work also discusses how Brazilian institutional Catholicism intended to defend efficien [...] tly the multiple interests of the Catholic Church before progressive cultural and political demands, by consecrating a project founded on the creation and expansion of the confessional press.

  14. Cultura cívico-escolar católica e desfiles patrióticos no Brasil do início do século XX / School civic catholic culture and patriotic parades in Brazil in the early 20th century

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcus Levy, Bencostta.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A narrativa adotada neste artigo apresenta uma intriga histórica que tem origem em um conjunto de interpretações que propõe analisar as estratégias utilizadas pela hierarquia da Igreja Católica que incentivaram em seus documentos episcopais as manifestações culturais de caráter cívico nas instituiçõ [...] es educacionais sob sua tutela. O artigo centra sua investigação nos desfiles patrióticos de escolares e colegiais que aconteceram no início do século XX, que homenageavam em diferentes momentos a República. Nesse sentido, toma o exemplo das escolas administradas pela Congregação Salesiana de Dom Bosco, em especial, o Liceu Nossa Senhora Auxiliadora de Campinas (São Paulo). Abstract in english The narrative adopted in this article presents a historical intrigue that comes from a set of interpretations that propose to analyze the strategies used by the Catholic Church hierarchy which encouraged cultural manifestations of civic character in educational institutions under their tutelage thro [...] ugh their episcopal documents. The paper focuses his investigation in patriotic parades of students of elementary and secondary schools that occurred in the early twentieth century, which paid tribute to the Republic at different moments. In this sense it takes the example of schools administered by the Salesian Congregation of Dom Bosco, in particular, the Lyceum Nossa Senhora Auxiliadora of Campinas (São Paulo).

  15. Reproduction in cold water: paradigm changes in the 20th century and a role for cidaroid sea urchins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, John S.; Lockhart, Susanne J.

    2004-07-01

    At the beginning of the 20th century, powerful ideas about the biology of marine animals in cold waters (polar and deep sea) were in early stages of development. (1) General similarities between some Arctic and Antarctic species suggested a past or present continuity between the poles, possibly through tropical submergence. (2) The discovery of subantarctic species brooding their offspring suggested that supposedly harsh polar conditions select against species with pelagic, dispersive larvae. (3) The linkage between seasonal temperature changes and seasonal reproduction suggested that where temperatures were constant, as in polar and deep seas, reproduction would be aseasonal or continuous throughout the year. (4) Recognition of the phenomenon of metabolic temperature adaptation suggested that animals living in cold water should exhibit rates of physiological processes similar to rates in warmer environments. Observations and experiments throughout the first half of the 20th century generally supported and reinforced these ideas. During the second half of the 20th century, however, the generality of these paradigms broke down. Detailed analyses of fuller data indicated that Arctic, Antarctic, and deep-sea faunas are not the same and probably have different phylogenies reflecting different vicariant histories. Moreover, many species in these habitats have pelagic larvae, they generally spawn seasonally, and their physiological processes (respiration, gametogenesis, development, feeding, growth) are slow, showing little evidence of the expected temperature adaptation. Nevertheless, entering the 21st century, we are challenged by important exceptions that do support many of the earlier ideas. Bipolarity in some groups does indicate relict distributions, and other groups show equatorial submergence. Moreover, major species-rich clades in the Antarctic (unlike the Arctic) do brood their young. Most species with pelagic larvae produce non-feeding (lecithotrophic) larvae rather than feeding (planktotrophic) larvae, and these, along with brooding species, generally do reproduce throughout the year. Yet brooding is almost certainly not an adaptation to low temperatures and low larval food supply, as supposed earlier; instead, the species-rich clades of brooders probably reflect enhanced speciation under unique conditions in the Antarctic. In addition, despite recent evidence of constraints on metabolic flexibility, low metabolic rates may themselves be adaptations to Antarctic conditions. Just as a growing body of "exceptions" to the early 20th century paradigms led to their breakdown, these persisting exceptions to current ideas demand that our existing paradigms be re-examined for further insight into the biology of marine animals in cold water. Cidaroid echinoids, in particular, appear to support some of the earlier ideas. The group consists of one or possibly two clades that make up over 80% of the species of regular sea urchins in the Antarctic; several species extend into the deep sea. One putative species is nearly bipolar, extending from the Antarctic shelf into the deep sea and then north in the eastern Pacific to Alaska. All the species appear to brood embryos, but development in the brood might be facultative. Reproduction seems to be aseasonal, albeit infrequent. Growth rates are probably very slow and longevity very long. Current work begun with ANDEEP is directed at resolving the phylogenetic history of this group to better understand unusual reproductive and other features in cold-water marine animals.

  16. [Pollock, Warhol, Basquiat, Haring 20th century American painters from a psychological perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petôvári, Csaba

    2010-01-01

    Pollock, Warhol, Basquiat and Haring made an international reputation for themselves with their art foremost of the American artists of the 20th century, and became pop cultural icons for the man in the street and for the media as well. Accordingly to the habits of the consumer society their art and even themselves become product and consumer's goods. Their not mistaken, individual style - which also became their trademark - makes that possible. The connection between the four artists is that each of them had a dependent personality, their fine art activity was arguable in their period, and after all themselves and his artworks get into the increased attention of the media. These four artists embody the brand-new artist type, who steps into a star status. Besides the artworks the artist also get into the focus of interest. Through psychological aspect their artworks tell a lot about their way of life, their personality, and the social estate around them. Four of them were catalysts, they set new art trends. The influence of Basquiat and Haring stretched over to the 21st century, and keeps going in the graffiti street-art which gets into the "high art" at last, and captivates the art galleries and critics as well. PMID:20938058

  17. Antheunis Janse of Biggekerke (1890–1960. Morning star of a 20th-century reformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.J. van der Walt

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Antheunis Janse of Biggekerke (1890-1960. Morning star of a 20thcentury reformation This first biography is the result of research on the life and work of the Dutch thinker, Antheunis Janse (1890-1960 of Biggekerke conducted at intervals in South Africa and in the Netherlands during the past 35 years. The stimulus for the research was the fact that Janse has never been acknowledged for his contribution to Christian philosophy – especially anthropology – which originated in the thirties of the previous century in the Netherlands. The aim of this article is to demonstrate that he should be regarded (with Professors D.H. Th. Vollenhoven and H. Dooyeweerd as a founding father of Christian- Reformational philosophy, also known as the philosophy of the Cosmonomic Idea or simply as the Amsterdam philosophy. No biography on this important thinker exists; the historical information provided is thus needed. The biographical details are intertwined with the following systematic aspects: Why reformation was required during Janse’s lifetime; Janse’s contribution to the development of Reformational philosophy; a more detailed discussion of his anthropological viewpoints; the secret of his reformational endeavours; and in conclusion, some suggestions are given about much needed research to be done to be able to fully profit from the rich heritage of this “morning star of a 20th-century reformation”. An addendum of his most important publications are also provided.

  18. [Wilhelm Troll (1897-1978). The tradition of idealistic morphology in the German botanical sciences of the 20th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, Kay

    2005-01-01

    During the first half of the 19th century, idealistic morphology developed into an influential research program in the German biosciences. This program was based on the concept of an ideal connection existing between various living beings. The growth of Darwinian thought and its new paradigm of historical explanation supplanted the idealistic morphology. Yet in the first half of the 20th century the principles of idealistic morphology experienced a powerful revival. Wilhelm Troll (1897-1978) was one of the most significant figures in this renaissance. Guided by the ideas of J.W. von Goethe, Troll established a research program rejecting causal, functional, and phylogenetic explanations as well as the idea of evolutionary adaptation. Instead, he attempted to create a 'pure' morphology based on the descriptions of various plant species. Governed by some explicitly metaphysical presumptions, Troll based his theory on the description of the organismal Gestalt. In consequence, his theory was actually a return to the proper idealistic morphology as it was known in the early 19th century. It lead German botanical morphology to a period of methodological and epistemological return. PMID:16602487

  19. A 21st Century Library in a 20th Century Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graboyes, Alanna S.

    2012-01-01

    The library at George C. Marshall High School in Fairfax County, Virginia, needed an update to better meet the needs of 21st century students. A major renovation was in the works, but head librarian Graboyes wanted to do something to make the library useful and appealing for current students. With careful budgeting and donations of time and money,…

  20. Santorini Volcano's 20th Century Eruptions: A Combined Petrogenetical, Volcanological, Sociological and Environmental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drymoni, Kyriaki; Magganas, Andreas; Pomonis, Panagiotis

    2014-05-01

    Santorini, the famous stratovolcano in the Aegean Sea, erupted three time periods during the 20th century (1925-1928, 1939-1941, 1950) and since then remains dormant. This study tried to combine and evaluate new and published volcanological, petrological, geochemical, environmental and sociological data of these three phases of Santorini's activity, which practically restricted to the caldera center on the Nea Kameni Islet. After field work on the formed dacite flows, pyroclastics and domes, representative rock samples and enclaves were collected and investigated for their texture, physical parameters, mineralogy and chemical composition by polarizing light microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDS), XRD, Raman spectroscopy and ICP-MS. The petrogenetic evaluation of the data obtained suggests slight but significant changes in the solid and aerial phases produced during the three explosion stages, which can be attributed to minor variations in the magmatic differentiation and magma chamber physicochemical conditions. These variations were also expressed by decrease of duration and intensity of the eruptions, as well as in their volume of ejecta and lava. Probably, the subsequent relatively long dormant period of the volcano is also related to this tension of decrease. The first compared results were collected from scientific literature, old photos as well as local and regional press and state documents from the different periods of volcanism, record the past hazard case scenarios and civil defense planning of the individual eruptions. As part of the disaster management a pilot survey, in which personal interviews with aged local islanders that were eye-witnesses of the events and elderly people or tourists that they indirectly experienced or have heard about them, was also conducted. This event-tracing, along with air pollution software models using volcanological data have shown the social impacts and the environmental consequences of the volcanic activities seem generally to follow the same way of reduction with time as above. Conclusively, this integrated comparison of the three successive per decade eruption periods within the 20th century, which had followed a long dormant period of about 60 years, provide worthy hazard and risk assessment for Santorini volcano future waking up.

  1. Trends and extremes of drought indices throughout the 20th century in the Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Sousa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Average monthly precipitation, the original Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI and a recent adaptation to Europe, the Self Calibrated PDSI (scPDSI have been used here to analyse the spatial and temporal evolution of drought conditions in the Mediterranean during the 20th century. Monthly, seasonal and annual trends were computed for the period 1901–2000 and also for the first and second halves of this period. The statistical significance of trends was obtained with a modified version of the Mann-Kendall test that accounts for serial auto-correlation. The results show a clear trend towards drier conditions during the 20th century in most western and central Mediterranean regions, with the exceptions of northwestern Iberia and most of Turkey that reveal an increase of moisture availability. A Generalized Extreme Values (GEV analysis was applied to the maximum and minimum regional values of scPDSI, with results pointing towards a significant decline of absolute extreme values in central areas (Italy and Balkans and a less clear picture emerging in western (Iberia and eastern (Turkey realms.

    The inter-annual variability of the scPDSI index series is shown to be more realistic than the corresponding PDSI version, fitting better the drought episodes sequence and magnitude described in the literature for each sub-region. We assess the decadal and inter-annual variability of the scPDSI for each sub-domain and evaluate the role played by the major teleconnection patterns, and by several sea surface temperature (SST anomalies. The main driver of scPDSI in western and central Mediterranean areas is the winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO pattern that is also relevant during the following spring and summer seasons with anti-correlation values below ?0.60. The second most important mode corresponds to the Scandinavian Pattern that is significantly associated to the scPDSI between winter and summer over central Mediterranean (correlation values around 0.50. Finally, the teleconnection and SST analysis has allowed us to calibrate a stepwise regression model, enabling the forecasting of summer drought conditions six months in advance. The final model obtained is capable of reproducing the observed scPDSI time series fairly well, with a correlation coefficient of 0.79 (0.77 after cross-validation and a significant gain over climatology (SSc=59%, while the corresponding result against persistence is more modest (SSp6=11%.

  2. Trends and extremes of drought indices throughout the 20th century in the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, P. M.; Trigo, R. M.; Aizpurua, P.; Nieto, R.; Gimeno, L.; Garcia-Herrera, R.

    2011-01-01

    Average monthly precipitation, the original Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and a recent adaptation to Europe, the Self Calibrated PDSI (scPDSI) have been used here to analyse the spatial and temporal evolution of drought conditions in the Mediterranean during the 20th century. Monthly, seasonal and annual trends were computed for the period 1901-2000 and also for the first and second halves of this period. The statistical significance of trends was obtained with a modified version of the Mann-Kendall test that accounts for serial auto-correlation. The results show a clear trend towards drier conditions during the 20th century in most western and central Mediterranean regions, with the exceptions of northwestern Iberia and most of Turkey that reveal an increase of moisture availability. A Generalized Extreme Values (GEV) analysis was applied to the maximum and minimum regional values of scPDSI, with results pointing towards a significant decline of absolute extreme values in central areas (Italy and Balkans) and a less clear picture emerging in western (Iberia) and eastern (Turkey) realms. The inter-annual variability of the scPDSI index series is shown to be more realistic than the corresponding PDSI version, fitting better the drought episodes sequence and magnitude described in the literature for each sub-region. We assess the decadal and inter-annual variability of the scPDSI for each sub-domain and evaluate the role played by the major teleconnection patterns, and by several sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies. The main driver of scPDSI in western and central Mediterranean areas is the winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) pattern that is also relevant during the following spring and summer seasons with anti-correlation values below -0.60. The second most important mode corresponds to the Scandinavian Pattern that is significantly associated to the scPDSI between winter and summer over central Mediterranean (correlation values around 0.50). Finally, the teleconnection and SST analysis has allowed us to calibrate a stepwise regression model, enabling the forecasting of summer drought conditions six months in advance. The final model obtained is capable of reproducing the observed scPDSI time series fairly well, with a correlation coefficient of 0.79 (0.77 after cross-validation) and a significant gain over climatology (SSc=59%), while the corresponding result against persistence is more modest (SSp6=11%).

  3. Late 20th Century Warming and Freshening in the Central Tropical Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhati, I. S.; Cobb, K. M.; Charles, C. D.; Dunbar, R. B.

    2008-12-01

    Tropical Pacific climate variability explains a significant fraction of global temperature and precipitation variability, yet how the tropical Pacific might evolve under greenhouse forcing is still uncertain. Climate model projections and analyses of instrumental climate data support both a weakening and as well as a strengthening of the tropical Pacific zonal SST gradient1. Published modern corals from the central tropical Pacific (CTP) exhibit trends toward depleted coral oxygen isotopic (?18O) values over the late 20th century2,3, suggesting that warming and/or seawater freshening has recently occurred in this region. It is important to understand the physical mechanisms that underlie these trends in order to better predict changes in tropical Pacific climate over the next decades. Here, we apply coral ?18O and Sr/Ca to coral cores from Palmyra, Fanning and Christmas Islands (2°N-6°N, 157°W- 162°W) located in the CTP in order to reconstruct the histories of SST and sea-surface salinity (SSS) over the period 1972-1998. The three islands span strong gradients in SST and SSS. The islands are aligned in a NW-SE fashion, with Christmas bathed by the South Equatorial Current and dominated by upwelling variability at the southern end; while Palmyra as the northern-most island, lies in the core of the North Equatorial Counter Current and is heavily influenced by ITCZ variability. We measure Sr/Ca ratio as a proxy for SST with an analytical precision of better than ± 0.3% (1?). We measure coral ?18O with an analytical precision of ± 0.05‰ (1?), and derive ?18O of seawater (?18Osw - a proxy for SSS) by removing the Sr/Ca-derived SST contribution from coral ?18O. The Sr/Ca-derived SST reconstructions reveal warming trends ranging from 0.94 ± 1.55°C (1?) at Palmyra to 1.65 ± 1.26°C (1?) at Christmas that increase towards the equator, inferring a reduction in equatorial upwelling over the last three decades. The corals also reveal seawater freshening trends (?18Osw trends of -0.12 to -0.33 ± 0.09‰, 1?) that increase towards the ITCZ, coherent with an equatorward shift of the convergent zone that is dynamically consistent with warmer equatorial temperatures. Together, the coral reconstructions support a late 20th century trend towards a weakening of the Pacific zonal SST gradient, which is in agreement with projections of the majority of coupled global climate models under increased greenhouse forcing.

  4. Discursive Discrimination against the "Deaf-Mute"/"Deaf" and the Importance of Categorization in 20th Century Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boreus, Kristina

    2007-01-01

    This article sheds light on issues concerning discrimination in the history of deaf people in Sweden in the 20th century. With the help of a specific typology of concepts for analysing discrimination exercised through the use of language, it is shown how the categorization of the hearing impaired has changed over time and how, in this process of…

  5. An Epistemological Approach to French Syllabi on Human Origins during the 19th and 20th Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quessada, Marie-Pierre; Clement, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    This study focuses on how human origins were taught in the French Natural Sciences syllabuses of the 19th and 20th centuries. We evaluate the interval between the publication of scientific concepts and their emergence in syllabuses, i.e., didactic transposition delay (DTD), to determine how long it took for scientific findings pertaining to our…

  6. Beyond the Standard Measures: Physical Education's Impact on the Dialogue about Obesity in the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrynn, Alison M.

    2011-01-01

    As numerous Homans' lecturers have attested, Amy Morris Homans was a significant and visionary leader who set the foundation for women's physical education for the first half of the 20th century. Her reign at the Boston Normal School for Gymnastics (BNSG) was ironclad, and through the BNSG she controlled her student's lives, including their…

  7. Reorganizing a 20th century cabinet of curiosities into a museum for the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel M. García Fernández

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the life of a university museum that was born in the 1980s and transformed in the 21st century. Over a period of 25 years Professor Reverte collected more than 3700 objects and set up an authentic cabinet of curiosities dedicated to the fields of anthropology and forensic science. Despite the diversity of its contents, the museum had a recognized scientific interest. It has now undergone changes in order to meet the requirements of new academic demands and public accessibility, but without losing reference to its origins.

  8. The great exodus of 1939 and other exiles of the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enric Pujol

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of being a historic constant and a characteristic phenomenon of the 20th century, the subject ‘exile’ is still little valued by contemporary historiography´. The civil war from 1936 to 1939 and the Francoist triumph provoked an exile without precedent in recent Catalonian history. This exile was decisive in the preservation of Catalan culture (persecuted by the Franco regime in Catalonia itself, as well as for the continuity of Catalan self-government, the ‘Generalitat of Catalonia’. It was also an extremely important platform for the democratic opposition to Francoism, although it lost its political weight around the nineteen sixties. At that time, though, new waves of exiles took place caused by the fight against the dictatorship, but they were in no way related to the scale of those from the civil war in the thirties. At the dictator’s death many people returned home, but the fragility of the democracy born from the political transition process brought new exiles. In order to know more in detail on such an important subject it is necessary to promote a culturally institutionalised process that makes possible its systematic study, and it is also necessary that the analysis of this phenomenon become a top priority aim of study for historiography and for all human sciences.

  9. Stationarity analysis of historical flood series in France and Spain (14th–20th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Barriendos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Interdisciplinary frameworks for studying natural hazards and their temporal trends have an important potential in data generation for risk assessment, land use planning, and therefore the sustainable management of resources. This paper focuses on the adjustments required because of the wide variety of scientific fields involved in the reconstruction and characterisation of flood events for the past 1000 years. The aim of this paper is to describe various methodological aspects of the study of flood events in their historical dimension, including the critical evaluation of old documentary and instrumental sources, flood-event classification and hydraulic modelling, and homogeneity and quality control tests. Standardized criteria for flood classification have been defined and applied to the Isère and Drac floods in France, from 1600 to 1950, and to the Ter, the Llobregat and the Segre floods, in Spain, from 1300 to 1980. The analysis on the Drac and Isère data series from 1600 to the present day showed that extraordinary and catastrophic floods were not distributed uniformly in time. However, the largest floods (general catastrophic floods were homogeneously distributed in time within the period 1600–1900. No major flood occurred during the 20th century in these rivers. From 1300 to the present day, no homogeneous behaviour was observed for extraordinary floods in the Spanish rivers. The largest floods were uniformly distributed in time within the period 1300–1900, for the Segre and Ter rivers.

  10. Observed Abrupt Changes in Minimum and Maximum Temperatures in Jordan in the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad M.  samdi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines changes in annual and seasonal mean (minimum and maximum temperatures variations in Jordan during the 20th century. The analyses focus on the time series records at the Amman Airport Meteorological (AAM station. The occurrence of abrupt changes and trends were examined using cumulative sum charts (CUSUM and bootstrapping and the Mann-Kendall rank test. Statistically significant abrupt changes and trends have been detected. Major change points in the mean minimum (night-time and mean maximum (day-time temperatures occurred in 1957 and 1967, respectively. A minor change point in the annual mean maximum temperature also occurred in 1954, which is essential agreement with the detected change in minimum temperature. The analysis showed a significant warming trend after the years 1957 and 1967 for the minimum and maximum temperatures, respectively. The analysis of maximum temperatures shows a significant warming trend after the year 1967 for the summer season with a rate of temperature increase of 0.038°C/year. The analysis of minimum temperatures shows a significant warming trend after the year 1957 for all seasons. Temperature and rainfall data from other stations in the country have been considered and showed similar changes.

  11. A review of the History of Spine Surgery in Greece until the Middle of the 20th Century

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantinos Markatos; Gregory Tsoucalas; Kaseta, Maria K.; Korres, Demetrios S.; Georgios Androutsos; Nikolaos Efstathopoulos; Vassilios Nikolaou

    2014-01-01

    Spine Surgery began its evolution in the beginning of the 19th century in order to reach nowadays the point of being considered an important subspecialty of Neurosurgery and Orthopaedics. The purpose of this historical review is the search and evaluation of the progress in spine surgery until the middle of the 20th century. This review concerns the inauguration and evolution of this field in Greece. Special references are made to the first achievements of this field, to the pioneers physician...

  12. Lens and cataract research of the 20th century: a review of results, errors and misunderstandings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockwin, Otto; Kojima, Masami; Müller-Breitenkamp, Ursula; Wegener, Alfred

    2002-01-01

    Lens and cataract research from a clinical, biophysical, biological and mainly biochemical point of view has a long tradition. Already since the beginning of the 20th century research relating to the chemical composition and metabolism of the lens was conducted. With these analyses an attempt was made to understand the existence and maintenance of lens transparency and the mechanisms leading to lens opacities. Around the middle of the century the stationary analyses measuring the content of certain substances in the lens were more and more replaced by the search for dynamic metabolic processes responsible for lens growth, maintenance of transparency and possibly active participation in lens function (such as accommodation). Also the disturbances as a result of ageing or the formation of lens opacities have been investigated and resulted partially in the elucidation of reaction chains, leading from a trigger to the formation of a cataract. Lens biochemistry is no longer a closed book to us, but there are still many question marks. Why were we not able to solve more problems around lens and cataract? The research effort with a remarkable financial input and a great number of scientists worldwide during the second half of the century does not correspond to the results obtained. There must be something wrong with our strategy, our interpretation of the results or even both. We would like to stress some points which might be regarded as errors or misunderstandings in the lens research community, thus preventing a better outcome of the enormous investment of work and money. A great disadvantage is the missing cooperation between clinicians and epidemiologists on one hand and basic lens researchers on the other. Especially the ignorance of basic researchers regarding the clinical problems of the lens and of cataracts might be to blame for several 'errors and misunderstandings'. It is not even so long ago since the slitlamp microscope examination of animals belonged to the essential standard methods of a lens research team. Another disadvantage still is the use of the general diagnosis 'cataract' by the clinicians without further classification of the topography of the opacification, which supports the concept that all cataracts have the same trigger mechanism. But most regrettable is the fact that many clinicians have never been really interested in basic research of the lens, in cataract pathogenesis and epidemiology of risk factors or in testing the efficacy of cataract-preventing medication. Their main goal was cataract surgery. On the basis of the success of the cataract surgery at the present time clinicians have even developed the opinion that lens and cataract research is no longer necessary to overcome cataract blindness. But as we all know this refers only to highly industrialized countries; millions of cataract-blind people are still without such help and a change of this condition is not in sight. In our opinion lens and cataract research is still necessary and it will be more successful if we bear in mind the mostly unintentional errors of the 20th century but keep them out of our daily practice. PMID:12061266

  13. Nimble Fingers. From 19th Century New England Mills to 20th Century Global Assembly Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Lyn

    1988-01-01

    Covers women's labor history in the United States and in industrialized nations from the early 1800s to the present. Provides primary source documents from New England workers in the 1830s and 1840s and from women workers on global assembly lines in the 1980s. Includes discussion questions. (LS)

  14. MINING ENTREPRENEURS IN CROATIA FROM THE MID-19TH TO THE MID-20TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berislav Šebe?i?

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The masters, or owners, of mining rights for the exploration of ores were prospectors and free or independent prospectors. Concession books and registers were kept about the proprietors of ore fields or mines. In them was entered, among other things, which ore was planned to be exploited. The possessor of a licence, permits for exploration and exploitation of ores, paid a certain fee every year. He could also sell his mining righis. in the shape of permits, partially or, more frequently, totally, as was recorded in the books. If he did not pay taxes, he could lose all his rights, which were then deleted, or crossed out of the mining books. Those who possessed mining permits had to solve the questions of compensation to the owners of the lands where they intended to do detailed explorations, and to exploit the ore, even to the extent of leasing or buying the land. The mining activity in Croatia between the mid-19th and mid-20th centuries is richly documented in the (Imperial and Royal mining captaincies in Zagreb, Zadar and Split. The basic mining law was the General Austrian Mining Law of 1854, with its amendments of 1911 (Legal Article VI about mineral oil substances and natural gases.In Croatia, mining enterpreneurs were individuals or companies (including the slate with the proviso that at the beginning there were more foreigners. However, Croatian traders, industrialists, magnates, officials, bankers, various companies, engineers, artists, retired persons, peasants, officers and others soon became involved in mining. Among the entrepreneurs there were various noblemen.It has been ascertained in this research that in individual periods between 1855 and 1945 there was a dominance of individuals (mainly 81%-85% while today (1990-1995 it is quite the opposite (86% are companies, because this is the end of the long term control of the socially owned companies. Thes same situation obtains today with respect to exploitation licenses, where companies predominate (84%.

  15. Conceptual Revolution of the 20th Century Leading to One Grand Unified Concept -- The Quantum Vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreekantan, B. V.

    2014-07-01

    Concepts and the relations between concepts are the basis for all our scientific understanding and explanation of the wide variety of constituents and phenomena in nature. Some of the fundamental concepts like space, time, matter, radiation, causality, etc. had remained unchanged for almost four hundred years from the time of the dawn of science. However all these underwent a drastic transformation in the 20th century because of two reasons. One, in the light of certain experimental findings two radical theories namely theory of relativity and theory of quantum mechanics replaced the classical theory that had dominated since Newton's time. Secondly, the science-technology spiral resulted in the discovery of very many new features of the universe both on the micro scale and on the mega scale. There was an exponential increase in our knowledge. These new facts could not be fitted into the old concepts. Apart from drastic revision, many new concepts had to be brought in. Despite all this, one very encouraging trend has been to discern a holistic synthesis and unification of the different concepts -- an endeavor that has been helped by experiments over a wide scale of energy and distances and most importantly from theoretical insights triggered by mathematical underpinnings. These developments in physics and astrophysics are pointing to one grand concept, namely, the "quantum vacuum" endowed with certain special properties, as the substratum from which all the constituents of the universe as well as the processes of the universe emerge, including the creation of the universe itself. This is the view, at least of some of the scientists. In this brief article the essence of these approaches toward unification is highlighted. Maybe life sciences can take a clue from these developments in physical sciences.

  16. Enhanced 20th century heat transfer to the Arctic simulated in the context of climate variations over the last millennium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Jungclaus

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Oceanic heat transport variations, carried by the northward flowing Atlantic Water, strongly influence Arctic sea-ice distribution, ocean–atmosphere exchanges, and pan-Arctic temperatures. Paleoceanographic reconstructions from marine sediments near Fram Strait have documented a dramatic increase in Atlantic Water temperatures over the 20th century, unprecedented in the last millennium. Here we present results from Earth system model simulations over the last millennium that reproduce and explain reconstructed integrated quantities such as pan-Arctic temperature evolution during the pre-industrial millennium as well as the exceptional Atlantic Water warming in Fram Strait in the 20th century. The associated increase in ocean heat transfer to the Arctic can be traced back to changes in the ocean circulation in the sub-polar North Atlantic. An interplay between a weakening overturning circulation and a strengthening sub-polar gyre as a consequence of 20th century global warming is identified as driving mechanism for the pronounced warming along the Atlantic Water path toward the Arctic. Simulations covering the late Holocene provide a reference frame that allows us to conclude that the changes during the last century are unprecedented in the last 1150 years and that they cannot be explained by internal variability or natural forcing alone.

  17. A representação da deficiência em livros infantis: séculos XIX e XX / The representation of disability in children's literature: 19th and 20th centuries

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ann, Dowker.

    1053-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo analisa a representação de personagens deficientes em livros britânicos e norte-americanos do século XIX ao início do século XXI. São analisados tanto os assim chamados clássicos infantis quanto livros fora de edição ou não tão disponíveis. Uma das conclusões é que a representação [...] de personagens deficientes geralmente é mais complexa e variada nos livros mais antigos. Além disso, segundo a visão de muitos autores do século XIX e início do século XX, é necessário aceitar infortúnios como uma forma de obediência a Deus, mas também porque, em última análise, eles são considerados um bem. Portanto, em muitos livros, a deficiência e sua cura, quando ocorre, estão associadas com o caráter. Abstract in english This article examines the treatment of disabled characters in British and North-American children's classics and in books that are out-of-print or less available to children from the 19th century to early 20th century. One of the main findings of this article is that the treatment of disabled charac [...] ters is often more complex and varied in the latter than in the former. Moreover, the prevailing view of many 19th century and some early 20th century authors was that one should submit to misfortunes, both as a form of obedience to God's will, and because these seeming misfortunes are ultimately intended for one's own good. Therefore, in many books, disability, where it occurs, and its cure are associated with character.

  18. Diversity trends in bread wheat in Italy during the 20th century assessed by traditional and multivariate approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormoli, Leonardo; Costa, Corrado; Negri, Stefano; Perenzin, Maurizio; Vaccino, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    A collection of 157 Triticum aestivum accessions, representative of wheat breeding in Italy during the 20(th) century, was assembled to describe the evolutionary trends of cultivated varieties throughout this period. The lines were cultivated in Italy, in two locations, over two growing seasons, and evaluated for several agronomical, morphological and qualitative traits. Analyses were conducted using the most common univariate approach on individual plant traits coupled with a correspondance multivariate approach. ANOVA showed a clear trend from old to new varieties, leading towards earliness, plant height reduction and denser spikes with smaller seeds. The average protein content gradually decreased over time; however this trend did not affect bread-making quality, because it was counterbalanced by a gradual increase of SDS sedimentation volume, achieved by the incorporation of favourable alleles into recent cultivars. Correspondence analysis allowed an overall view of the breeding activity. A clear-cut separation was observed between ancient lines and all the others, matched with a two-step gradient, the first, corresponding roughly to the period 1920-1940, which can be ascribed mostly to genetics, the second, from the 40s onward, which can be ascribed also to the farming practice innovations, such as improvement of mechanical devices and optimised use of fertilizers. PMID:25712271

  19. Diversity trends in bread wheat in Italy during the 20th century assessed by traditional and multivariate approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormoli, Leonardo; Costa, Corrado; Negri, Stefano; Perenzin, Maurizio; Vaccino, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    A collection of 157 Triticum aestivum accessions, representative of wheat breeding in Italy during the 20th century, was assembled to describe the evolutionary trends of cultivated varieties throughout this period. The lines were cultivated in Italy, in two locations, over two growing seasons, and evaluated for several agronomical, morphological and qualitative traits. Analyses were conducted using the most common univariate approach on individual plant traits coupled with a correspondance multivariate approach. ANOVA showed a clear trend from old to new varieties, leading towards earliness, plant height reduction and denser spikes with smaller seeds. The average protein content gradually decreased over time; however this trend did not affect bread-making quality, because it was counterbalanced by a gradual increase of SDS sedimentation volume, achieved by the incorporation of favourable alleles into recent cultivars. Correspondence analysis allowed an overall view of the breeding activity. A clear-cut separation was observed between ancient lines and all the others, matched with a two-step gradient, the first, corresponding roughly to the period 1920–1940, which can be ascribed mostly to genetics, the second, from the 40s onward, which can be ascribed also to the farming practice innovations, such as improvement of mechanical devices and optimised use of fertilizers. PMID:25712271

  20. Lessons Learned and Present Day Challenges of Addressing 20th Century Radiation Legacies of Russia and the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRISTOFZSKI, J.G.

    2000-10-26

    The decommissioning of nuclear submarines, disposal of highly-enriched uranium and weapons-grade plutonium, and processing of high-level radioactive wastes represent the most challenging issues facing the cleanup of 20th century radiation legacy wastes and facilities. The US and Russia are the two primary countries dealing with these challenges, because most of the world's fissile inventory is being processed and stored at multiple industrial sites and nuclear weapons production facilities in these countries.

  1. Climate-change impact on the 20th-century relationship between the Southern Annular Mode and global mean temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Guojian; Cai, Wenju

    2013-01-01

    The positive phase of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) increases global mean temperature, and contributes to a negative phase of the Southern Annular Mode (SAM), the dominant mode of climate variability in the Southern Hemisphere. This interannual relationship of a high global mean temperature associated with a negative SAM, however, is opposite to the relationship between their trends under greenhouse warming. We show that over much of the 20th century this relationship undergoes mul...

  2. Lessons Learned and Present Day Challenges of Addressing 20th Century Radiation Legacies of Russia and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decommissioning of nuclear submarines, disposal of highly-enriched uranium and weapons-grade plutonium, and processing of high-level radioactive wastes represent the most challenging issues facing the cleanup of 20th century radiation legacy wastes and facilities. The US and Russia are the two primary countries dealing with these challenges, because most of the world's fissile inventory is being processed and stored at multiple industrial sites and nuclear weapons production facilities in these countries

  3. Recruitment of members of Dutch noble and high-bourgeois families to elite positions in the 20th century

    OpenAIRE

    Schijf, Huibert; Dronkers, Jaap; Den Broeke-george, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    This article offers a counter-example of the modernization theory by looking at the elite positions of the nobility in the Netherlands in the 20th century. We compare the elite positions of the parents and the children, and between noble families and high bourgeoisie families. The likelihood of achieving an elite position has not decreased for different generations of the nobility or in comparison with the high bourgeoisie. An important factor is their social and cultural capital as indicated...

  4. The decline of winter monsoon velocity in the South China Sea through the 20th century: Evidence from the Sr/Ca records in corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Peng, Z.; Chen, T.; Wei, G.; Sun, W.; Sun, R.; He, J.; Liu, Guilin; Chou, C.-L.; Zartman, R.E.

    2008-01-01

    A modern massive Porites coral was collected from the Longwan Bay (19??20???N, 110??39???E) on the east coast of the Hainan Island, China. The coral was sectioned vertical to the growth axis into discs of double density-bands representing annual growth. The samples were analyzed for the Sr/Ca ratio by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The history of winter sea-surface temperature (SST) is reconstructed using the Sr/Ca ratio in winter bands of corals. The winter SST at Xisha in the middle of the South China Sea (SCS) is weakly correlated with the instrument-measured winter monsoon velocity (WMV) with a correlation coefficient of 0.19. The winter SST data from corals at Longwan Bay, Hainan, in the northern SCS are moderately correlated with the WMV (r = 0.40). Interestingly we found that the difference of winter SSTs between the two sites (Xisha and Longwan Bay, Hainan) (the X-H index) is significantly negatively correlated with the WMV (r = - 0.73). This negative correlation may be related to the intrusion of the warm Kuroshio Current into the SCS through the Luzon Strait promoted by the strong northeastern monsoon winds in the winter. Using the relationship between our coralline data and observed WMV, the calculated winter monsoon velocity (WMVc) was obtained for 87??years. This data set in combination with the instrument-measured data between 1993 and 1998 generate a record of WMVc for a period of 93??years from 1906 to 1998. The WMVc in the 20th century shows significant interannual and decadal variability with a trend of persistent decline in the whole 20th century at the rate of decrease of - 0.02 (m/s)/a. The lowest wind velocity occurred during the last two decades of the 20th century. The WMVc has decreased significantly by about 30% from the early to the late of 20th century. The 20th century decline of winter monsoon velocity evidenced from the SCS coral records is consistent with the atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) simulations for monsoon response to increasing temperatures. In addition, an obvious decline shift of WMV around 1976 can be seen in both instrumental and proxy records and it coincides with many other Pacific records. This shift is likely to correspond to a Pacific-wide change in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation occurring at the same time. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. 21st century regionalism: Filling the gap between 21st century trade and 20th century trade rules

    OpenAIRE

    Baldwin, Richard

    2011-01-01

    This paper weaves several sets of facts into an argument that: 1) today's trade is radically more complex, involving a trade-investment-service nexus, 2) this 21st century trade demanded deeper disciplines which were supplied by 21st century regionalism while the WTO was otherwise occupied, and 3) 21st century regionalism has quite different implications for the world trading system than the traditional thinking suggests. The paper also argues that the traditional thinking (building-stumbling...

  6. On Finland's Economic Growth and Convergence with Sweden and the EU15 in the 20th Century

    OpenAIRE

    Kokkinen, Arto

    2011-01-01

    Finland is one of the few examples of poor countries’ absolute GDP per capita convergence in the 20th century: One hundred years ago it was a poor agrarian country with GDP per capita less than half of that of the United Kingdom or the United States, world leaders at the time. In the beginning of the 21st century it is an industrialised and services emphasised country with a standard of living ranked among the top fifteen to twenty-five countries in the world. In the same time frame Finland...

  7. Traditions of female folk decoration in the Left-bank Ukraine in 17th – 20th century

    OpenAIRE

    Svyrydiuk, Oleksandra

    2013-01-01

    This paper acquaints us with an authentic women’s decorations of 19th and 20th centuries created in the Left-bank Ukraine. This topic is unexplored because of the historical events that took place in the Ukraine over the centuries. In his research the author made a conclusion about an insufficient of source base on this subject. Masters of jewelry usually are unknown, so author began to explore the centers were this women decorations was made, their symbolic significance in Ukrainian cul...

  8. 20th century acidification and warming as recorded in two alpine lakes in the Tatra Mountains (South Poland, Europe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasiorowski, Micha?; Sienkiewicz, Elwira

    2010-02-01

    Sediment profiles of two alpine lakes located in the Tatra Mountains, the Toporowy Staw Nizni (TSN) and the Zielony Staw Gasienicowy (ZSG), were studied for their chronology, lithology, diatom and cladoceran remains. The sediment sequences, 50cm long from TSN and 30cm long from ZSG, were deposited during the last 1000 and 300 years, respectively. Vertical changes in lithology, diatom and Cladocera allow the reconstruction of three periods in the lakes' evolution: mild climatic conditions during Medieval Warm Period (MWP, only in TSN), severe conditions between the end of 14th and 19th centuries, identified as the Little Ice Age (LIA), and 20th century warming. The LIA was recorded in the sediments of both lakes in the form of intensified erosion and lower lake ecosystem productivity, as indicated by organic matter lower content, changes in diatom species composition, and decline in Daphnia. The 20th century was a time of acidification in both lakes. The scale of acidification was assessed based on the decline in diatom-inferred pH (DI-pH). DI-pH dropped by 1.2 pH units during the last century in TSN and by 0.4 pH unit in ZSG. The decline of DI-pH was noted in both lakes, but its intensity was clearly higher in TSN due to the lower acid neutralisation capacity (ANC) of this lake. The lower pH during the final decades of the 20th century was lethal to some water organisms while attracting others, such as Daphnia. The Daphnia population increased after the pH drop, probably due to the high food flexibility of this genus. A similar increase was not observed in ZSG, where planktonivorous fishes were introduced in the 1940s, which effectively limited the crustacean plankton density. PMID:19896170

  9. Observed tidal variation in the lower thermosphere through the 20th century and the possible implication of ozone depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Martin J.

    2005-04-01

    Climatological change in the tides in the lower thermosphere has been estimated at five different latitudes using wavelet analysis of geomagnetic data series extending back to the beginning of the 20th century. The tidal signature present in the geomagnetic data is a consequence of atmospheric tides in the dynamo region between approximately 120 and 140 km altitude. The diurnal and semidiurnal spectral power have been accumulated through each year. The effect of solar and geomagnetic drivers has been minimized through use of proxy indices (aa index, sunspot number, F10.7 solar flux) to leave a residual which shows ˜20% reduction in both diurnal and semidiurnal amplitudes at midlatitudes since the middle of the century. This midlatitude reduction is qualitatively similar to the decrease observed using wind data from 1964 onward at approximately 90 km altitude over a range of latitudes by Bremer et al. (1997), but quantitatively it is about half the magnitude. At high latitude a similar decrease would be a statistically insignificant measurement because the estimation becomes sensitive to errors in the aa index. At low latitude there is no significant change throughout the century. The observed decrease at midlatitudes appears consistent with that predicted by Ross and Walterscheid (1991) for the dynamo region current as a consequence of global ozone depletion. Reduced tidal heating of the stratosphere during the latter half of the 20th century and the consequent reduction in tidal power propagating up to the lower thermosphere is implicated.

  10. PHOTOGRAPHY AND MODERNIZATION OF THE PRESS IN BRAZILIAN CAPITAL: The First Fifty Years of the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Louzada

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The process which created the conditions for the development of
    mass media press in Brazil was consolidated in the first half of the 20th Century with the emergence of newspaper companies based on an industrial form of production, the modernization of the writing style and design, plus the use of photography as a newsy element. There was a strong investment in technology in order to modernize the nation and photography, as a technical image par excellence, started to portray the acceleration of the passage of time that was accentuated by the 1890’s. In the beginning of the 20th century a new technological trend occurred mediated by the photographic apparatus and diffused through the newspaper and illustrated magazines pages that were multiplying in the nation’s capital, Rio de Janeiro1. The press used photography and a series of technological artifacts to acquire the status of a modern entity and multiply the number of readers, changing its forms of production and its auto-referential discourse, starting to be more and more the icon of modernity. The technologies capable of giving a wider dimension to the concept of time and space were decisive in shaping the new symbolic world which emerged since the turn of the century. The world got closer and more visible, the perception of the “other” changed gradually and temporality took on a new dimension. This article traces a panorama of the use of photography by the main newspapers published in the capital of Brazil in the first half of the 20th century, seeking in photography the reflection of the modernizing process that Brazilian society desired and underwent.

  11. Effects of breeding activity on durum wheat traits breed in Italy during the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale De Vita

    Full Text Available Italy is the first world producer of pasta from durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. and an intense breeding activity has been conducted over the last century to support the long tradition of pasta making. This manuscript reviews the results achieved through the Italian breeding programs over last century. The analysis of data allows to appreciate the selective pressure imposed by the breeders on plant height and phenology to select cultivars well adapted to the Italian semi-arid conditions, where early maturity allows to escape the drought season. The annual genetic gain in terms of yield ranged from 17 to 24.6 kg ha-1 year-1 and it was most clearly associated with a higher kernels number m-2 indicating a larger grain-sink size and a higher number of spikes m-2. Regarding the quality traits, the grain protein concentration showed a decreasing trend over time of release of about 0.02% per year, confirming the negative relationship with grain yield.The progressive incorporation into recent cultivars of favourable alleles (7+8 glutenin subunit composition coding for superior quality subunits reflects the improvement in pasta making quality of the recent genotypes.

  12. [A pragmatic alliance. Jewisch-Lithuanian political cooperation at the beginning of the 20th century. Hrsg. von Vladas Sirutavi?ius, Darius Stali?nas] / Karsten Brüggemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brüggemann, Karsten, 1965-

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: A pragmatic alliance. Jewisch-Lithuanian political cooperation at the beginning of the 20th century. Hrsg. von Vladas Sirutavi?ius und Darius Stali?nas. Verlag CEU Press. Budapest und New York, 2011

  13. A time-series analysis of the 20th century climate simulations produced for the IPCC's Fourth Assessment Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Francisco; Perron, Pierre; Gay-García, Carlos; Martínez-López, Benjamín

    2013-01-01

    In this paper evidence of anthropogenic influence over the warming of the 20th century is presented and the debate regarding the time-series properties of global temperatures is addressed in depth. The 20th century global temperature simulations produced for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Fourth Assessment Report and a set of the radiative forcing series used to drive them are analyzed using modern econometric techniques. Results show that both temperatures and radiative forcing series share similar time-series properties and a common nonlinear secular movement. This long-term co-movement is characterized by the existence of time-ordered breaks in the slope of their trend functions. The evidence presented in this paper suggests that while natural forcing factors may help explain the warming of the first part of the century, anthropogenic forcing has been its main driver since the 1970's. In terms of Article 2 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, significant anthropogenic interference with the climate system has already occurred and the current climate models are capable of accurately simulating the response of the climate system, even if it consists in a rapid or abrupt change, to changes in external forcing factors. This paper presents a new methodological approach for conducting time-series based attribution studies. PMID:23555866

  14. A Time-Series Analysis of the 20th Century Climate Simulations Produced for the IPCC’s Fourth Assessment Report

    OpenAIRE

    Estrada, Francisco; Perron, Pierre; Gay-garci?a, Carlos; Marti?nez-lo?pez, Benjami?n

    2013-01-01

    In this paper evidence of anthropogenic influence over the warming of the 20th century is presented and the debate regarding the time-series properties of global temperatures is addressed in depth. The 20th century global temperature simulations produced for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s Fourth Assessment Report and a set of the radiative forcing series used to drive them are analyzed using modern econometric techniques. Results show that both temperatures and radiative fo...

  15. Mapping the refugeeâ??s settlements in Thessaloniki during the first thirty years of the 20th Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savvaidis, P.

    2013-01-01

    During the Balkan wars and particularly after the national disaster of Asia Minor, Thessaloniki had to lodge many tenths of thousands of refugees. Then the town authorities created settlements for their hosting. These settlements were rapidly transformed to urban quarters of the town leading to an extension of the town to any direction, particularly to the NW and SE directions without any urban planning. These settlements and later on urban quarters were mapped in different Charts of the town during the 20th Century. The study of these maps is the subject of this paper.(in Greeks)

  16. Post-fire succession and 20th century reduction in fire frequency on xeric southern Appalachian sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrod, J.C.; White, P.S. [Univ. of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC (United States). Dept. of Biology; Harmon, M.E. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. of Forest Science

    2000-08-01

    We document post-fire succession on xeric sites in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA and assess effects of 20th century reduction in fire frequency on vegetation structure and composition. Successional studies over 18 yr on permanent plots that had burned in 1976-1977 indicate that tree mortality and vegetation response varied with fuel load and fire season. In the first three years after fire, hardwood sprouts dominated tree regeneration. On sites where summer and autumn fires reduced litter depth to less than 1 cm, densities of shade-intolerant Pinus seedlings increased steadily over this period. 4 to 8 yr after fire, large numbers of newly established seedlings and sprouts had grown to 1 - 10 cm DBH. By year 18 growth of these saplings led to canopy closure on most sites. Herbaceous cover and richness peaked in the first decade after fire, then declined. On similar sites that had not burned in more than 50 yr, regeneration of shade-intolerant Pinus spp. and mean cover and richness of herbs were considerably lower than those observed on recently burned plots. Reconstructions of landscape conditions based on observed post-fire succession and 20th century changes in fire regime suggest that reductions in fire frequency circa 1940 led to substantial changes in forest structure and decreases in cover and richness of herbaceous species.

  17. A multidisciplinary approach of the status of women in Europe in the 20th-21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina IONESCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The 20th century was marked by the feminine revolution and the change of status of women throughout the world. The following article wishes to approach from a multidisciplinary perspective the contrasting differences of the woman’s condition in two different “worlds” (Occidental and the Balkans given the access of women towards education, social attitude and the afferent politics for women. These indexes influence the rate of participation of women in the working field, thus, they play a crucial role in the personal development of them. The comparative analysis of the specialized literature points out the main characteristics of women from France and Germany (as defining parts of the Occidental Europe and Turkey and Bosnia (representative countries for the Balkans and the Islamic part of the continent throughout the 20th and the 21st century. Although there is a common set of features, it is the differences that draw attention regarding the unequal participation of women in the social, economical and political life.

  18. A review of the History of Spine Surgery in Greece until the Middle of the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Markatos

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Spine Surgery began its evolution in the beginning of the 19th century in order to reach nowadays the point of being considered an important subspecialty of Neurosurgery and Orthopaedics. The purpose of this historical review is the search and evaluation of the progress in spine surgery until the middle of the 20th century. This review concerns the inauguration and evolution of this field in Greece. Special references are made to the first achievements of this field, to the pioneers physicians and surgeons (general surgeons, orthopaedic surgeons and neurosurgeons who inaugurated this subspecialty and to clinical and scientific work of that era. Eventually, the progress of medicine and technology who led to the first achievements of this subspecialty are shown and also the difficulties (both social and scientific that the pioneers of this field faced are demonstrated. In Greece, with small exceptions, the new techniques emerged with a certain delay.

  19. Clothing culture of teachers and pupils in 20th and 21st century

    OpenAIRE

    Kregar, Nina

    2012-01-01

    Clothing culture of teachers and pupils has changed a lot in twentieth century due to many social, political and economical changes. It is hard to determine which of the factors has the strongest impact. The diploma work focuses on the last century. Historical background of Slovene education is specified besides teachers and pupils social situations throught historical periods. Definitions of terms clothing culture, clothing outlook and fashion were also specified. In the research we were in...

  20. African tropical rainforest net CO2 fluxes in the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, J. B.; Sikka, M.; Sitch, S.; Ciais, P.; Poulter, B.; Galbraith, D.; Lee, J.; Huntingford, C.; Viovy, N.; Zeng, N.; Ahlström, A.; Lomas, M. R.; Levy, P. E.; Frankenberg, C.; Saatchi, S. S.; Malhi, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The African humid tropical biome constitutes the second largest rainforest region, significantly impacts global carbon cycling and climate, and has undergone major changes in functioning due to climate and land use change over the past century. We assess changes and trends in CO2 fluxes from 1901-2010 using nine land surface models forced with common driving data, and depict the inter-model variability as the uncertainty in fluxes. The biome is estimated to be a natural (no disturbance) net carbon sink (-0.02 kg C m-2y-1 or -0.04 Pg C y-1, p<0.05) with increasing strength 4x-fold in the second half of the century. The models were in close agreement on net CO2 flux at the beginning of the century (?1901=0.02 kg C m-2y-1), but diverged exponentially throughout the century (?2010=0.03 kg C m-2y-1). The increasing uncertainty is due to differences in sensitivity to increasing atmospheric CO2, but not increasing water stress, despite a decrease in precipitation and increase in air temperature. However, the largest uncertainties were associated with the most extreme drought events of the century. These results highlight the need to constrain modeled CO2 fluxes with increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and extreme climatic events, as the uncertainties will only amplify in the next century.

  1. Changes in orographic extreme rain events over Meghalaya Hills in Northeast India in the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Pawel; Walanus, Adam

    2014-05-01

    The interaction between large-scale circulation and the local topography plays a crucial role in determining the spatial distribution of rainfall over the Meghalaya Hills. The Meghalaya plateau forms the first orographic barrier for the humid southwest monsoon winds, on their way from the Bay of Bengal to the Himalayas. The annual rainfall distribution varies from 12,000 mm in Cherrapunji (1300 m a.s.l.) located at the southern edge of the plateau to 2200 mm in Shillong (1598 m a.s.l.) and only 1600 mm in Gauhati (54 m a.s.l.), located to the north in the Brahmaputra valley. The daily rainfall data for the 20th century, from these three stations across the region, constitute the basis for statistical analysis. However, the low signal-to-noise ratio makes it difficult to find any significant departure from the simplest null hypothesis of stability of rain record at individual stations. Comparing the two halves of the century, provided strongly significant results in the numbers of days with extreme rain. The number of Fourier Transform extreme amplitudes also differed significantly. Increasingly heavy events during the summer monsoon season, and partly in the pre- and post-monsoon seasons, are offset by a weakening in the winter monsoon season, so that the annual mean rainfall does not show a significant trend over the Meghalaya Hills. Apart from a greater number of years with noticeable extreme rainfall events in the second half of the 20th century, we can also observe a more pronounced quasi-periodicity of the 10-20 and 30-60 days during the same period.

  2. Evaluation of Continental Precipitation in 20th-Century Climate Simulations: The Utility of Multi-Model Statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, T J; Gleckler, P J

    2005-11-01

    At the request of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), simulations of 20th-century climate have been performed recently with some 20 global coupled ocean-atmosphere models. In view of its central importance for biological and socio-economic systems, model-simulated continental precipitation is evaluated relative to three observational estimates at both global and regional scales. Many models are found to display systematic biases, deviating markedly from the observed spatial variability and amplitude/phase of the seasonal cycle. However, the point-wise ensemble mean of all the models usually shows better statistical agreement with the observations than does any single model. Deficiencies of current models that may be responsible for the simulated precipitation biases as well as possible reasons for the improved estimate afforded by the multi-model ensemble mean are discussed. Implications of these results for water-resource managers also are briefly addressed.

  3. Are infant mortality rate declines exponential? The general pattern of 20th century infant mortality rate decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opuni Marjorie

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Time trends in infant mortality for the 20th century show a curvilinear pattern that most demographers have assumed to be approximately exponential. Virtually all cross-country comparisons and time series analyses of infant mortality have studied the logarithm of infant mortality to account for the curvilinear time trend. However, there is no evidence that the log transform is the best fit for infant mortality time trends. Methods We use maximum likelihood methods to determine the best transformation to fit time trends in infant mortality reduction in the 20th century and to assess the importance of the proper transformation in identifying the relationship between infant mortality and gross domestic product (GDP per capita. We apply the Box Cox transform to infant mortality rate (IMR time series from 18 countries to identify the best fitting value of lambda for each country and for the pooled sample. For each country, we test the value of ? against the null that ? = 0 (logarithmic model and against the null that ? = 1 (linear model. We then demonstrate the importance of selecting the proper transformation by comparing regressions of ln(IMR on same year GDP per capita against Box Cox transformed models. Results Based on chi-squared test statistics, infant mortality decline is best described as an exponential decline only for the United States. For the remaining 17 countries we study, IMR decline is neither best modelled as logarithmic nor as a linear process. Imposing a logarithmic transform on IMR can lead to bias in fitting the relationship between IMR and GDP per capita. Conclusion The assumption that IMR declines are exponential is enshrined in the Preston curve and in nearly all cross-country as well as time series analyses of IMR data since Preston's 1975 paper, but this assumption is seldom correct. Statistical analyses of IMR trends should assess the robustness of findings to transformations other than the log transform.

  4. THE INDUSTRIAL STARTUP IN ROMANIA AT THE BEGINNING OF THE 20TH CENTURY

    OpenAIRE

    Axenciuc, Victor

    2005-01-01

    The paper dedicated to the mechanised industry start-up shows the transformations triggered within this sector by shifting in various sectors from manual labour and technique to mechanised labour and technique, the latter turning out to represent in just a few decades the industrial production of the country. The industrial revolution, based on import, and the beginning of the industrialisation process have recovered over half of the century the economic delay in Romania’s development.

  5. A Practical Theology of Church and World: Ecclesiology and Social Vision in 20th Century Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Gay, Douglas C.

    2006-01-01

    The strong emphasis on ecclesiology in the work of Stanley Hauerwas, John Milbank and others associated with ‘the new ecclesiology’1 brings theological challenges to the contemporary move to recast practical theology’s attention to church and society as ‘public theology’. A historical reading of three key examples of practice in the tradition of twentieth century Scottish reformed-ecumenical reflection on ‘church and society’ displays a rich seam of reflection on ...

  6. Evolution of National Nobel Prize Shares in the 20th Century

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidhuber, Juergen

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the evolution of cumulative national shares of Nobel Prizes since 1901, properly taking into account that most prizes were divided among several laureates. We rank by citizenship at the moment of the award, and by country of birth. Surprisingly, graphs of this type have not been published before, even though they powerfully illustrate the century's migration patterns (brain drains and gains) in the sciences and other fields.

  7. Transition of wind power utilization technology in the 20th century; 20 seiki ni okeru furyoku riyo gijutsu no hensen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushiyama, I. [Ashikaga Inst. of Tech., Tochigi (Japan)

    2000-04-01

    Windmills are one of the oldest prime movers and have been used for more than 700 years in Europe. The transition from low speed windmills for grain grinding and water pumping to high speed wind turbines for electric power generation had occurred at the end of 19{sup th} century. This paper, at first, reviews the windmill technologies and the researchers before 20th century. Then describes the back ground of how the wind power generator has existed and how the four pioneers developed their wind power generator. The historical developments of windmills to wind turbines in this century are studied focusing mainly on Danish activities. Then, the effort of the development of large wind turbine such as Smith-Putnum's first MW machine in U.S.A. and other mammoth machine concept are introduced. The new concept machines such as Savonius and Darrieus wind turbines in 1920s to 1930s are also explained. Finally, the novel technologies of wind turbine covering larger machines, variable speed generators, special wing sections for wind turbines, theoretical analysis method of wind turbine performance, offshore wind turbines, and wind turbine control technologies are stated. (author)

  8. Development of the Structure of Lithuanian Gardens and Parks from the 16th to the 20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albinas Mocevi?ius

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The historical development of Lithuanian parks cannot be separated from the historical evolution of our cities and towns and formation of their urbanistic structure. The beginnings of creating garden art in Lithuania, the same as in West Europe, are mentioned in medieval castles and monasteries. A strong influence on the developement of the history of Renaissance gardens was exerted by new models of garden theory, which were formed and formulated by famous European architects, artists, scientists, philosophers. The traditions of antique art were revived, new scientific inventions had an influence on garden art. During the 17th–18th centuries a lot of residences and manors were built, and they played an important role in the urbanisation of the country. In the 17th–18th centuries the tendencies in the Italian art of garden parks in West Europe were taken over by French baroque. In the junction of the 18th and 19th centuries the planning of cities and towns and urbanistic development in the territories of Lithuania and East Europe took place due to bizarre and geometralised influence of the baroque epoch. In the 19th century scenery parks were created next to mansions in Lithuanian towns by famous scenery specialists of that time from West Europe. In the junction of 19th and 20th centuries important geopolitical processes in Lithuania and Europe took place not only in the urbanisation of cities, but also in the planning of parks and their art tendencies. Due to the growth of cities, their urbanised territories and strengthening of social attitude towards a surrounding environment, the boundaries of park art spread into the public areas of cities. At the end of the paper there is a scheme which summarises the development and influence of park structure on city development and formation .Article in Lithuanian

  9. Low energy electron beam processing in Europe at the end of the 20th century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overview of low energy electron beam processing in Europe was presented. The presentation contained the following topics: the early installations, years of growth, stagnation, status 1999 and the future of this technology

  10. Systematic recover of long high-resolution rainfall time series recorded by pluviographs during the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delitala, Alessandro M. S.; Deidda, Roberto; Mascaro, Giuseppe; Piga, Enrico; Querzoli, Giorgio

    2010-05-01

    During most of the 20th century, precipitation has been continuously measured by means of the so-called "pluviographs", i.e. rain gauges including a mechanical apparatus for continuously recording the depth of water from precipitation on specific strip charts, usually on a weekly basis. The signal recorded on such strips was visually examined by trained personnel on a regular basis, in order to extract the daily precipitation totals and the maximum precipitation intensities over short periods (from a few minutes to hours). The rest of the high-resolution information contained in the signal was usually not extracted, except for specific cases. A systematic recovering of the entire information at high temporal resolution contained in these precipitation signals would provide a fundamental database to improve the characterization of historical rainfall climatology during the previous century. The Department of Land Engineering of the University of Cagliari has recently developed and tested an automatic software, based on image analysis techniques, which is able to acquire the scanned images of the pluviograph strip charts, to automatically digitise the signal and to produce a digital database of continuous precipitation records at the highest possible temporal resolution, i.e. 5 to 10 minutes. Along with that, a significant amount of daily precipitation totals from the late 19th and the 20th century, either elaborated from pluviograph strip charts or simply derived from bucket rain gauges, still exists in paper form, but it has never been digitalized. Within a project partly-funded by the Operational Programme of the European Union "Italia-Francia Marittimo", the Regional Environmental Protection Agency of Sardinia and the University of Cagliari will recover both the high-resolution rainfall signals and the older time series of daily totals recorded by a large number of pluviographs belonging to the historical monitoring networks of the island of Sardinia. Such data will then be used to construct the high-resolution climatology of precipitation over Sardinia, both assuming stationary climate and slowly varying climate. Specific attention will be devoted to a set of critical hydrological basins, often affected by intense precipitation and flash floods. All information will then be made available to researchers, regional officers, technicians (e.g. hydraulic engineers) and the greater public interested into such information. The present poster describes the general scope of the E.U. project and the specific activities in the field of climatology of Sardinia rainfall that will be conducted as well as the expected results. A section will be dedicated to show how the pluviograph strips are automatically digitized.

  11. The distribution of an illustrated timeline wall chart and teacher's guide of 20th century physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Brian

    2000-12-26

    The American Physical Society's part of its centennial celebration in March of 1999 decided to develop a timeline wall chart on the history of 20th century physics. This resulted in eleven consecutive posters, which when mounted side by side, create a 23-foot mural. The timeline exhibits and describes the millstones of physics in images and words. The timeline functions as a chronology, a work of art, a permanent open textbook, and a gigantic photo album covering a hundred years in the life of the community of physicists and the existence of the American Physical Society. Each of the eleven posters begins with a brief essay that places a major scientific achievement of the decade in its historical context. Large portraits of the essays' subjects include youthful photographs of Marie Curie, Albert Einstein, and Richard Feynman among others, to help put a face on science. Below the essays, a total of over 130 individual discoveries and inventions, explained in dated text boxes with accompanying images, form the backbone of the timeline. For ease of comprehension, this wealth of material is organized into five color-coded story lines the stretch horizontally across the hundred years of the 20th century. The five story lines are: Cosmic Scale, relate the story of astrophysics and cosmology; Human Scale, refers to the physics of the more familiar distances from the global to the microscopic; Atomic Scale, focuses on the submicroscopic world of atoms, nuclei and quarks; Living World, chronicles the interaction of physics with biology and medicine; Technology, traces the applications of physic to everyday living. Woven into the bottom border of the timeline are period images of significant works of art, architecture, and technological artifacts such as telephones, automobiles, aircraft, computers, and appliances. The last poster, covering the years since 1995, differs from the others. Its essay concerns the prospect for physics into the next century, and is illustrated with pictures of promising award winning high school students who, it is hoped, will be the leading researchers of physics in the decades ahead. Appropriately the last entries in the timeline are not achievements but open questions to be answered in the future.

  12. Changing climatic and anthropogenic influences on the Bermejo wetland, through archival documents – Mendoza, Argentina, 16th–20th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Prieto

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The wrong management of watering in the highest zones of the Mendoza northern oasis, the topography of the terrain and the deficient drainage, together with neotectonics phenomena, but mostly a dramatic and progressive increase of the Rio Mendoza flow volume originated the expansion of the wetlands area at the NE of the city of Mendoza at the turn of the 18th century, while in previous centuries it had retracted to a minimum. The area grew until reaching the dimension of large wetlands in the lowest oasis zones, resulting from a larger runoff and soil saturation by the rise of the phreatic layers. This situation remained throughout the 19th century, affecting the extension and use of the available land for human activity. The purpose of this study was to research this process that culminated in 1930 with the partial desiccation of the area. We have given particular importance to the influence of the climatic fluctuations in the Cordillera de los Andes and to the consequent variations of the Rio Mendoza flow volume in this process. For the analysis we used snowfall series at the cordillera and flow volume of the Rio Mendoza, built by Prieto (2009 with documental data. We analyzed which were the mediate and immediate consequences of the growth and later desiccation of the wetlands over the environment and its present repercussion on the ecosystem (salinization, poor soil drainage, soil alkalinization, sedimentation. In addition, we have also worked over georeferenced historic charts that partially reflect the behavior of the Cienaga del Bermejo during the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. This behavior characterized by "growth pulses" and retraction moments is reflected in the analyzed charts, where those moments of major growth coincide with cycles of bigger snowstorms and larger flow volume in the Rio Mendoza.

  13. Evolution of the decrease in mineral exergy throughout the 20th century. The case of copper in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mineral deposit is a natural resource whose exergy can be calculated from a defined reference environment (RE). This RE can be compared to a thermodynamically dead planet, where all materials have reacted, dispersed and mixed. Like any substance, a mine is characterized by its quantity, chemical composition and concentration (ore grade). The mine's exergy measures the minimum (reversible) energy to extract and concentrate the materials from the RE to the conditions in the mine. And the mine's exergy replacement cost accounts for the actual exergy required to accomplish this, with available technologies. The exergy assessment of the natural resource wealth of the Earth defined from a RE is named as exergoecology. The aim of this paper is to prove the usefulness of these two indicators for assessing the degradation of mineral deposits over history. As an example, the exergy decrease of US copper mines due to copper extraction throughout the 20th century has been determined. The results indicate that the exergy decrease was 65.4 Mtoe, while the exergy replacement cost 889.9 Mtoe. During the past century, the US extracted the equivalent of 2.5 and 1.2 times of its current national exergy reserves and base reserve of copper, respectively

  14. Response of the ice cap Hardangerjøkulen in southern Norway to the 20th and 21st century climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Giesen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Glaciers respond to mass balance changes by adjusting their surface elevation and area. These properties in their turn affect the local and area-averaged mass balance. To incorporate this interdependence in the response of glaciers to climate change, models should include an interactive scheme coupling mass balance and ice dynamics. In this study, a spatially distributed mass balance model, comprising surface energy balance calculations, was coupled to a vertically integrated ice-flow model based on the shallow ice approximation. The coupled model was applied to the ice cap Hardangerjøkulen in southern Norway. The available glacio-meteorological records, mass balance and glacier length change measurements were utilized for model calibration and validation. Forced with meteorological data from nearby synoptic weather stations, the coupled model realistically simulated the observed mass balance and glacier length changes during the 20th century. The mean climate for the period 1961–1990, computed from local meteorological data, was used as a basis to prescribe climate projections for the 21st century at Hardangerjøkulen. For a linear temperature increase of 3 °C from 1961–1990 to 2071–2100, the modelled net mass balance soon becomes negative at all altitudes and Hardangerjøkulen disappears around the year 2100. The projected changes in the other meteorological variables could at most partly compensate for the effect of the projected warming.

  15. Reconstructing 20th century global hydrography: a contribution to the Global Terrestrial Network- Hydrology (GTN-H

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Wisser

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new reconstruction of the 20th Century global hydrography using fully coupled water balance and transport model in a flexible modeling framework. The modeling framework allows a high level of configurability both in terms of input forcings and model structure. Spatial and temporal trends in hydrological cycle components are assessed under "pre-industrial" conditions (without modern-day human activities and contemporary conditions (incorporating the effects of irrigation and reservoir operations. The two sets of simulations allow the isolation of the trends arising from variations in the climate input driver alone and from human interventions. Our findings confirm that the expansion of irrigation and the construction has significantly and gradually impacted hydrological components in individual river basins. Variations in the volume of water entering the oceans, however, are governed by variations in the climate signal alone with human activities playing secondary role. Globally, we do find a significant trend in the terrestrial discharge over the last century.

    The largest impact of human intervention on the hydrological cycle arises from the operation of reservoirs that drastically changes the seasonal pattern of horizontal water transport in the river system and thereby directly and indirectly affects a number of processes.

  16. Annie Altschul's legacy to 20th century British mental health nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, P

    1999-08-01

    Being knowledgeable about, learning from and building upon one's history is the hallmark of an enlightened and progressive profession. This includes an appreciation of the work of those who contributed to moulding the profession into what it currently is. Mental health nursing has not distinguished itself by respect for its former leaders. In this paper, the life and times of one of the most outstanding mental health nurses of the century, Professor Annie Altschul, are recalled and examined. She sought constantly to establish what should be the essence of mental health nursing and what its role should be in the alleviation of human suffering. As an outsider herself, she identified strongly with those marginalized by society. Always a spokesperson for the centrality of nursing in patient care, she saw nurses as those best placed to provide holistic care to patients whilst other professionals specialized in their biomedical, social and financial needs. Long after her retirement, Altschul remains active in supervising and examining postgraduate nursing students. She is still a voice in the mental health debate, someone whose opinions are sought and valued. PMID:10763662

  17. Variability of sea-ice in the northern Weddell Sea during the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, E. J.; Clarke, A.; Abram, N. J.; Turner, J.

    2014-07-01

    The record of winter fast-ice in the South Orkney Islands, northern Weddell Sea, Antarctica, is over a century long and provides the longest observational record of sea-ice variability in the Southern Hemisphere. Here we present analyses of the series of fast-ice formation and breakout dates from 1903 to 2008. We show that over the satellite era (post-1979), the timing of both final autumn formation and complete spring breakout of fast-ice is representative of the regional sea-ice concentrations (SIC) in the northern Weddell Sea, and associated with atmospheric conditions in the Amundsen Sea region to the west of the Antarctic Peninsula. Variation in the fast-ice breakout date is influenced by the intensity of the westerly/north-westerly winds associated with the Southern Annular Mode (SAM). In contrast, the date of ice formation displays correlations with regional oceanic and sea-ice conditions over the previous 18 months, which indicate a preconditioning during the previous summer and winter, and exhibits variability associated with variation in tropical Pacific sea-surface temperature (i.e., the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, ENSO). A reduction in fast-ice duration at the South Orkney Islands around the 1950s was associated with both later formation and earlier breakout. However, there were marked changes in variability (with periodicities of 3-5, 7-9, and 20 years) in each of the series and in their relationships with ENSO and SAM, indicating the need for caution in interpreting changes in ice conditions based on shorter-term satellite series.

  18. Borehole temperatures reveal details of 20th century warming at Bruce Plateau, Antarctic Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagorodnov, V.; Nagornov, O.; Scambos, T. A.; Muto, A.; Mosley-Thompson, E.; Pettit, E. C.; Tyuflin, S.

    2012-06-01

    Two ice core boreholes of 143.18 m and 447.73 m (bedrock) were drilled during the 2009-2010 austral summer on the Bruce Plateau at a location named LARISSA Site Beta (66°02' S, 64°04' W, 1975.5 m a.s.l.). Both boreholes were logged with thermistors shortly after drilling. The shallow borehole was instrumented for 4 months with a series of resistance thermometers with satellite uplink. Surface temperature proxy data derived from an inversion of the borehole temperature profiles are compared to available multi-decadal records from weather stations and ice cores located along a latitudinal transect of the Antarctic Peninsula to West Antarctica. The LARISSA Site Beta profiles show temperatures decreasing from the surface downward through the upper third of the ice, and warming thereafter to the bed. The average temperature for the most recent year is -14.78°C (measured at 15 m depth, abbreviated T15). A minimum temperature of -15.8°C is measured at 173 m depth, and basal temperature is estimated to be -10.2°C. Current mean annual temperature and the gradient in the lower part of the measured temperature profile have a best fit with an accumulation rate of 1.9×103 kg m-2 a-1 and basal heat flux (q) of 88 mW m-2, if steady-state conditions are assumed. However, the mid-level temperature variations show that recent temperature has varied significantly. Reconstructed surface temperatures (Ts=T15) over the last 200 yr are derived by an inversion technique (Tikhonov and Samarskii, 1990). From this, we find that cold temperatures (minimum Ts=-16.2°C) prevailed from ~1920 to ~1940, followed by a gradual rise of temperature to -14.2°C around 1995, then cooling over the following decade and warming in the last few years. The coldest period was preceded by a relatively warm 19th century at T15?-15°C. To facilitate regional comparisons of the surface temperature history, we use our T15 data and nearby weather station records to refine estimates of lapse rates (altitudinal, adjusted for latitude: ?a(l)). Good temporal and spatial consistency of ?a(l) over the last 35 yr are observed, implying that the climate trends observed here are regional and consistent over a broad altitude range.

  19. Borehole temperatures reveal details of 20th century warming at Bruce Plateau, Antarctic Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Zagorodnov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Two ice core boreholes of 143.18 m and 447.73 m (bedrock were drilled during the 2009–2010 austral summer on the Bruce Plateau at a location named LARISSA Site Beta (66°02' S, 64°04' W, 1975.5 m a.s.l.. Both boreholes were logged with thermistors shortly after drilling. The shallow borehole was instrumented for 4 months with a series of resistance thermometers with satellite uplink. Surface temperature proxy data derived from an inversion of the borehole temperature profiles are compared to available multi-decadal records from weather stations and ice cores located along a latitudinal transect of the Antarctic Peninsula to West Antarctica. The LARISSA Site Beta profiles show temperatures decreasing from the surface downward through the upper third of the ice, and warming thereafter to the bed. The average temperature for the most recent year is ?14.78°C (measured at 15 m depth, abbreviated T15. A minimum temperature of ?15.8°C is measured at 173 m depth, and basal temperature is estimated to be ?10.2°C. Current mean annual temperature and the gradient in the lower part of the measured temperature profile have a best fit with an accumulation rate of 1.9×103 kg m?2 a?1 and basal heat flux (q of 88 mW m?2, if steady-state conditions are assumed. However, the mid-level temperature variations show that recent temperature has varied significantly. Reconstructed surface temperatures (Ts=T15 over the last 200 yr are derived by an inversion technique (Tikhonov and Samarskii, 1990. From this, we find that cold temperatures (minimum Ts=?16.2°C prevailed from ~1920 to ~1940, followed by a gradual rise of temperature to ?14.2°C around 1995, then cooling over the following decade and warming in the last few years. The coldest period was preceded by a relatively warm 19th century at T15??15°C. To facilitate regional comparisons of the surface temperature history, we use our T15 data and nearby weather station records to refine estimates of lapse rates (altitudinal, adjusted for latitude: ?a(l. Good temporal and spatial consistency of ?a(l over the last 35 yr are observed, implying that the climate trends observed here are regional and consistent over a broad altitude range.

  20. Borehole temperatures reveal details of 20th century warming at Bruce Plateau, Antarctic Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Zagorodnov

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Two ice core boreholes of 143.74 m and 447.65 m (bedrock were drilled during the 2009–2010 austral summer on the Bruce Plateau at a location named LARISSA Site Beta (66°02' S, 64°04' W, 1975.5 m a.s.l.. Both boreholes were logged with thermistors shortly after drilling. The shallow borehole was instrumented for 4 months with a series of resistance thermometers with satellite uplink. Surface temperature proxy data derived from an inversion of the borehole temperature profiles are compared to available multi-decadal records from weather stations and ice cores located along a latitudinal transect of the Antarctic Peninsula to West Antarctica. The LARISSA Site Beta profiles show temperatures decreasing from the surface downward through the upper third of the ice, and warming thereafter to the bed. The average temperature for the most recent year is ?14.78 °C (measured at 15 m depth, abbreviated T15. A minimum temperature of ?15.8 °C is measured at 173 m depth and basal temperature is estimated to be ?10.2 °C. Current mean annual temperature and the gradient in the lower part of the measured temperature profile have a best fit with an accumulation rate of 1.9 × 103 kg m?2 a?1 and basal heat flux (q of 88 mW m?2, if steady-state conditions are assumed. However, the mid-level temperature variations show that recent temperature has varied significantly. Reconstructed surface temperatures (Ts=T15 over the last 200 yr are derived by an inversion technique. From this, we find that cold temperatures (minimum Ts=?16.2 °C prevailed from ~1920 to ~1940, followed by a gradual rise of temperature to ?14.2 °C around 1995, then cooling over the following decade and warming in the last few years. The coldest period was preceded by a relatively warm 19th century at T15 ? ?15 °C. To facilitate regional comparisons of the surface temperature history, we use our T15 data and nearby weather station records to refine estimates of lapse rates (altitudinal, adjusted for latitude: ?a(l. Good temporal and spatial consistency of ?a(l over the last 35 yr are observed, implying that the climate trends observed here are regional and consistent over a broad altitude range.

  1. Climate?induced response of commercially important flatfish species during the 20th century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparrevohn, Claus Reedtz; Lindegren, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The consequence of elevated ocean temperatures on commercial fish stocks is addressed using time series of commercial landings (1906–2004) and juvenile survey catch data (1904–2006) collected around Denmark. We analyze (i) whether warm?water sole (Solea solea) has increased relative to Boreal plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) and (ii) whether two related warm?water species (turbot, Psetta maxima and brill, Scophthalmus rhombus) show similar responses to increasing temperature or, alternatively, whether turbot (which has a broader juvenile diet) has been favored. Since the early 1980s, both sole and turbot have constituted an increasing part of the commercial landings and survey catches, as compared with plaice and brill, respectively. These changes in species composition were linked to sea surface temperatures, Northern Hemisphere temperature anomalies (NHA) and the North Atlantic Oscillation. NHA was closely related and explained 43% of the observed variation in sole survey catches relative to the plaice catches and almost 38% of the observed variation in the sole landings relative to the plaice landings. For the less common species, turbot and brill, none of the global change indicators explained more than 15% of the variation, although all showed a positive relationship. Survey catch per unit effort increased significantly for both sole and turbot around the early 1980s, whereas catch per unit effort for plaice and brill remained constant. The results indicate that the abundance of warm?water species is likely to increase with increasing temperature but also that species with similar life histories might react differently according to degree of specialization.

  2. Migrations from the Gora region at the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?or?evi?-Crnobrnja Jadranka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I will analyze economic and political migration in the Gora region at the end of the 20th and in the first decade of the 21st century. It is my intent to consider and explain their cause and their intensity and scope. In short, I view the socioeconomic and political dimension of these migrations from an ethnological and anthropological point of view. The economic and political migrations from the Gora region at the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century represent the continuation of earlier migrations, albeit more intensive and larger in scope (whole families are migrating. There migrations can be viewed as the effects of political changes in Kosovo, as well as the socioeconomic crisis of the 1990’s. There are no fixed boundaries between these types of migrations, and the only truly stand out examples are the cases in which people migrated for safety reasons. A certain type of migration can be identified based on the terminology used by the interlocutors. I have encountered the terms “banishment” and “displacement” in the narrative discourse of my interlocutors. These terms are used to describe the migrations from Gora during the 1999 war, as well as immediately after. The differences between economic and political migrants can be gouged from other factors such as going to Gora during vacations and holidays as well as investing money into real-estate in the region. Individuals who emigrated from Gora because they feared for their and the loves of their families go to Gora rarely (to attend funerals for example and are not currently thinking of investing unlike those who had left Gora as economic migrants. There are no differences when it comes to where people migrate to for different reasons. Places of migration can, however, be indicative of the form of migration in the sense of whether people migrated to a foreign country or not. One can turn into the other due to the changing of state borders. Thus migrations from Gora to cities and towns in Serbia became international after Kosovo declared independence. In this context, migrations from Gora to Serbia can be defined twofold, both at the level of the individual and at the level of the community. This leads to the conclusion that, in the case of migrations which are the focus of this paper, one needs to be careful not only of their typology, but also their conceptualization as well as the positions from which a certain migration is conceptualized. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177027: Multietnicitet, multikulturalnost, migracije - savremeni procesi

  3. Rakhmaninov’s creative work influence on national music cultures in 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skurko E. R.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article dwells on the problem of Rakhmaninov’s art, style and poetics influence on the process of formation and development of national music cultures, national composer schools and some individual author’s styles of the former USSR. Three evolution stages of all national music cultures are determined: “preprofessional”, “professional” and the stage of “new music”. Two work concepts are introduced: a Rakhmaninov’s musical and style canon as an individual system including characteristic properties of the composer’s style and poetics, and a national musical and style canon as a system of musical and expressive language principles typical for every musical culture and possessive of the national character. The signs representing the Rakhmaninov’s style are revealed and considered on the piano concerto genre. These two spheres outlined are disclosed in folklore and neofolklore conditions as the main evolution directions of the national musical thinking. The main principles of the Rakhmaninov’s and national canons interaction are singled out: adaptation corresponding to the early development stages of national music cultures (forlklore stage and assimilation (by G. Golovinsky characteristic for “new music” (neofollore stage. The problems are considered on the example of piano concertos by Z. Ismagilov, A. Khatchaturyan, A. Eshpay, R. Gazizov and some others.

  4. Breiðamerkurjökull, SE - Iceland, its maximum extent in the late 19th century and volume loss estimation during the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, Snaevarr; Björnsson, Helgi

    2014-05-01

    Breiðamerkurjökull is one of the largest outlet glaciers of the Vatnajökull ice cap, SE-Iceland. This maritime temperate glacier has recessed dramatically since the end of the 19th century, which was the Little Ice Age maximum (LIAmax).We reconstruct a model of the geometry of the outlet during its highstand about 120 years ago. The reconstruction is derived from geomorphological in-field evidences of the glacier margins and supported by the 1904 topographical maps, published by the Danish General Staff, aerial photos and the Army Map Service (AMS) maps of 1945 and written historical documents. We estimate the volume loss since its 1890 Little Ice Age maximum (LIAmax). Area decrease of 115 km2 or 12 % is depicted. With a recent LiDAR based high resolution digital elevation model from 2010-2011 we revise the mid - 20th century AMS maps to constrain its accuracy and estimate the volume loss since 1945.

  5. Siglo XX. Cien años de miseria y esplendor / The 20th Century: 100 years of misfortune and splendor

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eliéxer, Urdaneta-Carruyo.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available El siglo XX ha sido uno de los períodos de la Historia más intensos y Convulsivos que le ha tocado vivir a la humanidad. Siglo de paradojas y de contrastes, se inició con optimismo, fue testigo del apocalipsis de dos guerras mundiales y terminó con un progreso científico inimaginable que nos condujo [...] a una nueva civilización, que aún no podemos intuir. En él ocurrieron grandes acontecimientos que moldearon nuestro tiempo y proyectaron sus resultados hacia un futuro inmediato. Unos fueron providenciales para entender la vida del hombre, combatir las enfermedades y prolongar la vida y otros de innegable importancia social para la humanidad. Unos saberes se fundamentaron en otros. La filosofía se adentro en la matemática, como la ciencia en la filosofía, mientras la política y la economía ejercían tan decisivo influjo en nuestro modo de sentir y de vivir, que la cultura y la sociedad se conmovieron hasta sus cimientos. En esa centuria, se gestó además, la mayor revolución tecnológica de todos los tiempos, tan trascendental como inimaginable, que con el alunizaje pusieron al hombre en el camino hacia las estrellas y con ella se creó la sociedad de la información, cuyo máximo símbolo: internet, emergió como un nuevo demiurgo. Sin embargo ha sido el siglo XX hasta ahora, con todo su infortunio y esplendor, paradojas y contrastes, creación y destrucción, el más trascendental de toda la historia y lega al futuro un horizonte promisor en la búsqueda de un renovado significado de vida y un anhelo de convivencia pacífica para toda la humanidad. Abstract in english The 20th century has been one of the most intense and convulsive periods in the History of humanity. A century of paradoxes and contrasts, it began with optimism, it witnessed the apocalypse of two world wars, and finished with unimaginable scientific progress that gave us a new civilization that we [...] cannot yet grasp. In this century, significant events happened that shaped our time and projected their results toward an immediate future. Some of these were providential in understanding man 's life, fighting against illnesses and prolonging life, and others were of undeniable social importance for humanity. Some knowledge was based on the work of others. Philosophy was embedded in mathematics, as was science in philosophy, while politics and the economy exercised so decisive an influence in our way of feeling and living that culture and society were affected to the core. Within that century the biggest technological revolution of all the time was also created, as transcendent as it was unimaginable, which put mankind on the road to the stars with the moon landing and in the process created the information society whose signature symbol, the internet, emerged as a new demiurge. However, the 20th century, with all its misfortune and splendor, paradoxes and contrasts, creation and destruction, was the most transcendent in the whole of history and it bequeaths to the future a promising horizon in the search for a renovated meaning of life and a yearning for peaceful coexistence for the whole humanity.

  6. History at the Mercy of Politicians and Ideologies: Germany, England, and the Netherlands in the 19th and 20th Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilschut, Arie H. J.

    2010-01-01

    The paper analyses and compares developments in history teaching in Germany, England, and the Netherlands in the 19th and 20th centuries. The development of history teaching in the three countries shows striking similarities. National politics have always used history education for purposes which did not necessarily tally with distanced critical…

  7. Digitisation and Presentation of Historical Materials in a Virtual Exhibition ‘The Image of India in Bulgaria: from the late 19th to the late 20th Century

    OpenAIRE

    Atanasova, Violina; Bogdanova, Galina

    2013-01-01

    The main contribution of this project is the study of collections of valuable documents related to the image of India in Bulgaria. Digital repositories of selected samples are constructed using modern information technologies. The results are presented in a virtual exhibition ‘The Image of India in Bulgaria: from the late 19th to the late 20th century’.

  8. Educating about Social Issues in the 20th and 21st Centuries: A Critical Annotated Bibliography. Research in Curriculum and Instruction. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totten, Samuel, Ed.; Pedersen, Jon, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Educating About Social Issues in the 20th and 21st Centuries: A Critical Annotated Bibliography, is comprised of critical essays accompanied by annotated bibliographies on a host of programs, models, strategies and concerns vis-a-vis teaching and learning about social issues facing society. The primary goal of the book is to provide undergraduate…

  9. The Rise and Fall of Political Movements in the Late 19th Century and First Half of 20th Century Kurdistan (an Organisational Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mohammadpur

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Kurdological literature has been mainly limited to mere historical descriptive discussions characterized by descriptive story telling about personal/private aspects of Kurdish political chiefs. This study tries to provide a new sociological analysis based on synthetic organizational model to examine the process and structure of political movement-making and the causes of their failure in all around Kurdistan in the late 19th century and first half of 20th century. Four organizational theories are employed in this paper: contingency, institutional, population ecology and resource dependency theories. In order to analyse the rise and demise of political movement-making in the late 19th century and first half of 20th century Kurdistan Macro level factors including exogenous factors i.e. the super-powers and central governments, Meso level factors containing socio-economic factors such as tribal-feudalism, regionalism and religion, and Micro Level factors composed of illiteracy and cultural poverty were analysed through aforementioned organizational theories. Our fundamental finding is that the endogenous and exogenous factors have mutually caused the rise and demise of political movement-making. But exogenous factors were the final determinant in shaping, reshaping, directing and finally collapsing on Kurdish movements. Finally it should be asserted that neither exogenous factors nor Endogenous factors were able to meet Kurdish political requirements; exogenous forces were temporal determinants that played their role according to their own economic and political logic and endogenous forces such as tribal-feudalism, regionalism and religion wasted political potential in challenging with the central governments.

  10. Composition of `Marbrite Fauquez' 20th-century opalescent glass: results of historical study and laboratory analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekeyser, L.; Wouters, H. J. M.; Ligovich, G.; Verdonck, A.; De Clercq, H.

    Belgian Marbrite Fauquez opalescent glass is an innovative material developed at the take-off of the 20th century. S.A. Verreries de Fauquez produced this from 1922 onwards. Low maintenance requirements and appropriate properties in terms of hygienic aspects make these mass coloured glass plates popular as finishes for bathrooms, kitchens, hospitals, store fronts, decorative façade cladding,... Since production of Marbrite stopped in the 1960s, replacement of its applications in the framework of restoration procedures is almost impossible. Limited knowledge of the composition and production results in the lack of a proper conservation strategy. In order to improve the existing knowledge a historical research was conducted. Archive records including patents, literature, building specifications, plans, journals, advertisements, interviews with former directors of the glassworks, etc. were considered and evaluated. Onsite lifted samples of Marbrite glass were submitted to a laboratory investigation using optical and scanning electron microscopy. The results revealed crucial information about the original formula and components. This paper discusses the composition of Marbrite, a peculiar Belgian opalescent glass. This interdisciplinary research - a cooperation between the Vrije Universiteit Brussel and Royal Institute for Cultural Heritage - aims to improve the knowledge of Marbrite glass in order to develop repair and renovation techniques.

  11. The death of "Till death us do part": the transformation of pair-bonding in the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsof, William M

    2002-01-01

    During the last half of the 20th century within Western civilization, for the first time in human history, divorce replaced death as the most common endpoint of marriage. In this article I explore the history of this death-to-divorce transition, the forces associated with the transition, and what the transition may have revealed about the human capacity for monogamous, lifelong pair-bonding. The impact and consequences of the transition for the generations that came of age during it and immediately afterwards are examined, with particular attention to the emergence of new, alternative pair-bonding structures such as cohabitation and nonmarital co-parenting. The article highlights the inability of the dichotomous marriage-versus-being-single paradigm to encompass the new pair-bonding structures and the normalizing of divorce. Precepts for a new, more encompassing, veridical and humane pair-bonding paradigm are presented, and some of their implications for social policy, family law, social science, and couple and family therapy are elaborated. PMID:12140958

  12. The application of foraminifera to reconstruct the rate of 20th century sea level rise, Morbihan Golfe, Brittany, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Veronica; Horton, Benjamin P.; Corbett, D. Reide; Leorri, Eduardo; Perez-Belmonte, Lucia; Douglas, Bruce C.

    2011-01-01

    Foraminiferal assemblages preserved within salt-marsh sediment can provide an accurate and precise means to reconstruct relative sea level due to a strong relationship with elevation, which can be quantified using a transfer function. We collected a set of surface samples from two salt marshes in the Morbihan Golfe, France to determine foraminiferal distribution patterns. Dominant taxa included Jadammina macrescens, Trochammina inflata, Haplophragmoides spp. and Miliammina fusca. We developed a foraminifera-based transfer function using a modern training set of 36 samples and 23 species. The strong relationship between observed and predicted values (r 2jack = 0.7) indicated that foraminiferal distribution is primarily controlled by elevation with respect to the tidal frame and precise reconstructions of former sea level are possible (RMSEP jack = 0.07 m). The application of the transfer function to a short salt-marsh core (0.32 m) allowed the reconstruction of former sea levels, which were placed in a chronological framework using short-lived radionuclides ( 210Pb and 137Cs). The agreement between the foraminifera-based sea level curve and the Brest tide-gauge record confirms the reliability of transfer function estimates and the validity of this methodology to extend sea level reconstructions back into the pre-instrumental period. Both instrumental and microfossil records suggest an acceleration of sea level rise during the 20th century.

  13. Variations in the intensity of the global seismic process in the 20th and the beginning of 21st centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutikov, A. I.; Rogozhin, E. A.

    2014-07-01

    The variations in the intensity of the global seismic process during the 20th and beginning of the 21st centuries are analyzed. It is established that the evolution of the global seismic process is marked by a trend of a certain quasi-periodicity in the release of seismic energy. The analysis of the lithospheric seismicity during 113 years has shown that this time interval accommodated three periods of seismic activation separated by two periods of relative seismic quiescence. The global seismicity of the Earth is strongly dominated by the contributions of the earthquakes in the Pacific seismic belt. A considerable effect is also provided by the northeastern margin of the Indian Ocean. The horizontal displacements of the lithospheric plates are probably responsible for the accumulation of stresses in the potential sources of the earthquakes at the interplate contacts and in the orogenic areas inside the continents. The revealed clustering of the earthquakes with M ? 8.3 in the narrow time intervals is probably due to the fact that the strongest seismic event that occurs at the beginning of each activation is a trigger which simultaneously causes the relaxation of a few dozen mature potential sources within 10-15 years. This interval of seismic activation is followed by a relatively quiet period of 30-35 years, when the energy for the next activation is accumulated in a series of high-magnitude sources.

  14. Sediment accumulation in San Leandro Bay, Alameda County, California, during the 20th century - A preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major changes made in the configuration of San Leandro Bay, Alameda County, California, during the 20th century have caused rapid sedimentation within parts of the Bay. Comparison of bathymetric surveys indicates that sedimentation in the vicinity of the San Leandro Bay channel averaged 0.7 cm/annum between 1856 and 1984. Lead-210 data collected at four shallow water sites east of the San Leandro Bay channel indicated that sedimentation rates have averaged between 0.06 and 0.28 cm/annum. Because bioturbation of bottom sediments cannot be discounted, better definition of this range in sedimentation rates would require measuring the activity of lead-210 on incoming sediments. In addition to sediment deposited in the vicinity of the San Leandro Bay channel and open, shallow areas to the east, 850,740 cu m of sediment was deposited between 1948 and 1983 in an area dredged at the mouth of San Leandro Creek. All available data indicate that between 1,213,000 and 1,364,000 cu m of sediment was deposited in San Leandro Bay between 1948 and 1983. Sediment yield data from an adjacent drainage basin, when combined with inventories of lead-210 and cesium-137, indicate that most of the sediment deposited in San Leandro Bay is coming from resuspension of bottom sediments or from erosion of marshes or shorelines of San Leandro or San Francisco Bay. 31 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  15. Changes in carbon fluxes and pools induced by cropland expansion in South and Southeast Asia in the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Tao

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A process-based ecosystem model, the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM, was applied to evaluate the effects of cropland expansion on terrestrial carbon fluxes and pools in South and Southeast Asia in the 20th century. The results indicated that cropland expansion in both regions has resulted in a release of 18.26 Pg C into the atmosphere in the study period. Of this amount, approximately 23 % (4.19 Pg C was released from South Asia and 77 % (14.07 Pg C from Southeast Asia. More land area was converted to cropland but less carbon was emitted in South Asia than in Southeast Asia, where forest biomass and soil carbon are significantly higher. Carbon losses in vegetation, soil organic matter, and litter carbon pools accounted for 15.09, 2.01, and 1.60 Pg C, respectively. Significant decreases in vegetation carbon occurred across most regions of Southeast Asia due to continuous cropland expansion and depletion of natural forests. Our study also indicated that it is important to take into account the land use legacy effect when evaluating the contemporary carbon balance in terrestrial ecosystems.

  16. Snow cover and permafrost evolution in Siberia as simulated by the MGO regional climate model in the 20th and 21st centuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shkolnik, I M; Nadyozhina, E D; Pavlova, T V; Molkentin, E K; Semioshina, A A [Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory, 194021, 7, Karbyshev street, St Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2010-01-15

    An approach to ground thermodynamics description using a coupled system of atmospheric regional climate and ground heat transfer models is improved by accounting for the time varying snow density. The simulations are compared to available observational analyses, and the sensitivity of the ground thermal regime to variable snow density is analysed. Projected changes of the ground thermal regime in the 21st century relative to the late 20th century are shown and compared to earlier estimates.

  17. Snow cover and permafrost evolution in Siberia as simulated by the MGO regional climate model in the 20th and 21st centuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An approach to ground thermodynamics description using a coupled system of atmospheric regional climate and ground heat transfer models is improved by accounting for the time varying snow density. The simulations are compared to available observational analyses, and the sensitivity of the ground thermal regime to variable snow density is analysed. Projected changes of the ground thermal regime in the 21st century relative to the late 20th century are shown and compared to earlier estimates.

  18. 20th century trends and budget implications of chloroform and related tri-and dihalomethanes inferred from firn air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Worton

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Four trihalomethane (THM; CHCl3, CHBrCl2, CHBr2Cl and CHBr3 and two dihalomethane (DHM; CH2BrCl and CH2Br2 trace gases have been measured in air extracted from polar firn collected at the North Greenland Icecore Project (NGRIP site. CHCl3 was also measured in firn air from Devon Island (DI, Canada, Dronning Maud Land (DML, Antarctica and Dome Concordia (Dome C, Antarctica. All of these species are believed to be almost entirely of natural origin except for CHCl3 where anthropogenic sources have been reported to contribute ~10% to the global burden. A 2-D atmospheric model was run for CHCl3 using reported emission estimates to produce historical atmospheric trends at the firn sites, which were then input into a firn diffusion model to produce concentration depth profiles that were compared against the measurements. The anthropogenic emissions were modified in order to give the best model fit to the firn data at NGRIP, Dome C and DML. As a result, the contribution of CHCl3 from anthropogenic sources, mainly from pulp and paper manufacture, to the total chloroform budget appears to have been considerably underestimated and was likely to have been close to ~50% at the maximum in atmospheric CHCl3 concentrations around 1990, declining to ~29% at the beginning of the 21st century. We also show that the atmospheric burden of the brominated THM's in the Northern Hemisphere have increased over the 20th century while CH2Br2 has remained constant over time implying that it is entirely of natural origin.

  19. 20th Century trends and budget implications of trihalomethanes and dihalomethanes inferred from North GRIP firn air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Worton

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Four trihalomethane (THM; CHCl3, CHBrCl2, CHBr2Cl and CHBr3 and two dihalomethane (DHM; CH2BrCl and CH2Br2 trace gases have been measured in air extracted from polar firn collected at the North Greenland Icecore Project (NGRIP site. CHCl3 was also measured in firn air from Devon Island (DI, Canada, Dronning Maud Land (DML, Antarctica and Dome Concordia (Dome C, Antarctica. All of these species are believed to be almost entirely of natural origin except for CHCl3 where anthropogenic sources have been reported to contribute ~10% to the global burden. A 2-D atmospheric model was run for CHCl3 using reported emission estimates to produce historical atmospheric trends at the three firn sites, which were then input into a firn diffusion model to produce concentration depth profiles that were compared against the measurements. The anthropogenic emissions were modified in order to give the best model fit to the firn data at NGRIP, Dome C and DML. As a result, the contribution of CHCl3 from anthropogenic sources, mainly from pulp and paper manufacture, to the total chloroform budget appears to have been considerably underestimated and was likely to have been close to ~40% at the maximum in atmospheric CHCl3 concentrations around 1990, declining to ~19% at the beginning of the 21st Century. We also show that the atmospheric burden of the brominated THM's in the northern hemisphere have increased over the 20th Century while CH2Br2 has remained constant over time implying that it is entirely of natural origin.

  20. Exponential decline of aftershocks of the M7.9 1868 great Kau earthquake, Hawaii, through the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, F.W.; Wright, Tim

    2008-01-01

    The remarkable catalog of Hawaiian earthquakes going back to the 1820s is based on missionary diaries, newspaper accounts, and instrumental records and spans the great M7.9 Kau earthquake of April 1868 and its aftershock sequence. The earthquake record since 1868 defines a smooth curve complete to M5.2 of the declining rate into the 21st century, after five short volcanic swarms are removed. A single aftershock curve fits the earthquake record, even with numerous M6 and 7 main shocks and eruptions. The timing of some moderate earthquakes may be controlled by magmatic stresses, but their overall long-term rate reflects one of aftershocks of the Kau earthquake. The 1868 earthquake is, therefore, the largest and most controlling stress event in the 19th and 20th centuries. We fit both the modified Omori (power law) and stretched exponential (SE) functions to the earthquakes. We found that the modified Omori law is a good fit to the M ??? 5.2 earthquake rate for the first 10 years or so and the more rapidly declining SE function fits better thereafter, as supported by three statistical tests. The switch to exponential decay suggests that a possible change in aftershock physics may occur from rate and state fault friction, with no change in the stress rate, to viscoelastic stress relaxation. The 61-year exponential decay constant is at the upper end of the range of geodetic relaxation times seen after other global earthquakes. Modeling deformation in Hawaii is beyond the scope of this paper, but a simple interpretation of the decay suggests an effective viscosity of 1019 to 1020 Pa s pertains in the volcanic spreading of Hawaii's flanks. The rapid decline in earthquake rate poses questions for seismic hazard estimates in an area that is cited as one of the most hazardous in the United States.

  1. Regional 20th Century Temperature Trends from Radiosondes and Reanalyses in the Arctic (60°N-90°N)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickler, Alexander; Brönnimann, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    We compare seasonal 20th century atmospheric temperature trends in the Arctic (60°N-90°N) from radiosonde observations (CHUAN, HadAT, IUK, RAOBCORE/RICH, RATPAC) and reanalyses (ERA-40, NCEP/NCAR (NNR), Twentieth Century reanalysis (20CR), CFSR, ERA-Interim, MERRA). Large differences are found between the magnitudes, vertical profiles of the temperature trends (even for time periods > 3 decades), and chronological sequences of bidecadal, regional warming and cooling periods in the reanalyses. Long term zonal mean vertical trend profiles from CHUAN and from the reanalyses reaching back to the time before the satellite era show an amplification of the tropospheric warming towards the surface in all seasons except in JJA for the periods 1901-99, 1948-99 and 1957-99. In 20CR, a very strong 20th century cooling trend compared to the other datasets is found between 150 and 200 hPa. The agreement of the vertical structure and temporal behaviour of regional, bidecadal trends in the long reanalyses for 11 regions in the Arctic with CHUAN is best on average for ERA-40, followed by a less good agreement with trends from NNR (especially vertical structure) and 20CR (vertical structure and temporal behaviour). ERA-40 performs best for the NE Atlantic, Karelia, the SE Canadian Arctic, Alaska, and Central Siberia, and less favourably in the NW Canadian Arctic, E Siberia, W Siberia, and Novaya Zemlya. NNR agreement with CHUAN is significantly worse than in ERA-40 for the NE Atlantic, SE Canadian Arctic, SW Central Siberia, and E Central Siberia. 20CR performance is generally worse than that of ERA-40 and NNR, particularly for Karelia, the SE Canadian Arctic, Novaya Zemlya, W Siberia, and Central Siberia. For the more recent but shorter reanalyses, the internal agreement is generally very high, and results are close to CHUAN, ERA-40 and NNR. A comparison of CHUAN with the other radiosonde datasets is only possible for Alaska, E Central Siberia, NE Atlantic and NE Central Siberia (only HadAT and IUK), E Siberia and Novaya Zemlya (only HadAT), and Karelia, SW Central Siberia and W Siberia (all except RATPAC). For the period of overlap (1951-99) the agreement is reasonable with respect to the general picture. However, some disagreement on the trend sign can be seen a) for Alaska during DJF 1961-80 with HadAT and IUK, b) for E Central Siberia during MAM 1971-90 and 1980-99 with HadAT and during DJF 1980-99, MAM 1971-99 and SON 1961-80 with IUK, c) for Karelia during MAM/JJA 1961-80 with RAOBCORE/RICH (JJA also with HadAT and IUK), d) for NE Central Siberia during DJF 1961-80 with HadAT, e) for Novaya Zemlya during DJF1961-80 with HadAT, f) for SW Central Siberia during SON 1980-99 with RAOBCORE/RICH, g) for W Siberia during DJF/MAM 1961-80 with RAOBCORE/RICH, HadAT and IUK.

  2. Lessons learned and present day challenges of addressing 20th century radiation legacies of Russia and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decommissioning of nuclear submarines, disposal of highly enriched uranium and defense plutonium as well as processing of high-level wastes are among the most challenging issues of addressing radiation legacy of the 20th century. USA and Russia are the two primary countries that have to deal with the challenge and where most of the fissile materials to be processed are concentrated, nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste are stored, and multiple industrial sites and nuclear weapons production facilities are located. In the US, CH2M HILL is managing two of the most important nuclear projects being conducted by the US Department of Energy at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site and at the DOE Hanford Site (177 underground tanks at this site contain 60 percent of the United States' high-level radioactive wastes). Within the framework of the Russian Federal special program 'Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Materials Management, Utilization and Disposal for 1996-2005' works were carried out on the Karachai lake covering with soil, highly active radwaste vitrification and fractionation at the 'Mayak' combine. Currently there is a discussion of launching joint Russian-American initiatives including comparative studies of environmental and public health impacts from high-level waste vitrification and plutonium stabilization processes in Russia and high-level waste removal from tanks in the USA and of continuing comprehensive research with the RADSITE project (USA, European Union, Japan, China and India) using coordinated approaches in 2000-2003. This paper presents comparative studies, technical approaches, and regulatory strategies to address the challenges of managing and closing highly enriched uranium, plutonium, and high level waste sites. (author)

  3. Coral-based history of lead and lead isotopes of the surface Indian Ocean since the mid-20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Mi; Boyle, Edward A.; Suci Nurhati, Intan; Pfeiffer, Miriam; Meltzner, Aron J.; Suwargadi, Bambang

    2014-07-01

    Anthropogenic lead (Pb) from industrial activities has greatly altered the distribution of Pb in the present-day oceans, but no continuous temporal Pb evolution record is available for the Indian Ocean despite rapidly emerging industries around the region. Here, we present the coral-inferred annual history of Pb concentration and isotope ratios in the surface Indian Ocean since the mid-20th century (1945-2010). We analyzed Pb in corals from the Chagos Archipelago, western Sumatra and Strait of Singapore - which represent the central Indian Ocean via nearshore sites. Overall, coral Pb/Ca increased in the mid-1970s at all the sites. However, coral Pb isotope ratios evolve distinctively at each site, suggesting Pb contamination arises from different sources in each case. The major source of Pb in the Chagos coral appears to be India's Pb emission from leaded gasoline combustion and coal burning, whereas Pb in western Sumatra seems to be largely affected by Indonesia's gasoline Pb emission with additional Pb inputs from other sources. Pb in the Strait of Singapore has complex sources and its isotopic composition does not reflect Pb from leaded gasoline combustion. Higher 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb ratios found at this site may reflect the contribution of Pb from coals and ores from southern China, Indonesia, and Australia, and local Pb sources in the Strait of Singapore. It is also possible that the Pb isotope ratios of Singapore seawater were elevated through isotope exchange with natural fluvial particles considering its delta setting.

  4. 19th-20th century rainfall patterns reconstructed from sediment provenance in a Santa Barbara Basin box core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napier, T.; Hendy, I. L.; Schimmelmann, A.

    2013-12-01

    Rainfall patterns in Southern California directly affect the availability of water resources and induce hazards in this highly populated and water stressed region. Extreme weather consists of heavy rainfall events in winter associated with atmospheric rivers, and drought conditions when winter rains do not arrive. Water availability has a significant societal impact in Southern California. Here we reconstruct 19th-20th century precipitation history of river catchments draining into Santa Barbara Basin (SBB) through a combination of high-resolution elemental and mineralogical analyses. The deep center of the SBB features suboxic bottom waters and high sedimentation rates resulting in minimal bioturbation of annual sedimentation, which enables high-resolution paleoclimate research. Scanning XRF analysis at a 200 ?m resolution of box core SPR0901-04BC from SBB was used to determine annual changes in sediment composition. Samples at 1 cm resolution from the same box core were analyzed for a more extensive suite of elements by ICP-MS, while mineralogy in each sample was determined from whole rock and clay fraction (river runoff events (floods) occurred. The relative proportions of these elements differ between flood events, possibly reflecting differences in temporal and/or spatial rainfall patterns that vary the response of each river catchment draining into SBB. Watershed sediment from the Santa Ynez Mountain streams and Ventura and Santa Clara River catchments derives mostly from Cenozoic sedimentary units, except the Santa Clara River catchment, which contains metamorphic and igneous units. As river runoff is responsible for a significant portion of the terrigenous input into SBB, and is primarily the result of precipitation events, characteristic mineralogy and elemental signatures are a direct recorder of catchment precipitation, and therefore storms and/or atmospheric rivers.

  5. [Effects of physics on development of optometry in the United States from the late 19th to the mid 20th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dal-Young

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, it was studied how physics affected development of optometry in the United States, from aspects of formation and academization of optometry. It was also revealed that history of optometry was analogous to history of engineering. Optics in the 19th century was divided into electromagnetic study of light and visual optics. Development of the visual optics promoted professionalization of ophthalmology that had already started in the 18th century. The visual optics also stimulated formation of optometry and optometrists body in the late 19th century of the United States. The American optometrists body were originated from opticians who had studied visual optics. Publication of several English academic textbooks on visual optics induced appearance of educated opticians (and jewelers). They acquired a right to do the eye examination in the early 20th century after C. F. Prentice's trial in 1897, evolving into optometrists. The opticians could be considered as craftsmen, and they were divided into (dispensing) opticians and optometrists. Such history of American optometrists body is analogous to that of engineers body in the viewpoints of craftsmen origin and separation from craftsmen. Engineers were also originated from educated craftsmen, but were separated from craftsmen when engineering was built up. Education system and academization of optometry was strongly influenced by physics, too. When college education of optometry started at American universities, it was not belonged to medical school but to physics department. Physics and optics were of great importance in curriculum, and early faculty members were mostly physicists. Optometry was academized in the 1920s by the college education, standardization of curriculum, and formation of the American Academy of Optometry. This is also analogous to history of engineering, which was academized by natural sciences, especially by mathematics and physics. The reason why optometry was academized not by medicine but by physics is because ophthalmologists did not have conciliatory attitudes to optometry education. Optometry became independent of physics from the 1930s to the 1940s. Optometric researches concentrated on binocular vision that is not included to discipline of physics, and faculty members who majored in optometry increased, so that optometry departments and graduate schools were established around 1940. Such independence from natural sciences after academization also resembles history of engineering. On the contrary, history of optometry was different from history of ophthalmology in several aspects. Ophthalmology had already been formed in the 18th century before development of visual optics, and was not academized by visual optics. Ophthalmologists body were not originated from craftsmen, and were not separated from craftsmen. History of optometry in the United States from the late 19th to the mid 20th century is analogous to history of engineering rather than history of medicine, though optometry is a medical discipline. PMID:25223224

  6. Estuarine Evidence Of Postseismic Transients In 17th-century Hokkaido And 20th-century Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawai, Y.; Kamataki, T.; Nasu, H.; Satake, K.; Shishikura, M.

    2004-12-01

    We studied postseismic transient of two giant interplate earthquakes; one is a 17th-century earthquake along the southern Kuril trench, eastern Hokkaido, and the other is the 1960 Chilean earthquake. The 17th-century earthquake along the southern Kuril trench induced postseismic uplift that probably lasted for decades, as judged from stratigraphy and paleoecology at two estuaries along the Pacific coast of eastern Hokkaido. The estuaries, at Mochirippu and Kiritappu, were invaded by an unusually large tsunami before their tidal flats emerged and became lowland forests. The tsunami is marked by a sand sheet mainly 2-5 cm thick. The sand is both underlain and overlain by tidal-flat mud. However, the mud above the sand grades upward into peat that contains volcanic ash layers from late in the 17th century. The upward sequence of mud, sand, mud, and peat implies that an earthquake (marked by the tsunami deposits) predates gradual coastal uplift (marked by the transition from mud to peat). We quantified the land-level history by means of fossil diatom assemblages in the mud and peat. The reconstructed land-levels show several decimeters of preseismic subsidence, no coseismic change, and at least 1 m of postseismic uplift. The volcanic ash layers, erupted from southwest Hokkaido and dated with the local historical records, show that the uplift started before 1667 and ended by 1694. Postseismic uplift of the 1960 Chilean earthquake provided stratigraphic and paleoecological evidence. The delta of the Rio Coihuin is in middle along the 1960 rupture zone and 10 km east of Puerto Montt, which was at the inland limit of the coseismic downwarp in 1960. The delta contains three terraces, each underlain by a different stratigraphic sequence. The_@highest terrace, now above all tides, is underlain by lahar-runout sand_@and silt derived from Mt. Calbuco, 20 km to the northeast. Inset into_@this terrace are at least lower ones that form tidal marshes. The marshes_@are underlain by intertidal deposits dominated by mud and peaty mud. A family that has farmed a remnant of the lahar-runout terrace provided_@detailed accounts of changes in land level since the 1960 earthquake._@The highest terrace had been inundated by tidal water during the monthly high tide and dominated by a tidal marsh plant, Salicornia sp., before the 1960 event. The middle terrace had been also dominated by other tidal marsh plant, Juncus balticus and Scripus americanus that the family used for their craft. However, after the event, the terraces emerged and the tidal vegetation changed. The highest terrace became freshwater upland forest, and the middle terrace increased Agrostis alba and Salicornia sp. Tidal flat changed to the present lowest terrace dominated by Puccinellia sp. Guided by this testimony, we checked deposits beneath the middle terrace beside the family's house. These deposits consist of peat, mud, sand, and volcanic ash layers. _@The uppermost peat-over-mud contact probably represents emergence that the family has been watching after the 1960 earthquake, though we cannot yet date the contact. Above the peat-over-mud contact, the peat contains rhizomes of Spartina densiflora and plant macrofossils of salt-tolerant vascular plants. Judging from the present vegetation around the delta, this change in vascular plants shows at least 1m of emergence.

  7. Human Genome : A Gift of 20th Century and Challenge for 21st Century(Review paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.W. Pandit

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Completion of the human genome sequencing has stirred the whole scientific community in many ways. Apart from deciphering the biological meaning of sequence-language written in three billion letters, which may take a century, scientists are essentially confronted with many challenges. It will not only revolutionise the field of genetics in terms of knowing ourselves better but also help us tremendously in identifying genetic diseases and preventing them by predicting and finding cure for them. Integration of medicine and molecular biology is expected to lead to better health care systems by preventing people from becoming sick by following a suggested way of life based on individual genetic makeup. Recently developed technologies are helping scientists to analyse the genome at an unprecedented scale and understand the function of various genes, influence of environmental factors on them and their correlation with human behaviour. Availability of human genome sequence has raised several ethical and moral questions regarding the confidentiality of the sharing of genomic information as well as whether society is ready for this. Real challenge, after knowing functions of all the genes, would be to make use of this knowledge for the welfare of human beings with the aim to enhance the quality of human life.

  8. Enhanced 20th-century heat transfer to the Arctic simulated in the context of climate variations over the last millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungclaus, J. H.; Lohmann, K.; Zanchettin, D.

    2014-12-01

    Oceanic heat transport variations, carried by the northward-flowing Atlantic Water, strongly influence Arctic sea-ice distribution, ocean-atmosphere exchanges, and pan-Arctic temperatures. Palaeoceanographic reconstructions from marine sediments near Fram Strait have documented a dramatic increase in Atlantic Water temperatures over the 20th century, unprecedented in the last millennium. Here we present results from Earth system model simulations that reproduce and explain the reconstructed exceptional Atlantic Water warming in Fram Strait in the 20th century in the context of natural variability during the last millennium. The associated increase in ocean heat transfer to the Arctic can be traced back to changes in the ocean circulation in the subpolar North Atlantic. An interplay between a weakening overturning circulation and a strengthening subpolar gyre as a consequence of 20th-century global warming is identified as the driving mechanism for the pronounced warming along the Atlantic Water path toward the Arctic. Simulations covering the late Holocene provide a reference frame that allows us to conclude that the changes during the last century are unprecedented in the last 1150 years and that they cannot be explained by internal variability or natural forcing alone.

  9. ON ETREPRENUERSHIP AT MAIN CLAY PITS AND BRICKYARDS OF CENTRAL CROATIA AT THE END OF 19TH AND BEGINNING OF 20TH CENTURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berislav Šebe?i?

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In central Croatia at the beginning of 20th century, clay pits were mostly managed by individual entrepreneurs, and less by joint stock companies and municipal or district local authorities. Majority of clay pit met the local and regional requirements i.e. demands, and quality products were exported. Exploitation of brickwork clay was carried out from open pits, while potter's, stove-maker's and porcelain clays were exploited from mining shafts and tunnels. From the clay raw material, annual production of minor brickyards amounted to 200-300,000 bricks, and that of major ones was 1-2,000,000 pieces of bricks or roofing-tiles. The number of workers in brickyards and cement works was growing in the first decade of 20th century, while that of potter's and stove-maker's crafts was decreasing. Pottery became a secondary trade in the majority of Croatian and Slavonian counties.

  10. La Historia del Derecho y la Historiografía jurídica alemana del siglo XX / The History of Law and the German Juridical Historiography in the 20th Century

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Patricio Hernán, Carvajal Aravena.

    Full Text Available La escuela histórico-jurídica alemana del siglo XX ha contribuido de un modo significativo en la ampliación del objeto de estudio al incorporar en las investigaciones histórico-jurídicas temas específicos del Derecho público. Desde esta perspectiva la escuela histórica jurídica alemana es parte de l [...] a revolución científica del siglo XX. Abstract in english The German history-law school in the 20th century has contributed in a significant way to broaden the subject matter when it incorporated specific topics regarding Public Law in the historical-juridical research. From this perspective, the German history and law school is part of the scientific revo [...] lution of the 20th century.

  11. Geochemical response of a closed-lake basin to 20th century recurring droughts/wet intervals in the subtropical Pampean Plains of South America

    OpenAIRE

    Ariztegui, Daniel; Mazzilli, Barbara P.; Damatto, Sandra R.; Oliveira, Sonia M. B.; Fa?varo, Deborah I. T.; Larizzatti, Favio E.; Piovano, Eduardo L.

    2004-01-01

    Laguna Mar Chiquita is a highly variable closed saline lake located in the Pampean Plains of central Argentina. Presently is the largest saline lake in South America (? 6,000 km2) and also one of the largest in the world. During the 20th century the hydrological balance of the region was characterized by contrasting scenarios. Well-defined wet or dry climatic phases had ruled the lake level fluctuations and the rivers discharge, mainly controlling the geochemical composition of sediments. S...

  12. La parasitología y la entomología en la narrativa latinoamericana del siglo XX Parasitology and entomology in the 20th century Latin American narrative

    OpenAIRE

    Hugo Schenone

    2000-01-01

    In the present reviev of twelve pieces produced by distinguished 20th century Latin American writers Jorge Luis Borges from Argentina, Jorge Amado and João Ubaldo Ribeiro from Brazil, José Donoso from Chile, Gabriel García Márquez from Colombia, Alejo Carpentier from Cuba, Miguel Angel Asturias from Guatemala, Octavio Paz from Mexico, Mario Vargas Llosa from Perú, Horacio Quiroga and Mario Benedetti from Uruguay and Arturo Uslar-Pietri from Venezuela ­ paragraphs or parts of paragrap...

  13. Polemics in natural sciences shaping local scientific styles in the Czech Lands at the turn of the 19th and 20th Centuries.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štrbá?ová, So?a; Janko, Jan

    Mexico City : Sociedad Mexicana de Historia de la Ciencia y la Tecnologia, 2001. s. 234. [International Congress of History of Science, Symposium S3, Controversies and Disputes in Physical and Chemical Biology in the 19th and 20th Centuries /21./. 08.07.2001-14.07.2001, Mexico City] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A041 Keywords : history * biology Subject RIV: AB - History

  14. [Bright disease in Turin and Italy from the middle of the 19th century to the middle of the 20th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratta, P; Bermond, F; Canavese, C; Colla, L; Burdese, M; Quaglia, M; Besso, L; Sandri, L; Dogliani, M

    2001-03-01

    For many years the term nephritis was used to indicate renal diseases (in the sense of Bright s disease) in a larger sense. This review summarizes the history of the concept of glolomerulonephritis from Egyptian Medicine up to the Post-Biopsy Era, in particularly in Turin and in Italy. This study reports an epidemiology survey of Bright s disease in Italy from 1880 up to 1960. Towards the end of the 19th century Bright s disease accounted for 26 deaths/year/105 population (in comparison with more than 200 from tubercolosis) in Italy. At the beginning of the 20th century, Bright s disease was the seventh cause of death in Italy. Moreover, in Italy autopsy studies showed a higher percentage of deaths attributed to Bright s disease (5-7%) in comparison with those obtained from vital studies. In 1960, just before the beginning of renal replacement therapy, Bright s disease accounted for 15.7 deaths/year/105 population. Probably it was difficult to recognize in the real incidence of chronic renal diseases leading to death in the 1960s, and vital studies were able to furnish only approximate estimates. However, noteworthy is the fact that these values were very close to those estimated as being the annual need for renal replacement therapy (10-20/year/105 population). PMID:11346720

  15. Impacts of 20th century aerosol emissions on the South Asian monsoon in the CMIP5 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, L.; Turner, A. G.; Highwood, E. J.

    2014-12-01

    Comparison of single-forcing varieties of 20th century historical experiments in a subset of models from the Fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) reveals that South Asian summer monsoon rainfall increases towards the present day in Greenhouse Gas (GHG)-only experiments with respect to pre-industrial levels, while it decreases in anthropogenic aerosol-only experiments. Comparison of these single-forcing experiments with the all-forcings historical experiment suggests aerosol emissions have dominated South Asian monsoon rainfall trends in recent decades, especially during the 1950s to 1970s. The variations in South Asian monsoon rainfall in these experiments follows approximately the time-evolution of inter-hemispheric temperature gradient over the same period, suggesting a contribution from the large-scale background state relating to the asymmetric distribution of aerosol emissions about the equator. By examining the twenty-five available all-forcings historical experiments, we show that models including aerosol indirect effects dominate the negative rainfall trend. Indeed, models including only the direct radiative effect of aerosol show an increase in monsoon rainfall, consistent with the dominance of increasing greenhouse gas emissions and planetary warming on monsoon rainfall in those models. For South Asia, reduced rainfall in the models with indirect effects is related to decreased evaporation at the land surface rather than from anomalies in horizontal moisture flux, suggesting the impact of indirect effects on local aerosol emissions. This is confirmed by examination of aerosol loading and cloud droplet number trends over the South Asia region. Thus while remote aerosols and their asymmetric distribution about the equator play a role in setting the inter-hemispheric temperature distribution on which the South Asian monsoon, as one of the global monsoons, operates, the addition of indirect aerosol effects acting on very local aerosol emissions also plays a role in declining monsoon rainfall. The disparity between the response of monsoon rainfall to increasing aerosol emissions in models containing direct aerosol effects only and those also containing indirect effects needs to be urgently investigated since the suggested future decline in Asian anthropogenic aerosol emissions inherent to the representative concentration pathways (RCPs) used for future climate projection may turn out to be optimistic. In addition, both groups of models show declining rainfall over China, also relating to local aerosol mechanisms. We hypothesize that aerosol emissions over China are large enough, in the CMIP5 models, to cause declining monsoon rainfall even in the absence of indirect aerosol effects. The same is not true for India.

  16. Hydrologic Drought of Water Year 2006 Compared with Four Major Drought Periods of the 20th Century in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortorelli, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    Water Year 2006 (October 1, 2005, to September 30, 2006) was a year of extreme hydrologic drought and the driest year in the recent 2002-2006 drought in Oklahoma. The severity of this recent drought can be evaluated by comparing it with four previous major hydrologic droughts, water years 1929-41, 1952-56, 1961-72, and 1976-81. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, completed an investigation to summarize the Water Year 2006 hydrologic drought and compare it to the four previous major hydrologic droughts in the 20th century. The period of water years 1925-2006 was selected as the period of record because before 1925 few continuous record streamflow-gaging sites existed and gaps existed where no streamflow-gaging sites were operated. Statewide annual precipitation in Water Year 2006 was second driest and statewide annual runoff in Water Year 2006 was sixth driest in the 82 years of record. Annual area-averaged precipitation totals by the nine National Weather Service Climate Divisions from Water Year 2006 are compared to those during four previous major hydrologic droughts to show how rainfall deficits in Oklahoma varied by region. Only two of the nine climate divisions, Climate Division 1 Panhandle and Climate Division 4 West Central, had minor rainfall deficits, while the rest of the climate divisions had severe rainfall deficits in Water Year 2006 ranging from only 65 to 73 percent of normal annual precipitation. Regional streamflow patterns for Water Year 2006 indicate that Oklahoma was part of the regionwide below-normal streamflow conditions for Arkansas-White-Red River Basin, the sixth driest since 1930. The percentage of long-term stations in Oklahoma (with at least 30 years of record) having below-normal streamflow reached 80 to 85 percent for some days in August and November 2006. Twelve long-term streamflow-gaging sites with periods of record ranging from 62 to 78 years were selected to show how streamflow deficits varied by region. The hydrologic drought worsened going from north to south in Oklahoma, ranging from 45 percent in the north, to just 14 percent in east-central Oklahoma, and 20 percent of normal annual streamflow in the southwest. The low streamflows resulted in only 86.3 percent of the statewide conservation storage available at the end of the water year in major reservoirs, and 7 to 47 percent of hydroelectric power generation at sites in Oklahoma in Calendar Year 2005.

  17. Hydrologic drought of water year 2011 compared to four major drought periods of the 20th century in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivers, Molly J.; Andrews, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Water year 2011 (October 1, 2010, through September 30, 2011) was a year of hydrologic drought (based on streamflow) in Oklahoma and the second-driest year to date (based on precipitation) since 1925. Drought conditions worsened substantially in the summer, with the highest monthly average temperature record for all States being broken by Oklahoma in July (89.1 degrees Fahrenheit), June being the second hottest and August being the hottest on record for those months for the State since 1895. Drought conditions continued into the fall, with all of the State continuing to be in severe to exceptional drought through the end of September. In addition to effects on streamflow and reservoirs, the 2011 drought increased damage from wildfires, led to declarations of states of emergency, water-use restrictions, and outdoor burning bans; caused at least $2 billion of losses in the agricultural sector and higher prices for food and other agricultural products; caused losses of tourism and wildlife; reduced hydropower generation; and lowered groundwater levels in State aquifers. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, conducted an investigation to compare the severity of the 2011 drought with four previous major hydrologic drought periods during the 20th century – water years 1929–41, 1952–56, 1961–72, and 1976–81. The period of water years 1925–2011 was selected as the period of record because few continuous record streamflow-gaging stations existed before 1925, and gaps in time existed where no streamflow-gaging stations were operated before 1925. In water year 2011, statewide annual precipitation was the 2d lowest, statewide annual streamflow was 16th lowest, and statewide annual runoff was 42d lowest of those 87 years of record. Annual area-averaged precipitation totals by the nine National Weather Service climate divisions from water year 2011 were compared to those during four previous major hydrologic drought periods to show how precipitation deficits in Oklahoma varied by region. The nine climate divisions in Oklahoma had precipitation in water year 2011 ranging from 43 to 76 percent of normal annual precipitation, with the Northeast Climate Division having the closest to normal precipitation and the Southwest Climate Division having the greatest percentage of annual deficit. Based on precipitation amounts, water year 2011 ranked as the second driest of the 1925–2011 period, being exceeded only in one year of the 1952 to 1956 drought period. Regional streamflow patterns for water year 2011 indicate that streamflow in the Arkansas-White-Red water resources region, which includes all of Oklahoma, was relatively large, being only the 26th lowest since 1930, primarily because of normal or above-normal streamflow in the northern part of the region. Twelve long-term streamflow-gaging stations with periods of record ranging from 67 to 83 years were selected to show how streamflow deficits varied by region in Oklahoma. Statewide, streamflow in water year 2011 was greater than streamflows measured in years during the drought periods of 1929–41, 1952–56, 1961–72, and 1976–81. The hydrologic drought worsened going from the northeast toward the southwest in Oklahoma, ranging from 140 percent (above normal streamflow) in the northeast, to 13 percent of normal streamflow in southwestern Oklahoma. The relatively low streamflow in 2011 resulted in 83.3 percent of the statewide conservation storage being available at the end of the water year in major reservoirs, similar to conservation storage in the preceding severe drought year of 2006. The ranking of streamflow as the 16th smallest for the 1925–2011 period, despite precipitation being ranked the 2d smallest, may have been caused, in part, by the relatively large streamflow in northeastern Oklahoma during water year 2011.

  18. The 20th century retreat of ice caps in Iceland derived from airborne SAR : W-Vatnajökull and N-Myrdalsjökull

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnússon, Eyjólfur; Björnsson, Helgi

    2005-01-01

    We present observations of the long-term recession of surging outlets of Icelandic ice caps in response to 20th century climate. In August 1998, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data, covering the western part of Vatnajokull and the northern part of Myrdalsjokull in southern Iceland, were acquired with the Danish airborne EMISAR radar system. Polarimetric and interferometric SAR data reveal the margins of the present ice caps as well as a series of terminal moraines in the fore field. These moraines date back to the maximum Neoglacial extent at the end of the 19th century and the outermost allow reconstruction of the margin at that time. The data offer a unique opportunity to estimate the area decrease of these ice caps in the 20th century. The influence of the fluctuations of the surge type outlets, constituting most of W-Vatnajokull area and a good part of N-Myrdalsjokull area, is minimal, since they had all recently surged in 1998 as was presumably the case when the outermost moraines were formed. The major contributor to the area decrease is therefore climate changes in the 20th century even though the glacier retreat has been interrupted by short-lived surges. Moraines associated with most of the surges in W-Vatnajokull in the 20th century are observed in the SAR data including the most recent surges in the 1990s. Interestingly no push moraines were observed in front of the surge advance, but the moraines appear when the glaciers start retreating. We estimate that the collective decrease of the outlets of western Vatnajokull since maximum Neoglacial extent of each outlet, is log km(2) (6.7%) corresponding to an average retreat of 850 in over a 130 km long margin. In the same period the outlet Slettjokull, in N-Myrdalsjokull, has decreased by 33 km(2) (20%) corresponding to an average retreat of 1500 in over a 20 kin long margin. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Lake surface area variations in the North-Eastern sector of Sagarmatha National Park (Nepal at the end of the 20th Century by comparison of historical maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele BRUCCOLERI

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present work was to investigate variations in the surface areas of lakes in the north-east sector of Sagarmatha National Park (Nepal at the end of the 20th century, through comparison of the Mount Everest maps based on a survey done in the early 1980s, and the official Map of Nepal based on a survey done at the beginning of the 1990s. The analysis of the changes occurring between the 1980s and the 1990s in the surface areas and distribution of lakes in the north-east sector of SNP reveals that lake areas substantially increased, by 15.4 (-5.5; +5.7% (median 12.5%, within hydrographic basins that included a certain amount of glacial cover. In fact, 96% of the lakes whose surface area increased are located in glacial basins. Conversely, the majority of the lakes without glacial cover in their catchment showed a reduction in surface area, and in many cases disappeared (83% of the lakes that disappeared were situated in basins without glaciers. This different behaviour of these two types of lakes, though observed over a short time span, would appear to be consistent with the consequences of temperature increases recorded from the beginning of 1980s on a global and local scale. The digital tool produced (Limnological Information System, LIS as part of this work is intended to provide a useful platform for extending the analysis to entire area of SNP, as well as for subsequent comparisons based on earlier maps or more recent satellite images.

  20. A Time-Series Analysis of the 20th Century Climate Simulations Produced for the IPCC’s Fourth Assessment Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Francisco; Perron, Pierre; Gay-García, Carlos; Martínez-López, Benjamín

    2013-01-01

    In this paper evidence of anthropogenic influence over the warming of the 20th century is presented and the debate regarding the time-series properties of global temperatures is addressed in depth. The 20th century global temperature simulations produced for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s Fourth Assessment Report and a set of the radiative forcing series used to drive them are analyzed using modern econometric techniques. Results show that both temperatures and radiative forcing series share similar time-series properties and a common nonlinear secular movement. This long-term co-movement is characterized by the existence of time-ordered breaks in the slope of their trend functions. The evidence presented in this paper suggests that while natural forcing factors may help explain the warming of the first part of the century, anthropogenic forcing has been its main driver since the 1970’s. In terms of Article 2 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, significant anthropogenic interference with the climate system has already occurred and the current climate models are capable of accurately simulating the response of the climate system, even if it consists in a rapid or abrupt change, to changes in external forcing factors. This paper presents a new methodological approach for conducting time-series based attribution studies. PMID:23555866

  1. North-Atlantic Oscillation and regional-scale sea-surge variability in Gulf of Lions during the 20th century

    OpenAIRE

    Ullmann, Albin; Moron, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    Sea-surge variations recorded at three tide-gauge stations (Grau-de-la-Dent, Sète, and Port-Vendres) around the Gulf of Lions (Northwest Mediterranean Sea) are mostly locally forced by onshore winds blowing from 90° to 180° related to an atmospheric depression usually centered between the Bay of Biscay and the British Island, which is more prevalent during the negative phase of the North-Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). During the second half of the 20th century, the long-term increase of sea-s...

  2. The Scientificalization and Vulgarization of Marxism in the 20th Century: A Critical Analysis on K. Popper’s Critique of Marxism

    OpenAIRE

    Fan Chang

    2013-01-01

    Marxism was indeed vulgarized due to scientism in the 20th century, which even limits the development of Chinese social theories nowadays. This paper put forward the idea that it was serious misunderstanding to interpret Marx as prophet or inventor like empiricists who regard finding out eternal laws as the goal of science. In fact, Marx did not propose any so-called “natural laws of historical development”. He articulated that the only thing worth to do was to take note of what happened ...

  3. Mudança em dois períodos do século XX: inter-relacionando análises em tempo aparente / Linguistic change in two periods of the 20th century: interrelating apparent time analyses

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Alice, Tavares.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese À luz da sociolinguística variacionista, tomo os conectores E, AÍ, DAÍ e ENTÃO como variantes da variável dependente "sequenciação retroativo-propulsora". Os dados são oriundos das seguintes fontes: (i) As vinhas da ira, romance escrito por John Steinbeck em 1939, cuja tradução brasileira, datada de [...] 1940, apresenta marcas da fala de classes populares do Rio Grande do Sul; (ii) 48 entrevistas provenientes do Banco de Dados VARSUL de Florianópolis, que foram coletadas ao longo da última década do século XX. Tenho por objetivos: (i) buscar indícios de mudança em tempo real; (ii) buscar indícios de mudança em tempo aparente através do controle da variável social idade; (iii) inter-relacionar os resultados referentes à variável idade nos dois períodos de tempo considerados. Obtive indícios de mudança em tempo real e de mudança em tempo aparente. Além disso, fiz uma inter-relação entre os resultados referentes à variável idade no final da primeira metade do século XX e no final da segunda metade do século XX. Baseada nessa inter-relação, consegui traçar um panorama mais detalhado das mudanças possivelmente sofridas por E, AÍ, DAÍ e ENTÃO ao longo do século XX. Abstract in english Under the light of Labovian Sociolinguistics, I take the Brazilian Portuguese connectors E, AÍ, DAÍ, and ENTÃO as variants of the dependent variable "retroactive-propeller sequenciation". The data come from the following sources: (i) "The grapes of wrath", an novel written by John Steinbeck in 1939, [...] the 1940 Brazilian Portuguese translation of which is marked by spoken language traits of the working classes from Rio Grande do Sul (RS), the most southern Brazil State; (ii) 48 interviews from the VARSUL Data Base of Florianópolis (the capital of Santa Catarina State), which were collected during the last decade of the 20th century. My goal are: (i) to seek evidence of change in real time, (ii) to seek evidence of change in apparent time by controlling the social variable 'age', (iii) to interrelate the results regarding the variable 'age' in both periods of time. The results present evidences of change in both real time and apparent time. Moreover, I set up an inter-relationship between the results regarding the variable 'age' at the end of the first half of the 20th century and at the end of the second half of the 20th century. Based on this inter-relationship, I was able to trace a more detailed picture of the changes the connectors E, AÍ, DAÍ, and ENTÃO possibly underwent throughout the 20th century.

  4. The Devil is free: Some religious imaginary features of people from Pácora in the first half of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Isaza Gil.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay shows the use of exempla in Pácora (Caldas around the Devil’s role during the first decades of the 20th century. The author takes into account the oral tradition and holds interviews for offering his own understanding about Devil’s apparitions and beliefs within a religious and secular community context. The interpretation helps to understand this phenomenon under the Catholic Church impact and influence, within an isolated and closed community context, and that is part of the inhabitants’ everyday life and imaginary.

  5. Fsiles de novela: paleontologa y literatura en la argentina de fines del siglo XIX y principios del siglo / Fossils as fictional characters: Argentine paleontology and literature in the late 19th century and the beginnings of the 20th century

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo G., Ottone.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La literatura argentina de la segunda mitad del siglo XIX y comienzos del siglo XX refiri la presencia de mamferos fsiles cenozoicos en las pampas. Gliptodontes y megaterios devinieron en personajes de los textos de Eduardo Ladislao Holmberg, William Henry Hudson, Eduarda y Lucio Victorio Mansilla, [...] Leopoldo Lugones, Geoffroy Franois Daireux, Horacio Quiroga, Hugo Wast, Ezequiel Martnez Estrada, Leopoldo Marechal y Manuel Mujica Lainez. Estos autores contextualizaron a los vertebrados fsiles en escenas humorsticas o realistas, como iconos de la grandeza de la Pampa y la nacin o parodia de estereotipos culturales locales. Abstract in english Argentine literature from the second half of the 19th century and the early 20th century referred to the presence of Cenozoic fossil mammals in the pampas. Glyptodons and megatheriums became characters in the texts of Eduardo Ladislao Holmberg, William Henry Hudson, Eduarda y Lucio Victorio Mansilla [...] , Leopoldo Lugones, Geoffroy Franois Daireux, Horacio Quiroga, Hugo Wast, Ezequiel Martnez Estrada, Leopoldo Marechal and Manuel Mujica Lainez. These authors contextualize the fossil vertebrates in humoristic or realistic scenes, as icons of the greatness of the nation and the Pampa, or as a parody of local cultural stereotypes.

  6. ???????????????????????????? (Bulldozing Pudian Street: Destruction or Renewal? Ambiguities in Big City Novels in Late 20th Century Chinese Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Li

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available There is little doubt that the most cogent literary representation of the experience of modernity has been realised in big city fiction and cinematographic masterpieces such as Fritz Lang's Metropolis (1926. Despite the formal and aesthetic incompatability of early twentieth century (predominantly Western works of this literary genre and more recent ones, East and West, the underlying dialectic tension between progressive optimism and disorientation, existential up-rootedness, alienation and angst (Rilke's loss of soul as archetypal manifestation of mega-city reality and its social structure and organisation, constitutes a generic hallmark, regardless of time and place. Significantly, the relevance of this problem is reinforced, theoretically and practically, by the eminent scholar and architect Rem Koolhaas whose reflections have China as a principal reference point of the global "out-of-control process of modernisation". This paper focuses on the literary representation of the complexity and universality of the problem and the social implications of the blurred and ambiguous vision of urban reality with particular reference to contemporary Chinese literature.

  7. ???????????????????????????? (Bulldozing Pudian Street: Destruction or Renewal? Ambiguities in Big City Novels in Late 20th Century Chinese Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Li

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available There is little doubt that the most cogent literary representation of the experience of modernity has been realised in big city fiction and cinematographic masterpieces such as Fritz Lang's Metropolis (1926. Despite the formal and aesthetic incompatability of early twentieth century (predominantly Western works of this literary genre and more recent ones, East and West, the underlying dialectic tension between progressive optimism and disorientation, existential up-rootedness, alienation and angst (Rilke's loss of soul as archetypal manifestation of mega-city reality and its social structure and organisation, constitutes a generic hallmark, regardless of time and place. Significantly, the relevance of this problem is reinforced, theoretically and practically, by the eminent scholar and architect Rem Koolhaas whose reflections have China as a principal reference point of the global "out-of-control process of modernisation". This paper focuses on the literary representation of the complexity and universality of the problem and the social implications of the blurred and ambiguous vision of urban reality with particular reference to contemporary Chinese literature.

  8. FACTORS WHICH DETERMINED MORTALITY OF NEWBORNS AND INFANTS IN THE FIRST AND LAST DECADE OF THE 20TH CENTURY IN SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Stojanovi?

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The risk of dying is the highest in newborns and infants. This is one of the most vulnerable periods in development because newborns and infants are exposed to the influence of many risk factors, such as genetics, family or socioeconomic environmental factors. Annual statistics for the first decade of the 20th century showed that one quarter of liveborns died during the first year of life. Data also showed a higher mortality of small children in the country compared to urban areas. Poor food hygiene was the major cause of newborns’ death, both at birth and during the first few months. The last decade of the 20th century was particularly interesting and important to perceive mortality of newborns and infants, because of significant political and socioeconomic disturbances after international sanctions against Serbia and bombing in 1999. Sudden rise of mortality rate of newborns and infants was noticed in all parts of Serbia in 1992 and 1993. It has constantly been decreasing ever since.

  9. On a set of 20th century monumental events that shaped the modern discipline of ocean wind wave's research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, P.

    2012-04-01

    History is made up of individual events. The modern ocean wind waves research has been active for nearly 70 years since the early years of the decade of 1940's while the World War II was still fighting in earnest and Sverdrup and Munk were embarked on an unprecedented attempt to make wave condition prediction for Navy Amphibious forces carrying out landing operation. That was certainly a monumental event that started the modern ocean wind wave's research. Here I wish to present a set of other monumental events in the intervening years which, in my personal view, are vital to the formation of our present day conventional ocean wind wave's research: • Circa 1945: The war time invention of underwater pressure wave gage that measures pressure fluctuations induced by surface waves and also marked as the start of single-point wave measurements prevalent today. • Circa 1950: When oceanographer Pierson met statistician Tukey and ocean wave spectrum analysis was thereby born. • Circa 1952: Something old something new - Longuet-Higgins introduced the distribution function of Load Rayleigh to the emerging ocean wave data analysis and Rayleigh distribution has been the mainstay of ocean wind wave's research ever since. • Circa 1953: Neumann started the quest to formulate a wind wave spectrum with his impressive first empirical spectrum before spectrum was widely measured. • Circa 1957: Phillips worked out the resonance theory for wind wave's generation. • Circa 1957: Miles simultaneously developed the shear flow model for wind wave's generation, complementary to Phillips theory. • Circa 1959: Hasselmann formulated the source function to start the first framework of comprehensive wind wave modeling. These are all the basic innovative milestones that the bulk of the conventional ocean wind wave research studies today were evolved from. While the monumental status of these works may represent merely the personal opinion of a single aficionado, I do feel that they were the ones that sowed a rich fertile ground from which a whole sphere of wind wave's research over the last 7 decades was stemmed from and also most of today's practices in ocean wind wave's research were evolved, directly or indirectly, from those original works. As we are now well into the second decade of the 21st century, we can only hope that at some time, a new period of rejuvenation like those flowerishing 1950's can be reshaped to further expand our knowledge on the wind wave research to take further advantages of the many new technological advancements of the new century has to offer and lead us to the true understanding of the ubiquitous but still elusive ocean wind waves which we are all mesmerized to study them!

  10. Trace elements in South America aerosol during 20th century inferred from a Nevado Illimani ice core, Eastern Bolivian Andes (6350 m a.s.l.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-D. Taupin

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available A 137 m ice core drilled in 1999 from Eastern Bolivian Andes at the summit of Nevado Illimani (16° 37' S, 67° 46' W, 6350 m a.s.l. was analyzed at high temporal resolution, allowing a characterization of trace elements in Andean aerosol trapped in the ice during the 20th century. The upper 50 m of the ice core were dated by multi-proxy analysis of stable isotopes (d18O and d2H, 137Cs and Ca+2 content, electrical conductivity, and insoluble microparticle content, together with reference historical horizons from atmospheric nuclear tests and known volcanic eruptions. This 50 m section corresponds to a record of environmental variations spanning about 80 years from 1919 to 1999. It was cut in 744 sub-samples under laminar flow in a clean bench, which were analyzed by Ion Chromatography for major ionic concentration, by a particle counter for insoluble aerosol content, and by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS for the concentration of 45 chemical species from Li to U. This paper focuses on results of trace element concentrations measured by ICP-MS. The high temporal resolution used in the analyses allowed classifying samples as belonging to dry or wet seasons. During wet season elemental concentrations are low and samples show high crustal enrichment factors. During dry seasons the situation is opposite, with high elemental concentrations and low crustal enrichments. For example, with salt lakes as main sources in the region, average Li concentration during the 20th century is 0.035 and 0.90 ng g?1 for wet and dry seasons, respectively. Illimani average seasonal concentration ranges cover the spectrum of elemental concentration measurements at another Andean ice core site (Sajama for most soil-related elements. Regional crustal dust load in the deposits was found to be overwhelming during dry season, obfuscating the contribution of biomass burning material. Marked temporal trends from the onset of 20th century to more recent years were identified for the concentrations of several trace species of anthropic origin, especially for Cu, As, Zn, Cd, Co, Ni and Cr. Among these elements, Cu shows average wet season crustal enrichment factors above 103, while the others range between 102 to about 5×102. P and K show moderate average wet season enrichment factors, suggesting an impact of natural biogenic emissions from the Amazon Basin. Pb has multiple anthropic sources in the region, from mining activities in the beginning of 20th century to automotive fuel after 1950's. From the large number of samples analyzed from Illimani, it was possible to derive an effective chemical characterization of the deposited background Andean soil dust aerosol during 20th century.

  11. Trace elements in South America aerosol during 20th century inferred from a Nevado Illimani ice core, Eastern Bolivian Andes (6350 m asl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Correia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A 137 m ice core drilled in 1999 from Eastern Bolivian Andes at the summit of Nevado Illimani (16º 37' S, 67º 46' W, 6350 m asl was analyzed at high temporal resolution, allowing a characterization of trace elements in Andean aerosol trapped in the ice during the 20th century. The upper 50 m of the ice core were dated by multi-proxy analysis of stable isotopes (d18O and d2H, 137Cs and Ca+2 content, electrical conductivity, and insoluble microparticle content, together with reference historical horizons from atmospheric nuclear tests and known volcanic eruptions. This 50 m section corresponds to a record of environmental variations spanning about 80 years from 1919 to 1999. It was cut in 744 sub-samples under laminar flow in a clean bench, which were analyzed by Ion Chromatography for major ionic concentration, by a particle counter for insoluble aerosol content, and by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS for the concentration of 45 chemical species from Li to U. This paper focuses on results of trace element concentrations measured by ICP-MS. The high temporal resolution used in the analyses allowed classifying samples as belonging to dry or wet seasons. During wet season elemental concentrations are low and samples show high crustal enrichment factors. During dry seasons the situation is opposite, with high elemental concentrations and low crustal enrichments. For example, with salt lakes as main sources in the region, average Li concentration during the 20th century is 0.035 and 0.90 ng g-1 for wet and dry seasons, respectively. Illimani average seasonal concentration ranges cover the spectrum of elemental concentration measurements at another Andean ice core site (Sajama for most soil-related elements. Regional crustal dust load in the deposits was found to be overwhelming during dry season, obfuscating the contribution of biomass burning material. Marked temporal trends from the onset of 20th century to more recent years were identified for the concentrations of several trace species of anthropic origin, especially for Cu, As, Zn, Cd, Co, Ni and Cr. Among these elements, Cu shows average wet season crustal enrichment factors above 103, while the others range between 102 to about 5x102. P and K show moderate average wet season enrichment factors, suggesting an impact of natural biogenic emissions from the Amazon Basin. Pb has multiple anthropic sources in the region, from mining activities in the beginning of 20th century to automotive fuel after 1950s. From the large number of samples analyzed from Illimani, it was possible to derive an effective chemical characterization of the deposited background Andean soil dust aerosol during 20th century.

  12. Etiquette Books and Emotion Management in the 20th Century: Part One - The Integration of Social Classes

    OpenAIRE

    Wouters, Cas

    1995-01-01

    This is a first report on a larger comparative study of changes in twentieth-century American, Dutch, English and German etiquette books. A central hypothesis is that major directional trends in dominant codes and ideals of behaviour and feeling, as reflected by changes in etiquette books, are closely connected with trends in power relationships and emotion management. In this century, an important common trend in all four countries has been the diminishing of differences in po...

  13. The Influence of Canadian Intellectuals’ Ideological Views on the Political Culture in Canada at the Beginning of the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOKOV I.A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the political views of Canadian intellectuals which had influence on the formation of Canadian political culture at the turn of the 20th century. The author confirms that the Canadian intellectual thought was the main ideological factor in the conditions of the formation of Canadian statehood, undeveloped party and political system, the lack of deep traditions of the parliamentary system, insufficient political practice and the lack of distinct ideology of basic political parties in the process of forming the Canadian nation. On the basis of studied Canadian sources, the author makes conclusion that the most of Canadian intellectuals did not participate directly in the political process and they considered themselves its bystanders. Besides, the Canadian intellectuals promoted the British political culture of the Victorian epoch. Although all of them were familiar wih the British socialistic thought – Fabianism, they insisted that the social transformation in the Canadian society is possible only through the improvement of moral system, the education of lower social classes and the maintenance of elite monarch traditions. The American influence on Canadian political culture was peripheral at the beginning of the 20th century. The ideas of the Chicago Sociological School and the European continental thought were not used. The Victorian intellectuals understood their time as the social crisis and their political discussions were often devoted to the problems of imperialism, religion, education and feminism. They undoubtedly influenced the Canadian political elite in the matter of further development of the Canadian nation and state, but they expressed their own unique views on the contemporary society in academic press and in elite clubs discussions. They did not share the opinion of publicity about contemporary social processes, because their position was far from the direct party policy. Though some of them participated as the experts in the government commissions and in the international organizations, and doing so, they influenced the process of making political decisions. The Canadian Victorian intellectuals considering themselves bystanders of contemporary social processes, created the background for smooth evolution transition to the policy of social transformation, the development of unique Canadian liberal tradition and the creation of the social welfare state in the middle of the 20th century.

  14. Nueva localidad en Chile para Menodora linoides Phil. (Oleaceae, especie considerada extinta en el siglo XX New locality in Chile for Menodora Linoides Phil. (Oleaceae, species considered extint in the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélica Muñoz-Schick

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available An area in the Andes of the Valparaíso Region is indicated as a new locality for the species Menodora linoides Phil., an endemic and unique representative of the Oleaceae family in Chile. The plant described in 1863, was considered extinct in the 20th century, but has been collected twice in the present century

  15. Nueva localidad en Chile para Menodora linoides Phil. (Oleaceae), especie considerada extinta en el siglo XX New locality in Chile for Menodora Linoides Phil. (Oleaceae), species considered extint in the 20th century

    OpenAIRE

    Mélica Muñoz-Schick; Andrés Moreira-Muñoz; Pedro León-Lobos

    2006-01-01

    An area in the Andes of the Valparaíso Region is indicated as a new locality for the species Menodora linoides Phil., an endemic and unique representative of the Oleaceae family in Chile. The plant described in 1863, was considered extinct in the 20th century, but has been collected twice in the present century

  16. Observed Mass Balance of Mountain Glaciers and Greenland Ice Sheet in the 20th Century and the Present Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmura, Atsumu

    2011-09-01

    Glacier mass balance and secular changes in mountain glaciers and ice caps are evaluated from the annual net balance of 137 glaciers from 17 glacierized regions of the world. Further, the winter and summer balances for 35 glaciers in 11 glacierized regions are analyzed. The global means are calculated by weighting glacier and regional surface areas. The area-weighted global mean net balance for the period 1960-2000 is -270 ± 34 mm a-1 w.e. (water equivalent, in mm per year) or (-149 ± 19 km3 a-1 w.e.), with a winter balance of 890 ± 24 mm a-1 w.e. (490 ± 13 km3 a-1 w.e.) and a summer balance of -1,175 ± 24 mm a-1 w.e. (-647 ± 13 km3 a-1 w.e.). The linear-fitted global net balance is accelerating at a rate of -9 ± 2.1 mm a-2. The main driving force behind this change is the summer balance with an acceleration of -10 ± 2.0 mm a-2. The decadal balance, however, shows significant fluctuations: summer melt reached its peak around 1945, followed by a decrease. The negative trend in the annual net balance is interrupted by a period of stagnation from 1960s to 1980s. Some regions experienced a period of positive net balance during this time, for example, Europe. The balance has become strongly negative since the early 1990s. These decadal fluctuations correspond to periods of global dimming (for smaller melt) and global brightening (for larger melt). The total radiation at the surface changed as a result of an imbalance between steadily increasing greenhouse gases and fluctuating aerosol emissions. The mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet and the surrounding small glaciers, averaged for the period of 1950-2000, is negative at -74 ± 10 mm a-1 w.e. (-128 ± 18 km3 a-1 w.e.) with an accumulation of 297 ± 33 mm a-1 w.e. (519 ± 58 km3 a-1 w.e.), melt ablation -169 ± 18 mm a-1 w.e. (-296 ± 31 km3 a-1 w.e.), calving ablation -181 ± 19 mm a-1 w.e. (-316 ± 33 km3 a-1 w.e.) and the bottom melt-21 ± 2 mm a-1 w.e. (-35 ± 4 km3 a-1 w.e.). Almost half (-60 ± 3 km3 a-1) of the net mass loss comes from mountain glaciers and ice caps around the ice sheet. At present, it is difficult to detect any statistically significant trends for these components. The total mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet is considered to be too premature to evaluate. The estimated sea-level contributions in the twentieth Century are 5.7 ± 0.5 cm by mountain glaciers and ice caps outside Antarctica, 1.9 ± 0.5 cm by the Greenland ice sheet, and 2 cm by ocean thermal expansion. The difference of 7 cm between these components and the estimated value with tide-gage networks (17 cm) must result from other sources such as the mass balance of glaciers of Antarctica, especially small glaciers separated from the ice sheet.

  17. Conceptual resistance in the disciplines of the mind: the Leipzig-Buenos Aires connection at the beginning of the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taiana, Cecilia

    2005-11-01

    Personal correspondence written by Prof. Felix Krueger from Argentina in 1906-1907 to his teacher and mentor Wilhelm Wundt in Leipzig is situated in the historical context of the theoretical debates taking place at the University of Buenos Aires at the beginning of the 20th century. A critical survey of the transatlantic migration of psychological theories and their reception in Argentina raises the broader issues of the nature of the cultural and social roots of local interpretations induced by the circulation of theories across national fields of scientific inquiry. It is argued that national intellectual fields and the historicity of their categories of interpretation mediate in the foreign trade of theories. PMID:17152749

  18. Geochemical response of a closed-lake basin to 20th century recurring droughts/wet intervals in the subtropical Pampean Plains of South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel ARIZTEGUI

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Laguna Mar Chiquita is a highly variable closed saline lake located in the Pampean Plains of central Argentina. Presently is the largest saline lake in South America (? 6,000 km2 and also one of the largest in the world. During the 20th century the hydrological balance of the region was characterized by contrasting scenarios. Well-defined wet or dry climatic phases had ruled the lake level fluctuations and the rivers discharge, mainly controlling the geochemical composition of sediments. Sediments accumulated during positive hydrological balances (i.e., high lake level are mainly composed of allogenic mineral due to higher riverine inputs into the lake. This fluvial-dominated lake phases are recorded as sediments enriched in Al2O3, SiO2, K2O, Fe2O3 and TiO2 and in trace elements such as Co, Cr, Cs, Rb, Sc, Hf, Ta, Th as well as rare earth elements (REE. Sediments accumulated during dry phases (i.e., low lake levels and high salinity are evaporite mineral-rich with elevated concentrations of CaO, MnO, MgO, and P2O5. High contents of As and U are probably due to a co-precitation during high evaporative phases. The calibration of the sediment chemical composition of Laguna Mar Chiquita to well-defined water-level fluctuations of the 20th century shows that elemental geochemistry can be a useful proxy to study former lake-water fluctuations. It may further provide a comparative model to evaluate past environmental conditions in other saline lacustrine basins.

  19. The role of deep processes in late 20th century subsidence of New Orleans and coastal areas of southern Louisiana and Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokka, Roy K.

    2011-06-01

    Geodetic leveling observations from Biloxi, MS, to New Orleans, LA, and water level gauge measurements in the New Orleans-Lake Pontchartrain area were analyzed to infer late 20th century vertical motions. These data were used to test the validity of previous subsidence rate measurements and the models that predict the location and causes of subsidence. Water gauges attached to bridge foundations and benchmarks affixed to deep rods that penetrate Holocene strata subsided as much as 0.8 m locally between 1955 and 1995. The observed deep-seated subsidence far exceeds model predictions and demonstrates that shallow processes such as compaction and consolidation of Holocene sediments are inadequate by themselves to explain late 20th century subsidence. Deep-seated subsidence occurring east and north of the normal faults marking the Gulf of Mexico basin margin can be explained by local groundwater withdrawal, and regional tectonic loading of the lithosphere by the modern Mississippi River delta (MRD). Sharp changes in subsidence coincide with strands of the basin margin normal faults. Displacements are consistent with activity and show motions consonant with fault creep. Deep subsidence of the region to the south, including New Orleans, can be explained by a combination of groundwater withdrawal from shallow upper Pleistocene aquifers, the aforementioned lithospheric loading, and perhaps, nongroundwater-related faulting. Subsidence due to groundwater extraction from aquifers ˜160 to 200 m deep dominated urbanized areas and is likely responsible for helping to lower local flood protection structures and bridges by as much as ˜0.8 m.

  20. Etiquette Book and Emotion Management in the 20th Century. Part Two - The Integration of The Sexes

    OpenAIRE

    Wouters, Cas

    1995-01-01

    This is a second report on a larger comparitative study of changes in twentieth-century American, Dutch, English and German etiquette books. A central hypothesis of this study is that major directional trends in dominant codes and ideals of behaviour and feeling, as reflected by changes in etiquette books, are closely connected with trends in power relations and emotion management. Further details on this hypothesis, the methods and theoretical perspective used, are to be found...

  1. Achievements of Polish doctors in gastrodiaphanoscopy at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries

    OpenAIRE

    Kierzek, Andrzej; Paprocka-borowicz, Ma?gorzata; Pozowski, Andrzej; Kuciel-lewandowska, Jadwiga

    2013-01-01

    Diaphanoscopy/transillumination, the method of shining a bright light through tissues, was devised in the mid-19th century and developed after the invention of the light bulb by T.A. Edison. Benjamin Milliot was the first to examine the stomach by means of an incandescent platinum wire. The experiments conducted by Max Einhorn using a device consisting of a Nelaton catheter with an inserted light bulb, were valuable. In Poland the method of gastrodiaphanoscopy was popularized by Teodor Heryng...

  2. The shift to the subject in 20th century philosophy of science: A liberating move? / Die skuif na die subjek in die 20ste eeuse wetenskapsfilosofie: 'n Bevrydende verskuiwing?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Renato, Coletto.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the 20th century, the 'subject' of knowledge (i.e. the individual scientist or a scientific community) was attributed an increasingly relevant role in (the philosophy of) science. Anchoring scientific knowledge to the subject (rather than to the object, as in early positivism) was proposed as [...] a 'liberating' move, leading to a less authoritarian and rationalistic view of science. This article provides a reformational point of view on the topic. A historical documentation of the shift to the subject is provided by visiting the philosophies of Popper, Kuhn, Collins and others. It is argued that the promise of a more libertarian or emancipating conception of science was challenged by several problems. In particular, the conflict between an individual and a communal understanding of the subject is highlighted. Furthermore, it is argued that the roots of the phenomenon in most cases remain hidden. An interpretation of the shift and the sketch of an alternative approach conclude the article.

  3. Exílio massivo, inclusão e exclusão política no século XX / Exils massifs, inclusion et exclusion politique au XXe siècle / Mass exile and political inclusion and exclusion in 20th century

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis, Roniger.

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Due to the strategies implemented by post-Independence Ibero-American states to curtail political participation, exile was mainly reserved as a privilege for ostracized members of the elite, who drew on their support networks in the process. The late 19th and early 20th centuries witnessed a process [...] of "mass exile", expressed by a growing number of exiles from different social classes, excluded due to their participation in politics and public spheres. The expansion of institutional exclusion spawned solidarity networks and increasing attention by the international community towards politics in the exiles' home countries. Old domestic political issues found a transnational echo, based on a growing concern over human rights violations and political persecution. This process produced a radical transformation in the structure, impact, and functioning of political exile from Ibero-American countries.

  4. War, Peace and Security in the 20th Century. A Contemporary Reading of the Just War Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Alexandra Costinescu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available War, in its various forms, still represents even in the XXI century a common manner for states as well as for ethnic, political and religious groups to settle disputes. The geopolitical context, marked by the al Qaeda attacks on the USA, and the multiple world events they determined lead to major changes for the armed violence character and simultaneously for its moral implications. Therefore, the present analysis subjects the relevance of the just war theory for the new international realities, the degree to which the theory needs a revision of its classical categories ius ad bellum and ius in bello or, on the contrary, an abandonment.

  5. [Advances in diagnosis and therapy of breast cancer between the 20th and the 21st centuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losacco, T; Ventrella, N; Casale, F; Logrieco, S; Santacroce, L

    2004-01-01

    During the last two decades several new data have been acquired about tumor biology and therapy. Breast cancer is one of the more common cancers occurring, determining life threatening and depression in affected females. By the way a great interest has been developed during the time attempting to reach the earliest diagnosis and the more conservative treatment. However, breast cancer is now considered as a disease which meet the interests of several specialists (oncologists, surgeons, radiologists, and so), all dedicated to reduce the consequences of such pathology. The aim of this review is the resume of the progresses made in the last century about breast cancer knowledge. PMID:15147080

  6. Long-term Trends in Interplanetary Magnetic Field Strength and Solar Wind Structure during the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, I. G.; Cliver, E. W.; Cane, H. V.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Lockwood et al have recently reported an approximately 40% increase in the radial component of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) at Earth between 1964 and 1996. We argue that this increase does not constitute a secular trend but is largely the consequence of lower than average fields during solar cycle 20 (1964-1976) in comparison with surrounding cycles. For times after 1976 the average IMF strength has actually decreased slightly. Examination of the cosmic ray intensity, an indirect measure of the IMF strength, over the last five solar cycles (19-23) also indicates that cycle averages of the IMF strength have been relatively constant since approximately 1954. We also consider the origin of the well-documented increase in the geomagnetic alphaalpha index that occurred primarily during the first half of the twentieth century. We surmise that the coronal mass ejection (CME) rate for recent solar cycles was approximately twice as high as that for solar cycles 100 years ago. However, this change in the CME rate and the accompanying increase in 27-day recurrent storm activity reported by others are unable to account completely for the increase in alphaalpha. Rather, the CMEs and recurrent high-speed streams at the beginning of the twentieth century must have been embedded in a background of slow solar wind that was less geoeffective (having, for example, lower IMF strength and/or flow speed) than its modern counterpart.

  7. The Welfare Culture. Poetics of Comfort in Architecture of the 19th and 20th-centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Prieto González

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractArchitectural history of the last two centuries shows that welfare, far from being a purely technical issue – a balance between weather and the physiological human constants – is a culturally constructed idea concerning diverse factors, such as the relationship between space and human body or the ways of conceiving nature in architecture. However, the notion of comfort has not received the historiographical attention it deserves, hence the need for a new perspective, aesthetic and multidisciplinary in nature. Such a view is discussed in this article through a brief and partial history of comfort that addresses the different meanings assigned to the concept over the past two centuries, in accordance with a kind of 'poetics': the longstanding poetics of fire, linked the regenerative comfort; the poetics of hygiene and habitat, developed during modernity as a scientifistic dogma and as an aesthetic alibi, and, finally, the poetics of atmospheres, which accounts for contemporary concerns about perception, memory and sociability. From this historical review we can conclude that welfare is not an objectifiable concept, nor an idea synthesized in the technician or scientist test tubes, but a complex notion consisting of several intertwined layers: physiological, constructive, aesthetic, existential, social. The history of comfort is, thus, a sort of small version of the history of culture.Key wordscomfort, architecture, hygiene, habitat, atmosphere

  8. From social pathologies to individual psyches: psychiatry navigating socio-political currents in 20th-century Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L?se, Agita

    2011-03-01

    The paper explores psychiatry's responses to the twentieth-century socio-political currents in Latvia by focusing on social objectives, clinical ideologies, and institutional contexts of Soviet mental health care. The tradition of German biological psychiatry in which Baltic psychiatrists had been trained blended well with the materialistic monism of Soviet psychoneurology. Pavlov's teaching of the second signal system was well suited to Soviet ideological needs: speech stimuli were seen as a vehicle for moulding the individual's mind. The transformation in diagnostic practices during the 1970s and 1980s reflected the demise of optimism about the capacity of the self to model itself to the needs of the society. Latvian psychiatry was prepared to embrace more individualistic and pessimistic theories of the self. PMID:21879575

  9. Modelling borehole temperatures in Southern Norway – insights into permafrost dynamics during the 20th and 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hipp

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A transient heat flow model was used to simulate both past and future ground temperatures of mountain permafrost and associated active layer thickness in Southern Norway. The model was forced by reconstructed air temperature starting from 1860, approximately coinciding with the Little Ice Age in the region. The impact of climate warming on mountain permafrost until 2100 is assessed by using downscaled air temperatures from a multi-model ensemble for the A1B scenario. For 13 borehole locations, records over three consecutive years of ground temperatures, air temperatures and snow cover data are available for model calibration and validation. The boreholes are located at different elevations and in substrates with different thermal properties. With an increase of air temperature of ~+1.5 °C over 1860–2010 and an additional warming of +2.8 °C until 2100, we simulate the evolution of ground temperatures for the borehole locations. According to model results, the active-layer thickness has increased since 1860 by 0.5–5 m and >10 m for the sites Juvvasshøe and Tron, respectively. The simulations also suggest that at an elevation of about 1900 m a.s.l. permafrost will degrade until the end of this century with a probability of 55–75% given the chosen A1B scenario.

  10. Modelling the temperature evolution of permafrost and seasonal frost in southern Norway during the 20th and 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hipp

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A heat flow model was used to simulate both past and future ground temperatures of mountain permafrost in Southern Norway. A reconstructed air temperature series back to 1860 was used to evaluate the permafrost evolution since the end of the Little Ice Age in the region. The impact of a changing climate on discontinuous mountain permafrost until 2100 is predicted by using downscaled temperatures from an ensemble of downscaled climate models for the A1B scenario. From 13 borehole locations two consecutive years of ground temperature, air temperature and snow cover data are available for model calibration and validation. The boreholes are located at different elevations and in substrates having different thermal properties. With an increase of air temperature of ~+1.5 °C over 1860–2010 and an additional warming of +2.8 °C towards 2100 in air temperature, we simulate the evolution of ground temperatures for the borehole locations. According to model results, the active-layer thickness has increased since 1860 by about 0.5–5 m and >10 m for the sites Juvvass and Tron, respectively. The simulations also suggest that at an elevation of about 1900 m a.s.l. permafrost will degrade until the end of this century with a likelihood of 55–75% given the chosen A1B scenario.

  11. The climate of Carpathian Region in the 20th century based on the original and modified Holdridge life zone system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szelepcsényi, Zoltán; Breuer, Hajnalka; Sümegi, Pál

    2014-09-01

    The Holdridge life zone system has already been used a number of times for analysing the effects of climate change on vegetation. But a criticism against the method was formulated that it cannot interpret the ecotones (e.g. forest steppe). Thus, in this paper transitional life zones were also determined in the model. Then, both the original and modified life zone systems were applied for the climatic fields of database CRU TS 1.2. Life zone maps were defined in the Carpathian Region (43.5-50.5° N, 15.5-28° E) for each of five 20-year periods between 1901 and 2000. We estimated correctness of the result maps with another vegetation map using Cohen's Kappa statistic. Finally, temporal changes in horizontal and vertical distribution of life zones were investigated. The coverage of boreal region decreased with 59.46% during the last century, while the warm temperate region became almost two and a half larger (257.36%). The mean centres of those life zones, which were not related to mountains, shifted northward during the investigation period. In case of the most abundant life zone types, the average distribution elevation increased. Using the modified model, the potential distribution of forest steppe could be also identified.

  12. Changes in mercury and cadmium concentrations and the feeding behaviour of beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) near Somerset Island, Canada, during the 20th century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) continues to be an important food species for Arctic communities, despite concerns about its high mercury (Hg) content. We investigated whether Hg and cadmium (Cd) concentrations had changed during the 20th century in beluga near Somerset Island in the central Canadian Arctic, using well-preserved teeth collected from historical sites (dating to the late 19th century and 1926-1947) and during subsistence hunts in the late 1990s. Mercury concentrations in both historical and modern teeth were correlated with animal age, but 1990s beluga exhibited a significantly more rapid accumulation with age than late 19th century animals, indicating that Hg concentrations or bioavailability in their food chain had increased during the last century. The geometric mean tooth Hg concentration in modern 30 year old animals was 7.7 times higher than in the late 19th century, which corresponds to threefold higher concentrations in muktuk and muscle. Teeth from 1926 to 1947 were similar in Hg content to the late 19th century, suggesting that the increase had occurred sometime after the 1940s. In contrast, tooth Cd was not correlated with animal age and decreased during the last 100 years, indicating that anthropogenic Cd was negligible in this population. Late 19th century beluga displayed a greater range of prey selection (tooth ? 15N values: 15.6-20.5%o) than modern animals (? 15N: 17.2-21.1%o). To prevent this difference from confo). To prevent this difference from confounding the temporal Hg comparison, the Hg-age relationships discussed above were based on historical animals, which overlapped isotopically with the modern group. Tooth ? 13C also changed to isotopically more depleted values in modern animals, with the most likely explanation being a significant shift to more pelagic-based feeding. Industrial Hg pollution is a plausible explanation for the recent Hg increase. However, without further investigation of the relationship between the range exploitation of modern beluga and their possible exposure to regional marine food chains with (naturally) higher Hg contents than their historical counterparts, we cannot unequivocally conclude that the increase was anthropogenically driven

  13. Changes in mercury and cadmium concentrations and the feeding behaviour of beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) near Somerset Island, Canada, during the 20th century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Outridge, P.M. [Geological Survey of Canada, 601 Booth Street, Ottawa, K1A 0E8 (Canada)]. E-mail: OUTRIDGE@NRCAN.GC.CA; Hobson, K.A. [Canadian Wildlife Service, 115 Perimeter Road, Saskatoon, S7N 0X4 (Canada); Savelle, J.M. [Department of Anthropology, McGill University, 855 Sherbrooke Street, Montreal, H3A 2T7 (Canada)

    2005-11-01

    Beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) continues to be an important food species for Arctic communities, despite concerns about its high mercury (Hg) content. We investigated whether Hg and cadmium (Cd) concentrations had changed during the 20th century in beluga near Somerset Island in the central Canadian Arctic, using well-preserved teeth collected from historical sites (dating to the late 19th century and 1926-1947) and during subsistence hunts in the late 1990s. Mercury concentrations in both historical and modern teeth were correlated with animal age, but 1990s beluga exhibited a significantly more rapid accumulation with age than late 19th century animals, indicating that Hg concentrations or bioavailability in their food chain had increased during the last century. The geometric mean tooth Hg concentration in modern 30 year old animals was 7.7 times higher than in the late 19th century, which corresponds to threefold higher concentrations in muktuk and muscle. Teeth from 1926 to 1947 were similar in Hg content to the late 19th century, suggesting that the increase had occurred sometime after the 1940s. In contrast, tooth Cd was not correlated with animal age and decreased during the last 100 years, indicating that anthropogenic Cd was negligible in this population. Late 19th century beluga displayed a greater range of prey selection (tooth {delta} {sup 15}N values: 15.6-20.5%o) than modern animals ({delta} {sup 15}N: 17.2-21.1%o). To prevent this difference from confounding the temporal Hg comparison, the Hg-age relationships discussed above were based on historical animals, which overlapped isotopically with the modern group. Tooth {delta} {sup 13}C also changed to isotopically more depleted values in modern animals, with the most likely explanation being a significant shift to more pelagic-based feeding. Industrial Hg pollution is a plausible explanation for the recent Hg increase. However, without further investigation of the relationship between the range exploitation of modern beluga and their possible exposure to regional marine food chains with (naturally) higher Hg contents than their historical counterparts, we cannot unequivocally conclude that the increase was anthropogenically driven.

  14. Interpretations of the Chinese Boxer Rebellion in the Slovenian Press at the Beginning of the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uroš LIPUŠ?EK

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis essay deals with the Slovene reaction to the military intervention of eight coalition forces in China during the Boxer Rebellion in China in 1900. To Slovenes, China was then seen as a faraway land that had been visited by some Slovene missionaries, noblemen and travellers throughout the past centuries. Nevertheless, much interest was expressed by the Slovene public and press in the events surrounding the Boxer Rebellion. Despite the fact that the Austro-Hungarian military was part of the international coalition that intervened in Chinese internal affairs, the leading Slovene newspapers of the period supported the right of the Chinese people to defend their country against the big powers of the time, who tried to dismember China and enforce the regime of capitulation.Keywords: China, Slovenia, Boxer Rebellion, Austria-Hungary, Tientsin Izvle?ek?lanek obravnava slovenske reakcije na intervencijo osmih koalicijskih sil na Kitajskem med tako imenovano boksarsko vstajo na Kitajskem leta 1900. Za Slovence je bila Kitajska dolgo daljna dežela, ki so jo v teku stoletij obiskali le nekateri slovenski misijonarji, plemi?i in popotniki. Kljub temu pa je slovenska javnost dogajanje, povezano z boksarsko vstajo, spremljala z veliko pozornostjo. ?eprav je bila avstro-ogrska vojska sestavni del mednarodne koalicije, ki je intervenirala v kitajske notranje zadeve, so takratni vodilni slovenski ?asopisi podpirali pravico Kitajcev, da branijo svojo državo pred velikimi silami, ki so poskušale razbiti Kitajsko in ji vsiliti režim kapitulacije.Klju?ne besede: Kitajska, Slovenija, boksarska vstaja, Avstro-Ogrska, Tientsin

  15. Evidence from firn air for recent decreases in non-methane hydrocarbons and a 20th century increase in nitrogen oxides in the northern hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worton, David R.; Sturges, William T.; Reeves, Claire E.; Newland, Mike J.; Penkett, Stuart A.; Atlas, Elliot; Stroud, Verity; Johnson, Kristen; Schmidbauer, Norbert; Solberg, Sverre; Schwander, Jakob; Barnola, Jean-Marc

    2012-07-01

    The atmospheric evolution of eight non-methane hydrocarbons (ethane, acetylene, propane, n-butane, isobutane, n-pentane, isopentane and benzene) and five alkyl nitrates (2-propyl, 2-butyl, 3-methyl-2-butyl and the sum of 2+3-pentyl nitrates) are reconstructed for the latter half of the 20th century based on Arctic firn air measurements. The reconstructed trends of the non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) show increasing concentrations from 1950 to a maximum in 1980 before declining towards the end of last century. These observations provide direct evidence that NMHCs in the northern hemisphere have declined substantially during the period 1980-2001. Benzene concentrations show a smaller increase between 1950 and 1980 than the other NMHCs indicating that additional sources of benzene, other than fossil fuel combustion, were likely important contributors to the benzene budget prior to and during this period. The declining benzene concentrations from 1980 to 2001 would suggest that biomass burning is unlikely to be important in the benzene budget as biomass burning emissions were reportedly increasing over the same period. Methyl and ethyl nitrate show growth patterns in the firn that suggested perturbation by in-situ production from an unidentified mechanism. However, the higher alkyl nitrates show evidence for increasing concentrations from 1950 to maxima in the mid 1990s before decreasing slightly toward the end of the last century. The differing atmospheric evolution of the alkyl nitrates relative to their parent hydrocarbons indicate an increase in their production efficiency per hydrocarbon molecule. Using a steady state analysis of hydrocarbon oxidation and alkyl nitrate production and loss we show that reactive nitrogen oxide (NOx) concentrations in the northern hemisphere have likely increased considerably between 1950 and 2001.

  16. Late 20th Century Deep-seated Vertical Motions in New Orleans and implications for Gulf Coast Subsidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokka, R. K.

    2010-12-01

    Subsidence of the Mississippi River delta and adjoining coastal areas is widely thought to be dominated by compaction of Holocene sediments. Current public policies regarding hurricane protection and ecosystems restoration are founded on this interpretation. To test this hypothesis, monuments that penetrate the entire Holocene section were measured using geodetic leveling and water gauges attached to bridge foundations. Results show that the entire sampling area subsided between 1955 and 1995 in amounts unanticipated by previous models. Subsidence due to processes originating below the Holocene section locally exceeded 0.9 m between 1955 and 1995. The maxima of deep subsidence occurred in the urbanized and industrialized sections of eastern New Orleans. Subsidence decreased away from urbanized areas and north of the belt of active basin margin normal faults; this decrease in subsidence continued to the north and east along the Mississippi coast. These independent measurements provide insights into the complexity and causes of modern landscape change in the region. Modern subsidence is clearly not dominated solely by shallow processes such as natural compaction, Deep subsidence occurring east and north of the basin margin faults can be explained by regional tectonic loading of the lithosphere by the modern Mississippi River delta and local groundwater withdrawal. Sharp, local changes in subsidence coincide with strands of the basin margin normal fault system. Deep subsidence of the New Orleans area can be explained by a combination of groundwater withdrawal from shallow upper Pleistocene aquifers, the aforementioned lithospheric loading, and non-groundwater-related faulting. Subsidence due to groundwater extraction from aquifers ~160 to 200 m deep dominated the urbanized areas from ~1960 to the early 1990s and is likely responsible for lowering flood protection structures and bridges in the area by as much as ~0.8 m.

  17. [Russland an der Ostsee : imperiale Strategien der Macht und kulturelle Wahrnehmungsmuster (16. bis 20. Jahrhundert) = Russia on the Baltic : imperial strategies of power and cultural patterns of perception (16th-20th centuries). Hrsg. von Kartsen Br

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laur, Mati, 1955-

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Russland an der Ostsee : imperiale Strategien der Macht und kulturelle Wahrnehmungsmuster (16. bis 20. Jahrhundert) = Russia on the Baltic : imperial strategies of power and cultural patterns of perception (16th-20th centuries). (Quellen und Studien zur Baltischen Geschichte, 22). Hrsg. von Kartsen Brüggemann und Bradley Woodworth. Böhlau Verlag. Wien u.a. 2012.

  18. Reconstructing hydroclimatic variability of the Bermejo River (Subtropical Andes of Argentina-Bolivia) through Archival Documents - 17th to 20th centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rosario Prieto, M.; Cueto, C.

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to use climatic history for contributing to the general objectives of the IAI -CRN II-047 Project. It will reconstruct, from archival documents, the hydroclimatic variability occurring in the high basin of the Bermejo River during the last centuries and its effects on the floods and swellings in the middle basin. The Río Bermejo in the Southern Andes, is a binational (Argentina-Bolivia) river that contributes the largest proportion of the sediment load to the La Plata basin. Its headwaters are in the Subtropical Andes, near Tarija, Bolivia (22?00'14"S, 64?57'38"W). The main headwater tributaries are the Río Grande de Tarija, in Bolivia and the Iruya and San Francisco Rivers in Argentina. When the river abandons the mountain and turns eastwards (Gran Chaco), it acquires the characteristics of typical lowland rivers, widens its course, and occupies a large, low sedimentary plain with vast floodland areas. Quite often during very high sediment discharge the main river avulses and changes its course, creating big alluvial plains that are occupied for many years. Administrative documents from the colonial and republican periods have provided useful information to reconstruct climate and hydrology of the region. Documents from the Archivo General de Indias in Seville, Archivo Nacional de Bolivia and Archivo General de la Nación (Argentina) have been used to identify extreme floods and swellings in the high and middle-basin of the Rio Bermejo from the 17th century to the first decades of the 20th century. Old maps of the region, reports from annals, chronicles, priests' and travelers' descriptions were also used. Diaries written by the military, explorers and government officials in charge of discovering and taking possession of the territory also provide important sources of information. The archival documents show abrupt hydrological changes in response to the climatic fluctuations in the headwaters region. These records document extensive periods of drought followed by periods of abundant precipitation that have led to changes in the river course, mainly during the 1870s. More than 20 distinct floods, low water periods and droughts have been identified between 1800 and 2000. The extent of floods and changes in the river course have been mapped most detailedly for the 19th century. There is historical evidence suggesting that flood events have increased in frequency and intensity during the last century. Finally, we have compared the results with other historical reconstructions of streamflow from the Andes region as the Sali-Dulce River (Tucuman) and the Mendoza River.

  19. La parasitología y la entomología en la narrativa latinoamericana del siglo XX / Parasitology and entomology in the 20th century Latin American narrative

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hugo, Schenone.

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english In the present reviev of twelve pieces produced by distinguished 20th century Latin American writers Jorge Luis Borges from Argentina, Jorge Amado and João Ubaldo Ribeiro from Brazil, José Donoso from Chile, Gabriel García Márquez from Colombia, Alejo Carpentier from Cuba, Miguel Angel Asturias from [...] Guatemala, Octavio Paz from Mexico, Mario Vargas Llosa from Perú, Horacio Quiroga and Mario Benedetti from Uruguay and Arturo Uslar-Pietri from Venezuela ­ paragraphs or parts of paragraphs in which parasitological or entomological situations of the most varied hues are referred to or described, have been extracted in a selective form. Sometimes in these descriptions appear, local or regional expressions, without ignoring colorful folkloric representations. For a easier interpretation these or part of these paragraph sentences have been arranged by thematic similarities. In a varied and kaleidoscopic vision, it will be possible to find protozooses (malaria, Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, amibiasis), helminthiases (ascariasis, hydatidosis, trichinosis, schistosomiasis, cysticercosis, onchocerciasis), parasitoses produced by arthropods (pediculosis, scabies, tungiasis, myiasis), passing progressivelly to hemaphagous arthropods (mosquitoes, gnats, horse flies, bedbugs, ticks), venomous arthropods (Latrodectus spiders, scorpions, wasps, bees), mechanical vectors (flies and cockroaches), culminating with a conjuction of bucolic arthropods (butterflies, crickets, grasshoppers cicadas, ants, centipedes, beetles, glowworms, dragonflies).

  20. La parasitología y la entomología en la narrativa latinoamericana del siglo XX Parasitology and entomology in the 20th century Latin American narrative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Schenone

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present reviev of twelve pieces produced by distinguished 20th century Latin American writers Jorge Luis Borges from Argentina, Jorge Amado and João Ubaldo Ribeiro from Brazil, José Donoso from Chile, Gabriel García Márquez from Colombia, Alejo Carpentier from Cuba, Miguel Angel Asturias from Guatemala, Octavio Paz from Mexico, Mario Vargas Llosa from Perú, Horacio Quiroga and Mario Benedetti from Uruguay and Arturo Uslar-Pietri from Venezuela ­ paragraphs or parts of paragraphs in which parasitological or entomological situations of the most varied hues are referred to or described, have been extracted in a selective form. Sometimes in these descriptions appear, local or regional expressions, without ignoring colorful folkloric representations. For a easier interpretation these or part of these paragraph sentences have been arranged by thematic similarities. In a varied and kaleidoscopic vision, it will be possible to find protozooses (malaria, Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, amibiasis, helminthiases (ascariasis, hydatidosis, trichinosis, schistosomiasis, cysticercosis, onchocerciasis, parasitoses produced by arthropods (pediculosis, scabies, tungiasis, myiasis, passing progressivelly to hemaphagous arthropods (mosquitoes, gnats, horse flies, bedbugs, ticks, venomous arthropods (Latrodectus spiders, scorpions, wasps, bees, mechanical vectors (flies and cockroaches, culminating with a conjuction of bucolic arthropods (butterflies, crickets, grasshoppers cicadas, ants, centipedes, beetles, glowworms, dragonflies.

  1. A bicicleta, o ciclismo e as mulheres na transição dos séculos XIX e XX / Bicycle, cycling and women in the 19th to 20th centuries' transition

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Victor Andrade de, Melo; André, Schetino.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem por objetivo discutir as relações entre a nova configuração da presença social das mulheres (e nesse cenário as posições de líderes dos movimentos por direitos civis femininos), a nova dinâmica social marcada pela valorização das atividades públicas de lazer (da qual o ciclismo é um [...] exemplo privilegiado) e um novo invento (a bicicleta) na transição dos séculos XIX e XX. Inicialmente abordaremos os casos específicos da Europa (com destaque para a França) e dos Estados Unidos, buscando recuperar as pioneiras discussões e ocorrências acerca do envolvimento de mulheres com o ciclismo. Posteriormente, discutiremos o caso específico do Rio de Janeiro, a maior cidade e a capital do país à época, cujos dirigentes tinham aspirações de constituí-la na metrópole moderna brasileira. Abstract in english This article aims to discuss the relationships between the new configuration of the women social presence (and, in this scenario, the positions of leaders of feminine civil rights' movements), the new social dynamics marked by the valorization of public leisure activities (of which cycling is a rema [...] rkable example) and a new invention (the bicycle) in the 19th to 20th centuries' transition. Initially, we discuss specific cases of Europe (mainly those of France) and United States, searching to recover the pioneer discussions and occurrences concerning the involvement of women with cycling. Later, we discuss the specific case of Rio de Janeiro, the biggest city and capital of the country at that time, whose leaders had aspirations to constitute in the Brazilian modern metropolis.

  2. Energy feedbacks of northern high-latitude ecosystems to the climate system due to reduced snow cover during 20th century warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euskirchen, E.S.; McGuire, A.D.; Chapin, F.S.

    2007-01-01

    The warming associated with changes in snow cover in northern high-latitude terrestrial regions represents an important energy feedback to the climate system. Here, we simulate snow cover-climate feedbacks (i.e. changes in snow cover on atmospheric heating) across the Pan-arctic over two distinct warming periods during the 20th century, 1910-1940 and 1970-2000. We offer evidence that increases in snow cover-climate feedbacks during 1970-2000 were nearly three times larger than during 1910-1940 because the recent snow-cover change occurred in spring, when radiation load is highest, rather than in autumn. Based on linear regression analysis, we also detected a greater sensitivity of snow cover-climate feedbacks to temperature trends during the more recent time period. Pan-arctic vegetation types differed substantially in snow cover-climate feedbacks. Those with a high seasonal contrast in albedo, such as tundra, showed much larger changes in atmospheric heating than did those with a low seasonal contrast in albedo, such as forests, even if the changes in snow-cover duration were similar across the vegetation types. These changes in energy exchange warrant careful consideration in studies of climate change, particularly with respect to associated shifts in vegetation between forests, grasslands, and tundra. ?? 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Nueva localidad en Chile para Menodora linoides Phil. (Oleaceae), especie considerada extinta en el siglo XX / New locality in Chile for Menodora Linoides Phil. (Oleaceae), species considered extint in the 20th century

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mélica, Muñoz-Schick; Andrés, Moreira-Muñoz; Pedro, León-Lobos.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english An area in the Andes of the Valparaíso Region is indicated as a new locality for the species Menodora linoides Phil., an endemic and unique representative of the Oleaceae family in Chile. The plant described in 1863, was considered extinct in the 20th century, but has been collected twice in the pre [...] sent century

  4. Rethinking Constitutionalism in Late 19th and Early 20th Century China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Hui

    2012-01-01

    In the tenets of Western political science, “limited government” is usually seen as the touchstone of modern constitutionalism. Yet significant issues can arise when one applies this framework to East Asia. By studying the origin of constitutionalism in China and Japan, my dissertation reexamines the idea that “limited government” is the core of modern constitutionalism. I argue that constitutionalism, as it was introduced in Meiji Japan and late Qing China, focused on strengthening t...

  5. Atomic Pioneers Book 2 From the Mid-19th to the Early 20th Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiebert, Ray [University of Maryland; Hiebert, Roselyn

    1971-01-01

    This book gives a brief account of the lives and work of 26 men and women who contributed to the great surge of knowledge vital to atomic science from the 1800s to the mid-1900s. The 26 are: William Prout, Michael Faraday, Eilhardt Mitscherlich, Joseph Henry, Thomas Graham, Stanislao Cannizzaro, James Clerk Maxwell, Dmitri I. Mendeleev, Joseph Norman Lockyer, John William Strutt, Wilhelm Konrad Roentgen, Antione Henri Becquerel, Hendrik A. Lorentz, J.J. Thomson, Max Planck, Svante A. Arrhenius, Pierre Curie, Marie Curie, Pieter Zeeman, Theodore W. Richards, C.T.R. Wilson, Ernest Rutherford, Francis W. Aston, Frederick Soddy, Lise Meitner, and Otto Hahn.

  6. Research on iodine deficiency and goiter in the 19th and early 20th centuries

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmermann, M. B.

    2008-01-01

    In 1811, Courtois noted a violet vapor arising from burning seaweed ash and Gay-Lussac subsequently identified the vapor as iodine, a new element. The Swiss physician Coindet, in 1813, hypothesized the traditional treatment of goiter with seaweed was effective because of its iodine content and successfully treated goitrous patients with iodine. Two decades later, the French chemist Boussingault, working in the Andes Mountains, was the first to advocate prophylaxis with iodine-rich salt to pre...

  7. Población, actividad y paro en la segunda mitad del siglo XX en Extremadura / Population, activity and unemployment in the second half of the 20th century in Extremadura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mª Hernández Carretero

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: A lo largo de la segunda mitad del siglo XX se han producido las más profundas transformaciones de la historia regional, impulsadas tanto por factores exógenos como endógenos de toda índole. Se ha pasado de una economía agraria de subsistencia a una economía competitiva de los servicios y del conocimiento, lo que ha supuesto enormes excedentes de mano de obra agraria hasta el final de siglo. Excedentes que fueron engrosando la intensa sangría emigratoria de los sesenta y setenta, que arrastró al 40% de la población regional. Sin embargo, desde comienzos de los ochenta, la población ha tendido a estabilizarse. Pero la emigración ya había provocado un estrangulamiento irreparable en las edades activas y de procreación, un fuerte descenso de la natalidad acentuado por la caída de la fecundidad posteriormente y un profundo envejecimiento. Por otra parte, la retención de los efectivos jóvenes y adultos en sus lugares de origen, junto a otros factores, incrementaron el paro hasta niveles desconocidos, si bien es un fenómeno que se ha conseguido paliar en buena medida en los últimos años del siglo. El futuro se presenta incierto, pues aunque no existe ningún núcleo abandonado, el envejecimiento, la baja natalidad y el paro están hipotecando el desarrollo endógeno de los núcleos rurales de la región.Summary: Along the second half of the 20th century the deepest transformations of the regional history have been produced so much by factors exogenous as endogenous of every kind. It has passed of an agrarian economy of subsistence to a competitive economy of the services and of the knowledge, what has supposed enormous excesses of agrarian unemployment to the end of century. Surplus that enlarged the great volume of emigrant population of the sixties and seventy that supposed the 40% of the regional population. Nevertheless, from beginnings of the eighty, the population is being stabilized. But the emigration already had caused an irreparable strangulation in the active ages and of procreation and a strong descent of the birthrate accentuated by the fall of the fertility and a deep aging. On the other hand, the retention of the young and adult population in its places of origin, next to other factors, it has increased the unemployment to unknown levels, though is a phenomenon that has managed to alleviate itself in good measure in recent years of the century. The future is presented uncertain, therefore although no nucleus abandoned exists, the aging, the low birthrate and the unemployment are mortgaging the endogenous development of the rural nuclei of the region.

  8. Cambios demográficos y epidemiológicos en Colombia durante el siglo XX / Demographic and epidemiologic changes in Colombia during the 20th. century: facts and explanations

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jaime, Carmona-Fonseca.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Las actividades de investigación, docencia, planificación y administración en salud requieren disponer de un panorama demográfico y epidemiológico actualizado, que dé cuenta de los cambios y tendencias. Objetivo. Describir los principales cambios demográfico-epidemiológicos de Colombia [...] en el siglo XX, así como las proyecciones a corto plazo. Materiales y métodos. Estudio descriptivo, longitudinal, con información secundaria. Resultados. La población pasará de 4'737.588 habitantes en 1905 a 53 millones en 2015. De una verdadera pirámide presente hasta 1951, la distribución de la población pasó a una figura deformada (entre 0 y 14 años no existe diferencia apreciable). Entre 1905 y 1938, la natalidad era de 43% y, a finales de 2005, será de 22%. La mortalidad pasó de 23% entre 1905 y 1912 a 6% entre 1985 y 1993, pero subirá a 8,3% en 2010. La mortalidad infantil también estaba reduciéndose en el decenio de 1930, pero su nivel todavía era muy alto, y apenas a comienzos del decenio de 1960 empezó a caer acentuadamente. En 1938, la población en cabeceras municipales era de 31% y en 2000 de 72%. La mortalidad por causas cambió significativamente después de 1950. Las enfermedades infecciosas-parasitarias y perinatales, principales causas de muerte hasta finales del decenio de 1960 a 1969, perdieron importancia frente a enfermedades degenerativas, accidentes y homicidios, que ahora predominan. Conclusión. Nuestra actual densidad de población es relativamente baja. Más importante que el cambio demográfico cuantitativo es su gran velocidad. El envejecimiento de la población trae serias implicaciones para el país. Las profundas modificaciones en la familia colombiana plantean retos en todos los campos sociales. Los cambios demográficos y epidemiológicos (estructura y nivel de morbimortalidad) requieren un análisis profundo, y no deben aceptarse sin reparo las explicaciones fáciles que con frecuencia se proponen desde enfoques económicos "desarrollistas". Abstract in english Introduction. Research, education, organization and administration activities in health need an updated panoramic view of demographic and epidemiologic changes and tendencies. Objectives. To describe the main changes in demography and epidemiology during the 20th century in Colombia and to comment o [...] n the causative models used by some authors. Materials and methods. A descriptive and longitudinal study. Second hand information from various sources was used. The final section of the review includes a discussion on the interpretation of data given by the original authors. Results. In 1905-2005, population increased from 4.737.588 inhabitants to 48.864,013. The age distribution of the population showed dramatic changes: the true pyramid, as seen in 1951, changed into a distorted figure (no apparent differences between 0 and 14 years of age). Both children and youngsters lost representation on age structure, while adult and older individuals gain representation. During 1905-1938, the birth rate was 43% and by the end of 2005 it will be 22%. Mortality dropped a 75%, falling from 23% in 1905-1912 to 6% in 1885-1993, but it rose a 33% after 1993, and will reach 8,3% in 2010. In 1938, the urban population was 31% and in 2002, 72%. Mortality discriminated by cause changed in a significant manner during the second half of the 20th century. Infectious-parasitic and perinatal diseases, the main cause of death by the end of the 1960-1969 decade, lost importance on behalf of degenerative diseases, accidents and homicides which are now the most frequent. Conclusions. Our present population density is relatively low. The demographic change has been profound but the velocity has been more important. The aging of population has serious implications for the country. These notable modifications in Colombian families raise challenges in all social fields. The demographic and epidemiological changes (structure and level of morbimortality) require a serious analysis, and easy explanations do not have

  9. Conformando uma Argentina leitora: educação pública, bibliotecas e mercado editorial entre fins do século XIX e meados do século XX Building a reading Argentina: state schools, libraries and the publishing market in late -19th century and in the first half of 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Pellegrino Soares

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo pretende lançar luz sobre políticas públicas de promoção da leitura que tiveram lugar na Argentina de fins do século XIX e primeira metade do XX, e sobre a forma como essas interagiram com o mercado editorial em desenvolvimento no país. A preocupação em cultivar e orientar desde cedo nos cidadãos a prática da leitura fez das crianças alvo privilegiado de iniciativas educacionais e editoriais, às quais dedicarei particular atenção.This article aims at shedding light on public policies of reading practices’ promotion, that took place in Argentina in late 19th century and in the first half of 20th century, and on the way they affected the country’s developing publishing market. The purpose of motivating reading practices since the citizens’ early years turned children into an important goal of educational and publishing initiatives, which shall here receive special focus.

  10. Environmental changes in Chaohu Lake (southeast, China) since the mid 20th century : The interactive impacts of nutrients, hydrology and climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xu; Yang, Xiangdong

    2013-01-01

    Chaohu Lake, the fifth largest freshwater lake in the Yangtze floodplain, is faced with multiple stresses from anthropogenic disturbances and climate change. To explore the ecological changes in Chaohu Lake since the mid 20th century, we examined diatoms, geochemical indicators and particle size in Pb-210-dated sediment core from the lake. Diatom succession revealed that the lake had switched to a eutrophic state since the late 1970s. Redundancy analysis using limnological data, hydrological and meteorological variables showed that sedimentary total phosphorus (TP) and total organic carbon (TOC), annual mean temperature, annual mean wind velocity, and water-level amplitude (WLA) were five significant factors influencing diatom succession. Diatom assemblages from 1950 till 1978 were driven by WLA and wind. The establishment of Chaohu Dam baffled hydrological connectivity between the lake and the Yangtze River in 1962, and reducing water exchange-induced flow. Meanwhile, weak wind velocity reduced the wind-induced flow in the 1960s. Due to the weak hydrodynamic intensity, the dominant species (Aulacoseira granulata, a species with high sinking rate) became less important during this period. From 1979 till 2006, diatom assemblages were mainly driven by TP, TOC and temperature, which were highly correlative. Increasing nutrient loading promoted the blooms of eutrophic species (e.g., Cyclostephanos dubius). In addition, rising temperature would indirectly influence diatom assemblages by mediating nutrient release process. As a consequence, multiple stresses in concert have caused the lake switch to a further eutrophic state indicated by prominent increases in more eutrophic species (e.g., Stephanodiscus parvus) since 2000. This study provided information on complex trajectories of aquatic ecosystem shifts driven by increasing nutrient loading, hydrological alteration and climate warming in the Yangtze floodplain lake. (C) 2012 Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  11. Multi-decadal modulations in the Aleutian-Icelandic Low seesaw and the axial symmetry of the Arctic Oscillation signature, as revealed in the 20th century reanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Shi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Seesaw relationship in intensity between the surface Aleutian and Icelandic Lows (AIS is a manifestation of atmospheric teleconnection that bridges the interannual variability over the Pacific and Atlantic in particular winter months. Analysis of the 20th Century Reanalysis data reveals that the strength and timing of AIS have undergone multi-decadal modulations in conjunction with those in structure of the Arctic Oscillation (AO signature, extracted in the leading mode of interannual sea-level pressure (SLP variability over the extratropical Northern Hemisphere. Specifically, events of what may be called ‘pure AO’, in which SLP anomalies exhibit a high degree of axial symmetry in association with in-phase SLP variability between the midlatitude Atlantic and Pacific, tended to occur during multi-decadal periods in which the inter-basin teleconnection through AIS was active under the enhanced interannual variability of the Aleutian Low. In contrast, the axial symmetry of the AO pattern was apparently reduced during a multi-decadal period in which the AIS teleconnection was inactive under the weakened interannual variability of the Aleutian Low. In this period, the leading mode of interannual SLP variability represented a meridional seesaw between the Atlantic and Arctic, which resembles SLP anomaly pattern associated with the cold-ocean/warm-land (COWL temperature pattern. These multi-decadal modulations in interannual AIS signal and the axial symmetry of the interannual AO pattern occurred under multi-decadal changes in the background state that also represented the polarity changes of the COWL-like anomaly pattern.

  12. Historias de la profesión médica: Argentina y Estados Unidos en el siglo XX / Histories of the medical profession: Argentina and the United States in the 20th century

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Susana, Belmartino.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El contenido de este artículo se orienta hacia la búsqueda de explicaciones para determinados paralelismos y significativas diferencias en la posición de las profesiones médicas argentina y estadounidense en los respectivos servicios de atención médica. Mi interés en este texto no radica en la prese [...] ntación de un relato histórico original. La información empírica que recupero sobre el desempeño de ambas profesiones no tiene relevancia en sí misma, sino como objeto de un ejercicio metodológico que la utiliza como vehículo de un análisis comparativo destinado a iluminar el impacto de las instituciones del régimen político, las ideas dominantes sobre salud y atención médica, y las estrategias de las organizaciones representativas de los intereses profesionales sobre los procesos de construcción de los respectivos sistemas de atención médica y el poder relativo de cada una de la profesiones en la construcción de las reglas de juego que a lo largo del siglo XX ordenaron su actividad Abstract in english This article is rooted in the search for explanations for particular parallelisms and significant differences in the relative positions of the medical professions in Argentina and the USA in different health care services. My intention in this text is not to present an original historical account, a [...] s the empirical data about the performance of both professions that I uncover is not relevant in itself. Rather, this data serves as the object of a methodological exercise, which uses the information as a vehicle for a comparative analysis highlighting the impact of political institutions, dominant ideas on health and health care, and strategies of professional associations in the construction of each health care system, as well as the relative power of each profession in establishing the rules of the game which organized their activities throughout the 20th century

  13. Historias de la profesión médica: Argentina y Estados Unidos en el siglo XX / Histories of the medical profession: Argentina and the United States in the 20th century

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Susana, Belmartino.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El contenido de este artículo se orienta hacia la búsqueda de explicaciones para determinados paralelismos y significativas diferencias en la posición de las profesiones médicas argentina y estadounidense en los respectivos servicios de atención médica. Mi interés en este texto no radica en la prese [...] ntación de un relato histórico original. La información empírica que recupero sobre el desempeño de ambas profesiones no tiene relevancia en sí misma, sino como objeto de un ejercicio metodológico que la utiliza como vehículo de un análisis comparativo destinado a iluminar el impacto de las instituciones del régimen político, las ideas dominantes sobre salud y atención médica, y las estrategias de las organizaciones representativas de los intereses profesionales sobre los procesos de construcción de los respectivos sistemas de atención médica y el poder relativo de cada una de la profesiones en la construcción de las reglas de juego que a lo largo del siglo XX ordenaron su actividad Abstract in english This article is rooted in the search for explanations for particular parallelisms and significant differences in the relative positions of the medical professions in Argentina and the USA in different health care services. My intention in this text is not to present an original historical account, a [...] s the empirical data about the performance of both professions that I uncover is not relevant in itself. Rather, this data serves as the object of a methodological exercise, which uses the information as a vehicle for a comparative analysis highlighting the impact of political institutions, dominant ideas on health and health care, and strategies of professional associations in the construction of each health care system, as well as the relative power of each profession in establishing the rules of the game which organized their activities throughout the 20th century

  14. O comércio internacional de peles silvestres na Amazônia brasileira no século XX / The international trade in wild animals skins from the Brazilian Amazon in the 20th Century

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    André Pinassi, Antunes; Glenn Harvey, Shepard Junior; Eduardo Martins, Venticinque.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Durante o século XX, o comércio internacional de peles foi responsável pelo abate de milhões de mamíferos e répteis na Amazônia. Negociadas no regime de comércio fluvial e aviamento, as peles seguiam dos portos e seringais, localizados no interior, para as casas aviadoras e exportadoras de Manaus e [...] Belém, de onde eram exportadas principalmente para os Estados Unidos, a Europa e o sul brasileiro. Neste artigo, analisamos documentos fiscais inéditos liberados pelo extinto império econômico do aviamento - a empresa J. G. Araujo -, bem como periódicos da Associação Comercial do Amazonas e os registros portuários da Manáos Harbour Ltd. O comércio internacional de peles silvestres intensificou-se imediatamente após a crise da borracha (1912) e atingiu seu auge entre 1935 e 1946, com o pico durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial. O segundo pico ocorreu na década de 1960, principal e ironicamente logo após a publicação da Lei de Proteção à Fauna (1967). Ao longo do período que antecedeu a aprovação da Convenção sobre o Comércio Internacional de Espécies Ameaçadas (CITES), em 1973-1975, não houve depreciação significativa no preço ou na demanda internacional por peles silvestres, sugerindo um esforço de caça constante e intenso por quase meio século. Abstract in english Throughout the 20th century, an international trade in animal hides resulted in the slaughter of millions of mammals and reptiles in the Amazon. Animal hides were purchased from extractivists through a network of traveling river merchants in a regime of debt peonage known as aviamento, carried from [...] trade posts in the hinterlands to warehouses in Manaus and Belém, and then exported to the United States, Europe and southern Brazil. Here we analyze previously unpublished shipping invoices from the famous merchant empire of J. G. Araujo as well as public port registries and commercial statistics from Manaus (Manáos Harbour Ltd., Associação Comercial do Amazonas). The international trade in Amazonian animal hides intensified immediately after the 1912 crash in rubber prices and spiked between 1935 and 1946, with a peak during World War II. The second spike occurred in the 1960s, mainly after the passage of Brazil's 1967 "Wild Animal Protection Law" intended to halt this trade. Throughout the period leading up to the adoption of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) in 1973-1975, there was no significant depreciation in the price or international demand for animal skins, suggesting constant and intense hunting effort for nearly half a century.

  15. Paul Hamilton Wood (1907-1962: El máximo exponente de la cardiología clínica Británica del siglo XX Paul Hamilton Wood: The foremost British clinical cardiologist of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan D Humphreys

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the United Kingdom, during the mid-20th century, Paul Wood appears as the new leader of European cardiology. He introduced rigorous bed-side diagnostic methods and the confirmation of these clinical findings by cardiac catheterization, in an effort to demonstrate the pathophysiological causes of cardiac disease. In his search for the correct diagnosis, his comments, which could be caustic, both impressed and offended many. He had a strong commanding personality and was intensely honest in his appreciations. His showmanship and diagnostic ability became renown. In 1950, the publishing of the first edition of his textbook "Diseases of the Heart and Circulation" brought him worldwide recognition. In this book, Wood introduces his personal fresh style of narrative and his physiologic approach to cardiology. His intense professional activity, teaching, lecturing and preparing the third edition of his book, plus the fact that he was a heavy smoker, must have been the factors that lead to a myocardial infarction and death at the early age of 54. As Paul Dudley White and Ignacio Chávez in America, Paul Wood in Europe will be remembered as the emblematic figure leading the transition of cardiology into the modern era.

  16. Paul Hamilton Wood (1907-1962): El máximo exponente de la cardiología clínica Británica del siglo XX / Paul Hamilton Wood: The foremost British clinical cardiologist of the 20th century

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juan D, Humphreys; Pablo, Young.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english In the United Kingdom, during the mid-20th century, Paul Wood appears as the new leader of European cardiology. He introduced rigorous bed-side diagnostic methods and the confirmation of these clinical findings by cardiac catheterization, in an effort to demonstrate the pathophysiological causes of [...] cardiac disease. In his search for the correct diagnosis, his comments, which could be caustic, both impressed and offended many. He had a strong commanding personality and was intensely honest in his appreciations. His showmanship and diagnostic ability became renown. In 1950, the publishing of the first edition of his textbook "Diseases of the Heart and Circulation" brought him worldwide recognition. In this book, Wood introduces his personal fresh style of narrative and his physiologic approach to cardiology. His intense professional activity, teaching, lecturing and preparing the third edition of his book, plus the fact that he was a heavy smoker, must have been the factors that lead to a myocardial infarction and death at the early age of 54. As Paul Dudley White and Ignacio Chávez in America, Paul Wood in Europe will be remembered as the emblematic figure leading the transition of cardiology into the modern era.

  17. Migration in the Swiss Alps and Swiss Jura from the Middle Ages to the mid-20th century: a brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Lise Head-König

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at retracing the important phases of migrations in the alpine regions and the Jura from the Middle Ages up to the middle of the 20th century. Migration has always functioned as a necessary complement to the resources of the inhabitants of the upland regions and it increases when the economic disparity with the lowlands becomes more marked. A striking characteristic of such migration is the great diversity that can be observed, since not only the destinations of the migrants varied from community to community, but also different forms of mobility coexisted within the same territory. Migration might be seasonal, pluriannual, lifelong or even definitive. It is also notable that the various types of migration can be observed to be part of a plurisecular tradition, apart from some significant exceptions, such as the emigration of the Walser, enforced migrations and the new types of migration as from the second half of the nineteenth century. The mobility of part of the population was also a consequence of modifications deriving from changes in the prevalent type of production (animal husbandry instead of the cultivation of cereals, as well as from demographic factors. In addition to these factors one can observe the role played by political institutions throughout the period under study: seigneurial power in the Middle Ages, the communal and cantonal instances until the second half of the nineteenth century, and afterwards the federal authorities.Cette contribution vise à montrer les grandes phases des mouvements migratoires du Moyen Age au milieu du XXe siècle dans les mondes alpin et jurassien suisses. La migration a toujours été une complémentarité nécessaire aux ressources de la montagne, et elle s'amplifie lorsque les disparités économiques avec le plat pays s'accroissent. Elle se caractérise par une forte diversité, puisque non seulement les destinations et les aires d'établissement des migrants peuvent varier fortement d'une commune à l'autre, mais aussi parce qu'au sein d'un même territoire ont toujours coexisté des formes différentes de mobilité, saisonnières, pluriannuelles, viagères ou définitives. Un aspect remarquable de ces types de migration est qu’ils s'inscrivent dans une très longue tradition pluriséculaire, avec quelques exceptions notables, ainsi les migrations des Walser, les migrations forcées et les nouvelles formes de la migration dès la seconde moitié du XIXe siècle. La mobilité est imposée aussi par les modifications des formes prévalantes de production (élevage plutôt qu'emblavures, de même que par les facteurs démographiques. A ces facteurs s'ajoute celui du rôle des institutions politiques tout au long de la période étudiée, seigneuriales au Moyen Age, communales et cantonales jusque dans la seconde moitié du XIXe siècle, puis fédérales.

  18. A review of major influences on current public health policy in developed countries in the second half of the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Linda; Elliott, Lawrie; Wallace, Hilary; Crombie, Iain K

    2006-03-01

    Public health policy underwent substantial transformation during the latter half of the 20th century. The landmark statement was the 1948 World Health Organization (WHO) constitution, which identified good health as a fundamental right and gave the responsibility to governments to achieve it for all their people. However, following World War II, developed countries made substantial investment in health care with less attention paid to public health. The importance of public health was slowly recognised over the period from 1970 to 2000 with the publication of several reports from different organisations. The first authoritative policy statement that the important determinants of health lay outside health care was in the Lalonde Report from Canada. These ideas were subsequently expressed in the WHO Alma-Ata declaration and were emphasised a year later by the US Surgeon General. The idea of setting goals for health improvement also began in the 1970s. The Lalonde Report and the United Kingdom Black Report recommended that targets be used, but the first explicitly stated health targets were set by the US in 1979. WHO also identified the need for such targets at this time, but did not introduce them until 1984. Since then health targets have become a central feature of public health policy in developed countries. The Ottawa Conference on Health Promotion in 1986 championed the view that health promotion was central to achieving health goals internationally. It helped clarify the types of actions needed: that individuals need to be provided with the supportive environment and economic resources to be able to lead healthy lives. In a further development, the Healthy Cities Project was launched with the specific aim of involving political decision-makers in building a strong lobby for public health at the local level. The Healthy Cities Project illustrates how to provide means and opportunity for interventions to be implemented in communities. Concerns with inequalities in health were emphasised in the WHO declaration of Alma-Ata, and were the focus of the United Kingdom Black Report. The Jakarta Conference on Health Promotion in 1997 urged international action on poverty, as it is the major threat to health. International acceptance of the need to tackle inequalities took longer than the acceptance of health targets, but it is now an important feature of public health policy. The advent of the 21st century marked the coming of age of public health. The renewed version of 'Health for All', 'Health for All in the 21st Century', emphasised the one constant goal of WHO that all individuals should achieve their full health potential. Public health is now regarded internationally as being a priority with this WHO goal being adopted as the overarching goal of policy. The challenges it faces in tackling problems such as obesity, inequalities in health, smoking, alcohol and substance abuse are great and will require policies which tackle the economic, social and environmental determinants of health. PMID:16562775

  19. Non-Stationary Annual Peak Flows in the Lower Peninsula of Michigan; Potential Evidence for Climate Change Observed in the Mid-20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, T. A.; Ryder, J. L.; Selegean, J. P.

    2010-12-01

    The ability to predict flood frequency depends upon a reliable record of historical basin flows. Typically the entire historical record is used to estimate flood frequencies, however this practice is only valid for a stationary data set because it implicitly assumes that hydrologic processes leading to flood events remain stationary. Drainage infrastructure and land use decisions depend upon an accurate estimate of flood frequencies. In addition, the bankfull event, often estimated as the 1.5 year (Q1.5) event, is considered the point of incipient flooding and the threshold for most channel-forming events, while the 100 year (Q100) event is used for FEMA floodplain delineation. With an average record length of 56 years in Lower Peninsula gages, the mid-20th century regime shift introduces significant error into predictions of future flow frequency. An apparent qualitative regime shift in the historical flows at 21 South East Michigan gages in 7 HUC8 watersheds was previously reported by Dahl, et al. in 2008. To verify this regional change, a Mann-Kendall time series analysis was applied to peak flow data from 95 additional gages throughout the entire lower peninsula of Michigan in 28 HUC8 watersheds. The series of annual peak flows from each gage was split into 15 year overlapping intervals and flood frequencies were calculated for each interval. The resulting series of calculated flood frequencies was then assessed and it was determined that the magnitudes of both the Q1.5 and Q100 events were shifting in time. Potential mechanisms of the observed hydroclimatic variation include changes in land use and precipitation patterns. The expanded study sites include five gages from the Hydroclimatic Data Network (HCDN) considered relatively free from human impacts which are compared to sites that have urbanized during the study period. Spatial differences in flood frequency changes will be presented based on the entire set of 116 gages with drainage to all 4 bordering Great Lakes. The relatively short time-scale hydroclimatic variation observed in these stream flow records has significant implications for analyses ranging from the design of restoration projects to assessing and mapping flood risk. The inability of standard statistical frequency models to accommodate climate change indicates a need for routine evaluation of the time series data used in a predictive capacity and ongoing regional scale climate modeling.

  20. Evaluation of the ability of the Chinese stalagmite ?18O to record the variation in atmospheric circulation during the second half of the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, S.; Tan, M.; Zhao, P.

    2014-05-01

    The Chinese stalagmite ?18O (?18Ocs) has provoked debate worldwide over the past few years due to its lack of quantitative calibration, leading us to questions of whether ?18Ocs records a local or large-scale signal and whether ?18Ocs records the signal of a single remote water vapor source or multiple water vapor sources. In this study, we observe all of the ?18Ocs trends within the instrumental period to verify whether they possess a common trend, which could be used as a basis to determine whether the trends reflect the large-scale signal together or whether each trend reflects the local signal. The results show that most of the ?18Ocs experienced a linear increase from 1960 to 1994, which may indicate that the ?18Ocs could record a trend occurring in large-scale atmosphere circulations. We then quantitatively describe the proportion of water vapor transport (WVT) from different source regions. Using the NCEP/NCAR (National Centers for Environmental Protection/National Center for Atmospheric Research) reanalysis data from 1960 to 1994, the ratios of the intensities of three WVTs from the Bay of Bengal, the South China Sea, and the western North Pacific during the summer are calculated. We define RSCS/BOB as the ratio of the WVT intensities from the South China Sea to those from the Bay of Bengal, RWNP/BOB as the ratio of the WVT intensities from the western North Pacific to those from the Bay of Bengal, and RWNP/SCS as the ratio of the WVT intensities from the western North Pacific to those from the South China Sea. The significant decadal increase occurs in the time series of RWNP/BOB and RWNP/SCS, most likely resulting from the strengthening of the WVT from the western North Pacific in the late 1970s due to the western Pacific subtropical high that extended westward. Further analysis indicates that when the equatorial central and eastern Pacific is in the El Niño phase, the sea surface temperature (SST) in the tropical Indian Ocean, the Bay of Bengal, and the South China Sea is high, and the SST at the middle latitudes in the North Pacific is low, then the RWNP/BOB and RWNP/SCS values tend to be high. After the late 1970s, the equatorial central and eastern Pacific have often been in the El Niño phase. Therefore, we confirm that the ?18Ocs primarily records the variation in atmospheric circulation during the second half of the 20th century.

  1. The place occupied by early measurement (20th minute) of the thyroid uptake of sup(99m)Tc pertechnetate in thyroid pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The place occupied by early measurement (20th minute) of the thyroid uptake of sup(99m)Tc pertechnetate is situated for different types of thyroid condition (hypo-, normo- and hyperthyroidism). The use of technetium is simple in practice because only the cervical and crural radioactivity measurements are required. Like all simplified methods it involves risks of errors but lends itself to systematic routine use. The practical advantages of this isotope, which in view of its short half-life appears with iodine 123 as the nearly ideal tracer for thyroid exploration at present are outlined. The thyroid gland can be studied both functionally and scintigraphically at the cost of minimum irradiation, which is a great advantage. The fact that a number of data may be obtained in less than an hour (including scintigraphy) is a particularly valuable asset. However the method has its limits. For example a diagnosis of hyper or hypothyroidism based on the technetium uptake at the 20th minute alone is out of the question. A zero uptake may be observed in the presence of Basedow's disease or conversely a high uptake in hypo- or euthyroid cases. Discrimination is satisfactory between hyper and euthyroid but not between eu- and hypothyroid subjects. Technological progress however promises a routine use of 123 I and 99mTc together, the two isotopes serving to explore two different phases of the thyroid metabolism

  2. Agricultural Genetics and Plant Breeding in Early Twentieth-Century Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Iori, Luca

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is about plant breeding in Early 20th-Century Italy. The stories of the two most prominent Italian plant-breeders of the time, Nazareno Strampelli and Francesco Todaro, are used to explore a fragment of the often-neglected history of Italian agricultural research. While Italy was not at the forefront of agricultural innovation, research programs aimed at varietal innovation did emerge in the country, along with an early diffusion of Mendelism. Using philosophical as well as histor...

  3. Earthflow response to Pacific Decadal Oscillation-driven climate change: 20th Century trends and predictions for the Eel River, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, B. H.; Roering, J. J.

    2009-12-01

    Predicting landscape response to climate change is one of the contemporary and pressing challenges in Earth surface process research. We present data from a regional study of large, slow moving earthflows in the Eel River catchment, northern California. A 230 km2 LiDAR dataset and a series of orthorectified aerial photos enables documentation of over 80 individual active earthflow features, including 12 large (>1.5 km long) failures with sufficient displacement (>40 m) to generate a time series of earthflow movement spanning 1944-2006. The displacement data, determined by systematically tracking the position of shrubs growing on earthflow surfaces, cluster into 3 distinct temporal patterns. One group exhibits peak velocities from 1944-1954 with little subsequent movement, while a second group of earthflows attain maximum velocities exceeding 4m/a in the 1960’s. The third group shows non-systematic temporal patterns of movement. Examination of northern California climate records dating from the 1920’s reveals little statistically significant change in measures such as annual rainfall. However, we do observe a significant change in the annual distribution of precipitation, river discharge, and mean annual temperature over the mid part of the 20th Century, potentially attributable to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). For example, over the period 1940-1970, the lower quartile of daily Eel River discharge (calculated every water year), is nearly double that recorded for the decades before and after. This implies stronger base flows sustained by higher groundwater levels, conditions conducive to increased earthflow activity. The earthflows within each group of similar temporal behavior share key topographic and morphologic attributes; respectively summarized as disconnection from major channels, a long, well supplied transport zone, and tight channel coupling. Strikingly, the velocity patterns of the second group of earthflows mimic the record of baseflow: transport zones of large earthflows with sufficient source material experienced sustained movement, with velocities peaking in the 1960s and uniformly decreasing since the 1980’s. In contrast, earthflows on upper slopes appear to mobilize as climate changed in the 1940’s, but quickly slow down. Where earthflows are tightly connected to major channels, movement initiated by toe erosion appears to overwhelm the climatic signal and the temporal pattern of velocity is less predictable. The correlation between climatic change and the record of earthflow activity suggests earthflow prone terrain is especially sensitive to the onset of cooler, wetter climates at the decadal scale. If the recent (2008-onward) onset of the cool phase of the PDO is sustained, we predict northern California may experience accelerated earthflow activity over the coming decades, notably an initial flurry of short-lived movement on higher slopes, and ultimately the mobilization of large earthflows synchronous with the PDO cycle.

  4. As contribuições de Charcot e de Marsden para o desenvolvimento dos distúrbios do movimento nos séculos XIX e XX Contributions of Charcot and Marsden to the development of movement disorders in the 19th and 20th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio A.G. Teive

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Charcot contribuiu significativamente no século XIX na descrição de várias enfermidades neurológicas, em particular na área dos distúrbios do movimento. Charcot contribuiu de forma exponencial na descrição clínica minuciosa da doença de Parkinson, além de introduzir o primeiro tratamento farmacológico. Na área das hipercinesias realizou estudos sobre a síndrome de Tourette, o diagnóstico diferencial dos tremores, das coréias e o estudo inicial sobre startle. Marsden, recentemente falecido, destacou-se no século XX com inúmeras publicações na área dos movimentos anormais.São contribuições seminais os estudos sobre a doença de Parkinson, distonias, mioclonias , tremor essencial, a descrição das síndromes " Painful Legs Moving Toes ", "Gait Ignition Failure" e o "Tremor Primário da Escrita". As contribuições de Charcot no século XIX e de Marsden no século XX na área dos distúrbios do movimento permitem concluir que ambos foram as figuras mais representativas desta área nos últimos dois séculos.Charcot described many neurological diseases in the 19th century, particularly in movement disorders.Charcot contributed in the clinical description of Parkinson's disease, and introduced its first pharmacological treatment. He also studied the hyperkinesias, e.g. of Tourette syndrome, differential diagnosis of tremors, dystonias, choreas and startle disease. Marsden, who died recently, was an exponent in the study of Movement Disorders, with many publications in this field in the 20th century. His most important contributions are definitions and classifications of movement disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, dystonia, myoclonus, essential tremor, the description of the syndromes "Painful Legs Moving Toes", "Gait Ignition Failure" and "Primary Writing Tremor". The contributions of Charcot in the 19th century and Marsden in the 20th century to the movement disorders allow us to conclude that both of them were the most representative icons in this field in the past two centuries.

  5. As contribuições de Charcot e de Marsden para o desenvolvimento dos distúrbios do movimento nos séculos XIX e XX / Contributions of Charcot and Marsden to the development of movement disorders in the 19th and 20th centuries

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hélio A.G., Teive; Jorge A.A., Zavala; Fábio M., Iwamoto; Daniel, Sá; Hipólito, Carraro Júnior; Lineu Cesar, Werneck.

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Charcot contribuiu significativamente no século XIX na descrição de várias enfermidades neurológicas, em particular na área dos distúrbios do movimento. Charcot contribuiu de forma exponencial na descrição clínica minuciosa da doença de Parkinson, além de introduzir o primeiro tratamento farmacológi [...] co. Na área das hipercinesias realizou estudos sobre a síndrome de Tourette, o diagnóstico diferencial dos tremores, das coréias e o estudo inicial sobre startle. Marsden, recentemente falecido, destacou-se no século XX com inúmeras publicações na área dos movimentos anormais.São contribuições seminais os estudos sobre a doença de Parkinson, distonias, mioclonias , tremor essencial, a descrição das síndromes " Painful Legs Moving Toes ", "Gait Ignition Failure" e o "Tremor Primário da Escrita". As contribuições de Charcot no século XIX e de Marsden no século XX na área dos distúrbios do movimento permitem concluir que ambos foram as figuras mais representativas desta área nos últimos dois séculos. Abstract in english Charcot described many neurological diseases in the 19th century, particularly in movement disorders.Charcot contributed in the clinical description of Parkinson's disease, and introduced its first pharmacological treatment. He also studied the hyperkinesias, e.g. of Tourette syndrome, differential [...] diagnosis of tremors, dystonias, choreas and startle disease. Marsden, who died recently, was an exponent in the study of Movement Disorders, with many publications in this field in the 20th century. His most important contributions are definitions and classifications of movement disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, dystonia, myoclonus, essential tremor, the description of the syndromes "Painful Legs Moving Toes", "Gait Ignition Failure" and "Primary Writing Tremor". The contributions of Charcot in the 19th century and Marsden in the 20th century to the movement disorders allow us to conclude that both of them were the most representative icons in this field in the past two centuries.

  6. Noor-Eesti enesekoloniseerimisprojekt. Teine osa Olulised kirjandusmõtteviisid . The Self-Colonization Project of Young Estonia. Part II. Modes of Literary Thinking and Relations with Colonialism in Estonian Literature of the beginning of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiit Hennoste

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this article is the literary discourse of Young Estonia; its relations with other important Estonian literary discourses from the beginning of the 20th century, and its relations with colonial cultural discourse. First, I give an overview of the basic positions of the Young Estonians’ literary discourse, the main shapers of which were Friedebert Tuglas, Gustav Suits, later on Johannes Semper as well. Next, I present the basic principles of three Estonian literary discourses from the beginning of the 20th century, which were also important to the Young Estonians: nationalist-naturalistic (close-to-life; socialist/ class-based, and 20th century modernist. The Young Estonians began as nationalists and/or socialists. During the formation of Young Estonia’s discourse at the end of the first and beginning of the second decade of the 20th century, 20th century modernism began, which the Young Estonians regarded first and foremost with irony. The Young Estonians’ literary discourse is a mixture of aestheticism, decadence, symbolism, romanticism, and classicism. The point of departure for the Young Estonian approach to literature was eurocentrism. They took a superior and negative view of existing Estonian literature, which they regarded as having fallen drastically behind Europe. Since it was unable to build on its own foundation, it had to borrow from Europe. The discourse’s understandings of cultural values – theory, reading, knowledge, ready-made culture, derive from the centrality of the dynamic of borrowing. New culture could be created freely, without the support of previous local tradition; it was to be an elite culture, while the writer remained an individualist. Literature was to follow the principle of art for art’s sake; aesthetics and the form of the work of art were basic criteria. The formal ideals of the work of art were classicist: unity, integrity (wholeness, harmony, order, logic, etc. Thirdly, I outline the basic positions of colonial thinking about culture, and compare the Young Estonian approaches to literature with colonial thought. The foundation of colonialism is eurocentrism: if Europe is the core; everything else belongs to the periphery, and regarded from the outset as of lesser inherent worth: colonialism is characterized by a superior and negative attitude toward local culture. The colonizing culture interprets its own values and experiences as universals; these are congruent with the outlines of what is deemed to be ”European” culture. The mission of colonialism is to bring the periphery into the sphere of influence of the enlightened core. Though colonial thinking does not commit itself to any specific artistic movement or style, its most important tenet with regard to evaluating art is classicist, emphasizing enduring values and good ”handiwork”. The bases for the creation of colonial culture are ready-made models and categories, and the outcome of colonization is culture constructed according to a model. The outcome of the analysis is that the Young Estonian way of thinking is in close consonance with the colonial way of thinking. Those attitudes that Young Estonians did not adopt, or those they relinquished and discarded, are in opposition to it. My own basic claim is that the Young Estonians unconsciously carried a colonial way of thinking, and that they might be considered to be self-colonizers.

  7. The Problem of Financial Accounting Measurement in Italian Accounting Thought between the 19th and the 20th Century From “Exchange Value” to “Historical Cost”

    OpenAIRE

    Gonnella, Enrico

    2010-01-01

    The main subject of the paper is the theory of accounting measurement as observed in its historical development. More notably, the research concerns theoretical concepts of such discipline, as developed by the Italian doctrine in a very specific age, that is, between the second half of the nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth century, i.e. from the theorization of the “exchange value rule” to the theorization of the “historical cost principle”. As it was impossible t...

  8. Narrativas e imágenes del turismo en Petrópolis, Brasil, a principios del siglo XX / Narratives and Images of Tourism in Petrópolis, Brazil, At the beginning of the 20th Century

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    André Barcelos Damasceno, Daibert.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este trabajo es un análisis histórico de los inicios del turismo organizado en la ciudad de Petrópolis a través de los textos e imágenes publicadas a principios del siglo XX. El objetivo general del trabajo fue analizar a través de una perspectiva histórica la forma en que se originó la construcción [...] de la llamada "naturaleza turística" de Petrópolis, El objetivo específico, pretendió comprender e identificar las principales narrativas e imágenes que sustentan esa construcción cultural, destacando su origen entre los años 1900 y 1930. El estudio fue realizado a través de la bibliografía técnico-científica existente; y también se utilizó la investigación documental e iconográfica, que incluía narrativas e imágenes del turismo en Petrópolis en sus inicios. Se pretendió no sólo insertar a Petrópolis en una posible cronología histórica del turismo brasileño, sino también sensibilizar a los investigadores del área sobre la necesidad de invertir en estudios empíricos de naturaleza histórica en el campo del turismo en los diferentes municipios brasileños, así como en Brasil como un todo. Abstract in english This paper is an historical analysis of the early organized tourism in the city of Petrópolis through the narratives and images produced at the beginning of the 20th century. As a general objective, this paper intended to analyze how the construction of the so-called "tourist nature" of Petrópolis o [...] riginated, by means of a historical perspective. The specific objective was to understand and identify the main narratives and images which support this cultural construction, emphasizing its origins between 1900 and 1930. The study was developed with the resource of the existing technical and scientific literature as well as documentary and iconographic research which depicted narratives and images of tourism in Petrópolis at the outset of its organization. The aim of this work was not only to propose the insertion of Petrópolis in a possible chronology of Brazilian tourism, but also to provoke and sensitize researchers of the field to the need of investments in empirical researches of historical nature in the field of tourism in the different Brazilian cities, as well as in Brazil as a whole.

  9. Marco legal de los riesgos profesionales y la salud ocupacional en Colombia, Siglo XX / The 20th century legal framework regarding risk at work and occupational health in Colombia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juan M., Arango-Soler; Jairo E., Luna-García; Yerson A., Correa-Moreno; Adriana C., Campos.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo Analizar la normativa emitida en Colombia desde la perspectiva del derecho del trabajo, la seguridad social y la salud pública en el siglo XX, para identificar las concepciones en torno a la salud ocupacional y los riesgos profesionales, estableciendo las convergencias y diferencias que exi [...] sten entre cada una de estas líneas y si responden o no a una visión complementaria. Método Investigación documental, mediante un análisis categorial temático de las reglamentaciones y estatutos promulgados en el siglo XX en Colombia, considerando el elemento o materia principal que se encarguen de regular relacionado con los riesgos profesionales o la salud ocupacional. Resultados Se construyó una periodización del desarrollo normativo en salud laboral en el país en el siglo XX, permitiendo evidenciar el predominio histórico de la visión del derecho social, que se concentra en la protección de los riesgos profesionales de los trabajadores dependientes, como una tendencia que se extiende hasta el Sistema General de Riesgos Laborales. Conclusiones Las etapas propuestas como eje ordenador de la normativa en riesgos profesionales y salud ocupacional posibilitan reconocer elementos trascendentales del contexto social, legal e institucional en el que emergieron tales reglamentaciones preocupadas por la salud de los trabajadores, advirtiéndose una tensión histórica entre las preceptivas dirigidas a la reparación y compensación de las contingencias relacionadas con el trabajo y aquellas directrices con una orientación preventiva. Abstract in english Objective Analyzing the 20th century Colombian legal framework from the point of view of labor law, social security and public health for identifying concepts regarding occupational health and professional risk and trying to establish convergence and differences between such foci and whether they fu [...] lfilled a complementary view. Method This work involved documentary research by means of thematic categorical analysis of the laws and statutes promulgated in 20th century Colombia, considering the main element or entity which should have regulated that related to professional risk or occupational health. Results The development of the 20th century Colombian legal framework regarding health at work was periodized, revealing the predominance of a view of social law focused on protecting dependent workers' work-related risks, as part of a tendency extending to the Colombian Sistema General de Riesgos Laborales. Conclusions The proposed stages used for organizing the legal framework concerning social security regarding professional risk and occupational health facilitated some important elements being recognized concerning the social, legal and institutional context from which workers' health laws emerged. Tension was noted concerning statutes orientated towards redress and compensation regarding accidents at work and legislation emphasizing prevention.

  10. Reconstructing the early 19th-century Waal River by means of a 2D physics-based numerical model

    OpenAIRE

    Montes Arboleda, A.; Crosato, A.; Middelkoop, H.

    2010-01-01

    Suspended-sediment concentration data are a missing link in reconstructions of the River Waal in the early 1800s. These reconstructions serve as a basis for assessing the long-term effects of major interventions carried out between 1850 AD and the early 20th century. We used a 2D physics-based morphodynamic model accounting for the influence of floodplain vegetation to fill in this gap. Historical discharge hydrographs were derived from a correlation between flow discharge records at...

  11. Notas para una historia de la desnutrición en la Iberoamérica del siglo XX / Notes for a history of the malnutrition in the Latin America of the 20th century

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J., Bernabeu-Mestre.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El trabajo analiza los principales determinantes y las características de la desnutrición en América Latina durante la segunda mitad del siglo XX. En primer lugar, se explican las bases del problema moderno del hambre y la desnutrición, tanto en su dimensión fisiológica como social, al destacarse su [...] condición de calamidad social y de expresión biológica del subdesarrollo y de las desigualdades sociales. En segundo lugar, a partir de testimonios contemporáneos, se exponen las principales características de la desnutrición que ha afectado a la población iberoamericana, y las causas que la explican. Por último, a modo de conclusión, se subrayan las consecuencias negativas de no haber aprovechado la oportunidad que conllevaba el reto de superar los factores condicionantes de la malnutrición por defecto, y haber finalizado el siglo XX con un panorama epidemiológico nutricional donde los problemas del hambre y la desnutrición conviven con fenómenos como los de la obesidad de la pobreza. Abstract in english The work analyzes the principal determinants and the characteristics of the malnutrition in Latin America during the second half of the 20th century. First, are explained the bases of the modern problem of the hunger and the malnutrition (undernourishment), so much in his physiological as social dim [...] ension, on having been outlined his condition of social calamity and of biological expression of the underdevelopment and of the social inequalities. Secondly, from contemporary testimonies, there are exposed the principal characteristics of the malnutrition that has affected the Latin-American population, and the causes that explain it. Finally, like conclusion, are underlined the negative consequences of not having taken advantage of the opportunity that was carrying the challenge of overcoming the determining factors of the malnutrition (undernourishment), and to have finished the 20th century with an epidemiological nutritional panorama where the problems of the hunger and the malnutrition coexist with phenomena as those of the obesity of the poverty.

  12. A reconstruction of the Cape (South African) fur seal harvest 1653-1899 and a comparison with the 20th-century harvest

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jeremy, David; Lance, van Sittert.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The Cape fur seal was an abundant resource in southern Africa, when first discovered by itinerant sailing vessels in the late 16th century. Seals were slaughtered indiscriminately by the sailors for skins, meat and oil for three centuries from around 1600 to 1899. Government controls over the sealin [...] g industry were first introduced as late as 1893, by which time at least 23 seal colonies had become extinct and the seal population had been significantly reduced. This paper reconstructs the historical seal harvest from the time of arrival of the first settlers in 1652 up to 1899. These data are then compared with modern harvest data from 1900 to 2000, illustrating the marked increase in the harvest from about 1950, and the concomitant recovery of the seal population to a level of around 1.5-2 million animals.

  13. Tree ring proxies show physiological responses of eastern red cedar to increased CO2 and SO4 concentrations over the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R. B.; Spal, S.; Maxwell, S.; Nippert, J. B.

    2011-12-01

    We examined the relationships between tree growth during the past century and the ratio of internal carbon dioxide concentration to atmospheric CO2 concentration (ci/ca) and instantaneous water-use efficiency (iWUE) by analyzing ?13C in tree rings of Juniperus virginiana growing on a limestone outcrop in West Virginia, US. Tree rings from years 1909 to 2008 from five Juniperus virginiana trees that ranged from 116 years to over 300 years in age were measured for basal area growth and used for isotopic analysis. Instantaneous WUE increased from approximately 75 to 112?mol mmol-1 over the past century, representing a 49% increase. In addition, we found a positive relationship between iWUE and the basal area increase over this time period, suggesting the increase in WUE translated into greater growth of the Juniperus trees. Typically, we might expect that increased growth of these trees reflects increased photosynthetic rates and decreased stomatal conductance rates resulting from increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations. However, this area of the central Appalachian Mountains has historically received some of the highest rates of acid deposition in the nation resulting from being downwind from an abundance of coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River valley. Our results show that ci/ca declined 14% between 1909 and 1980, but increased 9.6% between 1980 and 2009. We hypothesize that the directional change in ci/ca that occurred around 1980 was due to a reduction in sulfur emissions imposed by the Clean Air Act, environmental legislation enacted in 1970 and amended in 1990. Sulfur deposition measured by the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) in West Virginia near our Juniperus site shows a 53% decline between 1979 and 2009 and these NADP data show a highly significant negative correlation with ci/ca of Juniperus over this time period. Previously, experimental studies have shown that acidic sulfur mist leaches calcium from leaves causing a reduction in stomatal control and lowering internal leaf CO2 concentrations. Thus, these tree-ring data show proxy evidence for physiological responses to increased CO2 over the previous century, but also provide a biotic signature illustrating the role of environmental legislation to alleviate environmental pollution at large spatial and temporal scales.

  14. Demographic, residential, and socioeconomic effects on the distribution of 19th century African-American Body Mass Index values

    OpenAIRE

    Carson, Scott Alan

    2011-01-01

    Little research exists on the body mass index values of late 19th and early 20th century African-Americans. Using a new BMI data set and robust statistics, this paper demonstrates that late 19th and early 20th century black BMI variation by age increased in their mid-30s but declined at older ages when worker physical productivity declined. Throughout the late 19th and early 20th centuries, black BMIs decreased across the distribution, indicating that the 20th century increase in black BMIs d...

  15. A noção de modelo na virada do século XIX para o século XX / The notion of model at the turn of the 20th century

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tatiana, Roque; Antonio Augusto Passos, Videira.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo descreve o modo pelo qual a noção de modelo começou a ingressar na ciência, em particular na física, no final do século XIX. Este é talvez o primeiro domínio científico a fazer uso explícito e consciente dessa noção, para o qual o uso de modelos significou o abandono de toda e qualquer t [...] entativa de representar fielmente os fenômenos naturais. Em questão, estava a representação dos fenômenos elétricos e magnéticos por meio de analogias. Abstract in english This article describes the way in which the idea of model began to be discussed in science, in particular in physics, towards the end of the 19th century. Physics is perhaps the first scientific domain that explicitly and consciously made use of models in a way that was understood to involve abandon [...] ing any attempt faithfully to represent natural phenomena. The representation of electromagnetic phenomena by means of analogies was in question.

  16. The Pronunciation of Hebrew in the Western Sephardic Settlements (16th-20th Centuries. Second Part: The Pronunciation of the Consonant ‘Ayin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    di Leone Leoni, Aron

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to ascertain when the Italian Jewish communities and the Western Portuguese “Nations” adopted the nasal-guttural pronunciation of the ‘ayin, variously represented as gn, ng, ngh, hg. In 16th century Ferrara and Venice, the phonetic value of this consonant was zero or close to zero. Only at the very end of the 16th century, some authors in Italy graphically represented it as ng. In the same period, an Amsterdam author introduced new graphemes and expressed the ‘ayin as gh or hg, while a Hamburg scholar published a grammar-book where he gave the name of this consonant as Hgain. The new graphemes were not adopted by the majority of authors, who continued to represent it by a simple h, or left it without notation. Both in Italy and in Northern Europe, the h > gn shift was rather discontinuous.Estudio de la adopción de la pronunciación naso-gutural de la consonante ‘ayin y de su variada representación gráfica entre los judíos de Italia y de las «Naciones» judías hispano-portuguesas. Durante el siglo XVI, el valor fonético de esa consonante era o tendía a cero. A fines de ese siglo y a comienzos del XVII, algunos autores en Italia la representan como ng. Un autor coetáneo en Amsterdam introduce nuevos grafemas, tales como gh o hg, mientras que otro autor de Hamburgo publicaba una gramática en la que denomina Hgain esta consonante. Los nuevos grafemas no fueron adoptados por la mayoría de autores que continuaron representando dicha consonante por una h. Tanto en Italia como en el norte de Europa el cambio h > gn fue discontinuo.

  17. Estrategias de acceso y conservación de la tierra entre los ranqueles (Colonia Emilio Mitre, La Pampa, primera mitad del siglo XX) / Land access and conservation strategies among ranqueles (Colonia Emilio Mitre, La Pampa, first half of 20th century)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Claudia, Salomón Tarquini.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A partir de fines del siglo XIX la población indígena de Pampa, Patagonia y Chaco (Argentina) fue incorporada en forma subordinada a la economía política capitalista, a través de una serie de prácticas genocidas y destribalizadoras que han sido exhaustivamente analizadas. No obstante, las circunstan [...] cias de su incorporación y las estrategias que los actores indígenas ensayaron no fueron aún abordadas de manera sistemática. Este artículo se focaliza en la población ranquel del Territorio Nacional de La Pampa para estudiar las formas de acceso y usos de la tierra, la evolución de sus asentamientos y sus estrategias de reproducción durante la primera mitad del siglo XX. Abstract in english By the late 19th century, indigenous populations in Argentina's regions of Pampa, Patagonia and Chaco were subordinately incorporated into capitalist economy, through a series of genocidal and destribalization policies that have been thoroughly examined in previous studies. However, the circumstance [...] s of their integration and the strategies that indigenous actors displayed have not been systematically analyzed yet. This paper is focused on ranquel population in Territorio Nacional de La Pampa to study land use and access ways, as well as the development of such settlings and their reproduction strategies during the first half of the 20th century.

  18. Evolución histórica de las farmacias en Santiago de Cuba en la primera mitad del siglo XX / Historical development of drugstores in Santiago de Cuba during the first half of the 20th century

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Clara Aurora, Zúñiga Moro.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Se expone la evolución de las farmacias en Santiago de Cuba durante la primera mitad del siglo XX, con sus características, auge y desarrollo; la organización del Colegio de Farmacéuticos de la ciudad; así como la participación en la vida social y política de los farmacéuticos en el territorio. Se m [...] encionan las farmacias que prestaban servicio de guardia en caso de urgencias y se ofrece información sobre algunas dirigidas por graduadas de la especialidad en ese período, durante el cual la actividad farmacéutica en Santiago evolucionó, desde las farmacias iniciales al estilo colonial, hasta alcanzar un desarrollo superior vinculado con servicios de dispensario, patentes de medicamentos, atención a domicilio y horario de guardias nocturnas. Abstract in english This paper presented the evolution of the pharmacies in Santiago de Cuba during the first half of the 20th century, with its characteristics, peak period and development; the organization of the school of pharmacists of the city, as well as the participation of the pharmacists in the social and poli [...] tical life in the territory. The pharmacies that rendered service for emergencies were stated. Some pharmacies managed by female pharmacists during the first half of the century were also described. The pharmaceutical activity in Santiago de Cuba evolved from the initial colonial styled pharmacies to higher stage of development related to dispensary services, drug patents, home care and night service.

  19. Objetos de ensino: a renovação pedagógica e material da escola primária no Brasil, no século XX / Objects of learning: the pedagogic and material renovation of elementary school in Brazil, in the 20th century

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rosa Fátima de, Souza.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste texto é analisar o papel dos objetos de ensino nas proposições de renovação da escola primária durante o século XX assinalando as mudanças na composição material das escolas tendo em vista os objetos que foram introduzidos e ressaltados como relevantes para a modernização da educaçã [...] o e aqueles que permaneceram ou foram redefinidos em termos de finalidades e usos. Pretende-se, dessa forma, examinar três momentos significativos de implantação de inovações na escola elementar: a modernização pelo método intuitivo na virada do século XIX para o século XX, as proposições da Escola Nova nas décadas de 1930 a 1950 e a renovação representada pela Tecnologia Educacional nas décadas de 1960 e 1970. Abstract in english This article aims at analyzing the role of the objects of learning in the propositions for innovation of primary schools during the 20th century, highlighting the changes in the composition of school subjects having in mind the objects that were introduced and marked out as relevant for school moder [...] nization and those that remained or were redefined in terms of their finality and uses. The examination of three significant moments of the implementation of innovations in the elementary school is intended: the modernization by the intuitive method at the turn of the century; the propositions of "Escola Nova" between the 1930s and the 1950s; and the renovation represented by educational technology in the 1960s and 1970s.

  20. One of the great conundrums of the 20th century science - ionizing radiation: Radiation processing and applications in the Czech Lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article deals with the following topics: Milestones in the early history of radiation and radiation sources (1895-1954); Radiation effects - early observations and further development; Scope of radiation processing; Radiation processing in the Czech Lands (i.e. Bohemia + Moravia = the Czech part of Czechoslovakia or Austria-Hungary till 1918) (radiation sterilization of medical items; radiation processing of cable insulations; radiation preservation of objects of art and historical monuments; radiation modification of semiconductors; radiation synthesis of organic compounds; food irradiation; application of ionizing radiation in agriculture and gardening; radiation regeneration of water wells; radiation degradation of chlorinated biphenyls; radiation coloration of glass for decorative purposes; some other applications; and problems associated with practical radiation processing). An overview of 60Co gamma irradiators and electron accelerators installed at Czech institutions is presented in the tabular form. (P.A.)

  1. La medicina en busca de público: España, siglos XIX y XX / Medicine in quest of a service population: Spain, 19th and 20th centuries

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Esteban, Rodríguez Ocaña.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Languages: English, Spanish Abstract in spanish Se presenta el conjunto de trabajos que constituyen este número. Bajos distintos aspectos, en todos ellos se explora el proceso de constitución de la medicina en 'profesión de servicio' en el contexto de la formación histórica española, metropolitana y colonial, entre los siglos XIX y XX, fijándose [...] en el modo cómo alcanza relaciones permanentes y rutinarias con un público. Los distintos estudios abordan aspectos en general poco estudiados, como el mundo de la medicina militar, la colonización española en Marruecos, las campañas sanitarias y la conjunción de la medicina con la previsión social, se basan en un amplio elenco de fuentes originales y contribuyen a esclarecer los procesos ideológicos, institucionales y profesionales que configuran la medicina de hoy. Abstract in english Approaching from various angles, the articles in this dossier explore the process by which medicine became a 'service profession' within the context of the historical formation of both metropolitan and colonial Spain between the nineteenth and twentieth centuries - that is, how ongoing, routine rela [...] tions with a given public came to be established. The articles address facets that by and large have not been the object of much study, such as the world of military medicine, Spanish colonialism in Morocco, public health campaigns, and the intersection of medicine and forms of social security. Based on a broad gamut of original sources, these studies offer a contribution to our understanding of the ideological, institutional, and professional processes that have helped shape today's medicine.

  2. L’Homme, un itinéraire vietnamien. Humanisme et sujet humain au xxe siècle Man, a Vietnamese Itinerary. Humanism and the Human Subject in the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Hémery

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Cette étude interroge la confrontation qui s’est instaurée au Vietnam depuis le milieu du xixe siècle – et sans doute bien avant – entre la conception de l’homme-individu importée par les Occidentaux en Asie orientale et les philosophies du sujet qui s’y étaient développées depuis l’antiquité chinoise. Cette confrontation a-t-elle abouti dans la culture vietnamienne à une réévaluation socialement acceptée du statut du sujet et sur une nouvelle figure de l’humanisme ? Quel bilan provisoire dresser ?This paper examines the mid 19th century encounter in Vietnamese culture of the concept of the individual imported by Westerners to Far East Asia with the philosophical tradition of the human subject that has developed in China since the classic period. Did this conflictual encounter result in a new, socially acceptable evaluation of the human statute and in a renewed Vietnamese humanism? This article concludes with a provisional assessment of a cultural confrontation.

  3. Mortalidad materna en las primeras décadas del siglo xx / Maternal Mortality during the early decades of 20th century

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ubaldo, Farnot; Norma Eneida, Rios.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: describir la mortalidad materna ocurrida entre 1910 y 1949. Métodos: investigación descriptiva y documental. Resultados: en las cuatro primeras décadas estudiadas de 1910 a 1949, la mortalidad materna en Cuba mostró un descenso de 51,0 %, desde tasas de 493,4 por 100 000 nacidos vivos en l [...] a década 1910-1919 a tasas de 242,2 en la década de 1940-1949, en una época en la que no existían los antibióticos ni los bancos de sangre, ni tampoco se había generalizado la atención prenatal. Estas cifras no deben considerarse demasiado elevadas en aquellos años en un país subdesarrollado. El notable descenso de una década a otra, es testimonio de la lucha contra sus principales causas, llevada a cabo por profesores y discípulos, por el desarrollo obtenido por las mujeres, las facilidades del transporte, la disponibilidad de médicos, enfermeras y comadronas y el alcance obtenido por los medios masivos de comunicación como la radio y la prensa escrita. Se muestran los descensos obtenidos en las principales causas de muerte como la infección puerperal, las muertes por hemorragia y las debidas a eclampsia convulsiva y preclampsia. Conclusiones: el comportamiento de las cifras analizadas no es una simple coincidencia con la aplicación en Cuba de los nuevos cambios en la medicina en general, y en la atención materna en particular, sino también la influencia que tuvo en la salud el desarrollo económico y social de la nación. Abstract in english Objective: to describe cases of maternal deaths between 1910 and 1949. Methods: descriptive and documentary research. Results: in the first four decades surveyed from 1910 to 1949, maternal mortality in Cuba showed a decrease of 51.0 % from rates of 493.4 per 100 000 live births from 1910 to 1919 at [...] a rate of 242.2 during 1940-1949, at a time when there were no antibiotics or blood banks, nor was widespread prenatal care. These figures should not be considered as too high in those years in an underdeveloped country. The sharp decline during these decades is an evidence of the fight against the main causes, conducted by teachers and pupils, by the work achieved by women, the availability of doctors, nurses, midwives and means of transportation, and the extended scope of mass media such as radio and print media. The declines in the leading causes of death as puerperal infection, bleeding and deaths due to preeclampsia and convulsive eclampsia are shown in the study. Conclusions: the behavior of the data examined is not a mere coincidence with the implementation of the new changes in medical general practice in general in Cuba, and particularly maternal care, but also influence it had on the health and social-economic development of the whole nation.

  4. Mortalidad materna en las primeras décadas del siglo xx Maternal Mortality during the early decades of 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubaldo Farnot

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: describir la mortalidad materna ocurrida entre 1910 y 1949. Métodos: investigación descriptiva y documental. Resultados: en las cuatro primeras décadas estudiadas de 1910 a 1949, la mortalidad materna en Cuba mostró un descenso de 51,0 %, desde tasas de 493,4 por 100 000 nacidos vivos en la década 1910-1919 a tasas de 242,2 en la década de 1940-1949, en una época en la que no existían los antibióticos ni los bancos de sangre, ni tampoco se había generalizado la atención prenatal. Estas cifras no deben considerarse demasiado elevadas en aquellos años en un país subdesarrollado. El notable descenso de una década a otra, es testimonio de la lucha contra sus principales causas, llevada a cabo por profesores y discípulos, por el desarrollo obtenido por las mujeres, las facilidades del transporte, la disponibilidad de médicos, enfermeras y comadronas y el alcance obtenido por los medios masivos de comunicación como la radio y la prensa escrita. Se muestran los descensos obtenidos en las principales causas de muerte como la infección puerperal, las muertes por hemorragia y las debidas a eclampsia convulsiva y preclampsia. Conclusiones: el comportamiento de las cifras analizadas no es una simple coincidencia con la aplicación en Cuba de los nuevos cambios en la medicina en general, y en la atención materna en particular, sino también la influencia que tuvo en la salud el desarrollo económico y social de la nación.Objective: to describe cases of maternal deaths between 1910 and 1949. Methods: descriptive and documentary research. Results: in the first four decades surveyed from 1910 to 1949, maternal mortality in Cuba showed a decrease of 51.0 % from rates of 493.4 per 100 000 live births from 1910 to 1919 at a rate of 242.2 during 1940-1949, at a time when there were no antibiotics or blood banks, nor was widespread prenatal care. These figures should not be considered as too high in those years in an underdeveloped country. The sharp decline during these decades is an evidence of the fight against the main causes, conducted by teachers and pupils, by the work achieved by women, the availability of doctors, nurses, midwives and means of transportation, and the extended scope of mass media such as radio and print media. The declines in the leading causes of death as puerperal infection, bleeding and deaths due to preeclampsia and convulsive eclampsia are shown in the study. Conclusions: the behavior of the data examined is not a mere coincidence with the implementation of the new changes in medical general practice in general in Cuba, and particularly maternal care, but also influence it had on the health and social-economic development of the whole nation.

  5. Sociocultural epistasis and cultural exaptation in footbinding, marriage form, and religious practices in early 20th-century Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Melissa J.; Feldman, Marcus W.

    2009-01-01

    Social theorists have long recognized that changes in social order have cultural consequences but have not been able to provide an individual-level mechanism of such effects. Explanations of human behavior have only just begun to explore the different evolutionary dynamics of social and cultural inheritance. Here we provide ethnographic evidence of how cultural evolution, at the level of individuals, can be influenced by social evolution. Sociocultural epistasis—association of cultural idea...

  6. [The "shoeleather epidemiology" or the reinvention of medical survey. Alice Hamilton and industrial medicine in early 20th century America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainhorn, Judith

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Alice Hamilton (1869-1970) was a pioneer in industrial medicine, a new discipline that emerged with a new interest in working conditions and occupational hazards within an era of unprecedented industrial growth. From various sources, including her reports after she visited Arizona copper belt in 1919, my paper emphasizes the innovation of Hamilton's approach,"shoeleather epidemiology". She went to the source of information in workshops, plants and construction sites, observed the very concrete part of industrial work, interviewed many stakeholders in and around the workplace, making a methodological toolbox for industrial surveys. Her method combined an old medical practice (the medical inquiry) and a new clinical field (the plant) and placed the worker as a patient in the core of the issue of occupational health and safety. PMID:23923341

  7. Introduction. Theory and Practice of the Welfare State in the 20th and the Early 21st Century.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zudová-Lešková, Zlatica; Vorá?ek, Emil

    Praha : Historický ústav, 2014 - (Zudová-Lešková, Z.; Vorá?ek, E.), s. 11-45 ISBN 978-80-7286-216-0 Institutional support: RVO:67985963 Keywords : welfare state * interdisciplinary * crisis Subject RIV: AB - History

  8. Esimesed läti naismaalikunstnikud 20. sajandi alguses = The first Latvian female painters in the early 20th century / Baiba Vanaga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vanaga, Baiba

    2014-01-01

    Läti kunstiharidusest ja kunstikoolidest 20. sajandi alguses. Naiste kunstihariduse kvaliteedist, nende mõjutajatest, kunstilisest stiilist, arenguteedest ning naiste tegelikust kohast oma aja kunstiväljal.

  9. EVOLUCION DE LA NUTRICION Y ALIMENTACION EN CHILE EN EL SIGLO XX / NUTRITION AND FEEDING TRENDS IN CHILE IN THE 20TH CENTURY

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sergio, Valiente B.; Ricardo, Uauy D..

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo da una visión del desarrollo de la nutrición y la alimentación en Chile en el siglo XX. Se presenta la nutrición y la alimentación relacionada con la solución de problemas multidisciplinarios, integrada con salud, considerada un derecho humano, que en Chile ha motivado un compromiso de [...] l gobierno, de la comunidad y de los grupos profesionales y académicos. Se destaca a los profesionales que tuvieron la visión de incorporar la nutrición a campos pediátricos, clínicos de la salud pública y bioquímica como "precursores de la nutrición", cuyas actividades se iniciaron alrededor de 1940. Se enumeran 8 Centros que se desarrollaron antes de 1970 y se unieron para acciones comunes. Posterior a la Reforma universitaria las 4 instituciones creadas por sus discípulos. Se destaca la labor de los creadores de estos Centros y la visionaria orientación del Laboratorio de Investigaciones Pediátricas del INTA y de CONIN-CREDES junto a innumerables profesionales. Países desarrollados han destacado la experiencia chilena como un ejemplo para el mundo en desarrollo y como "el modelo chileno". La virtual erradicación de la desnutrición infantil ha permitido reorientar los esfuerzos y recursos a las enfermedades crónicas. Se señala el rol de las instituciones académicas en el desarrollo de políticas y programas nutricionales, investigación, desarrollo de programas y entrenamiento de profesionales de la salud, educación y agricultura. La formación de nutricionistas por las escuelas respectivas y la creación de postítulos y postgrados Abstract in english In this article the authors give their vision of the development of food and nutrition activities during the XXth century. Food and nutrition are seen related with solution of multidisciplinary problems and integrated with health, considered as a human right, which has motivated a deep compromise of [...] the government, community and academic profesionals. Special mention is given to those who incorporate the starting nutrition approach, about 1940, to pediatrics, clinical fields, public health, biochemistry. and so on. They are recognized as "precursors of nutrition" in Chile. Eight special centers developed prior to 1970, worked in an academic relationship, and later after the University reform (1967- 1970), four main Food and Nutrition institutions prevail until now. The work of these centers and the inspiring orientation of the Laboratory of Pediatric Investigation, of INTA, CONIN-CREDES, CONPAN and others has been recognized and presented as an experience, which might be a useful model for developing countries. The virtual erradication of undernutrition in Chile has allowed to re-orient efforts and resources to chronic diseases of the epidemiologic transition. The academic institutions have play a mayor rol in policies, programs, research, training of health, education and agriculture professionals, with post-graduate courses and programs, mainly to nutritionists and other health profesionals

  10. French school of neurology in the 19 th and first half of the 20th century, and its influence in Brazil / Escola francesa de neurologia no seculo 19 e primeira metade do seculo 20, e sua influencia no Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marleide da Mota, Gomes; Jose Luiz de Sa, Cavalcanti; Eliasz, Engelhardt.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese  A medicina francesa é de extrema importância para o nascimento da medicina moderna e a neurologia do século 19. Foram colocadas em prática diversas inovações, como exame à beira do leito, uso de estetoscópio, técnicas de palpação, ausculta e exame do paciente, além da observação dos desfechos da do [...] ença e ênfase à correlação anátomo-clinica. A medicina francesa ofereceu capacitação profissional e incentivo para a fase inicial da neurologia e psiquiatria brasileiras. Voltando da França, muitos médicos brasileiros implementaram o que tinham aprendido, principalmente em Paris. Os mais importantes discípulos das escolas francesas de neurologia no Brasil no século 19 e metade do 20 incluem nomes como Antonio Austregesilo, Aloysio de Castro, Enjolras Vampré e Deolindo Couto, fundadores das principais escolas brasileiras neurológicas, influenciados diretamente por Dejerine, Pierre Marie, Guillain and Babinski. Abstract in english French medicine was of the utmost importance for the birth of modern medicine and neurology in the 19 th century. Innovative approaches, such as examination at the bedside, the use of the stethoscope, techniques of auscultation, palpation, and close patient examination, besides emphasis on anatomica [...] l-clinical correlation and observation of the outcome of the disease, were put into practice. French medicine offered professional training and incentives for the beginnings of Brazilian neurology and psychiatry. Returning from France, many Brazilian physicians implemented what they had learned, mainly in Paris. The most important pupils of the French neurology schools in Brazil during the 19 th century and first half of the 20 th century include names like Antonio Austregesilo, Aloysio de Castro, Enjolras Vampré, and Deolindo Couto, founders of the leading Brazilian neurological schools, directly influenced by Dejerine, Pierre Marie, Guillain and Babinski.

  11. O sagrado no romance hispano-americano do século XX (The sacred in the Hispanic-American novel of the 20th century - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2013v11n29p279

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lucia Trevisan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho estuda as formas de representação do sagrado no romance hispano-americano do século XX e propõe uma reflexão sobre algumas formas de utilização das mitologias e tradições religiosas pela literatura. A presença das narrativas sagradas no texto literário do século XX surge marcada por uma renovada experiência estética, pois não se trata apenas de utilizar ou reutilizar uma temática exótica, mas, sim, perceber um potencial tradutor de verdades universais, imanentes aos textos religiosos ou mitologias ancestrais. O artigo propõe uma reflexão sobre as particularidades da produção literária europeia e hispano-americana, que utilizam os temas sagrados, a fim de perceber as consonâncias e dissonâncias estéticas e históricas. O fenômeno estético denominado “mitologismo”, estudado por E.M. Mielietinski, pode ser entendido como um modus operandi da estruturação do romance que conjuga literatura e relatos sagrados e, neste estudo, fundamenta a discussão sobre a heterogeneidade cultural dos povos hispânicos expressa em suas representações literárias. Palavras-chave: Romance . Mitologias. Religião. Hispano-América. Abstract This article studies the forms of representation of the sacred in the Hispanic-American novel of the 20th century and proposes a reflection on some ways of using the mythological and religious traditions by literature. The presence of sacred narratives in the literary texts of the 20th century is marked by a renewed aesthetic experience, once it does not only refer to using or re-using an exotic theme, but perceiving a potential translator of universal truths, immanent to religious texts or mythological ancestors. The present proposal offers a reflection on the peculiarities of European and Hispanic-American productions which make use of sacred themes, meaning to understand the aesthetic and historical consonances and dissonances. The aesthetic phenomenon named “mythologism”, studied by E.M. Mielietinski, can be understood as a modus operandi of the structure of the novel that joins literature and sacred texts and, in this study, serves as a basis for the discussion on the cultural diversity of Hispanic peoples expressed in their literary representations. Keywords: Novel. Mythologies. Religion. Hispanic-America

  12. The Role of the Nobility in the Development of Navigation on the Danube (XIX - early XX centuries)

    OpenAIRE

    Liliya Tsyganenko

    2013-01-01

    The questions of the place and role of the nobility of Bessarabia in the development of transport Infrastructure of the region in the late 19th - early 20th centuries is disscused. The activity of Prince Y. Gagarin - the first founder of shipping company on the Danube - Russian-Danube Shipping Company, which by 1886 evolved into a major joint-venture private limited transport in Bessarabia - Black Sea-Danube Shipping

  13. The Role of the Nobility in the Development of Navigation on the Danube (XIX - early XX centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliya Tsyganenko

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The questions of the place and role of the nobility of Bessarabia in the development of transport Infrastructure of the region in the late 19th - early 20th centuries is disscused. The activity of Prince Y. Gagarin - the first founder of shipping company on the Danube - Russian-Danube Shipping Company, which by 1886 evolved into a major joint-venture private limited transport in Bessarabia - Black Sea-Danube Shipping

  14. Using the PDSI to Estimate Summer Stream Discharge in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem: Implications for 20th Century Riparian Habitat Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persico, L.; Meyer, G. A.

    2013-12-01

    Small streams at lower elevations in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) create riparian habitat in an otherwise dry environment. Riparian area can be expanded by beaver damming, which increases channel wetted area and local water tables, and allows fine-grained organic-rich sediment to accumulate. However, increases can be countered by severe drought. The loss of riparian area is potentially greatest in small basins dependent on snowpack for base flow, where prolonged severe drought may reduce base flow to zero. Discharge records are often lacking for basins sites were regressed with the corresponding PDSI for each climate division. We also use a regional (2.5° by 2.5°) reconstruction of the PDSI based on 30 tree ring chronologies (Cook et al., 2004) to estimate discharge during the most severe two and ten year droughts (AD 1150-1151 and 805-796, respectively) during the Medieval Climatic Anomaly (MCA). The MCA is a period of high climate variability and widespread drought in the GYE. Significant correlations between stream discharge and the PDSI occur during the late summer and early fall and the strongest correlation between discharge and the PDSI occurs for the 3-month PDSI average centered on August. Stream-gauge records with bootstrapped correlation values greater than 0.65 were chosen for regression analyses. To estimate stream flows for ungauged stream reaches, stepwise multiple regression analyses were performed using measured stream flows and independent basin characteristics. Basin area and mean elevation are significant predictors of discharge (? reference for riparian habitat restoration despite anomalously wet conditions unlike current or likely future climate. Future efforts to restore riparian habitat by reducing elk browsing and increasing beaver damming will be hampered by reduced flows on small streams.

  15. La idea de juventud en Chile en el siglo XX. Aproximación genealógica al discurso de las revistas de juventud* / The Idea of Youth in Chile during the 20th Century. A Genealogical Approach to the Speech of Juvenile Magazines.

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Óscar, Aguilera Ruiz.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El texto expone resultados preliminares de una investigación sobre la construcción histórica de la idea de juventud en las revistas chilenas en el periodo 1900-1940. Para ello, el artículo presenta el contexto comunicacional de las revistas de juventud, las identidades juveniles reconocibles en las [...] primeras décadas del siglo XX y los regímenes de juvenilidad que se comienzan a perfilar. Concluimos de manera provisional algunas cuestiones vinculadas con el proceso de estabilidad semiótica de la idea de juventud y el papel que las imágenes, específicamente las publicitarias, cumplen en la construcción de lo juvenil. Abstract in english This article exhibits preliminary results of a research about the historical construction of the idea of youth given in Chilean magazines between 1900 and 1940. For this purpose, the article shows the communicational context of juvenile magazines, juvenile identities with high recognition during the [...] first decades of the 20th century and the juvenility regimes that were arising at that time. Temporary conclusions were given about some topics related to the semiotic stability process of the idea of youth and the role that images (specifically advertising images) play to construct what is juvenile.

  16. Escuela Nueva y saber pedagógico en Colombia: apropiación, modernidad y métodos de enseñanza. Primera mitad del siglo XIX / New education and pedagogical knowledge in Colombia: appropriation, modernity and teaching methods. First half of the 20th Century

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rafael, Ríos Beltran.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available La Escuela Nueva es una propuesta de naturaleza pedagógica extendida en toda América Latina, y que tuvo una influencia variada en la educación en los diferentes países de América Latina. En Colombia, la Escuela Nueva significó la apertura hacia un proceso de apropiación de los saberes modernos. En e [...] ste sentido, el artículo desarrolla algunas reflexiones sobre esta tendencia pedagógica durante la primera mitad del siglo XX, para hacer visible desde una perspectiva histórica, las transformaciones en los métodos de enseñanza de las ciencias y los saberes en el saber pedagógico colombiano. Abstract in english New Education is a proposal of pedagogic nature throughout Latin America as a whole, which had a diverse influence on education in its different countries. In Colombia, New Education meant openness to the process of appropriation of modern knowledge. In this sense, the article develops some thoughts [...] on this pedagogical tendency during the first half of the 20th Century, in order to make visible, from a historical perspective, the transformations of science's teaching methods and of the existing wisdom on the Colombian pedagogy knowledge.

  17. As mulheres e as práticas corporais em clubes da cidade de São Paulo do início do século XX / The women and the corporal practices at Sao Paulo city clubs during the beginning of 20th century

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Katia, Rubio.

    Full Text Available No Brasil a condição feminina na década de 1920 era determinada pela exclusão da vida pública e dedicação a vida privada. Neste mesmo período o movimento feminista lutou pelo direito das mulheres à cidadania, a uma existência legal fora de casa. Na Educação Física os discursos apontam uma mulher fis [...] icamente ativa, dentro de propósitos eugenistas e higienistas. O atletismo, a dança clássica e o basquetebol começaram a ser considerados atividades saudáveis para mulheres. O objetivo deste trabalho é discutir como se deu a participação da mulher nas práticas corporais em clubes na década de 1920 na cidade de São Paulo. Abstract in english The woman condition at 20’s was determined by a discourse that, based in the public life and dedication to a private life. At the same time the Feminist Movement fight to the rights of the women to citizenship and a social life outside. Among Physical Education, the discourses added a woman physical [...] ly active. The athletics’, classic dance and basketball started to be consider health activities to women. The subjective of this paper is to discuss how it was the women participation at the corporal practices in clubs at 20’s of 20th Century in Sao Paulo.

  18. La necesidad de una teoría crítica de la modernización ante las realidades de la segunda mitad del siglo XX / The Need for a Critical Modernization Theory in the Light of Realities of the Second Half of the 20th Century

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    H.C.F, Mansilla.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Después del contacto permanente con la exitosa civilización occidental, los países del Tercer Mundo se han consagrado a un desarrollo acelerado en la segunda mitad del siglo XX, que ha significado el mayor cambio social en toda su historia. En general el resultado es una evolución imitativa, que es [...] percibida, sin embargo, como algo propio y autónomo. Una teoría crítica de la modernización es importante para analizar las luces y las sombras de esta evolución de acuerdo a un sentido común guiado críticamente. Abstract in english After permanent contact with successful western civilization, Third World countries devoted themselves to accelerated development in the second half of the 20th century, resulting in the greatest social change in their entire history. In general, the result was an imitative evolution, which was perc [...] eived, nevertheless, as something of its own and autonomous. A critical modernization theory is important for analyzing the positive and negative aspects of this evolution according to critically oriented common sense.

  19. The correlates of infant and childhood mortality: A theoretical overview and new evidence from the analysis of longitudinal data of the Bejsce (Poland parish register reconstitution study of the 18th-20th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Tymicki

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper has two main goals. The first is to review the context for studying infant mortality, which includes a review of the theoretical framework, the covariates used to examine mortality over the first 60 months of life, and the major findings of empirical studies. Second, the paper adds some new empirical evidence that comes from the longitudinal reconstitution of church registers of Bejsce parish, located in the south of Poland. This rich database allows for an analysis of mortality trends of cohorts born between the 18th and 20th centuries in the parish. The analysis includes a reconstruction of descriptive measures of infant and childhood mortality, and a hazard model of mortality over the first 60 months of life. The hazard model has been calculated for each cohort separately in order to demonstrate the change in the relative importance of analyzed factors during the process of mortality decline in the parish. Obtained mortality patterns are discussed with reference to the theoretical context presented in the first part of the paper.

  20. Uma história das práticas alimentares de trabalhadores paulistanos em dois momentos do século XX / A history of practices in nourishment among workers in São Paulo city in two moments of the 20th century

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jaime, Rodrigues.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A partir de uma discussão sobre estudos que lidaram com os temas alimentares nas Ciências Humanas, este artigo aponta as possibilidades das Pesquisas de Padrão de Vida como fontes para uma história social da alimentação entre trabalhadores que viviam em São Paulo durante a primeira metade do século [...] XX. Apresento os métodos de aplicação, as intenções dessas pesquisas e o perfil das famílias. Em seguida, os produtos e as quantidades consumidas pelas famílias são analisados em temporalidades distintas, tentando verificar o impacto da industrialização, da renda e da propaganda. Abstract in english Based on studies about food issues in the Humanities, this article indicates the possibilities of the Living Standards Research as sources for a social history of nourishment between workers living in Sao Paulo during the first half of the 20th century. I present the methods of application, the inte [...] ntions of this research and the profile of families analyzed. After, I analyze the products and quantities consumed by families in different times, trying to understand the impact of industrialization, wage income and advertisement.

  1. From a farm road to a public highway: The Dutch Reformed Church and its changing views regarding the city and urbanisation in the first half of the 20th century (1916-1947)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Robert, Vosloo.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The big question which should be in every theologian's mind is: How did the Dutch Reformed Church's response to the rapid urbanisation of the Afrikaner people in the first half of the 20th century unfold and develop? This was a painful transition to the many Afrikaner volk. And in order to address t [...] his question, this article looks more closely at some of the popular booklets by Rev JR Albertyn from the 1940s, the Kerk en Stad report (1947), and the published papers and decisions of the Volkskongres of 1947. These texts give us a glimpse onto the (changing) views on the city and urbanisation within the Dutch Reformed Church, as well as within the broader Afrikaner society. This article will also highlight the possible theological convictions that played a role in an attempt to face the challenges arising from a new urban environment. This article will furthermore focus on the way in which the discourse, within the Dutch Reformed Church, which related the challenges posed by urbanisation to the so-called "race problem", was dealt with.

  2. Algumas hipóteses comparativas entre Brasil e Argentina no século XX / Des hypothèses comparatives entre le Brésil et l'Argentine au XXème siècle / Some comparative hypotheses on Brazil and Argentina during the 20th century

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vicente, Palermo.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Comparar trajetórias políticas ao longo de um século supõe um esforço muito maior de esquecimento do que de memória. Tentarei aqui converter uma grande quantidade de matérias analíticas muito heterogêneas em algumas conjeturas "popperianas". Elas podem provir de qualquer parte e podem ser submetidas [...] à corroboração ou à refutação. Ou seja, trata-se de um processo inverso à tarefa estritamente acadêmica. Em certamedida, estou recomeçando "desde o zero" o meu trabalho. É verdade que a história democrática argentina, no século XX, é mais longa do que a brasileira. Todavia, essa diferença não invalida a comparação. Minha hipótese concisa é a seguinte: na política democrática brasileira, a dimensão institucional é dominante - as instituições, de fato, representam o lugar em que se dão as interações e em que os atores coletivos configuram-se. Em compensação, nessas instituições, a inclusão tanto social como política tem sido fraca. No entanto, no caso argentino, a dimensão inclusiva tem sido dominante, com o prejuízo indubitável da dimensão institucional. Na política democrática argentina, participaram "todos". Na política democrática brasileira até 1964, a estabilidade baseou-se na exclusão - por exemplo, das massas rurais. Estas hipóteses podem estar corretas ou erradas, mas, em qualquer caso, importa dizer que não as estabeleci ex nihilo, como vindas do nada, nem diacrônica, nem sincronicamente. Diacronicamente, porque a história do século XX sustenta-se, é obvio, na do XIX; sincronicamente, porque com certeza cada uma das hipóteses ou conjeturas que discuti aqui pode imbricar-se com os processos do próprio século XX, com os dramas, as lutas, as lideranças, os conflitos, as controvérsias, as gestões de governo, os períodos de depressão e de prosperidade e as esperanças, tudo, enfim, o que constitui a história desse século. Abstract in english Comparing political trajectories over the course of a century demands more forgetting than remembering. I will make an attempt here to convert a considerable amount of very heterogeneous analytical material into some "Popperian" conjectures. They may emerge from anywhere within and may be subjected [...] to corroboration or refutation. In other words, this process is precisely the reverse of the one that informs strictly academic tasks. To some extent, I begin my work "from scratch". It may be true that the history of democracy in Argentina is longer than that of Brazil. Nonetheless, this difference does not invalidate comparison. My concise hypothesis is the following: in Brazilian democratic politics, the institutional dimension prevails - institutions, in fact, represent the place in which interactions occur and collective actors take shape. In compensation, within these institutions, both social and political inclusion has been weak. However, in the Argentine case, the inclusive dimension has been dominant, in clear detriment to the one. In Argentine democratic politics, "everyone" was included. In Brazilian democratic politics until 1964, stability was based on exclusion - for example, the exclusion of the rural masses. These hypotheses may be correct or incorrect but in any case, it is important to emphasize that they have not been established ex nihilo, as if coming from nowhere and neither diachronic nor synchronic. Diachronic, insofar as the history of the 20th century is sustained, obviously, in the history of the preceding one; synchronic, because each of the hypotheses or conjectures discussed here are undeniably embedded in processes that are proper to the 20th century, its dramas, struggles, leaders, conflicts, controversies, political administrations, periods of depression and prosperity and hopes; in short, all that makes up the history of the century.

  3. Armenians and 20th century genocide - Debates

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Immacolata Macioti

    2011-01-01

    Somalia has been one of the UN member countries who lingers from the presence of terrorist groups in its territory, that exert tremendous influence in the daily life of its society and economy. Al Shabaab is well known in the horn of Africa, particularly in Somalia, for its terrorist training and strong affiliation with other terrorist groups in Nigeria and Al-Qaeda. The Harakat Shabaab Al Mujahidin, also known as Al-Shabaab. has completely controlled the central and southern part of Somalia ...

  4. Armenians and 20th century genocide - Debates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Immacolata Macioti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Somalia has been one of the UN member countries who lingers from the presence of terrorist groups in its territory, that exert tremendous influence in the daily life of its society and economy. Al Shabaab is well known in the horn of Africa, particularly in Somalia, for its terrorist training and strong affiliation with other terrorist groups in Nigeria and Al-Qaeda. The Harakat Shabaab Al Mujahidin, also known as Al-Shabaab. has completely controlled the central and southern part of Somalia including some of its important sea ports, which are vital for the country’s economy. Although Ethiopian and Somali military forces attempted to rout the group in a two week war between December 2006 and January 2007, Al Shabaab, with its 14,500 militants, still continues to maintain control over strategic locations, not only in Somalia, but also throughout the horn of Africa. The paper delves into the recent events and attacks either undertaken or influenced by Al-Shabaab, including a snap shot of its threat to humanitarian aid personnel as well as the Africa Union troops who are desperately trying to lower the intensity of conflict along the Somalia Kenya border area and Al-Shabaab’s actions to secure financial resources.

  5. Albert Einstein and 20th century's physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert Einstein's teaching and his three fundamental works are discussed dealing with the molecular theory of heat applied to the motion of suspended particles in liquids at rest, the photoelectric effect, and the theory of relativity. Albert Einstein's impact on contemporary physics is evaluated. (J.P.)

  6. Antimatter and 20th Century Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gary

    2005-01-01

    This article gives an outline of the history of antimatter from the concept first introduced in 1898 up to the present day and is intended to complement the article "Antihydrogen on Tap" on page 229 [of this issue of "Physics Education"]. It is hoped that it will provide enough historical background material along with interesting snippets of…

  7. AGS 20th anniversary celebration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On May 22, 1980, a symposium was held at Brookhaven to celebrate the 20th birthday of the AGS, to recall its beginnings, and to review major discoveries that have been made with its beams. The talks at the symposium are recorded in this volume

  8. AGS 20th anniversary celebration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baggett, N.V. (ed.)

    1980-05-22

    On May 22, 1980, a symposium was held at Brookhaven to celebrate the 20th birthday of the AGS, to recall its beginnings, and to review major discoveries that have been made with its beams. The talks at the symposium are recorded in this volume.

  9. Contribution of the Faculty of Pharmacy of Santiago de Compostela to the development of the spanish scientific research in the first third of the 20th century (1900-1936

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brasa Arias, Beatriz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Faculty of Pharmacy of Santiago de Compostela was founded in 1857, but research activities did not start until the beginning of the 20th century. The new Spanish regulations promoting the experimentation at universities and the stages of professors and recently graduated students outside Spain contributed to generate a remarkable research group in a provincial university. The excessive university centralism at that time in Spain and the characteristics of the headquarters of the faculty —a 16th century Renaissance palace— hindered, in general, the research development. However, the scientific spirit of professors and students, and their work were imposed and they achieved an estimable status in pharmacy research in Galicia. The facilities were the staff's highest priority and it raised more than a protest. A remarkable investment in apparatuses and laboratory materials was carried out and researchers started to publish original research papers in local journals, such as the «Revista de farmacia», published by their own University. In the previous years to the Spanish Civil War (1936 the research status in drug development and the background of the staff and students were important, allowing them to join the military laboratory that Franco’s army created at the faculty of pharmacy. The research work continued in a small scale and was specially focused on the production of «copy drugs» copying European specific drugs which were scarce at that time. The first third of the 20th century was the germ of the great research prestige that the Faculty of Pharmacy of Santiago de Compostela enjoys at present.

    La Facultad de Farmacia de Santiago de Compostela se fundó en 1857, pero no fue hasta comienzos del siglo XX cuando comenzó a desarrollar una labor de investigación en medicamentos. Las nuevas reglamentaciones que fomentaban la experimentación en los laboratorios universitarios y la formación de profesores y recién licenciados en el extranjero, contribuyeron a generar un grupo investigador notable dentro de una Facultad de provincias. La excesiva centralización en materia universitaria de la época y las características de la sede de la Facultad —un palacio renacentista del siglo XVI— dificultaron, en general, el desarrollo de la investigación. Sin embargo, el espíritu científico de profesores y alumnos, y su trabajo se impusieron y lograron un estatus digno en investigación de medicamentos en Galicia. En estos años comenzaron a publicarse trabajos originales principalmente en la «Revista de Farmacia», publicada por la propia Universidad compostelana. En los años precedentes a la guerra civil española (1936 el nivel alcanzado en investigación y desarrollo de medicamentos era importante, favoreciendo el hecho de que, una vez comenzada la contienda, el personal de la Facultad trabajó en el laboratorio de farmacia militar en el que fue transformada por el ejército franquista. Durante este período la labor investigadora continuó, aunque a menor escala, y orientada a la obtención de «medicamentos copia» de otros específicos que escaseaban en tiempos de guerra. Durante el primer tercio del siglo XX se desarrolló el germen del prestigio investigador del que goza en la actualidad la Facultad de Farmacia compostelana.

  10. A educação física e o funâmbulo: entre a arte circense e a ciência (século XIX e início do século XX) / Physical Education and the funambulist: between science and circus arts (19th century and the beginning of the 20th century) / La Educación Física y el funámbulo: entre el circo y la ciencia (siglo XIX y principios del siglo XX)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mirian Kormann, Hauffe; Edivaldo, Góis Junior.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar a separação entre atividades circenses e a Educação Física, mais especificamente, a ginástica no século XIX e início do século XX. Para isto, foi realizada uma pesquisa histórica que buscou explicações e dados empíricos sobre esta relação. As fontes foram ca [...] racterizadas por textos de personagens históricas identificadas como teóricos da Educação Física no período. Os documentos foram analisados tendo como centro a mentalidade dos professores sobre os critérios para a organização de uma ginástica científica. Concluiu-se que a associação entre Educação Física e as ciências naturais identificou a ginástica como meio científico de educação do corpo. Nessa delimitação, as artes circenses eram criticadas e excluídas. Abstract in spanish Este estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar la separación de las actividades del circo y la Educación Física, más concretamente, la gimnasia, en el siglo XIX y principios del siglo XX. Para esto, se realizó una investigación que buscaba explicaciones históricas y datos sobre esta relación. Las fuente [...] s se caracterizan por textos de personajes históricos identificados como los teóricos de la Educación Física en el período. Se examinó los ficheros centrados en la mentalidad de los profesores sobre los criterios para la organización de un ejercicio científico. Se concluyó que la asociación entre la Educación Física y ciencias naturales identifica la gimnasia como la educación científica del cuerpo. En esta definición, las artes del circo fueron criticadas y excluidas. Abstract in english This study aimed to investigate the separation of circus activities and Physical Education, more specifically, the gymnastic, in the 19th century and early 20th century. For this, it was conducted a historical research which found explanations and data of this relationship. The sources were characte [...] rized by texts of historical persons identified as theorists of Physical Education in the period. The study examined the files centered in the thoughts of the teachers on the criteria for the organization of a scientific gymnastic. It concluded that the association between Physical Education and natural sciences identified the gymnastic as the scientific education of the body. In this definition, circus arts were criticized and excluded.

  11. Chinos y gamines: imágenes de los habitantes pobres de Bogotá en la primera mitad del siglo XX / The urchins and street boys: images of the poor inhabitants of Bogota in the first half of the 20th century

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yeimy Cárdenas, Palermo.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En el artículo se tejen algunos indicios que permiten poner en escena las formas como los niños pobres o los hijos de los habitantes pobres de la ciudad de Bogotá fueron diferenciados de la infancia "normal", en la primera mitad del siglo XX. Acudiendo a discursos de especialistas, voces de reformis [...] tas educativos y periodistas se evidencia que la diferenciación fue producida mediante la estigmatización de los lugares sociales de los niños pobres, a través de la imagen de los chinos y los gamines. Imágenes que resultan paradigmáticas para desentrañar la deslegitimación de las estructuras familiares, de las trayectorias escolares y de los modos de habitar la ciudad de los niños y niñas de los sectores populares, dada la articulación, infundada y temeraria que se estableció entre la vida de los pobres y la delincuencia infantil. Abstract in english In this paper we present hints that allow us to reveal the ways poor children, or the children of poor inhabitants, from the city of Bogota were excluded from the "normal" childhood in the first half of the 20th century. Based on specialists' statements as well as opinions from educational reformers [...] and journalists it is clear that this exclusion was created due to the stigmatization of the social places belonging to the poor children through the image of the urchins and street boys.. Such images were a model that could reveal the illegitimacy of the family structures, of the school history and of the way children from the popular areas lived, given the articulation, mistaken and dangerous, that was established between the life of poor people and children delinquency.

  12. Chinos y gamines: imágenes de los habitantes pobres de Bogotá en la primera mitad del siglo XX The urchins and street boys: images of the poor inhabitants of Bogota in the first half of the 20th century

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    Yeimy Cárdenas Palermo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available En el artículo se tejen algunos indicios que permiten poner en escena las formas como los niños pobres o los hijos de los habitantes pobres de la ciudad de Bogotá fueron diferenciados de la infancia "normal", en la primera mitad del siglo XX. Acudiendo a discursos de especialistas, voces de reformistas educativos y periodistas se evidencia que la diferenciación fue producida mediante la estigmatización de los lugares sociales de los niños pobres, a través de la imagen de los chinos y los gamines. Imágenes que resultan paradigmáticas para desentrañar la deslegitimación de las estructuras familiares, de las trayectorias escolares y de los modos de habitar la ciudad de los niños y niñas de los sectores populares, dada la articulación, infundada y temeraria que se estableció entre la vida de los pobres y la delincuencia infantil.In this paper we present hints that allow us to reveal the ways poor children, or the children of poor inhabitants, from the city of Bogota were excluded from the "normal" childhood in the first half of the 20th century. Based on specialists' statements as well as opinions from educational reformers and journalists it is clear that this exclusion was created due to the stigmatization of the social places belonging to the poor children through the image of the urchins and street boys.. Such images were a model that could reveal the illegitimacy of the family structures, of the school history and of the way children from the popular areas lived, given the articulation, mistaken and dangerous, that was established between the life of poor people and children delinquency.

  13. Un « régime méditerranéen » bon à penser The good « Mediterranean diet »: medical and social readability of food practices among Italian migrants in the United-States and Switzerland (20th century

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    Salvatore Bevilacqua

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Les habitudes alimentaires des Italiens installés aux Etats-Unis et en Suisse ont été intéressées au cours du 20e siècle par une mutation de l’attitude des sociétés hôtes, hier hostiles mais aujourd’hui largement imprégnées de cet héritage gastronomique. Décrypté naguère à travers certains poncifs assignés aux peuples méridionaux (irrationalité, pusillanimité, etc., le présumé conservatisme culinaire des Italiens, du Sud en particulier, y était perçu comme un syndrome quasi pathologique, devenant la cible des politiques sociales et de santé. Avec le temps, cette culture alimentaire « sans qualités » s’est vue amendée du stigmate de son origine puis ennoblie par la promotion du modèle de consommation dit méditerranéen. La déconstruction diachronique des lectures américaines et helvétiques des habitudes alimentaires des migrants italiens met en exergue, outre l’inversion de certaines catégories normatives, un rapport de (biopouvoir spécifique entre culture d’accueil et d’origine soulevant l’utilité d’une réflexion épistémologique sur la construction sociale actuelle de la santé et du goût « méditerranéens ».Dietary habits of Italians settled in the US and in Switzerland have been interested during the 20th century by a mutation of host society attitude, formerly hostile but now full of this gastronomic heritage. The presumed culinary conservatism of southern Italians, represented through classical clichés (irrationality, pusillanimity, etc., was diagnosed as a pathological-like syndrome and became in that sense a target for social and health policies. With the passing of time, this « propertiless » dietary culture lost the infamous marks of its origins and got ennobled by the promotion of the Mediterranean consumption model. The diachronic deconstruction of American and Swiss interpretations of Italian migrants dietary habits underline, besides the inversion of some normative categories, a specific relation of (biopower between host and native cultures. This analysis raises the interest of an epistemological reflexion about the current social construction of « Mediterranean » health and taste.

  14. Professoras e crianças pequenas no contexto da Educação Infantil pelotense em meados do século XX / Teachers, kindergarten and preschool children in the context of childhood education in Pelotas in the mid 20th century

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lourdes Helena Dummer, Venzke; Jane, Felipe.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda uma pesquisa realizada nas primeiras instituições escolares de Pelotas/RS que se dedicaram ao atendimento de crianças pequenas, sem o caráter asilar, em meados do século XX. Tais espaços apresentam as marcas deixadas pelos desafios assumidos em nome da proteção e educação dessas c [...] rianças. Essa pesquisa, de cunho qualitativo, teve como aporte teórico os estudos de gênero, os estudos culturais e autores/as pós-estruturalistas. Os materiais coletados e os contextos nos quais eles foram produzidos indicaram alguns elementos que compunham o cenário no qual as professoras desenvolveram seu trabalho. Com esta pesquisa tornou-se possível visibilizar como as professoras foram representadas e como o exercício da docência na Educação Infantil estava atrelado à resolução de alguns problemas sociais. Nesse sentido, as exigências atribuídas às docentes incorporam os valores pertinentes a um dado período histórico, com seus diferentes momentos e necessidades apontadas. Abstract in english The present article approaches a research carried out at the first school institutions in Pelotas/RS which focused on helping kindergarten and preschool children, without an asylum character, in the mid 20th century. Such spaces present the marks left by the challenges assumed in the name of the pro [...] tection and education of these children. This research, a qualitative one, had as technical support some studies on gender, cultural studies and post-structuralist authors. The collected materials and the contexts in which they were produced indicated some elements which comprised the scenario in which the teachers developed their work. With this research it was possible to highlight how the teachers were represented and how the teaching practice in Childhood Education was connected to the resolution of some social problems. Therefore, the demands attributed to the teachers incorporate relevant figures to a certain historical period, with their different moments and necessities pointed out.

  15. Lietuvi? muzikos tautiškumo problema. Pietry?i? Lietuvos liaudies melodijos XX a. I pus?s fonografo ?rašuose | The problem of the national style in Lithuanian music. South Eastern Lithuanian folk melodics in phonograph recordings from the 1st half of the 20th century

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    Aust? Nakien?

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, several issues are discussed and related, namely, the phonograph recordings that have recently started being released with Lithuanian folk music from the first half of the 20th century; the folk melodies of the South Eastern Lithuania and the impact from the melodies of the eastern neighbors observed; the formation of professional Lithuanian music, a considerable part of which comprised harmonized folksongs in the beginning of the 20th century. According to the author, the first sound documents were recorded at the turning point, when the centuries-long formation of the Lithuanian folk music dialects was over and the decline of the regional differences started. However, folk music dialects did not vanish without the trace, but were integrated into the professional music culture instead. The change of the Lithuanian music culture in the first half of the 20th century was not a spontaneous process, as the ethnologists and composers began influencing the continuation or break in the traditions. The article is based on the sound recordings, collections of the folk music, the ethno-musicological research, and the written heritage of Eduard Wolter, Aukusti Robert Niemi, Jonas Basanavi?ius, Mikalojus Konstantinas ?iurlionis, Jonas Balys and Zenonas Slavi?nas.

  16. Las prácticas higienistas en el entorno urbano caleño, durante la primera mitad del siglo XX / THE PRACTICAL HYGIENISTS IN THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT OF THE CITY OF CALI, DURING THE FIRST HALF OF THE 20TH CENTURY

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aceneth, Perafán Cabrera.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este estudio tiene como propósito mostrar desde una perspectiva histórico-ambiental, aspectos relacionados con las prácticas higienistas características de la ciudad de Cali durante la primera mitad del siglo XX. Se destacan algunos de los problemas centrales relacionados con esta urbe y con algunas [...] poblaciones aledañas, en un momento histórico en el que se presentaron graves dificultades concernientes al abastecimiento de agua, al sistema de desagüe urbano y a la organización de los servicios de higiene correspondientes a la limpieza pública, la recolección de residuos, y la situación de establecimientos insalubres. El estrecho vínculo existente entre el discurso higienista y la idea de progreso impulsó la ejecución de propuestas encaminadas al mejoramiento de la potabilidad del agua y la adopción de prácticas en las que este recurso se convirtió en elemento estratégico para la limpieza pública, doméstica y personal. La construcción del acueducto y el alcantarillado representó una vía de solución frente a los requerimientos propios del panorama citadino de comienzos de siglo, en el que resultaba prioritario responder al tema de la salubridad, al avance del crecimiento demográfico, industrial y urbano, y al logro de mejores condiciones de vida para la población. Abstract in english This study has as intention show from a historical environmental perspective, aspects related to the practical hygienists typical of the city of Cali during the first half of the 20th century. Are outlined some of the central problems related to this city and to some bordering populations, in a hist [...] orical moment in which they presented serious difficulties relating to the water supply, to the system of urban outlet and to the organization of the services of hygiene corresponding to the public cleanliness, the compilation of residues, and the situation of noxious industries. The narrow existing link between the speech hygienist and the idea of progress stimulated the execution of offers directed to the improvement of the potability of the water and the adoption of practices in which this resource turned into strategic element for the public, domestic and personal cleanliness. The construction of the aqueduct and the sewer represented a route of solution opposite to the own requirements of the panorama of the city of beginning of century, in which it was turning out to be priority to answer to the topic of the health, to the advance of the demographic, industrial and urban growth, and to the achievement of better living conditions for the population.

  17. Medios de transporte, accidentes de tránsito y legislación en Medellín (Colombia) durante las tres primeras décadas del siglo XX / Means of Transport, Traffic Accidents and Legislation in Medellín, Colombia, During the First Three Decades of the 20th Century

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juan David, Alzate Alzate.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Automóviles, coches, camiones y trenes aparecieron en Medellín (Colombia) durante las primeras décadas del siglo XX, afectando las rutinas de los habitantes que tuvieron la necesidad de usarlos, transformando así las dinámicas de la ciudad. En este proceso, hombres y mujeres se vieron involucrados e [...] n circunstancias aciagas en las que estos aparatos fueron los medios a través de los cuales se cometían atropellamientos, que podían ser calificados como delitos, extendiendo así el marco de aplicación de las leyes y obligando, incluso, a generar estrategias legales para intentar llevar coherentemente estos litigios. El objeto central de este artículo es describir las formas como se presentaron los accidentes de tránsito en el contexto señalado y al mismo tiempo relacionar este tipo de hechos con la legislación existente en aquella época y la manera como era aplicada por las autoridades al momento de generar un veredicto sobre la culpabilidad por homicidio de un conductor. Para su elaboración se tuvieron en cuenta cinco sumarios por homicidio del Archivo Histórico Judicial de Medellín, información del Archivo Histórico de Medellín y de la Colección Patrimonio Documental de la Universidad de Antioquia, artículos de la prensa local, legislación y datos estadísticos de la época. Abstract in english Automobiles, cars, trucks and trains appeared in Medellín, Colombia, during the first decades of the 20th century, and affected the routines of the inhabitants who had the need to use them, thus transforming the dynamics of the city. In this process, men and women were involved in unfortunate circum [...] stances in which these machines were the means through which people were run over. Since this act was qualified as a committed crime, it was necessary to enforce the laws and even generate legal strategies for consistently attempt these disputes. The aim of this article is to describe the ways how traffic accidents occurred in the stated context, and at the same time, relate this kind of facts with the existing legislation in that time, and the way as it was applied by the authorities when generating a verdict on the guilt of murder of a driver. For its preparation five summaries were considered by murder of the Archivo Historico Judicial de Medellín, the information of the Archivo Histórico de Medellín, and the Collection Heritage Documentary of the Unviersidad de Antioquia, articles from the local press, legislation and statistical data of that time

  18. Ilukirjanduse tõlked 20. sajandi esimese poole Eesti ja Soome raamatutoodangus (1900–1940 / Translations of Belles-Lettres in the Book Production of Estonia and Finland during the First Half of the 20th Century (1900–1940

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    Aile Möldre

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents statistical data on the publications of belles-lettres in Estonia in 1900–1940 – a period when the country developed into a modern European society and gained independence. The topic is treated in the context of book history, which uses publishing statistics to provide a broader context for individual case studies. The research on the quantity and share of translated literature in book production comes close to the statisticalsociological approach in translation history, characterised by Peeter Torop as one of the aspects of the study of translation culture. The statistical indicators have been elaborated on the basis of retrospective bibliographies and on the data, obtained from National Library of Estonia. The analysis includes the share of belles-lettres in book production, the balance of original works and translations, the changes in the quantity of translations during different decades and the share of source literatures. The Estonian statistics have been presented in comparison with corresponding data from Finland, which has been published in the collective monograph on Finnish translation history, issued in 2007. As the Finnish data is organized by decades, the same principle is used for statistics on Estonia. This approach corresponds generally to the political history of the two countries – both belonged to the Russian Empire during the first two decades of the 20th century and existed as independent states during the following two decades. Both nations had passed through the first stage in the development of literary culture, characterised by extensive publication of adaptations and free translations by the beginning of the century. Thus the share of original works started to increase and slightly exceeded the share  of  translations  in  E stonia  as  well  as  in  Finland.  The  selection  of  translated  works  in both countries was varied and their level was unstable. Despite the longstanding plans of developing translation culture in Finland, the choice of works was influenced by international acclaime and the activitiy of translators. The immaturity of Estonian publishing manifested itself, among other things, as inadeaquate paratexts of the translations. Due to the differences in historical development and cultural background, the structure of  source  literature s  of  translated  belle s-let tre s  in  the  two  countrie s  dif fered  in  many  ways – translating from the English language increased considerably in Finland, fending the traditional German and Scandinavian domination. The importance of translations of German literature, which maintained the leading role in Estonia, is a common feature of both countries. At the same time, the interest in Scandinavian literature only started to emerge in Estonia. The  translations  of  Rus sian  literature,  however,  were  much  more  numerous  in  E stonia  thanin Finland. In general, the period of 1900–1919 is characterised by a notable increase in the quantit y of translated belles-lettres as well as their uneveness. However, the growing number of translations provided greater diversity, introducing new authors, styles and trends.The existence of an independent Republic of Estonia (since 1918 opened utterly new perspectives for the development of national culture – for the first time it could be done without external control and using the Estonian language in all levels of administration and education. These circumstances fostered publishing, the demand for books was especially great during the first years after the War of Independence (1918–1920, later the declines and increases in book production were connected to the economic conditions. Belles-lettres formed about 20 per cent of the title production, which in turn was almost equally divided between original works and translations. In contrast to Estonia, the number of translations started to decrease in Finland in the 1930s due to economic and political factors, idealising conservative national values. Th

  19. A Comparative Study of Variation of the Pterion of Human Skulls from 13th and 20th Century Anatolia Un Estudio Comparativo de la Variación del Pterion en Cráneos Humanos de los Siglos 13 y 20 de Anatolia

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    Ari Ilknur

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The pterion is a commonly used anthropologic and neurosurgical landmark defined as the junction of the sphenoid, temporal, parietal and frontal bones. It is commonly classified into four types based on sutural pattern: sphenoparietal, in which the sphenoid and parietal bones are in direct contact; frontotemporal, in which the frontal and temporal bones are in direct contact; stellate, in which all four bones come into contact at a point; and epipteric, in which a small sutural bone is found between the parietal bone and the greater wing of the sphenoid bone. In the present study, 44 Anatolian skulls from two different eras, Byzantine (13th century and contemporary (20th century, were investigated for morphology and location of the pterion. Sphenoparietal was the most common form, comprising 87.5% and 89.2% in the Byzantine and contemporary groups, respectively. The frequencies of the epipteric type of pterion were 6.25% and 3.6% in the Byzantine and contemporary groups, respectively. Measurements of the location of the pterion were made by using stainless steel calipers and Scion Image software. There were no significant differences in digital and manual measurements between the right and left sides of the skulls in both groups. However, the distance from the pterion to the inion was significantly greater in the manual measurements compared to the digital measurements. Anatomical variations of the pterion, which are of interest to anthropologists, forensic pathologists and surgeons, deserve further investigation in other populations from different geographical areas.El pterion es un punto comúnmente usado como punto de referencia antropológico y neuroquirúrgico, correspondiendo a la unión de los huesos esfenoides, temporal, parietal y frontal. Generalmente es clasificado en 4 tipos basado en padrones suturales: esfenoparietal, en el cual los huesos esfenoides y parietal están directamente en contacto; frontotemporal, en el cual el frontal y el temporal se encuentran en contacto directo; estrellado, en el cual los cuatro huesos mencionados se contactan directamente en un punto y epiptérico, en el cual un pequeño hueso sutural se encuentra entre el hueso parietal y el ala mayor del esfenoides. En el presente estudio, investigamos la morfología y la localización del pterion en 44 cráneos Anatolian de diferentes épocas, Bizantina (Siglo XIII y contemporánea (Siglo XX. La forma más común que se encontró fue la Esfenoparietal, con un 87,5 % para los del grupo Bizantino y 89,2 % para los de la era contemporánea. La frecuencia del tipo epiptérico fue de 6,25 % y 3,6 %, respectivamente. Se realizaron medidas de la posición del pterion utilizando un caliper y un software de imágenes. No hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas en las mediciones manuales y digitales entre los lados derecho e izquierdo de los cráneos de ambos grupos. Sin embargo, la distancia desde el pterion al inion fue significativamente mayor en las medidas manuales comparadas con las digitales. Las variaciones anatómicas del pterion, las cuales son de interés para antropólogos, patólogos forenses y cirujanos, son un tema de investigación a desarrollar en otras poblaciones de diferentes áreas geográficas.

  20. A Comparative Study of Variation of the Pterion of Human Skulls from 13th and 20th Century Anatolia / Un Estudio Comparativo de la Variación del Pterion en Cráneos Humanos de los Siglos 13 y 20 de Anatolia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ari, Ilknur; Kafa Ilker, Mustafa; Bakirci, Sinan.

    1291-12-01

    Full Text Available El pterion es un punto comúnmente usado como punto de referencia antropológico y neuroquirúrgico, correspondiendo a la unión de los huesos esfenoides, temporal, parietal y frontal. Generalmente es clasificado en 4 tipos basado en padrones suturales: esfenoparietal, en el cual los huesos esfenoides y [...] parietal están directamente en contacto; frontotemporal, en el cual el frontal y el temporal se encuentran en contacto directo; estrellado, en el cual los cuatro huesos mencionados se contactan directamente en un punto y epiptérico, en el cual un pequeño hueso sutural se encuentra entre el hueso parietal y el ala mayor del esfenoides. En el presente estudio, investigamos la morfología y la localización del pterion en 44 cráneos Anatolian de diferentes épocas, Bizantina (Siglo XIII) y contemporánea (Siglo XX). La forma más común que se encontró fue la Esfenoparietal, con un 87,5 % para los del grupo Bizantino y 89,2 % para los de la era contemporánea. La frecuencia del tipo epiptérico fue de 6,25 % y 3,6 %, respectivamente. Se realizaron medidas de la posición del pterion utilizando un caliper y un software de imágenes. No hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas en las mediciones manuales y digitales entre los lados derecho e izquierdo de los cráneos de ambos grupos. Sin embargo, la distancia desde el pterion al inion fue significativamente mayor en las medidas manuales comparadas con las digitales. Las variaciones anatómicas del pterion, las cuales son de interés para antropólogos, patólogos forenses y cirujanos, son un tema de investigación a desarrollar en otras poblaciones de diferentes áreas geográficas. Abstract in english The pterion is a commonly used anthropologic and neurosurgical landmark defined as the junction of the sphenoid, temporal, parietal and frontal bones. It is commonly classified into four types based on sutural pattern: sphenoparietal, in which the sphenoid and parietal bones are in direct contact; f [...] rontotemporal, in which the frontal and temporal bones are in direct contact; stellate, in which all four bones come into contact at a point; and epipteric, in which a small sutural bone is found between the parietal bone and the greater wing of the sphenoid bone. In the present study, 44 Anatolian skulls from two different eras, Byzantine (13th century) and contemporary (20th century), were investigated for morphology and location of the pterion. Sphenoparietal was the most common form, comprising 87.5% and 89.2% in the Byzantine and contemporary groups, respectively. The frequencies of the epipteric type of pterion were 6.25% and 3.6% in the Byzantine and contemporary groups, respectively. Measurements of the location of the pterion were made by using stainless steel calipers and Scion Image software. There were no significant differences in digital and manual measurements between the right and left sides of the skulls in both groups. However, the distance from the pterion to the inion was significantly greater in the manual measurements compared to the digital measurements. Anatomical variations of the pterion, which are of interest to anthropologists, forensic pathologists and surgeons, deserve further investigation in other populations from different geographical areas.

  1. Participación española en los Congresos de la Sociedad Internacional de Urología en el siglo XX / The Spanish participation in the Congresses of the International Society of Urology during the 20th Century

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mariano, Pérez Albacete; Jesús, Tornero Ruíz; Gerardo, Server Pastor; Ignacio, Ponce de León Castell.

    1029-10-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Con ocasión del centenario de la constitución en 1907 de la denominada primero Asociación y, más tarde, Sociedad Internacional de Urología, señalamos los temas tratados y analizamos la presencia de urólogos españoles en el acto fundacional así como el papel desempeñado y sus aportaciones e [...] n los congresos de la Sociedad celebrados en el siglo XX. Métodos: Entresacamos datos de la información recogida en diferentes publicaciones periódicas, de las memorias de algunos de los participantes y de las actas de los congresos. Resultados: Hemos obtenido notas de la reunión constitutiva de la Asociación Internacional y de sus dos congresos y luego de los veinticinco de la Sociedad. Extraemos, principalmente de las actas editadas por el secretario de la reunión, la asistencia de los urólogos españoles y su contribución con ponencias o comunicaciones así como la relevancia que han tenido al desempeñar cargos en el seno de la organización. Conclusiones: Desde 1907 la presencia de urólogos españoles tanto en la Asociación como en la Sociedad Internacional de Urología ha sido constante. En la primera mitad del siglo, años en los que nuestra Urología se encontraba en un periodo de consolidación, fueron los responsables de los principales servicios urológicos de los grandes hospitales del país los que podían transmitir su experiencia con un nivel y calidad equiparables a los del resto de los europeos. En la segunda, una vez recuperadas las naciones de los episodios bélicos, prosigue la actividad científica con una creciente aportación española conforme se extiende por todo el país la creación de los Hospitales de la Seguridad Social con servicios jerarquizados de Urología en los que se realiza el estudio y el análisis de sus casuísticas y se inician la investigación clínica y experimental, lo que permite que las comunicaciones españolas se incrementen de modo notable sobre todo en los congresos celebrados en poblaciones de habla castellana o en los europeos. Como consecuencia de su participación, en España se han desarrollado tres de los veinticinco congresos organizados en el siglo XX. La presencia española en los órganos rectores de la Sociedad se vio favorecida con la presidencia del profesor D. Salvador Gil Vernet por dos periodos consecutivos. Abstract in english Objectives: With the occasion of the Centenary of the Constitution in 1907 of the International Society of Urology, initially named Association, we point at the topics treated and analyze the presence of the Spanish urologists in the foundation act as well as their role and contributions in the meet [...] ings during the 20th century. Methods: We obtained the data from the information in various periodic publications, from the memories of some participant urologists and from the meeting records. Results: We obtained notes from the foundation meeting of the International Association and two congresses, and also from the 25 congresses of the Society. We mainly extract data from the records edited by the meeting secretary, about the assistance of Spanish urologists and their contribution with conferences or communications and also about the relevance they have had holding positions within the organization. Conclusions: From 1907 the presence of Spanish urologists both in the Association and the International Society of Urology has been a constant. During the first half of the century, a time when our Urology was in a period of consolidation, the people in charge of the main urology departments in big hospitals in our country where the ones that could transmit their experience, with a level and quality comparable with the rest of Europeans. During the second half, once the nations recovered from wars, the scienti.c activity continued with an increasing Spanish contribution, which extended all over the country with the creation of the net of Social Security hospitals. They had hierarchical urology departments that performed study and analysis

  2. Contribution of pharmacists to the Development of Healthcare culture in Vranje by the end of the 19th century and in the first half of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsi? Jasmina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Healthcare enlightenment and healthcare culture in Vranje and its region were under Turkish influence until the liberation in 1878, when the organization of education, schooling and healthcare were initiated in the Vranje region Objective. The aims of this study were to shed light on the beginning of the development of pharmaceutical personnel, and their contribution to healthcare culture development in Vranje and its region, with a focus on healthcare legislation and its impact on pharmaceutical service availability, and the analysis of pharmaceutical personnel development within the healthcare services. Methods. We used the methods of documentation analysis and the desk analysis of the secondary information. Results. At the beginning of the 19th century healthcare services in Vranje were still inexistent. After the liberation from the Turks, Naum’s medical office with pharmacy was opened in Vranje. Although it did not comply with regulations, it presented the only formal source of supply of medications and sanitary material, and as such it gave its contribution to healhcare service at that time in Vranje. Mr ph. Stevan Varjacic, 1st class pharmacy assistant, worked at a temporary hospital from 1880 until January 1881, suppling with medications soldiers and residents of Vranje. The development of pharmaceutical schooling began in 1883, when a pharmacy was opened by the pharmacist Velimir Karic according to the Law on Healthcare Organization and People’s Healthcare Maintenance. By the end of the 1930s there were ten civilian healthcare institutions in Vranje, even three of which were pharmacies. By the end of 1948, they were nationalized, and were renamed the City National Pharmacy of Vranje. Conclusion. By the end of the 10th century, passing of the legislation on the regulations of pharmaceutical industry within healthcare services had an impact on Vranje that resulted in opening pharmacies with educated pharmaceutical personnel. Pharmacy owners changed, and the quality and continuity of medical supplies was always secured.

  3. A imprensa negra e o futebol em São Paulo no início do século XX The Black Press and the soccer in São Paulo in the beginning of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Otávio de Lacerda Abrahão

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Em São Paulo, na primeira metade do século XX, havia associações destinadas à promoção de atividades culturais e esportivas para os negros, que surgiram diante da necessidade de denunciar as práticas discriminatórias e promover a sociabilidade étnica através do atletismo, do boxe e, sobretudo, do futebol. Uma delas era a Imprensa Negra. Neste artigo, os autores buscaram compreender as estratégias da Imprensa Negra para noticiar a participação do negro no emergente campo do futebol. Utilizando a perspectiva teórica da História Cultural, se ocuparam dos conteúdos das matérias dos jornais da Imprensa Negra, disponíveis na Biblioteca Nacional na forma de microfilmes. O objetivo foi observar a continuidade e a regularidade do discurso, os pontos de afrontamento e de disputa simbólica em torno da negociação da construção identitária da "raça negra" no esporte e captar, através das mensagens emitidas por esses órgãos da imprensa, as estratégias de distinção utilizadas por esse grupo étnico/racial em torno da contestação das representações negativas ou construção de representações positivas sobre o negro no emergente campo do futebol. Concluíram que o sentimento de consciência racial, a necessidade de se integrar à nação e o desejo de ascensão social eram os motivos que mantinham unidos os negros através daquelas associações. A Imprensa Negra procurou construir uma representação identitária do negro que privilegiasse o capital futebolístico, sem se esquecer dos predicados morais como a disciplina, a higiene e a ordem. A estratégia de divulgação dos feitos de sucesso dos negros no campo esportivo promovia uma identidade positiva do negro no futebol, em conformidade com as demandas daquele contexto: uma nação higienizada e disciplinada na esteira do projeto nacional que via no futebol um meio de expressão positiva da brasilidade.In the first half of the 20th century, in São Paulo, there were associations dedicated to promote cultural and sport activities for the African American people. They emerged to denounce discriminatory practices and to promote ethnic sociability through athletics, boxing and, especially, soccer. One of them was the Black Press. In this article, the authors sought to understand the strategies of the Black Press to report the participation of black people in the emerging field of soccer. The contents of the Black Press, available in the National Library in the form of microfilms, were analyzed using the theoretical perspective of the Cultural History. The objective was to observe the continuity and regularity of the speech, the points of confrontation and symbolic dispute around the negotiation of the identity construction of "black" in the sport and identify, by means of the messages sent by those media outlets, the strategies of distinction used by the ethnic / racial group around the defense against negative representations or construction of positive representations of blacks in the emerging field of soccer. They concluded that the feeling of the racial consciousness, the need to integrate themselves with the nation and the desire for social mobility were the reasons that held the African Americans together through those associations. Thence, the "Black Press" tried to build a representation of black identity that emphasized the soccer resources, without forgetting moral matters as discipline, hygiene and order. The dissemination of the achievements of blacks in sports promoted a positive identity of black man in soccer, in accordance with the demands of that context: a sanitized and disciplined nation in accordance with the national project that understood soccer as a mean of positive expression of "Brazilianness".

  4. A imprensa negra e o futebol em São Paulo no início do século XX / The Black Press and the soccer in São Paulo in the beginning of the 20th century

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Bruno Otávio de Lacerda, Abrahão; Antonio Jorge Gonçalves, Soares.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Em São Paulo, na primeira metade do século XX, havia associações destinadas à promoção de atividades culturais e esportivas para os negros, que surgiram diante da necessidade de denunciar as práticas discriminatórias e promover a sociabilidade étnica através do atletismo, do boxe e, sobretudo, do fu [...] tebol. Uma delas era a Imprensa Negra. Neste artigo, os autores buscaram compreender as estratégias da Imprensa Negra para noticiar a participação do negro no emergente campo do futebol. Utilizando a perspectiva teórica da História Cultural, se ocuparam dos conteúdos das matérias dos jornais da Imprensa Negra, disponíveis na Biblioteca Nacional na forma de microfilmes. O objetivo foi observar a continuidade e a regularidade do discurso, os pontos de afrontamento e de disputa simbólica em torno da negociação da construção identitária da "raça negra" no esporte e captar, através das mensagens emitidas por esses órgãos da imprensa, as estratégias de distinção utilizadas por esse grupo étnico/racial em torno da contestação das representações negativas ou construção de representações positivas sobre o negro no emergente campo do futebol. Concluíram que o sentimento de consciência racial, a necessidade de se integrar à nação e o desejo de ascensão social eram os motivos que mantinham unidos os negros através daquelas associações. A Imprensa Negra procurou construir uma representação identitária do negro que privilegiasse o capital futebolístico, sem se esquecer dos predicados morais como a disciplina, a higiene e a ordem. A estratégia de divulgação dos feitos de sucesso dos negros no campo esportivo promovia uma identidade positiva do negro no futebol, em conformidade com as demandas daquele contexto: uma nação higienizada e disciplinada na esteira do projeto nacional que via no futebol um meio de expressão positiva da brasilidade. Abstract in english In the first half of the 20th century, in São Paulo, there were associations dedicated to promote cultural and sport activities for the African American people. They emerged to denounce discriminatory practices and to promote ethnic sociability through athletics, boxing and, especially, soccer. One [...] of them was the Black Press. In this article, the authors sought to understand the strategies of the Black Press to report the participation of black people in the emerging field of soccer. The contents of the Black Press, available in the National Library in the form of microfilms, were analyzed using the theoretical perspective of the Cultural History. The objective was to observe the continuity and regularity of the speech, the points of confrontation and symbolic dispute around the negotiation of the identity construction of "black" in the sport and identify, by means of the messages sent by those media outlets, the strategies of distinction used by the ethnic / racial group around the defense against negative representations or construction of positive representations of blacks in the emerging field of soccer. They concluded that the feeling of the racial consciousness, the need to integrate themselves with the nation and the desire for social mobility were the reasons that held the African Americans together through those associations. Thence, the "Black Press" tried to build a representation of black identity that emphasized the soccer resources, without forgetting moral matters as discipline, hygiene and order. The dissemination of the achievements of blacks in sports promoted a positive identity of black man in soccer, in accordance with the demands of that context: a sanitized and disciplined nation in accordance with the national project that understood soccer as a mean of positive expression of "Brazilianness".

  5. Paradigmas de control de la malaria en Guatemala, siglos XX y XXI, de la erradicación a la eliminación / Paradigms of the malarial control in Guatemala in the 20th and 21st centuries moving from eradication to elimination

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jaime, Juárez.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La malaria continúa siendo un problema de salud pública mundial. Durante los siglos XX y XXI el abordaje de esta enfermedad sufrió cambios paradigmáticos muy interesantes, pero principalmente estuvo influenciado por los descubrimientos relacionados con la segunda guerra mundial, la situación económi [...] ca mundial, el advenimiento de nuevas estrategias de control y el abordaje de la enfermedad por medio de la participación comunitaria y el sector de la salud. El propósito de este trabajo es presentar los cambios de paradigmas desde una óptica vertical o erradicación, a una horizontal o eliminación, y desde lo positivista cuantitativo a lo mixto, en el abordaje de la malaria en Guatemala. Se realiza una reseña histórica de la malaria y se discuten los aspectos bioéticos del uso del insecticida dicloro-difenil-tricloroetano a nivel mundial. En los países desarrollados fueron justificadas las intervenciones de erradicación con el rociamiento intradomiciliar del insecticida citado y completarlas con el diagnóstico y tratamiento de la malaria; la realidad en la mayoría de los países en vías de desarrollo, fue diferente, puesto que no pudieron mantener los programas de erradicación por problemas financieros, un ejemplo claro de iniquidad global. Guatemala en esta década trabaja en la fase de preeliminación-eliminación, con buenos resultados, lo que marca un cambio de paradigma e indica que las medidas contra la malaria deben ser horizontales y favorecer el trabajo intra e intersectorial. Abstract in english Malaria remains a world health problem. During the 20th and 21st centuries, the approach to this disease underwent very interesting paradigmatic changes, but they were influenced by breakthroughs derived from the Second World Wear, the international economic situations, the advent of new monitoring [...] strategies and the approach to the disease based on the community and the health sector involvement. The objective of this paper was to present changes in paradigms form a vertical perspective or eradication to a horizontal viewpoint or elimination, and from a quantitative positivist to a combined standpoint in addressing malaria in Guatemala. A historical account of malaria was made and the bioethical aspects of the use of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane worldwide were discussed. The eradicating interventions by using the insecticidal spraying of houses were backed up in the developed countries. This was supplemented with the diagnosis and treatment of malaria. However, the situation was different in most of the developing countries, since their financial restrictions did not make possible to keep the eradication programs, being a clear example of the global inequality. In the present decade, Guatemala is going through the pre-elimination-elimination phase and it works with good results, which is indicative of a change in paradigm and shows that actions against malaria should be horizontal in order to encourage the intrasectorial and the intersectorial work.

  6. Paradigmas de control de la malaria en Guatemala, siglos XX y XXI, de la erradicación a la eliminación / Paradigms of the malarial control in Guatemala in the 20th and 21st centuries moving from eradication to elimination

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jaime, Juárez.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La malaria continúa siendo un problema de salud pública mundial. Durante los siglos XX y XXI el abordaje de esta enfermedad sufrió cambios paradigmáticos muy interesantes, pero principalmente estuvo influenciado por los descubrimientos relacionados con la segunda guerra mundial, la situación económi [...] ca mundial, el advenimiento de nuevas estrategias de control y el abordaje de la enfermedad por medio de la participación comunitaria y el sector de la salud. El propósito de este trabajo es presentar los cambios de paradigmas desde una óptica vertical o erradicación, a una horizontal o eliminación, y desde lo positivista cuantitativo a lo mixto, en el abordaje de la malaria en Guatemala. Se realiza una reseña histórica de la malaria y se discuten los aspectos bioéticos del uso del insecticida dicloro-difenil-tricloroetano a nivel mundial. En los países desarrollados fueron justificadas las intervenciones de erradicación con el rociamiento intradomiciliar del insecticida citado y completarlas con el diagnóstico y tratamiento de la malaria; la realidad en la mayoría de los países en vías de desarrollo, fue diferente, puesto que no pudieron mantener los programas de erradicación por problemas financieros, un ejemplo claro de iniquidad global. Guatemala en esta década trabaja en la fase de preeliminación-eliminación, con buenos resultados, lo que marca un cambio de paradigma e indica que las medidas contra la malaria deben ser horizontales y favorecer el trabajo intra e intersectorial. Abstract in english Malaria remains a world health problem. During the 20th and 21st centuries, the approach to this disease underwent very interesting paradigmatic changes, but they were influenced by breakthroughs derived from the Second World Wear, the international economic situations, the advent of new monitoring [...] strategies and the approach to the disease based on the community and the health sector involvement. The objective of this paper was to present changes in paradigms form a vertical perspective or eradication to a horizontal viewpoint or elimination, and from a quantitative positivist to a combined standpoint in addressing malaria in Guatemala. A historical account of malaria was made and the bioethical aspects of the use of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane worldwide were discussed. The eradicating interventions by using the insecticidal spraying of houses were backed up in the developed countries. This was supplemented with the diagnosis and treatment of malaria. However, the situation was different in most of the developing countries, since their financial restrictions did not make possible to keep the eradication programs, being a clear example of the global inequality. In the present decade, Guatemala is going through the pre-elimination-elimination phase and it works with good results, which is indicative of a change in paradigm and shows that actions against malaria should be horizontal in order to encourage the intrasectorial and the intersectorial work.

  7. Dietary reconstruction and reservoir correction of 14C dates on bones from pagan and early Christian graves in Iceland : Proceedings of the 20th International Radiocarbon Conference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinbjörnsdóttir, Árný E; Heinemeier, Jan

    2010-01-01

    In this study, ?13C and ?15N of bone samples from 83 skeletons (79 humans, 2 horses, and 2 dogs) excavated from pagan and early Christian graves from 21 localities in Iceland are used to reconstruct diet of the early settlers in Iceland and possible differences in diet depending on the distance between the excavation site and the seashore. We have radiocarbon dated 47 of these skeletons and used the carbon isotopic composition (?13C) to estimate and correct for the marine reservoir effect (the 14C difference between terrestrial and mixed marine organisms). The reservoir-corrected ages lie in the range of AD 780?1270 (68.2% probability). Reservoir age corrections were checked by comparing 14C dates of a horse (terrestrial diet), a dog (highly marine diet), and a human (mixed diet) from the same burial. The range in measured marine protein percentage in individual diet is from about 10% up to 55%, mostly depending on the geographical position (distance from the sea) of the excavation site. We had access to the skeleton (AAR-5908) of the Sk?lholt bishop P?ll J?nsson whose remains are enshrined at the Episcopal residence in Sk?lholt, southern Iceland. According to written sources, the bishop died in AD 1211. Using our dietary reconstruction, his bones were about 17% marine, which is within the range of human skeletons from the same area, and the reservoir-corrected calibrated 14C age of the skeleton is in accord with the historical date.

  8. Le Diable au xxe siècle El Diablo en el siglo xx. Una interpretación literaria de la Modernidad The Devil in the 20th century. A literary interpretation of the Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Luengo López

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available En los albores de la pasada centuria, la difusión de la figura de Mefistófeles, concebida como evolución moderna de la imagen de Satanás, fue un fenómeno social y cultural de suma importancia en cuanto a lo que atañe a la divulgación de la fe cristiana entre el imaginario colectivo. En España, la prensa se nutrió del terror de la Gran Guerra para relegar al Diablo de su trono del Mal, haciendo de él un individuo cuyas artes se amoldaban a la era moderna, y dejando, por consiguiente, su halo maléfico al ser humano. Con todo, ya desde el ocaso del período decimonónico y el « esplendor » de la Belle Époque, así como durante la década de los años veinte y la Segunda República, la literaturización que se hizo del Maligno revolucionó las mentalidades burguesas y populares de la época, dado que los periódicos estaban mucho más cerca de la realidad cotidiana de la gente que la propia Iglesia. De este modo, la prensa logró que hombres y mujeres perdieran el temor al Satanás difundido por la dogmática cristiana y, simpatizaran con un Mefistófeles que comprendía mucho mejor las desdichas y las alegrías de sus vidas.At the dawn of the past century, the diffusion of the character of Mephistopheles, conceived as the modern evolution of the image of Satan, was an extraordinarily important social and cultural phenomenon from the perspective of spreading the Christian faith within the collective imaginary. In Spain, the press was fuelled by the terror of the Great War to drive the Devil from his throne of evil, thus turning him into an individual whose arts adjusted to the modern period and leaving his evil halo to the human being. All the same, as early as the decline of the nineteenth century and the height of the Belle Époque, and during the twenties and the Spanish Second Republic, the literaturisation that was made of the devil revolutionised the ideas of the Bourgeoisie and the people of the time since newspapers were much closer to people than even the Church. In this way, the press was capable of making men and women lose their fear of Satan – fear that had been instilled by Christian dogmas – to start sympathising with Mephistopheles, a character which understood the misfortunes and joys of their lives much better.

  9. Uma doença que não perdoa: a tuberculose e sua terapêutica no sul do Brasil e na Itália, em fins do século XIX e inícios do XX / An unforgiving disease: the tuberculosis and its therapeutic in South Brazil and Italy, at the end of 19th century and beginning of 20th century

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lorena Almeida, Gill.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A tuberculose, em fins do século XIX e inícios do XX, constituiu-se como uma grande epidemia que ceifou a vida de milhares de pessoas. Embora fosse incurável, a imprensa fazia publicidade de uma série de tratamentos desenvolvidos em diversas regiões do mundo. Este artigo pretende discutir a trajetór [...] ia da doença a partir de terapêuticas propostas por dois médicos italianos, Edoardo Maragliano e Carlo Forlanini, as quais tiveram uma boa receptividade no Rio Grande do Sul. O primeiro ficou conhecido por uma vacina, mas especialmente por seu soro; o segundo desenvolveu o procedimento conhecido como pneumotórax artificial. A intenção é a de abordar o contexto vivido pelo estado do RS e pela Itália com relação à tuberculose, percebendo caminhos que se cruzaram para o cuidado de enfermos, que muito pouco podiam fazer após a confirmação de seu diagnóstico. Abstract in english The tuberculosis, at the end of 19th century and beginning of 20th century, has been a large epidemic that has ended with a thousand's lifes. Although it was incurable, the press made publicity of a series of treatments developed in several regions of the world. This article intend to discuss the di [...] seases path made by therapeutics proposed by two italian doctors, Edoardo Maragliano e Carlo Forlanini, who have had a good receptivity in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The first one has been known for a vaccine, but also because of his serum; the second one has developed the procedure known as artificial pneumothorax. The aim is to approach the context lived at the state of RS and in Italy in relation to the tuberculosis, realizing the paths that have been crossed to the ills care, who could make not much after the diagnosis confirmation.

  10. Political Cartoons in Commercial Advertising in Early Twentieth Century China

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoqing Ye

    2009-01-01

    Though advertising has long existed in China, the extensive use of advertisements, especially visual images, to excite the consumers’ imagination only started in the early twentieth century in the treaty ports, Shanghai in particular. Many of the commercial advertisements of the period have clear political connotations, such as the 1911 Republican Revolution. This article studies commercial advertisements in early twentieth century China in their political and social context, in particular ...

  11. Los Murrieta y los Redondo: Factores determinantes en las relaciones de consumo de dos ranchos fronterizos sonorenses de la primera mitad del siglo XX / THE MURRIETA AND THE REDONDO: DETERMINANT FACTORS IN THE RELATIONS OF CONSUMPTION OF TWO MESSES IN THE BORDER SONORENSES OF THE FIRST HALF OF THE 20TH CENTURY

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andreé, Bojalil Daou.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El consumo de los habitantes de la región del Río Magdalena, en Sonora México, se ve fuertemente influenciado por sus condiciones climatológicas, comerciales y de vías de comunicación. Mediante la investigación arqueológica de dos ranchos de la primera mitad del siglo XX más el análisis documental d [...] e estos se ha podido entender de qué manera estos factores influenciaban la vida de los habitantes del Desierto de Sonora. Abstract in english The consumption of the inhabitants of the region of the Rio Sponge-cake, in Sonorous Mexico, meets strongly influenced by his climatological, commercial conditions and of road links. By means of the archaeological investigation of two messes of the first half of the 20th century more than these he c [...] ould have understood the documentary analysis of what way these factors were influencing the life of the inhabitants of the Desert of Sonorous.

  12. Early Portuguese meteorological measurements (18th century)

    OpenAIRE

    Alcoforado, M. J.; Vaquero, J. M.; Trigo, R. M.; Taborda, J. P.

    2012-01-01

    Natural proxies, documentary evidence and instrumental data are the only sources used to reconstruct past climates. In this paper, we present the 18th century meteorologists (either Portuguese or foreigners) who made the first observations at several sites in Continental Portugal, Madeira Island and Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), from 1749 until 1802. Information is given concerning observation site, variables observed, measurement period, methods of measurements and sources (both manuscript and pr...

  13. Perceptions and problems of disease in the one-humped camel in southern Africa in the late 19th and early 20th centuries : historical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.T. Wilson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius was first introduced to German South West Africa (Namibia for military purposes in 1889. Introductions to the Cape of Good Hope (South Africa in 1897 and Rhodesia (Zimbabwe in 1903 were initially with a view to replacing oxen that died of rinderpest. Disease risks attendant on these introductions were recognised and to some extent guarded against. There were, however, relatively few problems. One camel was diagnosed as having foot-and-mouth disease. Mange in camels from India caused some concern as did trypanosomosis from Sudan. Trypanosomosis was introduced into both the Cape of Good Hope and Transvaal. Antibodies to some common livestock disease were found in later years.

  14. Anomalía y enfermedad en escritoras de inicios del s. XX / Anomaly and Disease in Women Writers of the early 20th century

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana, Traverso.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Frente a los cada vez más legitimados y popularizados estudios científicos sobre las patologías femeninas y la naturalización de la enfermedad en la mujer, las escritoras del periodo introducen en sus ficciones agudas críticas contra la ciencia médica. A partir del análisis de la obra de cuatro auto [...] ras, proponemos tres ejes fundamentales en que ellas realizarían su denuncia. Mediante: 1) una nueva interpretación respecto de la "enfermedad" que cuestiona el sistema social y cultural que la produce; 2) el rechazo del diagnóstico de "enferma" y con ello las bases teóricas, presupuestos, métodos, en síntesis, la ciencia que lo fundamenta; y 3) a partir de la misma diferencia "natural" de los sexos, la formulación de modelos de mujer que se constituyen "superiores" moral y emocionalmente (sanas y estables) frente a sus pares masculinos más débiles e influenciables. Abstract in english As a reaction against the increasingly legitimized and popularized studies about Chilean women's pathologies and the common acceptance of women's diseases, the female writers of the period acutely criticize medical science in their work. Based on the analysis of four female authors' writing, three w [...] ays to condemn this reality are suggested: 1) posing a new interpretation of the "disease" that denounces the social and cultural system that produces it; 2) rejecting the diagnose of "ill", together with the theoretical basis, presuppositions and methods of the science that supports the illness; and 3) based on the "natural" difference between genders, formulating models of women who are seen as morally and emotionally "superior" to their masculine peers (healthier and more stable), who are represented as weaker and more gullible.

  15. Perceptions and problems of disease in the one-humped camel in Southern Africa in the late 19th and early 20th centuries

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R T, Wilson.

    Full Text Available The one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius) was first introduced to German South West Africa (Namibia) for military purposes in 1889. Introductions to the Cape of Good Hope (South Africa) in 1897 and Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) in 1903 were initially with a view to replacing oxen that died of rinderpest. Dis [...] ease risks attendant on these introductions were recognised and to some extent guarded against. There were, however, relatively few problems. One camel was diagnosed as having foot-and-mouth disease. Mange in camels from India caused some concern as did trypanosomosis from Sudan. Trypanosomosis was introduced into both the Cape of Good Hope and Transvaal. Antibodies to some common livestock disease were found in later years.

  16. Manuscripts and Broadsheets. Narrative Genres and the Communication Circuit among Working-Class Youth in early 20th-Century Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Kirsti Salmi-Niklander

    2006-01-01

    In this article the hazy boundary between folklore and literature, orality and literacy is explored in relation to the individual and the community. How do people who belong to the first generation of active writers in their family and community express their own experiences through fictional narratives and the literary tradition? This question is explored in relation to the working-class youth in the small industrial community of Karkkila (Högfors)in southern Finland. The most important res...

  17. Simulation of Daily Soil Moisture Content and Reconstruction of Drought Events from the Early 20th Century in Seoul, Korea, using a Hydrological Simulation Model, BROOK

    OpenAIRE

    Eun-Shik Kim

    2010-01-01

    To understand day-to-day fluctuations in soil moisture content in Seoul, I simulated daily soil moisturecontent from 1908 to 2009 using long-term climatic precipitation and temperature data collected at the Surface SynopticMeteorological Station in Seoul for the last 98 years with a hydrological simulation model, BROOK. The output data setfrom the BROOK model allowed me to examine day-to-day fluctuations and the severity and duration of droughts in theSeoul area. Although the soil moisture co...

  18. 20th Annual Residence Hall Construction Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agron, Joe

    2009-01-01

    Even in difficult economic times, colleges and universities continue to invest in residence hall construction projects as a way to attract new students and keep existing ones on campus. According to data from "American School & University"'s 20th annual Residence Hall Construction Report, the median new project completed in 2008 was less expensive…

  19. 20th anniversary of CERN PS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To mark the 20th anniversary of the CERN proton synchrotron, a short summary of its many uses and contributions to high energy physics is given and its original parameters are compared with present and anticipated performance. (W.D.L.).

  20. Happy 20th Birthday, World Wide Web!

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    On 13 March CERN celebrated the 20th anniversary of the World Wide Web. Check out the video interview with Web creator Tim Berners-Lee and find out more about the both the history and future of the Web. To celebrate CERN also launched a brand new website, CERNland, for kids.

  1. Early Portuguese meteorological records (18th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Alcoforado

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural proxies, documentary evidence and instrumental data are the main sources used to reconstruct past climates. In this paper, we present the 18th century meteorologists (either Portuguese or foreigners, who made the first observations at several sites in Continental Portugal, Madeira Island and Rio de Janeiro (Brazil, from 1749 until 1802. Information is given concerning observation site, variables observed, measurement period, methodologies and sources (both manuscript and printed. Some examples from the data usefulness are given: rainfall variability in Madeira (1749–1753 and in Continental Portugal (1781–1793 was reconstructed, allowing to extend towards the late 18th century the well known negative correlation between the NAO index and seasonal rainfall. Furthermore, previously unpublished data for 1783–1784 has allowed analysing the consequences of the Laki eruption in Portugal: foggy and haze days are referred to in summer 1783, but unlike the hot summer observed in Northern and Central Europe, temperatures in Portugal were lower than average. Additionally, observations from Rio de Janeiro in Brazil show that the Laki consequences may well have spread to sectors of the Southern Hemisphere. Although the series are short, the data will be used for climate reconstruction studies focused in Southern Portugal and are also useful to improve the quality of large scale reconstruction datasets.

  2. Early Portuguese meteorological records (18th century)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcoforado, M. J.; Vaquero, J. M.; Trigo, R. M.; Taborda, J. P.

    2011-10-01

    Natural proxies, documentary evidence and instrumental data are the main sources used to reconstruct past climates. In this paper, we present the 18th century meteorologists (either Portuguese or foreigners), who made the first observations at several sites in Continental Portugal, Madeira Island and Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), from 1749 until 1802. Information is given concerning observation site, variables observed, measurement period, methodologies and sources (both manuscript and printed). Some examples from the data usefulness are given: rainfall variability in Madeira (1749-1753) and in Continental Portugal (1781-1793) was reconstructed, allowing to extend towards the late 18th century the well known negative correlation between the NAO index and seasonal rainfall. Furthermore, previously unpublished data for 1783-1784 has allowed analysing the consequences of the Laki eruption in Portugal: foggy and haze days are referred to in summer 1783, but unlike the hot summer observed in Northern and Central Europe, temperatures in Portugal were lower than average. Additionally, observations from Rio de Janeiro in Brazil show that the Laki consequences may well have spread to sectors of the Southern Hemisphere. Although the series are short, the data will be used for climate reconstruction studies focused in Southern Portugal and are also useful to improve the quality of large scale reconstruction datasets.

  3. Early Portuguese meteorological measurements (18th century)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcoforado, M. J.; Vaquero, J. M.; Trigo, R. M.; Taborda, J. P.

    2012-02-01

    Natural proxies, documentary evidence and instrumental data are the only sources used to reconstruct past climates. In this paper, we present the 18th century meteorologists (either Portuguese or foreigners) who made the first observations at several sites in Continental Portugal, Madeira Island and Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), from 1749 until 1802. Information is given concerning observation site, variables observed, measurement period, methods of measurements and sources (both manuscript and printed). Some examples from the data usefulness are given: rainfall variability in Madeira (1749-1753) and in continental Portugal (1781-1793) was reconstructed, allowing to extend towards the late 18th century the well known negative correlation between the NAO index and seasonal rainfall. Furthermore, previously unpublished data for 1783-1784 have allowed analysing the consequences of the Lakagígar eruption in Portugal: foggy and haze days are referred to in summer 1783, but unlike the hot summer observed in northern and central Europe, temperatures in Portugal were lower than average. Additionally, observations from Rio de Janeiro in Brazil show that the Lakagígar consequences may well have spread to sectors of the Southern Hemisphere. Although the series are short, the data have been used for climate reconstruction studies and may also be useful to improve the quality of large scale reconstruction datasets.

  4. Early Portuguese meteorological measurements (18th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Alcoforado

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Natural proxies, documentary evidence and instrumental data are the only sources used to reconstruct past climates. In this paper, we present the 18th century meteorologists (either Portuguese or foreigners who made the first observations at several sites in Continental Portugal, Madeira Island and Rio de Janeiro (Brazil, from 1749 until 1802. Information is given concerning observation site, variables observed, measurement period, methods of measurements and sources (both manuscript and printed. Some examples from the data usefulness are given: rainfall variability in Madeira (1749–1753 and in continental Portugal (1781–1793 was reconstructed, allowing to extend towards the late 18th century the well known negative correlation between the NAO index and seasonal rainfall. Furthermore, previously unpublished data for 1783–1784 have allowed analysing the consequences of the Lakagígar eruption in Portugal: foggy and haze days are referred to in summer 1783, but unlike the hot summer observed in northern and central Europe, temperatures in Portugal were lower than average. Additionally, observations from Rio de Janeiro in Brazil show that the Lakagígar consequences may well have spread to sectors of the Southern Hemisphere. Although the series are short, the data have been used for climate reconstruction studies and may also be useful to improve the quality of large scale reconstruction datasets.

  5. Los aymaras del norte de Chile entre los siglos XIX y XX: Un recuento histórico / The Aymaras of Northern Chile in the 19th and 20th centuries: An historical account

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alberto, Díaz Araya; Marcela, Tapia Ladino.

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El presente artículo tiene como finalidad sintetizar la historia aymara del norte chileno entre los siglos XIX y XX, en base a una revisión de la producción científica social e histórica desarrollada en el norte de Chile. El objetivo es sistematizar la historia regional aymara contemporánea en un te [...] xto para su difusión. Abstract in english This article offers a panorama of aymara history in northern Chile between the nineteenth and twentieth century, based on local sources and an analysis of recent historiographic documentation. The aim is to reconstruct contemporary Aymara regional history, sistematically, in an article aimed at a wi [...] de audience.

  6. Paul Fritts and company, organ builders: The evolution of the mechanical-action organ in the United States during the 20th century with historical emphasis on the instruments of Paul Fritts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Still, Tamara G.

    Paul Fritts is known internationally as a builder of mechanical-action pipe organs based on historical models of the 17th and 18 th centuries. He is one of a number of contemporary builders who have researched renaissance and baroque organs as a point of departure for their designs. As builders have returned to antique models to inform their craft, they have debated the importance of certain aspects of classical design. Included here is discussion of some aspects of design with regard to Fritts and other important mechanical-action organbuilders. Topics of discussion include the significance of pipe metals, temperaments and tunings, key action and case design. Some of the professional debate is scientific, other is subjective and very emotional. This dissertation explores the work of Paul Fritts and chronicles his contribution. Biographical information is included.

  7. Ciencia y persuasión social en la medicalización de la infancia en España, siglos XIX-XX / Science and social persuasion in the medicalization of childhood in 19th- and 20th-century Spain

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Esteban, Rodríguez Ocaña; Enrique, Perdiguero.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo indaga la conversión en rutinaria de la visita del médico de niños en España. Estudia la sustitución de modelos de atención al embarazo, parto y crianza, tradicionalmente opacos para varones y objeto de cuidados mediante agentes populares, por otros accesibles a la medicina académica. A [...] partir de la situación existente a nivel popular en el último tercio del siglo XIX, exploramos la repercusión de campañas de divulgación científica - entendidas como crítica sin cuartel a lo que se construyó como cultura popular - y la proliferación de dispositivos asistenciales gratuitos. La oferta de vigilancia sobre la alimentación de lactantes permitió familiarizar a las madres con la asistencia facultativa en la enfermedad, hasta que, en la segunda mitad del siglo XX, la Pediatría se centró preferentemente en las patologías y la Puericultura dejó de ser especialidad médica para convertirse en identidad profesional subalterna. Abstract in english The article explores how childhood visits to doctors first became routine in Spain. The introduction of new models of prenatal care, childbirth, and childrearing required the extension of academic medicine into a terrain traditionally occupied by practitioners of popular medicine. Focusing on the st [...] atus quo for most of the population in the final third of the nineteenth century, the study examines the repercussion of the era's scientific outreach campaigns (expressions of harsh criticism of what popular culture had constructed) and the spread of free health assistance. In particular, it highlights how attention to the nutritional needs of nursing mothers helped these women gain familiarity with the medical assistance available in the case of illness - so much so that by the second half of the twentieth century, the issues of health education and promotion had been relegated to a secondary plane within the medical profession.

  8. Ciencia y persuasión social en la medicalización de la infancia en España, siglos XIX-XX Science and social persuasion in the medicalization of childhood in 19th- and 20th-century Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Rodríguez Ocaña

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo indaga la conversión en rutinaria de la visita del médico de niños en España. Estudia la sustitución de modelos de atención al embarazo, parto y crianza, tradicionalmente opacos para varones y objeto de cuidados mediante agentes populares, por otros accesibles a la medicina académica. A partir de la situación existente a nivel popular en el último tercio del siglo XIX, exploramos la repercusión de campañas de divulgación científica - entendidas como crítica sin cuartel a lo que se construyó como cultura popular - y la proliferación de dispositivos asistenciales gratuitos. La oferta de vigilancia sobre la alimentación de lactantes permitió familiarizar a las madres con la asistencia facultativa en la enfermedad, hasta que, en la segunda mitad del siglo XX, la Pediatría se centró preferentemente en las patologías y la Puericultura dejó de ser especialidad médica para convertirse en identidad profesional subalterna.The article explores how childhood visits to doctors first became routine in Spain. The introduction of new models of prenatal care, childbirth, and childrearing required the extension of academic medicine into a terrain traditionally occupied by practitioners of popular medicine. Focusing on the status quo for most of the population in the final third of the nineteenth century, the study examines the repercussion of the era's scientific outreach campaigns (expressions of harsh criticism of what popular culture had constructed and the spread of free health assistance. In particular, it highlights how attention to the nutritional needs of nursing mothers helped these women gain familiarity with the medical assistance available in the case of illness - so much so that by the second half of the twentieth century, the issues of health education and promotion had been relegated to a secondary plane within the medical profession.

  9. Political Cartoons in Commercial Advertising in Early Twentieth Century China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Ye

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Though advertising has long existed in China, the extensive use of advertisements, especially visual images, to excite the consumers’ imagination only started in the early twentieth century in the treaty ports, Shanghai in particular. Many of the commercial advertisements of the period have clear political connotations, such as the 1911 Republican Revolution. This article studies commercial advertisements in early twentieth century China in their political and social context, in particular how advertisements tried to capture consumers’ aspirations for progress and prosperity.

  10. Los orígenes del modelo de codificación entre los siglos xix y xx en Europa, con particular atención al caso italiano / The origines of the model of codification between the 19th and 20th Centuries in Europe, with a special focus on the Italian experience

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Riccardo, Ferrante.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Entre el final del siglo xvii y el comienzo del siglo xix se configura un modelo de codificación (unificación del sujeto de derecho, completitud, no hetero-integrabilidad, neta innovación normativa, sistemática) que se mantuvo sustancialmente estable hasta el siglo xx. En este artículo el au [...] tor analiza su origen, el contexto de cultura jurídica, sus variadas articulaciones en las diferentes disciplinas. Se examina, en particular, en cuanto emblemática, la experiencia italiana. Igualmente, se propone una bibliografía esencial con base en las mayores y más recientes contribuciones histórico-jurídicas. Abstract in english Abstract Between the end of the 17th and beginning of the 19th centuries develops a model of codification, which is characterized by unification of legal person, completeness, prohibition of integration by subsidiary sources of law, clear legal innovation and system. It remained essentially stable u [...] ntil the 20th century. This article analyses the origins of this model, its background of legal culture and various structures in the different disciplines. Particular attention is paid to the Italian experience due to its peculiarity. Furthermore, an essential bibliography, based on the leading and latest legal-historical contributions, is offered.

  11. A Indústria e o Comércio da Cortiça em Portugal Durante o Século XX / L'Industrie et le Commerce du Liège au Portugal dans le 20ième Siècle / Industry and the Trade of Cork in Portugal During the 20th Century

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Miguel, Pestana; Isabel, Tinoco.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Apresenta-se uma retrospectiva da importância económica da indústria corticeira, bem como da sua evolução desde o início do século passado até ao presente, tendo como referência quatro períodos - até à década de 60, da década de 60 até 1974, de 1974 até à adesão à CEE (1986) e desta até aos nossos d [...] ias. É feita também uma descrição resumida deste sector nos dias de hoje, onde se descreve a situação da Floresta e da Indústria Preparadora, Transformadora, Granuladora e Aglomeradora. Finalmente, é apresentado o Comércio Externo Português, referindo a evolução das nossas Exportações e Importações, particularizando os valores por países, por valor e massa e por classes de produtos. Abstract in english We present a retrospective of the economic importance of cork industry, as well as its evolution since the beginning of the last century to the present, having as reference four periods - until the 60 decade, from the 60 decade up to 1974, from 1974 to the adhesion to EEC (1986) and from then to the [...] end of the 20th century. A summarized description of this sector in our days is also made, describing the situation of the Forest and Preparer Industry, Manufacturer, Crusher and Blender Industries. Finally, we present the Portuguese External Trade, referring the evolution of our Exports and Imports, particularizing the values by countries, by value and mass and by classes of products.

  12. A higienização da escola primária portuguesa no amanhecer do século 20 / L'hygiène dans l' école primaire portugaise au début du 20e siècle / The portuguese elementary school hygiene at the turn of the 20th century / La higienização de la escuela primaria portuguesa en el amanecer del siglo 20

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Manuela, Rodrigues.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Languages: English, Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente texto procura refletir sobre as preocupações higienizantes que, a partir dos finais do século 19, passaram a atuar no espaço escolar. De um modo mais específico, procurar-se-á acompanhar a transposição didática dos normativos legais ao território espacial das escolas primárias do Concelho [...] do Barreiro, num período temporal que se estende até aos anos de 1920. Abstract in spanish El presente texto pretende reflejar sobre las nuevas preocupaciones higienizantes que, a partir de los finales del siglo 19, actúan en el espacio escolar. De un modo más específico, se buscará acompañar la transposición didáctica de los normativos legais al territorio espacial de las escuelas primar [...] ias del municipio de Barreiro, en un período de tiempo que se extiende hasta los años 1920. Abstract in english This paper seeks to reflect on the new hygiene concerns that from the late 19th century, act in school. In particular, it will try to follow the didactic transposition of the legal norms to the elementary schools spatial territory from Barreiro, in a time period that extends until the twenties of th [...] e 20th century.

  13. Appraisal of two early twentiech century composite masonry-concrete structures: the Civic Theatre in Schio (Italy 1907) and Carraresi's Castle in Padua (Italy, XIII century)

    OpenAIRE

    Da Porto, Francesca; Valluzzi, Maria Rosa; Stievanin, Elena; Modena, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    In this contribution two examples of buildings constructed using composite masonryconcrete are illustrated: the Civic Theatre in Schio (Vicenza, Italy) and the Carraresi's Castle in Padua (Italy). Their reinforced concrete (R.C.) elements were built at the beginning of the 20th century, a few decades after the invention of reinforced concrete. The theatre, in the original 1907 project, had already been conceived as a composite structure. The castle of Padua, built in the XIII century, has ...

  14. Violeta Parra: tensiones y transgresiones de una mujer popular de mediados del siglo XX Violeta Parra: Tensions and Transgressions in the Mid 20th Century of a Woman from the Popular World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Pinochet Cobos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available La obra artística de Violeta Parra presenta, en diversos niveles, una compleja problematización de los esquemas sociales de la primera mitad del siglo XX. Este trabajo busca examinar los modos en los que esta folclorista transita por los esquemas de género que recaían sobre los hombres y mujeres de la época, dando lugar a una mirada crítica e irreverente en la que la tradición cultural y la innovación confluyen, tanto en lo que respecta al contenido de sus textos como en el plano expresivo de su musicalidad.Violeta Parra's artistic work presents on different levels the complex problem of unraveling the social schemes of the first half of the twentieth century. This article examines the ways in which this "folclorista" moved through the gender schemes corresponding to men and women of that epoch. This movement opened a space for a both critical and irreverent view in which cultural tradition and innovation converge, both regarding the contents other texts as well as the expression of their musicality.

  15. Violeta Parra: tensiones y transgresiones de una mujer popular de mediados del siglo XX / Violeta Parra: Tensions and Transgressions in the Mid 20th Century of a Woman from the Popular World

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carla, Pinochet Cobos.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available La obra artística de Violeta Parra presenta, en diversos niveles, una compleja problematización de los esquemas sociales de la primera mitad del siglo XX. Este trabajo busca examinar los modos en los que esta folclorista transita por los esquemas de género que recaían sobre los hombres y mujeres de [...] la época, dando lugar a una mirada crítica e irreverente en la que la tradición cultural y la innovación confluyen, tanto en lo que respecta al contenido de sus textos como en el plano expresivo de su musicalidad. Abstract in english Violeta Parra's artistic work presents on different levels the complex problem of unraveling the social schemes of the first half of the twentieth century. This article examines the ways in which this "folclorista" moved through the gender schemes corresponding to men and women of that epoch. This m [...] ovement opened a space for a both critical and irreverent view in which cultural tradition and innovation converge, both regarding the contents other texts as well as the expression of their musicality.

  16. L’introduction de la médecine moderne dans le monde arabe The introduction of modern medicine in the Arab world: between time of urgency and time of learning (19th-20th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Chiffoleau

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available L’État, colonial ou autochtone, a joué un rôle majeur dans le processus d’occidentalisation du temps au XIXe siècle. Le champ de la santé permet de suivre le processus par lequel de nouveaux dispositifs (École de médecine, dispensaires, campagnes de vaccination et de lutte contre les épidémies introduisent non seulement un nouveau temps compté par l’horloge, la régularité des horaires de rendez-vous, mais aussi, de façon plus abstraite, l’idée de prévention et l’ébauche d’un souci de soi qui permet de se projeter dans l’avenir pour préserver sa santé.The State, whether colonial or native, has played a key role in the process of westernization of time in the 19th century. The field of health allows us to observe the process through which new institutions like schools of medicine, clinics, vaccination campaigns and campaigns against epidemics introduce a new counted time and the regularity of schedules for appointments. In a more abstract way, it introduces the idea of prevention and a first idea of self care that allows the individual to project himself into the future, in order to preserve his health.

  17. First Cirulating Beams (20th November 2009 onwards)

    CERN Multimedia

    Collaboration, CMS

    2009-01-01

    Following the "splash" events of 6th/7th November the time has come to circulate the proton beams all around the LHC. This started in the early evening (Geneva time) on Friday 20th November and by midnight the beam had been circulated in both directions around the ring. Within a couple of days beam lifetimes were up to several hours, both beams were circulating at the same time, beams had been ramped to higher energies and first collisions (at 900 GeV centre of mass) had taken place.

  18. La dimensión geopolítica y económica del petróleo Venezolano en las primeras decadas del siglo XX y su repercusión en el Estado Cojedes / The geopolitical and economic dimension of Venezuelan oil in the first decades of the 20th Century and its repercussion in Cojedes State

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Argenis, Agüero.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este trabajo parte de una visión de los antecedentes y los momentos iniciales de la actividad petrolera en Venezuela, adentrándose en su evolución a lo largo de las primeras dos décadas del siglo XX, su vinculación con los tentáculos internacionales y su respectiva repercusión en el espectro polític [...] o interno. Se aborda el nacimiento de la legislación petrolera y su evolución a corto plazo, impacto y consecuencias para el país, así como la influencia de las Compañías petroleras en la orientación de la misma en función de sus intereses. Para la mejor comprensión de este aspecto se analizan los vínculos del capital internacional con el régimen gomecista y su papel en el sostenimiento del mismo a partir de una connivencia de mutuos intereses. Por último se ofrece el abordaje relacionado con la política petrolera desarrollada en la tercera década del siglo XX, donde destaca la apertura y el otorgamiento de concesiones a diferentes sectores económicos, entre los que sobresalen los terratenientes y personajes vinculados al régimen, produciéndose una “fiebre petrolera” que se sintió en todo el país, llegando a tocar áreas con escasas posibilidades para el desarrollo de la industria petrolera, como es el caso de la región del estado Cojedes. Abstract in english This study begins with a vision of the background and the initial moments of oil activity in Venezuela, and follows its evolution during the first two decades of the 20th century, its connection with international tentacles and their respective repercussion in the internal political scene. It deals [...] with the beginnings of oil legislation and its short term evolution, its impact and consequences for the country, and also the influence of the oil companies in their orientation of legislation in function of their own interests. In order to better comprehend this aspect there is an analysis of the relationship between international capital and the Gomez regime and its role in sustaining that government using the connivance of mutual interests. Finally it scrutinizes the oil policy developed in the third decade of the 20th century, emphasizing the opening and granting of concessions to different economic sectors, where there is a notable presence of owners of large estates and persons related to the regimen, producing an “oil fever” that was felt in all the country, even touching areas with few possibilities of development within the oil industry, as is the case of the region of Cojedes State.

  19. Educar y vigilar. Pobrezas y discursos normalistas en la educación territoriana neuquina, en la primera mitad del siglo XX - doi: 10.4025/dialogos.v9i3.124 Educating and supervising: shortcomings and training colleges’ discourses in neuquén's local education during the first half of the 20th century - doi: 10.4025/dialogos.v9i3.124

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Javier Bel

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available No território de Neuquén – Norte da Patagônia argentina – durante o período compreendido entre 1883-1957, estabeleceram-se diversas instituições de ensino num processo simultâneo de crecimento quantitativo e de complexidade educativa que vai desde as primeiras escolas primárias em bairros rurais no começo do século XX, até a criação de institutos de ensino médio nos centros urbanos na metade desse mesmo século. As professoras e os professores, em sua maioria vindos de outras regiões argentinas, se depararam com uma população escolar marcada pela diversidade étnica e social cuja grande maioria era de origem indígena e/ou chilena tanto nos espaços urbanos como nos rurais. Famílias e comunidades transandinas, em sua maioria de origem popular, apresentaram variadas formas de resistência e integração frente às tentativas de escolarização e de nacionalização exercidas pelo Estado, evidenciando um conflito que vai além do existente entre a cultura letrada dos docentes e os imaginários dos grupos relacionados para a cultura oral. Pesquisar sobre a construção dessas representações a partir dos discursos dos docentes envolvidos, assim como resenhar os dispositivos de controle e disciplinarização implantados pelo Estado junto às comunidades transandinas analisando as continuidades e rupturas desses processos, são os objetivos do trabalho aqui apresentando.From 1983 to 1957 several educational institutions were settled in Neuquén, a province in the north of the Argentine Patagonia. This coincides with a process of quantitative growth and educational complexity ranging from the first primary schools in rural areas at the beginning of the 20th century to the secondary level institutions in urban areas in the middle of the 20th century. Hailing from other parts of the country, teachers encountered students with different ethnic and social backgrounds, mainly indigenous or Chilean. This diversity was found both in the cities and in the rural areas. They were families from trans-Andean communities, the majority of them belonging to popular social classes, which resisted the state’s intents of schooling and nationalizing, and became integrated in different ways. These issues bring to light a conflict beyond the one existing between the teachers’ learned culture and the groups’ imageries, mainly connected to an oral culture. The aim of this paper is to study the building of these representations through the teachers’ discourses, review the control and disciplinary devices used, and analyze the vicissitudes of the process.

  20. Migraciones internas en España durante el siglo XX: un nuevo eje para el estudio de las desigualdades sociales en salud / Internal migration in Spain in the 20th century: a new focus for the study of social inequalities in health

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Unai, Martín; Davide, Malmusi; Amaia, Bacigalupe; Santiago, Esnaola.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Catalunya y Euskadi recibieron durante el siglo XX importantes contingentes de inmigración del resto de España. El objetivo es analizar las desigualdades en salud según el lugar de nacimiento (población autóctona y nacida en otras comunidades autónomas). Métodos: Estudio transversal sobre [...] población no institucionalizada de 50 a 79 años de edad, con datos de las encuestas de salud de Catalunya 2006 (n=5.483) y de Euskadi 2007 (n=3.424). Se utilizaron modelos log-binomiales para calcular las razones de prevalencia (RP) de mala salud percibida según el lugar de nacimiento, estratificadas por sexo y clase social, y ajustadas sucesivamente por edad, clase social y nivel de estudios. Resultados Las personas procedentes de otras comunidades autónomas valoraban peor su salud que las autóctonas, tanto en Euskadi (RP ajustada por edad en hombres de 1,30, intervalo de confianza del 95% [IC95%] 1,11-1,54; y en mujeres RP de 1,42 e IC95% de 1,25-1,62) como en Catalunya (en hombres RP 1,41 e IC95% de 1,26-1,62; en mujeres RP de 1,25 e IC95% de 1,16-1,35). Las RP se redujeron, pero permanecieron significativas tras ajustar por clase social y nivel de estudios, y estratificando por clase social manual y no manual. Conclusiones: En ambas comunidades existen desigualdades en salud en detrimento de la población procedente del resto de España, que constituye alrededor de la mitad de la población en las cohortes de edad estudiadas. Futuros estudios deberían explorar la persistencia de estas desigualdades en otros indicadores de salud y su reproducción en las segundas generaciones, así como identificar puntos de entrada para políticas preventivas. Abstract in english Objective: Catalonia and the Basque Country received substantial immigration quotas from the rest of Spain during the twentieth century. This study aimed to analyze inequalities in health by birthplace (the population born in the same region or other autonomous regions) in these two geographical are [...] as. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in the non-institutionalized population aged 50 to 79 years, with data from the health surveys of Catalonia 2006 (n=5,483) and the Basque Country 2007 (n=3,424). We used log-binomial models to estimate the prevalence ratios (PR) of poor self-rated health by birthplace, stratified by sex and social class, and successively adjusted for age, social class and educational attainment. Results: Immigrants from other autonomous regions had poorer self-rated health than the native-born population, both in the Basque Country (age-adjusted PR in men 1.30, 95% CI 1.11-1.54; women 1.42, 95% CI 1.25-1.62,) and in Catalonia (PR in men 1.41, 95% CI 1.26-1.62; PR in women 1.25, 95% CI 1.16-1.35). PRs were reduced but remained significant after adjustment for social class and educational attainment and stratification by manual or non-manual social class. Conclusions: In both communities there are health inequalities that are detrimental to the immigrant population from the rest of Spain, which constitutes approximately half of the population in the studied age cohorts. Future studies should explore the persistence of these inequalities in other health indicators and their reproduction in second generations, and identify entry points for preventive policies.

  1. Migraciones internas en España durante el siglo XX: un nuevo eje para el estudio de las desigualdades sociales en salud / Internal migration in Spain in the 20th century: a new focus for the study of social inequalities in health

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Unai, Martín; Davide, Malmusi; Amaia, Bacigalupe; Santiago, Esnaola.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Catalunya y Euskadi recibieron durante el siglo XX importantes contingentes de inmigración del resto de España. El objetivo es analizar las desigualdades en salud según el lugar de nacimiento (población autóctona y nacida en otras comunidades autónomas). Métodos: Estudio transversal sobre [...] población no institucionalizada de 50 a 79 años de edad, con datos de las encuestas de salud de Catalunya 2006 (n=5.483) y de Euskadi 2007 (n=3.424). Se utilizaron modelos log-binomiales para calcular las razones de prevalencia (RP) de mala salud percibida según el lugar de nacimiento, estratificadas por sexo y clase social, y ajustadas sucesivamente por edad, clase social y nivel de estudios. Resultados Las personas procedentes de otras comunidades autónomas valoraban peor su salud que las autóctonas, tanto en Euskadi (RP ajustada por edad en hombres de 1,30, intervalo de confianza del 95% [IC95%] 1,11-1,54; y en mujeres RP de 1,42 e IC95% de 1,25-1,62) como en Catalunya (en hombres RP 1,41 e IC95% de 1,26-1,62; en mujeres RP de 1,25 e IC95% de 1,16-1,35). Las RP se redujeron, pero permanecieron significativas tras ajustar por clase social y nivel de estudios, y estratificando por clase social manual y no manual. Conclusiones: En ambas comunidades existen desigualdades en salud en detrimento de la población procedente del resto de España, que constituye alrededor de la mitad de la población en las cohortes de edad estudiadas. Futuros estudios deberían explorar la persistencia de estas desigualdades en otros indicadores de salud y su reproducción en las segundas generaciones, así como identificar puntos de entrada para políticas preventivas. Abstract in english Objective: Catalonia and the Basque Country received substantial immigration quotas from the rest of Spain during the twentieth century. This study aimed to analyze inequalities in health by birthplace (the population born in the same region or other autonomous regions) in these two geographical are [...] as. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in the non-institutionalized population aged 50 to 79 years, with data from the health surveys of Catalonia 2006 (n=5,483) and the Basque Country 2007 (n=3,424). We used log-binomial models to estimate the prevalence ratios (PR) of poor self-rated health by birthplace, stratified by sex and social class, and successively adjusted for age, social class and educational attainment. Results: Immigrants from other autonomous regions had poorer self-rated health than the native-born population, both in the Basque Country (age-adjusted PR in men 1.30, 95% CI 1.11-1.54; women 1.42, 95% CI 1.25-1.62,) and in Catalonia (PR in men 1.41, 95% CI 1.26-1.62; PR in women 1.25, 95% CI 1.16-1.35). PRs were reduced but remained significant after adjustment for social class and educational attainment and stratification by manual or non-manual social class. Conclusions: In both communities there are health inequalities that are detrimental to the immigrant population from the rest of Spain, which constitutes approximately half of the population in the studied age cohorts. Future studies should explore the persistence of these inequalities in other health indicators and their reproduction in second generations, and identify entry points for preventive policies.

  2. Late nineteenth to early twenty-first century behavior of Alaskan glaciers as indicators of changing regional climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnia, B.F.

    2007-01-01

    Alaska's climate is changing and one of the most significant indications of this change has been the late 19th to early 21st century behavior of Alaskan glaciers. Weather station temperature data document that air temperatures throughout Alaska have been increasing for many decades. Since the mid-20th century, the average change is an increase of ?????2.0????C. In order to determine the magnitude and pattern of response of glaciers to this regional climate change, a comprehensive analysis was made of the recent behavior of hundreds of glaciers located in the eleven Alaskan mountain ranges and three island areas that currently support glaciers. Data analyzed included maps, historical observations, thousands of ground-and-aerial photographs and satellite images, and vegetation proxy data. Results were synthesized to determine changes in length and area of individual glaciers. Alaskan ground photography dates from 1883, aerial photography dates from 1926, and satellite photography and imagery dates from the early 1960s. Unfortunately, very few Alaskan glaciers have any mass balance observations. In most areas analyzed, every glacier that descends below an elevation of ?????1500??m is currently thinning and/or retreating. Many glaciers have an uninterrupted history of continuous post-Little-Ice-Age retreat that spans more than 250??years. Others are characterized by multiple late 19th to early 21st century fluctuations. Today, retreating and/or thinning glaciers represent more than 98% of the glaciers examined. However, in the Coast Mountains, St. Elias Mountains, Chugach Mountains, and the Aleutian Range more than a dozen glaciers are currently advancing and thickening. Many currently advancing glaciers are or were formerly tidewater glaciers. Some of these glaciers have been expanding for more than two centuries. This presentation documents the post-Little-Ice-Age behavior and variability of the response of many Alaskan glaciers to changing regional climate. ?? 2006.

  3. El Pirineu i la construcció nacional: El fet literari gascó a l’inici del segle XX i la seua relació amb l’àmbit català (Camelat, Sarrieu, Condò [The Pyrenees and the construction of a national identity: The Gascon literature at the beginning of the 20th century and its relation to the Catalan area (Camelat, Sarrieu, Condò

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suïls Subirà, Jordi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available From the beginning of the 20th century to approximately the 1940s the strongest (and, in many ways, the definitive tide of linguistic substitution in favour of the French language reaches the Occitan speech area at the same time as an Occitan cultural consciousness develops, which comes from the relationship between the Catalan Renaixença and the Occitan Félibrige movements, both going back to the middle of the previous century. In this context, the case of Mistral and his contacts to e.g. Verdaguer have attracted researcher’s interest. The Gascony extensions of this literary correlation are however less reputed. At that point Miquèu de Camelat writes his work. Born in Arrens, a small village in the Bigorre mountains, he is well known as author of Belina, a Pyrenean version of Mistral’s Mireia. With far more explicit ideologic aspects, Camelat publishes in 1920 Mort e viva, a piece that presents itself evidently as the big epic poem from the Gascony Pyrenees, obviously inspired by Verdaguer and concentrating on the important events that – according to the author – determined and still determine the existence or non-existence of the Gascon nation. The comparison of Camelat with his contemporaries, especially with Gascons like Bernat Sarrieu form Luchon and with the Aranese Jusèp Condò, shows us how the same cultural space (provided that we assume a cultural continuity in the whole of the Pyrenean area, at least concerning forms of interaction between man and mountain was conceived in a total different manner by the Gascons and the Catalans and – depending on the various historic conditions – was transformed differently into literature.

  4. A criança e o seu desenvolvimento em discursos médicos e pedagógicos que circularam no contexto português (séculos XVIII a XX) / Child and their development through medical and pedagogical literature currently available in the portuguese language (18th to 20th centuries)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    António Gomes, Ferreira.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A partir do advento da modernidade, dinâmicas tecnológicas, científicas, econômicas, sociais e culturais propiciaram crescente interesse pela quantidade e pela qualidade das pessoas e, consequentemente, por uma maior atenção ao crescimento e ao desenvolvimento da criança. A confluência dessas condiç [...] ões levaram a que se elaborasse uma racionalidade que, partindo do ancestral saber sobre o crescimento das pessoas, concedesse maior atenção às condições que o condicionavam, bem como às características que o podiam explicitar. O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar dados provenientes da literatura médica e da literatura pedagógica impressa em Portugal, com vista a possibilitar uma compreensão sobre como foi perspectivado o desenvolvimento da criança entre os finais do século XVIII e o primeiro terço de Novecentos. É nosso propósito incidir tanto sobre dados de natureza somática como psicológica apresentados nas referidas literaturas, bem como sobre as concepções de desenvolvimento aí expressas. Abstract in english Since the advent of modernity, technological, scientific, economic, social and cultural dynamics have fostered a growing interest in the quantity and quality of people, and consequently in child's growth and development. The confluence of these conditions gave rise to a kind of rationality that, sta [...] rting from the ancestral knowledge of people's growth, focused on the issues that influenced growth, as well as on the characteristics that could explain it. The aim of this work is to present data from medical and pedagogical literature printed in Portugal, with a view to promote an understanding of how child's development was perceived since the end of the 18th century up to the first third of the 20th century. It is our goal to focus on somatic and psychological data available on the aforementioned literature, as well as on the perceptions of development.

  5. La estructura académica del sistema educativo analizada a partir de los contenidos de la enseñanza: La educación básica durante las primeras décadas del siglo XX / The Academic Structure Of Educational System Analyzed From The Contents: Basic Education During The First Decades Of The 20th Century

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Guillermo, Ruiz; Karina, Marzoa; María Laura, Mauceri; Andrea, Molinari; Marcelo, Schmidt.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este artículo se presentan los resultados obtenidos en la segunda etapa de investigación, en la cual se reconstruye la evolución histórica de la estructura académica del sistema educativo nacional desde el plano curricular, sobre todo lo referido a la definición del rango de obligatoriedad de est [...] udios. En el proyecto se plantea como hipótesis principal que la evolución de la estructura académica constituye un indicador clave para canalizar la distribución de saberes socialmente significativos en la sociedad. Su evolución daría cuenta de la forma en que el Estado ha organizado la distribución de conocimientos en la población, a través de la definición del rango de obligatoriedad y de circuitos educativos, en cada período histórico para diferentes grupos sociales. En tal sentido en este artículo se describe la evolución que tuvo los niveles de educación inicial y primaria durante la parte del siglo XX en el marco de los debates pedagógicos y políticos que atravesaron las políticas educativas que el Estado argentino instrumentó desde finales del siglo XIX y durante la primera parte del siglo XX. Abstract in english This article focuses on the results of the second part of this research: the reconstruction of the historical evolution of the academic structure of the Argentinean educational system from the curricula point of view. The main hypothesis considers that evolution of academic structure constitutes an [...] indicator of the distribution of signifi- cant knowledge in the society. This historical evolution gives insights about the ways in which the Argentinean State has organized the distribution of knowledge across the formal education, through the definition of the obligatory period of schooling and educational tracks, in every historical period, for different social groups. Thus, the article describes the evolution of basic and primary education during the last decades of the 19th Century and the first half of the 20th Century.

  6. La estructura académica del sistema educativo analizada a partir de los contenidos de la enseñanza: La educación secundaria durante las primeras décadas del siglo XX / The Academic Structure Of Educational System Analyzed From The Contents: Secondary Education During The First Decades Of The 20th Century

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Guillermo, Ruiz; Andrea, Molinari; Claudia, Muiños; María, Ruiz; Susana, Schoo.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este artículo se presentan los resultados obtenidos en la segunda etapa de investigación, en la cual se reconstruye la evolución histórica de la estructura académica del sistema educativo nacional a partir de la organización que adquirió la enseñanza secundaria. En este sentido se realiza una def [...] inición conceptual de la estructura académica como un indicador clave para canalizar la distribución de saberes socialmente significativos en la sociedad. Conjuntamente se elucidan los términos de modalidades educativas y sus expresiones organizativas en las políticas educativas instrumentadas hasta la década de 1940 por el Estado argentino. De esta forma, en este artículo se describe la evolución que tuvo la educación secundaria en sus diferentes ofertas educativas durante la parte del siglo XX en el marco de los debates políticos que atravesaron las políticas educativas que el Estado argentino instrumentó. Se describen y analizan las reformas proyectadas y se interpretan algunos de sus alcances más significativos. Abstract in english This article focuses on the results of the second part of this research: the reconstruction of the historical evolution of the academic structure of the Argentinean educational system from the curricula point of view. We define the concepts of academic structure as an indicator of the distribution o [...] f significant knowledge in the society. We also define the concept of educational tracks according to the organizational expression that they have had as a consequence of Argentinean educational policies until the '40s. Thus, the article describes the evolution of secondary education during the last decades of the 19th Century and the first half of the 20th Century as well as their pedagogical debates. We describe and analyze the educational reforms that were designed by the State during this period and take into account their more important results.

  7. A criança e o seu desenvolvimento em discursos médicos e pedagógicos que circularam no contexto português (séculos XVIII a XX Child and their development through medical and pedagogical literature currently available in the portuguese language (18th to 20th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Gomes Ferreira

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A partir do advento da modernidade, dinâmicas tecnológicas, científicas, econômicas, sociais e culturais propiciaram crescente interesse pela quantidade e pela qualidade das pessoas e, consequentemente, por uma maior atenção ao crescimento e ao desenvolvimento da criança. A confluência dessas condições levaram a que se elaborasse uma racionalidade que, partindo do ancestral saber sobre o crescimento das pessoas, concedesse maior atenção às condições que o condicionavam, bem como às características que o podiam explicitar. O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar dados provenientes da literatura médica e da literatura pedagógica impressa em Portugal, com vista a possibilitar uma compreensão sobre como foi perspectivado o desenvolvimento da criança entre os finais do século XVIII e o primeiro terço de Novecentos. É nosso propósito incidir tanto sobre dados de natureza somática como psicológica apresentados nas referidas literaturas, bem como sobre as concepções de desenvolvimento aí expressas.Since the advent of modernity, technological, scientific, economic, social and cultural dynamics have fostered a growing interest in the quantity and quality of people, and consequently in child's growth and development. The confluence of these conditions gave rise to a kind of rationality that, starting from the ancestral knowledge of people's growth, focused on the issues that influenced growth, as well as on the characteristics that could explain it. The aim of this work is to present data from medical and pedagogical literature printed in Portugal, with a view to promote an understanding of how child's development was perceived since the end of the 18th century up to the first third of the 20th century. It is our goal to focus on somatic and psychological data available on the aforementioned literature, as well as on the perceptions of development.

  8. The Early English Text Society in the nineteenth century

    OpenAIRE

    Singleton, Antony E.; Anne Hudson

    2001-01-01

    ?Despite the importance of the subject to the discipline of Middle English studies, little research has been published on the history of the editing of Middle English texts. This thesis supplies a small, but essential portion of that history by examining the editorial practices that were used to produce the editions of Middle English texts published by the Early English Text Society in the nineteenth century. Then the dominant publisher in its field, EETS identified and printed ...

  9. Arctic marine climate of the early nineteenth century

    OpenAIRE

    Brohan, P.; Ward, C.; Willetts, G.; Wilkinson, C.; Allan, R.; Wheeler, D.

    2010-01-01

    The climate of the early nineteenth century is likely to have been significantly cooler than that of today, as it was a period of low solar activity (the Dalton minimum) and followed a series of large volcanic eruptions. Proxy reconstructions of the temperature of the period do not agree well on the size of the temperature change, so other observational records from the period are particularly valuable. Weather observations have been extracted from the reports of the noted whaling captain Wil...

  10. Human Capital: A Summary of the 20th Century Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langelett, George

    2002-01-01

    Overview of research on human capital, including the concept, history of studies, education as a form of human capital, issues and caveats, and role in growth theory. Concludes with current focus on human capital research. (Contains 56 references.) (Author/PKP)

  11. Encyclopedia of 20th-Century American Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Alleen Pace; Nilsen, Don L. F.

    This reference encyclopedia contains information on both the historical and contemporary aspects of humor and comedy in the United States. Arranged in an A-to-Z format, the encyclopedia is a collection of article-length essays that examine humor from many perspectives, from defining terms; to providing information on humor writers, comedians, and…

  12. Choral singing in the 19th and 20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xosé Aviñoa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Since Josep Anselm Clavé created choral singing in Catalonia in 1850, it has become one element of identification of Catalan culture. When the “Orfeó Català” was set up in 1891 it generated an associative movement that was fundamental to the cultural life of the country thanks to the creation of the “Germanor dels Orfeons de Catalunya” (Brotherhood of Catalan Choral Societies, 1917. The Spanish Civil War put a temporary brake on this huge undertaking, but there was arecovery during the first decades of Franco’s regime, when it became not just a musical activity, but also an excuse to give a cultural cohesion to the country through the creation of federative bodies, encouraging gatherings and activities. As well as Clavé, there were other people of note, such as Lluís Millet, Joan Balcells, Antoni Pérez Moya, Enric Ribó, Oriol Martorell, Manuel Cabero, Pep Prats, Jordi Casas, Pep Vila or Pere Artís in the field of the study and spreading of the movement.

  13. Wind energy developments in the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargo, D. J.

    1974-01-01

    Wind turbine systems for generating electrical power have been tested in many countries. Representative examples of turbines which have produced from 100 to 1250 kW are described. The advantages of wind energy consist of its being a nondepleting, nonpolluting, and free fuel source. Its disadvantages relate to the variability of wind and the high installation cost per kilowatt of capacity of wind turbines when compared to other methods of electric-power generation. High fuel costs and potential resource scarcity have led to a five-year joint NASA-NSF program to study wind energy. The program will study wind energy conversion and storage systems with respect to cost effectiveness, and will attempt to estimate national wind-energy potential and develop techniques for generator site selection. The studies concern a small-systems (50-250 kW) project, a megawatt-systems (500-3000 kW) project, supporting research and technology, and energy storage. Preliminary economic analyses indicate that wind-energy conversion can be competitive in high-average-wind areas.

  14. Oil and the Best Brain of the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinand E. Banks

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available If you meet someone at a party who says that he is Napoleon, you don’t start discussing cavalry tactics at Waterloo ? Professor Robert SolowWell that depends, Robert. If he is the gentleman who gave the party, and you would like to receive another invitation from him some day, you might feel it wise to suggest that if his boys had been riding elephants or dinosaurs instead of horses, he might have enjoyed another few years in swinging Paris instead of being turned over to that nasty Sir Hudson Lowe on St. Helena. [...

  15. Teaching Improvisation and 20th-Century Idioms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Christopher

    2000-01-01

    Contends that teaching contemporary music pieces that are largely improvised provides an ideal learning opportunity for students. Focuses on the piece "Improvisations I," stating that the version presented is intended for college students. Describes the performance of each section of the piece and provides suggestions for rehearsal. (CMK)

  16. Wind energy developments in the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargo, D. J.

    1974-01-01

    Wind turbine systems of the past are reviewed and wind energy is reexamined as a future source of power. Various phases and objectives of the Wind Energy Program are discussed. Conclusions indicate that wind generated energy must be considered economically competitive with other power production methods.

  17. A brief history of a '20th century danger sign'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation danger warning symbol was first developed at UCRL in 1946 for the laboratory's own use. Variations on the design, produced at UCRL and other USAEC laboratories, are illustrated and discussed. A standard symbol was eventually adopted and is now formalized in the U.S. Federal Regulations. (UK)

  18. 20th century carbon budget of Canadian forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurz, W.A.; Beukema, S.J.; Lekstrum, T. [ESSA Technologies Ltd, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Apps, M.J. [Dept. of Natural Resources Canada, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    1995-02-01

    Our analysis of the carbon budget of Canada`s forests (1920-1989) indicates that these forest ecosystems have been a C sink of approximately 0.2 Gt C yr{sup -1}. This result challenges the previously-held assumption that forests not directly affected by land use make zero net C contribution to the atmosphere. We attribute our observed C sink to a shift in the forest age-class structure towards a greater average forest age. Forest disturbances, which largely determine Canadian forest dynamics on a time scale of decades, appear to have been less frequent in the period 1920-1970 than in previous decades. They have, however, increased greatly in recent years (1970-1989) and have contributed to a decrease in the C sink. Forests that are subject to large-scale fluctuations in natural disturbance regimes on a time-scale comparable to tree lifetimes do not appear to reach an equilibrium C-exchange with the atmosphere on these time-scales. Assessing C budgets of such forest ecosystems requires an accounting of C dynamics for the entire forest area, not merely for that portion which has recently been affected by anthropogenic disturbances. 23 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  19. Climate Change in the 20th and 21st Centuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington, Warren (NCAR)

    2006-04-19

    The NCAR Community Climate System Model and Parallel Climate Model have produced one the largest data sets for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and its fourth Assessment. There will be some discussion of what is in state-of-art climate models. As a result of this and other climate assessments, most of the climate research science community now believes that mankind is changing the earth's system and that global warming is taking place. The changes are not only reflected in terms of means but also extremes. The new IPCC research findings will be presented along with future computational challenges. It is expected that in the future there will be a need for both terascale and petascale computing, which will allow for higher resolution climate models that have embedded hurricanes and smaller scale weather features as well as viable biogeochemical cycles. Because of concerns of burning fossil fuels there will be special emphasis on better estimates of the Earth's carbon cycle, which is a special concern for the DOE. In order to perform future climate change simulations, the computational methods will necessarily undergo a reexamination. Finally, at the end of talk there will be a discussion of how climate model studies can aid in future policy options, some of which will address 'geoengineering' the climate system.

  20. Climate and society in 20th century Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liverman, Diana M.

    1991-01-01

    Mexican agriculture has been greatly transformed by the widespread introduction of 'Green Revolution' technologies (irrigation, chemical fertilizers, and improved seeds), through land reform, and by land use policies oriented to export crops and grain production. Drought prone Mexico provides an excellent case to study how technological and social changes alter the impact of drought on food and agricultural system. A goal is to document and understand how relationships between climate and agriculture in Mexico have changed in the last fifty years. The results for several locations will be interpreted in light of the prospects of regional climate change due to global warming. This analysis will be complimented by four case studies of vulnerability to drought which will use local records and interviews to try and show how environmental, technological, and social changes may have altered the impacts of climate on local agricultural systems.

  1. 20th century intraseasonal Asian monsoon dynamics viewed from Isomap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannachi, A.; Turner, A. G.

    2013-10-01

    The Asian summer monsoon is a high-dimensional and highly nonlinear phenomenon involving considerable moisture transport towards land from the ocean, and is critical for the whole region. We have used daily ECMWF reanalysis (ERA-40) sea-level pressure (SLP) anomalies on the seasonal cycle, over the region 50-145° E, 20° S-35° N, to study the nonlinearity of the Asian monsoon using Isomap. We have focused on the two-dimensional embedding of the SLP anomalies for ease of interpretation. Unlike the unimodality obtained from tests performed in empirical orthogonal function space, the probability density function, within the two-dimensional Isomap space, turns out to be bimodal. But a clustering procedure applied to the SLP data reveals support for three clusters, which are identified using a three-component bivariate Gaussian mixture model. The modes are found to appear similar to active and break phases of the monsoon over South Asia in addition to a third phase, which shows active conditions over the western North Pacific. Using the low-level wind field anomalies, the active phase over South Asia is found to be characterised by a strengthening and an eastward extension of the Somali jet. However during the break phase, the Somali jet is weakened near southern India, while the monsoon trough in northern India also weakens. Interpretation is aided using the APHRODITE gridded land precipitation product for monsoon Asia. The effect of large-scale seasonal mean monsoon and lower boundary forcing, in the form of ENSO, is also investigated and discussed. The outcome here is that ENSO is shown to perturb the intraseasonal regimes, in agreement with conceptual ideas.

  2. The Dominican Republic in the twentieth century : notes on mobility and stratification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hoetink

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Sketches some major social developments in 20th-c. Dominican Republic, concentrating on the turn of the last century, the early decades of the 20th c., the Trujillo period, and the post-Trujillo era. Author pays special attention the the question of 'color', stratification, and identity and the relation between the country and Haiti. He concludes that the Dominican Republic has experienced many great changes, making society more complex and more stratified.

  3. Relación entre género y las etapas del diferencial por sexo en Cuba siglo XX / Relationship between gender and stages of differential by sex in Cuba in the 20th century / Relação entre gênero e estágios do diferencial por sexo em Cuba no século XX

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Arturo Alexander, Segura Massó; Carmen, Torres Colón; Olga Gloria, Barbón.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese As seguintes reflexões foram realizadas com o objetivo de fornecer considerações sobre a relação do sexo com a evolução diferencial por sexo em Cuba no século XX. Estas considerações basearam-se na teoria dos quatro vínculos que constituem o nó górdio da desigualdade de gênero, levando em conta as c [...] ausas que influenciaram o diferencial por sexo no século XX em Cuba, tendo a teoria acima mencionada como uma premissa fundamental e realizando uma análise a partir de uma perspectiva de gênero. Concluiu-se que a perspectiva de gênero deve estar presente em qualquer contexto no que a questão da diferença sexual for abordada, e assim mergulhar na realidade de cada estrato social e resolver os problemas de gênero que possam constituir elementos favoráveis para o aparecimento de doenças que prevaleçam e afetem negativamente a contribuição que o gênero feminino faz para a expectativa de vida ao nascer. Abstract in spanish Las siguientes reflexiones se realizan con el objetivo de brindar consideraciones acerca de la relación que tiene el género con la evolución diferencial por sexo en Cuba durante el siglo XX. Estas consideraciones se basaron en la teoría de los cuatro enlaces que constituyen el nudo gordiano de la in [...] equidad de género. Considerándose sobre las causas que influyeron en el diferencial por sexo durante el siglo XX en Cuba, teniendo la teoría antes mencionada como premisa fundamental y realizando un análisis desde una perspectiva de género. Se concluye que la perspectiva de género debe estar presente en cualquier contexto que el tema del diferencial por sexo se aborde, y así penetrar en la realidad de cada estrato social y resolver los problemas que desde el género puedan constituir elementos tendientes a la aparición de enfermedades que incidan y prevalezcan de manera negativa en el aporte que el sexo femenino realiza a la esperanza de vida al nacer. Abstract in english The following reflections are performed with the purpose of providing considerations about the relationship of gender with sex differential evolution in Cuba in the 20th century. These considerations were based on the theory of the four bonds that constitute the Gordian knot of gender inequality. Th [...] e causes influencing the sex differential in the 20th century in Cuba were considered, having the aforementioned theory as a fundamental premise and performing an analysis from a gender perspective. We concluded that gender perspective must be present in any context where the issue of sex differential is addressed, and then enter into the reality of each social stratum and solve gender problems that may constitute elements favoring diseases ' onset that prevail and impact negatively on the contribution that female gender makes to life expectancy at birth.

  4. Luz, leis e livre-concorrência: conflitos em torno das concessões de energia elétrica na cidade de São Paulo no início do século XX / Light, laws and liberalism: conflicts in the São Paulo's electric light sector during the beninning of the 20th century

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alexandre Macchione, Saes.

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O artigo discute o processo de introdução da energia elétrica na cidade de São Paulo no início do século XX. A Proclamação da República marcou o início da modernização das empresas de serviços urbanos, com a introdução da eletricidade. Foi neste contexto que dois grupos iniciaram uma intensa batalha [...] no setor elétrico paulista: o grupo nacional da Companhia Brasileira de Energia Elétrica (CBEE) - conhecido também como Docas de Santos - e o canadense Light. A falta de uma legislação federal para o setor de energia elétrica legou às Câmaras Municipais o poder concedente para os serviços de eletricidade, garantindo que as relações políticas entre vereadores e empresários tivessem decisivo papel na instalação de tais serviços. Assim, o artigo descreve o processo de introdução da eletricidade em São Paulo mediante os debates sobre a regulamentação dos serviços públicos, desvendando os critérios políticos ou ideológicos que levaram a conformação de tais leis. Abstract in english This paper discusses the introduction of electric power in the city of São Paulo during the beginning of the 20th century. The Brazilian Republic Proclamation (1889) established the beginning of the public services companies' modernization, which through the enterprises fusion and the arrival of for [...] eign capital allowed the electric power introduction in the main Brazilian cities. Two rival groups started a competition in the São Paulo's electric sector: the national enterprise Companhia Brasileira de Energia Elétrica (CBEE) - so called as Docas de Santos - and the Canadian company Light. The inexistence of a federal legislation to electric power services had transformed municipal decisions in deterministic guidelines for utility bids, making municipal lobbying a key instrument in utility concessions. Hence, this paper issues describe the electric power introduction in the city through the debates about the utilities' rules, analyzing the political or ideological criteria that build the São Paulo's laws for electricity sector.

  5. Luz, leis e livre-concorrência: conflitos em torno das concessões de energia elétrica na cidade de São Paulo no início do século XX Light, laws and liberalism: conflicts in the São Paulo's electric light sector during the beninning of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Macchione Saes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo discute o processo de introdução da energia elétrica na cidade de São Paulo no início do século XX. A Proclamação da República marcou o início da modernização das empresas de serviços urbanos, com a introdução da eletricidade. Foi neste contexto que dois grupos iniciaram uma intensa batalha no setor elétrico paulista: o grupo nacional da Companhia Brasileira de Energia Elétrica (CBEE - conhecido também como Docas de Santos - e o canadense Light. A falta de uma legislação federal para o setor de energia elétrica legou às Câmaras Municipais o poder concedente para os serviços de eletricidade, garantindo que as relações políticas entre vereadores e empresários tivessem decisivo papel na instalação de tais serviços. Assim, o artigo descreve o processo de introdução da eletricidade em São Paulo mediante os debates sobre a regulamentação dos serviços públicos, desvendando os critérios políticos ou ideológicos que levaram a conformação de tais leis.This paper discusses the introduction of electric power in the city of São Paulo during the beginning of the 20th century. The Brazilian Republic Proclamation (1889 established the beginning of the public services companies' modernization, which through the enterprises fusion and the arrival of foreign capital allowed the electric power introduction in the main Brazilian cities. Two rival groups started a competition in the São Paulo's electric sector: the national enterprise Companhia Brasileira de Energia Elétrica (CBEE - so called as Docas de Santos - and the Canadian company Light. The inexistence of a federal legislation to electric power services had transformed municipal decisions in deterministic guidelines for utility bids, making municipal lobbying a key instrument in utility concessions. Hence, this paper issues describe the electric power introduction in the city through the debates about the utilities' rules, analyzing the political or ideological criteria that build the São Paulo's laws for electricity sector.

  6. La escuela y la lengua en la construcción de la identidad nacional uruguaya: los libros de lectura usados en la escuela pública en los años 40 del siglo XX / School and language in the construction of the Uruguayan national identity: the reading books used in the elementary school in the 40’s in the 20th century

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mariela, Oroño.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Las políticas lingüísticas que apuntan a la promoción de determinadas lenguas o variedades de lenguas como vehiculares de la educación y de los valores nacionales, sustentan y generan representaciones que se transmiten mediante distintos tipos de discursos. Un tipo particular de políticas lingüístic [...] as, representaciones y discursos sobre las lenguas es aquél que se origina en el marco de los procesos de construcción de la nacionalidad. Este trabajo analiza el lugar que se le adjudicó a la lengua en la consolidación del Estado nacional uruguayo y del ciudadano en los años 40 del siglo XX, así como el modo en que se articuló el lenguaje con otros referentes de la nacionalidad, en la serie de libros de lectura de Roberto Abadie y Humberto Zarrilli, textos oficiales del sistema escolar en este período de consolidación y expansión estatal. El análisis se contextualiza con otros documentos educativos de la época. El estudio muestra el modo en que la escuela, mediante la enseñanza de la lengua, se encargó de difundir representaciones nacionalistas, y tuvo un lugar destacado en la construcción de la identidad nacional. Abstract in english Abadie and Zarrilli’s books belong to the 40’s in the 20th century. This period relates to the consolidation of citizenship. The purpose of this research is to study the sociolinguistic representations in Abadie-Zarrilli’s reading books, as well as the documents about education related to them. Coll [...] ected data is considered according to the periods stated establishing the socio-historical and educational contexts. I study the relationship between language, nation and citizenship. School and language have played an important role in the construction of the national identity.

  7. Did we finally slay the evil dragon of cigarette smoking in the late 20th century?: unfortunately, the answer is no - the dragon is still alive and well in the 21st century and living in the third world. Shame on us!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, Richard D; Murphy, Joseph G; Dunn, William F

    2014-12-01

    If cigarettes were introduced as a new consumer product today, it is unlikely they would receive government regulatory approval. Cigarettes have proven biologic toxicities (carcinogenesis, atherogenesis, teratogenesis) and well-established causal links to human disease. Things were very different in 1913 when the R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company introduced the first modern cigarette, the iconic Camel. By the early 1950s, definitive scientific reports linked cigarettes and human disease, but it was more than a half century later (2006) that cigarette manufacturers were found guilty by a federal court of deceptive product marketing regarding the health hazards of tobacco use. In the United States, cigarette smoking remains a major but slowly declining problem. But in developing countries, cigarette use is expanding tremendously. In global terms, the epidemic of smoking-caused disease is projected to increase rapidly in coming decades, not decline. Society may have begun to slowly win the smoking battle in the developed world, but we are resoundingly losing the global war on smoking. All is not lost! There is some good news! The 2003 Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, supported strongly by the American College of Chest Physicians, is the first global public health treaty of the new millennium. Many developed societies have begun planning to rid their countries of cigarettes in what is called the Endgame Strategy, and now is the time for the international medical community to help change tobacco policy to a worldwide endgame approach to rid all humanity of smoking-related diseases. PMID:25451345

  8. ‘Canonization in early twentieth-century Chinese art history’

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    Guo Hui

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s, the discussion of canons has been a dominant theme in the discipline of Western art history. Various concerns have emerged regarding ‘questions of artistic judgment’, ‘the history genesis of masterpieces’, ‘variations in taste’, ‘the social instruments of canonicity’, and ‘how canons disappear’. Western art historians have considered how the canon’s appearance in Western visual art embodies aesthetic, ideological, cultural, social, and symbolic values. In Chinese art history, the idea of a canon including masterpieces, important artists, and forms of art, dates back to the mid ninth century when Zhang Yanyuan wrote his painting history Record of Famous Painters of All the Dynasties. Faced with quite different political, economic, and social conditions amid the instability of the early twentieth century, Chinese scholars attempted to discover new canons for cultural orthodoxy and authority. Modern means for canonization, such as museums and exhibition displays, cultural and academic institutions, and massive art publications with image reproduction in good quality, brought the process up to an unprecedented speed. It is true that most of these means have comparable counterparts in pre-modern times. However, their enormous scope and overwhelming influence are far beyond the reach of their imperial counterparts. Through an inter-textual reading of the publications on Chinese art history in early twentieth-century China, this paper explores the transformation of canons in order to shed light on why and how canonical formation happened during the Republican period of China. Despite the diverse styles and strategies which Chinese writers used in their narratives, Chinese art historical books produced during the Republican period canonized and de-canonized artworks. In this paper, the discussion of these texts, with reference to other art historical works, comprises three parts: 1 canon formation of artistic forms within the new ideas of fine arts and Chinese art; 2 canonization in the historical temporal structures established by modern Chinese art history writing; 3 canon construction and deconstruction of artists and artworks under the influence of contemporary art production. Canonization in Chinese art during the early decades of the twentieth century applied new paradigms to organize old and new information of Chinese art into usable knowledge. This process of writing new histories for Chinese art contributed to the formation of a modern Chinese art history field.

  9. Ne?galaus k?no asmens tapatyb?s kaita XX amžiaus pirmoje pus?je: Prano Daunio Vargo keliais. Atsiminimai iš kov? d?l nepriklausomyb?s ir akl?j? gyvenimo | Identity change of the disable body during 1st half of the 20th century: On the Roads of Misery. Memories from the Battles for Independence and the Life of the Blind by Pranas Daunys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aist? Birgeryt?

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article introduces the first autobiography of the disabled in the 20th century Lithuanian literature – the memoirs of Pranas Daunys – On the Roads of Misery / Memories from the Battles for Independence and the Life of the Blind. In the context of the disability body studies, the article discusses different levels in the formation of the corporal identity of the blind person. The study emphasizes the importance of cultural space to the identity of the blind, which is related to the Braille. The article explains the integrity dimension of the blind person’s identity, which mergers different experiences of personal life (the experience of eye trauma during the war and the memories of patriotic feelings, which are equally important to the personal identity. The research deals with the corporal and sensual self-perception of the blind, which is closely related to the social and public emancipation, changing the lines of national identity.

  10. Administratium: A 20th-Anniversary Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBuvitz, William

    2009-01-01

    Perhaps the readers of The Physics Teacher have come across a humorous little story on the Internet about the discovery of an element called "Administratium" (or one of its variants "Governmentium," "Bureaucratium," etc.), which behaved like college administrations. Some of these readers might recall seeing it in print many years ago. In fact, it first appeared 20 years ago in the January 1989 issue of The Physics Teacher under the heading "Farcical Physics" and I was the author. I came up with the idea in February of 1988 while giving a physics exam at Middlesex County College in Edison, NJ. I was reading a memo from the college administration about the latest reorganization, with its usual increase in vice presidents, assistants to the vice presidents, etc., looked over at a large periodic chart on the wall, and it all came together. I originally posted the "Administratium" story on a bulletin board at the college and the faculty found it funny. I then decided to send it to The Physics Teacher. I was concerned about offending Middlesex College, so I asked that my name be omitted from the article. It turned out that this was unnecessary—the college administration was a good sport about it. What was surprising to me was how this little story spread. What was even more surprising was how many people took credit for it. I guess I invited this by not using my name in the original publication. If you Google "Administratium," you will get over 10,000 hits in different languages, with many people taking credit. I heard it read on The Osgood File and the discovery of "Administratium" was awarded an Ignoble Prize. A humorous story like this seems more appropriate for the Journal of Irreproducible Results. In fact, it was published in the January-February 1990 issue. Needless to say, I was getting a bit irritated by seeing so many people taking credit for my story. I contacted Norman Sperling, the editor of the JIR, about this and he suggested I write about the whole experience. I wrote an article that was published in the May 2005 issue and I extended the "Administratium" story to include newly discovered chemical properties. At the 20th anniversary of its publication, I feel it is important to clear up any question about the authorship in the magazine that first published the story.

  11. Movimiento libertario y autogestión del conocimiento en la España del primer tercio del siglo XX: la sección "Preguntas y respuestas" (1930-1937) de la revista Estudios / Libertarian movement and self-management of knowledge in the Spain of the first third of the 20th century: "Questions and answers" section (1930-1937) of the journal Estúdios

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos, Tabernero-Holgado; Isabel, Jiménez-Lucena; Jorge, Molero-Mesa.

    Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las secciones periodísticas de preguntas y respuestas reflejan y contribuyen a las sociedades en que se publican, y pueden desempeñar roles tan diferentes como constituirse en una herramienta para mantener la normatividad social o, por el contrario, en un instrumento para el cambio de las normas soc [...] iales. En un contexto de complejas relaciones entre expertos y no-expertos dentro del movimiento libertario en la España del primer tercio del siglo XX, la sección "Preguntas y respuestas" (1930-1937) de la revista anarquista Estudios (1928-1937) se revela como un ejemplo particularmente ilustrativo de gestión multidimensional de conocimiento a través de la redefinición efectiva de la participación de muy diferentes colectivos. En este trabajo, analizamos el intercambio entre el médico Roberto Remartínez (1895-1977), coordinador de la sección, y los lectores, e identificamos las características de la puesta en práctica del ideario libertario de autogestión a través de prácticas comunicativas en las que intervienen conjuntamente expertos y no-expertos. Abstract in english Newspaper Q&A sections reflect and contribute to the social historical context in which they are published, and they may play roles as distinct as becoming a tool to sustain social arrangements or, conversely, being an instrument for social change. In a context of complex relations between experts a [...] nd non-experts within the libertarian movement in Spain in the first third of the 20th century, the Q&A section ("Preguntas y respuestas", 1930-1937) of the anarchist magazine Estudios (1928-1937) constitutes a particularly illustrative example of the multidimensional management of knowledge through the effective redefinition of the participation of quite different groups. In this paper, we analyze the exchange between physician Roberto Remartínez (1895-1977), the section coordinator, and its readers, and identify features of the implementation of the libertarian principles of self-management through communication practices in which experts and non-experts jointly take part.

  12. Una perspectiva heterodoxa de la historia de los medicamentos: Dinámicas de inclusión-exclusión de los sueros antituberculosos Ravetllat-Pla en la España del primer tercio del siglo XX / A heterodox perspective on the history of drugs: Inclusionexclusion dynamics of the Ravetllat-Pla anti-tuberculosis serum in the first third of the 20th century

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sara, Lugo-Márquez.

    Full Text Available En 1924, momento histórico de auge de la tuberculosis en España, fue fundado el Instituto Ravetllat-Pla con el fin de producir y comercializar un suero antituberculoso fundamentado en una teoría propuesta por el veterinario Joaquim Ravetllat i Stech (1872-1923). La nueva teoría etiopatológica de la [...] tuberculosis propuesta por Joaquim Ravetllat evidenciaba la variabilidad ontológica del bacilo de Koch proponiendo nuevas formas bacterianas que no habían sido descritas. El tisiólogo catalán Ramon Pla i Armengol (1880-1958) encontró en la teoría de Joaquim Ravetllat fundamento a los síntomas clínicos que observaba en sus pacientes por lo que continuó la investigación en alianza con el veterinario. Esta teoría científica fue considerada heterodoxa por la ciencia oficial de la época lo que condujo al establecimiento de un espacio de exclusión en el que el Instituto adoptó la identidad de heterodoxo. Como reacción a la exclusión el Instituto generó otro espacio de inclusión en el que, a través del éxito comercial de sus productos farmacéuticos, su refutada teoría científica fue legitimada y validada socialmente. En el presente artículo, se propone que la consideración de los medicamentos como productos comerciales permite evidenciar la participación activa de los distintos usuarios del suero Ravetllat-Pla en su construcción, reconceptualización y legitimación social. Además, desde las dinámicas de inclusión y exclusión, esta investigación contribuye al entendimiento de los procesos de legitimación del conocimiento desde de la heterodoxia científica. Abstract in english In 1924, a historically peak time for tuberculosis in Spain, the Ravetllat-Pla Institute was established with the aim of producing and commercializing an anti-tuberculosis serum and researching the variability of the bacteria implicated in this infection. This bacterial form, proposed by Joaquim Rav [...] etllat in the first decade of the 20th century, led to the formulation of a new etiological-pathologic theory of tuberculosis, which upheld the drugs produced by the Institute and was considered heterodox by the official science of the time. The Catalan medical and political network established a space of exclusion leading to the marginalization of the Institute, which, by strengthening its heterodox identity, generated another space of inclusion. In this space, its refuted scientific theory could be socially legitimated and validated through the commercial success of its pharmaceutical products. In this paper, we suggest that the consideration of medicines as commercial products illustrates the active participation of the different users of the Ravetllat-Pla serum in its social construction, re-conceptualization and legitimization. Moreover, from the theoretical framework of inclusion-exclusion dynamics, this research contributes to understanding the processes of knowledge legitimatization by scientific heterodoxy.

  13. Cecilia Porras: un hito de ruptura en las artes plásticas en Cartagena a mediados del siglo XX / Cecilia Porras: a milestone of the rupture in the arts of Cartagena in mid of the 20th Century / Cecilia Porras: um marco miliàrio de ruptura nas artes plásticas em Cartagena a meados do século XX

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Isabel Cristina, Ramírez Botera.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aborda-se neste artigo o caso da artista cartagenera Cecilia Porras para analisar, desde a sociologia da arte, alguns elementos do seu papel como mulher e artista na aparição de certas rupturas com a tradição cultural da sua época. Estes rompimentos deram-se a partir da enunciação de novos papeis so [...] ciais e culturais da mulher na sociedade local cartageneira, alguns elementos tiveram a ver com sua participação e contribuição na definição de linguagens plásticas modernas na Colômbia. Para entender o papel de Porras no seu contexto de origem, re-fletimos sobre a maneira como os processos nas artes plásticas em Cartagena, em meados do século XX, responderam a áreas de tensão entre impulsos modernizadores e a persistência de estruturas institucionais e de pensamento tradicional. Abstract in spanish En este artículo se aborda el caso de la artista cartagenera Cecilia Porras para analizar, desde la sociología del arte, algunos elementos de su papel como mujer y como artista en la aparición de ciertas rupturas con la tradición cultural de su época. Estos rompimientos se dieron a partir de la enun [...] ciación de nuevos roles sociales y culturales de la mujer en la sociedad local cartagenera, algunos elementos tenía que ver con su participación y aporte en la definición de lenguajes plásticos modernos en Colombia. Para entender el papel de Porras en su contexto de origen, se reflexia sobre la manera como los procesos en las artes plásticas en Cartagena, a mediados del siglo XX, respondieron a zonas de tensión entre impulsos mo-dernizadores y la pervivencia de estructuras institucionales y de pensamiento tradicionales. Abstract in english This article deals with the particular case of Cecilia Porras, an artist born in Cartagena. It analyzed the sociological aspect of the arts, some gender issues and herself as an artist, while cultural ruptures where appearing such as the enunciation of women that started to have new social and cultu [...] ral roles in the society of Cartagena. Is also explores her participation and contribution of the construction of the new plastic languages that defined the meaning of Modern Art in the Country. In order to understand the role of Cecilia Porras in her original context, the text offers a reflection about how in the mid 20th Century, the art scene in Cartagena responded to tense areas between the modern momentum and the traditional way of thinking of the Institutions.

  14. Museu escolar: sentidos, propostas e projetos para a escola primária (séculos 19 e 20) / Musée scolaire: sens, propositions et projets pour l'école primaire (19ème et 20ème siècles) / School museum: meanings, proposals and projects for elementary school (19th and 20th centuries) / Museo escolar: sentidos, propuestas y proyectos para la escuela primaria (siglos 19 y 20)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marilia Gabriela, Petry; Vera Lucia Gaspar da, Silva.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem como objeto de estudo os museus escolares introduzidos em escolas brasileiras no final do século 19 e ao longo do século 20. Sua motivação partiu da constatação que existiram diversas propostas, formas de operacionalizar e diferentes objetos nomeados museus escolares. Buscamos, [...] a partir disso, identificar diferenças em impressos pedagógicos e na legislação do ensino, privilegiando o Estado de Santa Catarina como contexto de referência para mobilizar o segundo tipo documental. Como resultado, chegamos a seis acepções que assumem formatos distintos, embora visem ao mesmo objetivo: tornar os meios de ensino mais concretos. Apresentar tais acepções é o objetivo principal deste artigo, que se insere na discussão acerca dos materiais de ensino e de sua introdução na escola. Abstract in spanish El objeto de estudio del presente artículo son los museos escolares introducidos en las escuelas brasileñas al final del siglo 19 y a lo largo del siglo 20. El estudio fue motivado por la constatación de diversas propuestas, formas de operacionalizar y diferentes objetos denominados museos escolares [...] . Buscamos, entonces, identificar diferencias en impresos pedagógicos y en la legislación de la enseñanza, privilegiando el Estado de Santa Catarina como contexto de referencia para movilizar el segundo tipo documental. Como resultado, llegamos a seis acepciones que asumen formatos distintos, aunque objetiven lo mismo: tornar los medios de enseñanza más concretos. El principal objetivo de este artículo es presentar tales acepciones, que se insertan en la discusión acerca de los materiales de enseñanza y su introducción en la escuela. Abstract in english The present article study objects are the school museums introduced into Brazilian schools in the end of the 19th century and during the 20th. Its motivation was based upon the finding of several proposals, ways of operationalize and different objects named school museums. From this the identificati [...] on of differences in pedagogical texts and educational legislation has been sought, privileging the state of Santa Catarina as referential context to mobilize the second documental type. As a result, six meanings have been reached, each taking a distinct format although aiming the same goal: To make educational means more concrete. To present such meanings is the main objective of this article, which is inserted in the discussions about teaching materials and their introduction in schools.

  15. La recepción de Rousseau en la formación inicial del magisterio primario (España, siglo 20) / La recepcion du Rousseau et la formation initiale des enseignantes primaires (Espagne, siècle 20eme) / Recepcion of Rousseau in formation initial of primary school teachers (Spain, 20th century) / A recepção de Rousseau na formação inicial do magistério primário (Espanha, século 20)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antonio, Viñao Frago.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Neste artigo é abordada a imagem e as ideias de e sobre Rousseau transmitidas, na Espanha, ao magistério primário durante o século 20. A análise é feita a partir de manuais de História da Educação e de outras fontes similares. Após analisar as fontes utilizadas e seus destinatários, se expõe a image [...] m e a idéia de Rousseau como pai da pedagogia moderna, predominante nos escritos pedagógicos da época para, em seguida, examinar o lugar e o tratamento dado à Rousseau. Esse exame é feito a partir da periodização que leva em conta duas épocas: a anterior à guerra civil e a posterior, com a finalidade de mostrar o predomínio, sobre tudo durante o franquismo, de uma visão católico-conservadora, moralizante e crítica de Rousseau. Abstract in spanish Este artículo versa sobre la imagen e ideas de y sobre Rousseau transmitidas en España al magisterio primario durante el siglo 20, a través de los manuales de Historia de la Educación y otras fuentes similares. Tras analizar las fuentes utilizadas y sus destinatarios, se expone la imagen e idea de R [...] ousseau como padre de la pedagogía moderna, predominante en los escritos pedagógicos de la época, para seguidamente, y a modo de contraste, examinar el lugar y el tratamiento dados a Rousseau en los mencionados manuales. Dicho examen se divide en dos épocas: la anterior a la guerra civil y la posterior, con el fin de mostrar el predominio, sobre todo durante el franquismo, de una visión católico-conservadora, moralizante y crítica de Rousseau. Abstract in english This article deals with Rousseau's images and ideas present in the school books of History of Education, and other similar sources, used in the training of primary school teachers in Spain during the 20th century. After analyzing the sources used and their addresses, the predominance of Rousseau's i [...] deas and image as the father of modern pedagogy in the pedagogical literature of this period is explained. Immediately after, by way of contrast, Rousseau's place and the way of considering him in the above mentioned school books are examined. The above analysis is divided into two periods, before and after the civil war, in order to show the predominance of the catholic-conservative moralizing and critical approach, particularly during francoism.

  16. Calendars of the Serbian early 15™ century manuscripts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subotin-Golubovi? Tatjana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the corpus of Byzantine manuscripts, a prominent place is occupied by synaxaria, collections of texts in which hagiographic material is arranged according to the calendar order. The differences among such collections are to be noted in the structure, composition and size of the texts included. The existence of text collections in which early hagiographies are compiled and partly codified can be traced back into the 6th to 7th centuries. The principle center of agglomeration and codification of this type of materials used to be Constantinople. The older type synaxaria, known as prolog in Slavonic tradition, authored by Constantin from Mokissa, have been preserved in relatively large numbers of Southern Slavic transcripts. The prologs of the newer type, the so called "verse prologs" (regularly preceded by a few short verses, might have been translated, according to the opinion of D. Bogdanovi?, as early as the end of the 13th century, and in the Serbian environment. This opinion is corroborated by the fact that the oldest hitherto preserved prologs of this type, dating from the 14th century, were written in the Serbian redaction of Old Church Slavonic. Bogdanovi?'s studies of prologs is based on manuscripts from the monastery of Decani. A relative abundance of verse prologs is treasured in the library of the monastery of Chilandar. Introduction of the new type of prolog has undoubtedly been caused by the introduction of the Jerusalem typicon into the liturgical practice of the Serbian church. Occasionally, hagiographic texts used to be inserted into menaion acolouthia after the sixth ode of the canon. Presently the oldest Serbian menaion containing hagiographies of the new type is the MS nr. 11 from the Archives of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, written sometime around 1400 A.D. Thus menaia also include multiply augmented hagiographic materials. The comparative analysis of prologs and menaia for the months of July (MS Decani 53, Pec 42, Chilandar 426 and August (Decani 43, Pec 42, Decani 53 has shown that texts from verse prologs used to be incorporated into menaia practically unaltered .

  17. SURVIVAL OF BORO LANGUAGE, ETHNICITY IN THE FACE OF VARIOUS CHALLENGES IN EARLY TH PERIOD OF THE 20 CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phukan Ch. Basumatary

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a microscopic discussion has been done to focus various reasons and inspirations behind formation of social institutions and organizations that came into existence for transition of the Boro society in the early 20th Century. The era was very much crucial and on the one hand painful in the so-called traditional and uneducated Boro society. The society was to survive in the dearth of illiteracy, political unconsciousness, and in the midst of magical and superstitious way of living. In that circumstances the society was unfortunately subdued by high-caste communities and socio-political policies executed by political parties and particularly recognized high caste society in the state of Assam. Consequently the Boros, articulated as a petite ethnic linguistic community in Indian context at that period, were to become confused in a threat of extinction in the coming days. The reasons and social context which encouraged the Boro people to form socio-cultural, literary and political organizations has discussed in the paper.

  18. Aerological observations in the tropics in the early twentieth century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broennimann, Stefan; Stickler, Alexander [Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research and Inst. of Geography

    2013-10-15

    In the first decades of the 20{sup th} century, aerological observations were for the first time performed in tropical regions. One of the most prominent endeavours in this respect was Arthur Berson's aerological expedition to East Africa. Although the main target was the East African monsoon circulation, the expedition provided also other insights that profoundly changed meteorology and climatology. Berson observed that the tropical tropopause was much higher and colder than that over midlatitudes. Moreover, westerly winds were observed in the lower stratosphere, apparently contradicting the high-altitude equatorial easterly winds that were known since the Krakatoa eruption ('Krakatoa easterlies'). The puzzle was only resolved five decades later with the discovery of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO). In this paper we briefly summarize the expedition of Berson and review the results in a historical context and in the light of the current research. In the second part of the paper we re-visit Berson's early aerological observations, which we have digitized. We compare the observed wind profiles with corresponding profiles extracted from the 'Twentieth Century Reanalysis', which provides global three-dimensional weather information back to 1871 based on an assimilation of sea-level and surface pressure data. The comparison shows a good agreement at the coast but less good agreement further inland, at the shore of Lake Victoria, where the circulation is more complex. These results demonstrate that Berson's observations are still valuable today as input to current reanalysis systems or for their validation. (orig.)

  19. The Role of Foreign Influences in Early Terrorism: Examples and Implications for Understanding Modern Terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Lutz, James M.; Lutz, Brenda J.

    2013-01-01

    Globalisation has been linked with outbreaks of political violence and terrorism in the modern world. An analysis of Judean revolts against Rome and the Seleucid Greeks, individual suicide attacks in South and Southeast Asia in the 17th century to the early 20th century, and the Boxer Rebellion in China suggest that the intrusion of foreign influences had similar effects in the past.

  20. With the best intentions : Changed response to relative humidity in wax-resin lined early 19th century canvas paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup Andersen, Cecil; Scharff, Mikkel

    Wax-resin lining treatments in the 20th century were chosen specifically for many of the 19th century Danish Golden Age paintings on canvas to counteract their suspected response to moisture. For this study samples from paintings and lined mock-ups have been examined in order to study this treatment’s response to moisture before and after wax-resin lining using tests of uniaxially restrained samples in cycled RH. Contrary to the usual assumptions the wax-resin lined samples showed increased force at high levels of relative humidity and a decreased response in weft-cut samples at low relative humidity.

  1. Korean nuclear reactor strategy for the early 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The system analysis for Korean nuclear power reactor option is made on the basis of reliability, cost minimization, finite uranium resource availability and nuclear engineering manpower supply constraints. The reference reactor scenarios are developed considering the future electricity demand, nuclear share, current nuclear power plant standardization program and manufacturing capacity. The levelized power generation cost, uranium requirement and nuclear engineering professionals demand are estimated for each reference reactor scenarios and nuclear fuel cycle options from the year 1990 up to the year 2030. Based on the outcomes of the analysis, uranium resource utilization, reliability and nuclear engineering manpower requirements are sensitive to the nuclear reactor strategy and associated fuel cycle whereas the system cost is not. APWR, CANDU: FBR strategy is to be the best option for Korea. However, APWR, CANDU: Passive Safe Reactor (PSR) vFBR strategy should be also considered as a contingency for growing national concerns on nuclear safety and public acceptance deterioration in the future. FBR development and establishment of related fuel cycle should be started as soon as possible considering the uranium shortage anticipated between 2007 and 2032. It should be noted that the increasing use of nuclear energy to minimize the greenhouse effects in the early 21st century would accelerate the uranium resource depletion. The study also concludes that the current leveltudy also concludes that the current level of nuclear engineering professionals employment is not sufficient until 2010 for the establishment of nuclear infrastructure. (Author)

  2. Arctic marine climate of the early nineteenth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Brohan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The climate of the early nineteenth century is likely to have been significantly cooler than that of today, as it was a period of low solar activity (the Dalton minimum and followed a series of large volcanic eruptions. Proxy reconstructions of the temperature of the period do not agree well on the size of the temperature change, so other observational records from the period are particularly valuable. Weather observations have been extracted from the reports of the noted whaling captain William Scoresby Jr., and from the records of a series of Royal Navy expeditions to the Arctic, preserved in the UK National Archives. They demonstrate that marine climate in 1810–25 was marked by consistently cold summers, with abundant sea-ice. But although the period was significantly colder than the modern average, there was a lot of variability: in the Greenland Sea the summers following the Tambora eruption (1816 and 1817 were noticeably warmer, and had lower sea-ice coverage, than the years immediately preceding them; and the sea-ice coverage in Lancaster Sound in 1819 and 1820 was low even by modern standards.

  3. Arctic marine climate of the early nineteenth century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brohan, P.; Ward, C.; Willetts, G.; Wilkinson, C.; Allan, R.; Wheeler, D.

    2010-05-01

    The climate of the early nineteenth century is likely to have been significantly cooler than that of today, as it was a period of low solar activity (the Dalton minimum) and followed a series of large volcanic eruptions. Proxy reconstructions of the temperature of the period do not agree well on the size of the temperature change, so other observational records from the period are particularly valuable. Weather observations have been extracted from the reports of the noted whaling captain William Scoresby Jr., and from the records of a series of Royal Navy expeditions to the Arctic, preserved in the UK National Archives. They demonstrate that marine climate in 1810-1825 was marked by consistently cold summers, with abundant sea-ice. But although the period was significantly colder than the modern average, there was considerable variability: in the Greenland Sea the summers following the Tambora eruption (1816 and 1817) were noticeably warmer, and had less sea-ice coverage, than the years immediately preceding them; and the sea-ice coverage in Lancaster Sound in 1819 and 1820 was low even by modern standards.

  4. Arctic marine climate of the early nineteenth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Brohan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The climate of the early nineteenth century is likely to have been significantly cooler than that of today, as it was a period of low solar activity (the Dalton minimum and followed a series of large volcanic eruptions. Proxy reconstructions of the temperature of the period do not agree well on the size of the temperature change, so other observational records from the period are particularly valuable. Weather observations have been extracted from the reports of the noted whaling captain William Scoresby Jr., and from the records of a series of Royal Navy expeditions to the Arctic, preserved in the UK National Archives. They demonstrate that marine climate in 1810–1825 was marked by consistently cold summers, with abundant sea-ice. But although the period was significantly colder than the modern average, there was considerable variability: in the Greenland Sea the summers following the Tambora eruption (1816 and 1817 were noticeably warmer, and had less sea-ice coverage, than the years immediately preceding them; and the sea-ice coverage in Lancaster Sound in 1819 and 1820 was low even by modern standards.

  5. El pensament dialèctic i sintètic en la filosofia de l’educació durant el segle XX Dialectic and synthetic thought in education philosophy in the 20th century El pensamiento dialéctico y sintético en la filosofía de la educación del siglo XX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Laudo Castillo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquest treball vol ser una contribució a la història de la filosofia de l’educació contemporània. Es presenten dues de les principals corrents que, al nostre parer, configuren la filosofia de l’educació a Catalunya en el segle XX: dialèctics i sintètics. En un primer moment, s’aborda la línia de pensament que, representada per Eugeni d’Ors i Octavi Fullat, entén l’educació com una dialèctica entre dos pols o extrems oposats i en conflicte permanent. En una segona part, s’analitza la visió sintètica del plantejament pedagògic, en consonància amb els postulats de la pedagogia perenne actualitzada pel cardenal Mercier i representada per diversos epígons catalans de Jaume Balmes i per Joan Tusquets. La metodologia emprada ha estat l’hermenèutica de textos a través de l’anàlisi, la interpretació i el contrast de l’obra filosoficopedagògica dels autors esmentats ______________________________________________ Ce travail veut être une contribution à l’histoire de la philosophie de l’éducation contemporaine. Il présente deux des principaux courants qui configurent, à notre avis, la philosophie de l’éducation en Catalogne au cours du XXe siècle : dialectiques et synthétiques. Dans un premier temps, il aborde la ligne de pensée représentée par Eugeni d’Ors et Octavi Fullat qui entend l’éducation comme une dialectique entre deux pôles ou extrêmes opposés et en conflit permanent. Dans un second temps, l’article analyse la vision synthétique de la pensée pédagogique, en consonance avec les postulats de la pédagogie pérenne actualisée par le cardinal Mercier et représentée par divers disciples catalans de Jaume Balmes et par Joan Tusquets. La méthodologie utilisée a été l’herméneutique de textes au travers de l’analyse, de l’interprétation et du contraste de l’oeuvre philosophico-pédagogique des auteurs mentionnésThis paper aims to make a contribution to the history of philosophy of contemporary education. It discusses two of the main currents which, in our opinion, configure the philosophy of education in Catalonia in the 20th century: dialectic and synthetic. At first, it follows the line of reasoning which, as represented by Eugeni d’Ors and Octavi Fullat, sees education as a dialectic between two opposing poles or extremes in perpetual conflict. In the second part, the synthetic approach to pedagogic practice is examined in accordance with the perennial pedagogy updated by Cardinal Mercier and represented by several Catalan followers of Jaume Balmes and by Joan Tusquets. The method employed has been textual hermeneutics using analysis, interpretation and contrast of the pedagogic and philosophical works of the writers mentionedEste trabajo quiere ser una contribución a la historia de la filosofía de la educación contemporánea. Se presentan dos de las principales corrientes que, según nuestro parecer, configuran la filosofía de la educación en Cataluña en el siglo XX: dialécticos y sintéticos. En un primer momento, se aborda la línea de pensamiento que, representada por Eugeni d’Ors y Octavi Fullat, entiende la educación como una dialéctica entre dos polos o extremos opuestos y en conflicto permanente. En una segunda parte, se analiza la visión sintética del planteamiento pedagógico, en consonancia con los postulados de la pedagogía perenne actualizada por el cardenal Mercier y representada por diversos epígonos catalanes de Jaume Balmes y por Joan Tusquets. La metodología utilizada ha sido la hermenéutica de textos a través del análisis, la interpretación y el contraste de la obra filosóficopedagógica de los autores mencionados.

  6. A dinâmica migratória do Paraná: o caso da região Sudoeste ao longo do século XX / Migratory dynamics in the Brazilian State of Paraná and its southwestern region during the 20th century / La dinámica migratoria de Paraná: el caso de la región Suroeste a lo largo del siglo XX

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcos Leandro, Mondardo.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O Sudoeste paranaense, ao longo do século XX, teve uma dinâmica migratória em que se podem identificar três períodos distintos de evolução demográfica, por meio de um processo migratório que exerceu papel fundamental na configuração espacial: entre 1900 e 1940, a região exibia uma população dispersa [...] e rarefeita, circunscrita em torno da econômica de subsistência; de 1940 a 1970, ocorreu a expansão acelerada da fronteira agrícola estadual, que atraiu milhares de trabalhadores e seus familiares de outras partes do país, acarretando, simultaneamente, ocupação e apropriação extensivas e intensivas; entre 1970 e 2000, a inserção do Estado do Paraná no processo de modernização da agricultura, em que o agro se tornou subordinado ao industrial, impôs uma nova divisão social e territorial do trabalho ao Sudoeste paranaense, promovendo uma rápida e drástica diminuição populacional das áreas rurais, o que estimulou vigorosamente a urbanização e provocou a formação de imensas correntes emigratórias que transpuseram as fronteiras estaduais. Com isso, o objetivo desse trabalho é analisar essa dinâmica migratória, configurada em três períodos espaço-temporais, na região Sudoeste paranaense. A partir de trabalho de campo exploratório, feito em 2008, com a realização de entrevistas semiestruturadas, análise bibliográfica, documental e censitária (especialmente em Censos Demográficos), busca-se compreender como se processou, ao longo do século XX, a dinâmica migratória por meio da atração, do reordenamento e da expulsão de população do/no Sudoeste paranaense. Abstract in spanish El suroeste paranaense, a lo largo del siglo XX, tuvo una dinámica migratoria en la que se pueden identificar tres períodos distintos de evolución demográfica, mediante un proceso migratorio que ejerció un papel fundamental en la configuración espacial: entre 1900 y 1940, la región exhibía una pobla [...] ción dispersa y con poca densidad, circunscrita a una economía de subsistencia; de 1940 a 1970, se produjo la expansión acelerada de la frontera agrícola estatal, que atrajo a millares de trabajadores y sus familiares de otras partes del país, conllevando, simultáneamente, ocupación y apropiaciones extensivas e intensivas; entre 1970 y 2000, la inserción del estado de Paraná en el proceso de modernización de la agricultura, en el que lo agro se subordinó a lo industrial, impuso una nueva división social y territorial de trabajo al suroeste paranaense, promoviendo una rápida y drástica disminución poblacional de las áreas rurales, lo que estimuló vigorosamente la urbanización y provocó la formación de inmensas corrientes migratorias que transpusieron las fronteras estatales. Por ello, el objetivo de este trabajo es analizar esa dinámica migratoria, configurada en tres períodos espacio-temporales, en la región sudoeste paranaense. A partir del trabajo de campo exploratorio, realizado en 2008, con la realización de entrevistas semi-estructuradas, análisis bibliográfico, documental y censitario (especialmente en censos demográficos), se busca comprender cómo se procesó, a lo largo del siglo XX, la dinámica migratoria por medio de la atracción, del reordenamiento y de la expulsión de población del/en el suroeste paranaense. Abstract in english The migratory dynamics and evolution of the Brazilian State of Paraná, specifically in its southwestern region, consisted of three different periods during the 20th century, and played a central role in the region's spatial configuration. Between 1900 and 1940 the region maintained a sparse and scat [...] tered population living on a subsistence economy. The state's agricultural frontier grew considerably between 1940 and 1970, and this attracted thousands of workers and their families from other parts of Brazil. It also brought about causing extensive and intensive occupation and appropriation. Between 1970 and 2000 the state of Paraná ente

  7. L’art visual en els moviments pedagògics del segle XX: la concreció de l’educació artística en els llibres escolars El arte visual en los movimientos pedagógicos del siglo XX: la concreción de la educación artística en los libros escolares Visual art in 20th century educational movements: the establishment of art education in textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eulàlia Collelldemont Pujadas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Les tradicions escolars d’educació artística s’han construït des de la transmissió oral i escrita de projectes i programes. Tanmateix, la concreció de les propostes legislatives, ideacionals i teòriques s’ha expressat, fonamentalment, a través dels documents. Tant és així que, per exemple, la cultura escolar a l’entorn de l’educació artística s’ha anat conformant des dels projectes codificats en els llibres per a mestres i per a infants. Per aquest motiu en aquest article es proposa una aproximació a aquests llibres a fi de conèixer quines són les característiques dels discursos de l’aprenentatge artístic que s’han consolidat al llarg del segle XX en el nostre entorn; aproximació que s’assaja a partir d’encreuar les petjades que han deixat els llibres escolars amb la seva imbricació o, fins i tot, negació amb les tendències de la pedagogia contemporània. _____________________________________________ Les traditions scolaires d’éducation artistique se sont construites sur la base de la transmission orale et écrite de projets et de programmes. Toutefois, la concrétisation des propositions législatives, idéationnels théoriques s’est exprimée, fondamentalement, au travers des documents. Il en est tellement ainsi que, par exemple, la culture scolaire dans l’environnement de l’éducation artistique s’est conformée petit à petit à partir des projets codifiés dans les ouvrages destinés aux maîtres et aux enfants. C’est la raison pour laquelle nous proposons, dans cet article, d’effectuer une approcher de ces ouvrages afin d'y découvrir les caractéristiques des discours de l’apprentissage artistique qui se sont consolidés au fil du XXe siècle dans notre environnement. Il s’agit d’une approche qui est tentée à partir du croisement des traces qu’ont laissées les livres scolaires avec leur imbrication ou, même, leur négation des tendances de la pédagogie contemporaine.Las tradiciones escolares de educación artística se han construido desde la transmisión oral y escrita de proyectos y programas. Sin embargo, la concreción de las propuestas legislativas, ideacionales y teóricas se han expresado, fundamentalmente, a través de los documentos. Así, por ejemplo, la cultura escolar sobre la educación artística se ha ido conformando desde los proyectos codificados en los libros escolares para maestros y alumnos. Por este motivo, en el presente artículo se propone realizar una aproximación a estos libros con la finalidad de extraer cuáles son las características de los discursos del aprendizaje artístico que se han consolidado a lo largo del siglo XX en nuestro entorno. Aproximación que se ensaya a partir de cruzar las huellas que han dejado los libros escolares con su imbricación o, incluso, negación, con las tendencias de la pedagogía contemporánea.School traditions of art education have been constructed on the basis of oral and written transmission of projects and programs. In addition, legislative, ideational and theoretical aspects have mainly been defined in documents. This is true to such an extent that school culture in the area of art education has been shaped by projects formulated in textbooks for teachers and children, for example. Consequently, in this study, we examine art textbooks to discover the characteristics of the art education discourses that were consolidated throughout the 20th century in Spain. We tested this approach by examining the influence of textbooks and the extent to which they overlap with or contradict contemporary trends in education.

  8. Internet research 20th anniversary commemoration

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    Originally launched as Electronic Networking in 1991 Internet Research journal has charted the development of the Internet as we know it, publishing the works of visionaries such as: Mitch Kapor, Marc Andreessen and Sir Tim Berners-Lee. The special anniversary e-book republishes six seminal articles from the early 1990s. The original authors or affiliated organizations have also provided a retrospective commentary reflecting on the research, policy, analysis, design and vision that they originally presented some twenty years ago. The result is a fascinating glimpse into the minds of six ground

  9. Dewey's "Science as Method" a Century Later: Reviving Science Education for Civic Ends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, John L.

    2014-01-01

    Over a hundred years ago, John Dewey delivered his now-well-known address "Science as Subject-Matter and as Method" to those assembled at the Boston meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in which he lamented the nearly exclusive focus on content knowledge in early-20th-century school science classrooms. This…

  10. Progress in rheumatology in the early 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Nasonov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA, juvenile arthritis, spondyloarthritis, including psoriatic arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, and other systemic connective tissue diseases, are the most severe chronic immunoinflammatory rheumatic diseases (IIRDs that affect as high as 10% of the population. Substantial progress has been made in the treatment of IIRDs in the 21st century. The current Treat to Target (T2T strategy for RA is to achieve remission as soon as possible. The main treatment goal is to improve quality of life, by controlling the symptoms of the disease, by preventing joint destruction and dysfunction, and by maintaining social possibilities. The most important way to achieve this goal is to inhibit inflammation and to evaluate the efficiency of treatment, by using the standardized activity indices and by choosing the appropriate treatment option. The widespread use of biological agents in combination with standard disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs could substantially enhance therapeutic effectiveness. A new class of medicaments (chemically synthesized small molecular weight agents to treat RA has appeared. The point of their application is tyrosine kinases, primarily Janus kinase (JAK. The new era in the treatment of SLE and other IIRDs is associated with the design of the new class of drugs ? BLyS inhibitors. In the coming years, the main lines of researches by Russian rheumatologists will be to elaborate a strategy to prevent IIRDs; to introduce innovative methods for their early diagnosis and treatment (biological agents, JAK inhibitors, and other cell signaling molecules and for the prediction of the outcomes of the most severe forms of IIRD; to realize the concept of personified medicine (to investigate the prognostic biomarkers of the efficiency and safety of targeted therapy, to reduce the risk of infectious complications, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, osteoporotic fractures, and other comorbidities.

  11. La enseñanza de la antropología médica y la salud intercultural en México: del indigenismo culturalista del siglo XX a la interculturalidad en salud del siglo XXI / Education on medical anthropology and intercultural health in Mexico: from the 20th century cultural indigenism to the 21st century interculturality

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Roberto, Campos-Navarro.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available El estudio del proceso salud/enfermedad/atención, abordado desde el punto de vista médico y social, es desarrollado de forma especializada por la Antropología Médica. En México esta especialidad tiene sus inicios a finales del siglo XIX. Desde entonces han existido muchas reformas educativas, relaci [...] onadas con los propios procesos políticos y el entendimiento y reconocimiento de la pluriculturalidad mexicana, lo que ha permitido ampliar, diversificar y consolidar esta especialidad. En la siguiente se hace una revisión de la evolución histórica de los cursos dedicados a esta materia, los docentes que influyeron en su consolidación, y una presentación sobre el estado actual de los programas académicos que se brindan, destacando la diversidad de otras especialidades en ciencias de la salud que se ven involucradas. Abstract in english The study of the health/disease/healthcare process from the socio-medical aspect is the field of the medical anthropology. In Mexico, this medical specialty had its origins at the end of the 19th century. Since then, many educational reforms occurred associated to the political processes and the rec [...] ognition and better understanding of Mexican pluricultural society; allowing expansion, diversification and consolidation of medical anthropology as an specialty. This review presents the historical evolution of the academic courses on this field, the educators that influenced its consolidation, and the current situation of the available academic programs on medical anthropology. The diversity of specialties from those health sciences that are associated to medical anthropology is emphasized.

  12. Future dryness in the southwest US and the hydrology of the early 21st century drought

    OpenAIRE

    Cayan, Daniel R.; Das, Tapash; Pierce, David W.; Barnett, Tim P.; Tyree, Mary; Gershunov, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Recently the Southwest has experienced a spate of dryness, which presents a challenge to the sustainability of current water use by human and natural systems in the region. In the Colorado River Basin, the early 21st century drought has been the most extreme in over a century of Colorado River flows, and might occur in any given century with probability of only 60%. However, hydrological model runs from downscaled Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment climate change simu...

  13. Escribir como mujer en los albores del siglo XX: construcción de identidades de género y nación en la crítica de Inés Echeverría (Iris a las puestas en escena de teatro moderno de compañías europeas en Chile Writing as a Woman at the Turn of 20th Century: Construction of Genre and Nation Identities in Criticism of Inés Echeverría (Iris regarding Modern Theatre Production of European Companies in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de la Luz Hurtado

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available En este ensayo abordo las narrativas de identidad elaboradas por sujetos femeninos en torno a un espacio cultural hegemónico en Chile y Latinoamérica de inicios del siglo XX: el generado por compañías teatrales europeas en gira por países periféricos sujetos a su neo-colonización. Utilizo como textualidad referential la crítica teatral de una pionera en la escritura chilena: Inés Echeverría (Iris, revelando sus tramas discursivas relativas al género y a lo neocolonial, en cruce con sus posiciones respecto a estéticas dramáticas, de la performance y del cuerpo.This article refers to identity narratives written by female subjects in the midst of a hegemonic cultural space in Chile and Latin America at the turn of the 20th Century: created by European theatre companies on tour in outlying countries subject to neo-colonization. I use as referential textuality the theatre criticism of a pioneer in Chilean literature: Inés Echeverría (Iris, revealing discursive plots related to genre and neo-colonial issues, mingled with her positions regarding drama, performance and body aesthetics.

  14. Escribir como mujer en los albores del siglo XX: construcción de identidades de género y nación en la crítica de Inés Echeverría (Iris) a las puestas en escena de teatro moderno de compañías europeas en Chile / Writing as a Woman at the Turn of 20th Century: Construction of Genre and Nation Identities in Criticism of Inés Echeverría (Iris) regarding Modern Theatre Production of European Companies in Chile

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María de la Luz, Hurtado.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este ensayo abordo las narrativas de identidad elaboradas por sujetos femeninos en torno a un espacio cultural hegemónico en Chile y Latinoamérica de inicios del siglo XX: el generado por compañías teatrales europeas en gira por países periféricos sujetos a su neo-colonización. Utilizo como textu [...] alidad referential la crítica teatral de una pionera en la escritura chilena: Inés Echeverría (Iris), revelando sus tramas discursivas relativas al género y a lo neocolonial, en cruce con sus posiciones respecto a estéticas dramáticas, de la performance y del cuerpo. Abstract in english This article refers to identity narratives written by female subjects in the midst of a hegemonic cultural space in Chile and Latin America at the turn of the 20th Century: created by European theatre companies on tour in outlying countries subject to neo-colonization. I use as referential textualit [...] y the theatre criticism of a pioneer in Chilean literature: Inés Echeverría (Iris), revealing discursive plots related to genre and neo-colonial issues, mingled with her positions regarding drama, performance and body aesthetics.

  15. Bohemia in the Early 19th Century: the ‘Second Life’ of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Freemanová, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 50, 1-2 (2013), s. 83-102. ISSN 0018-7003 Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : Bohemia * Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart * early 19th century Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  16. WCCC 2013: the 20th World Computer Chess Championship

    OpenAIRE

    Krabbenbos, Jan; Haworth, Guy; Den Herik, Jaap

    2013-01-01

    The 20th World Computer Chess Championship took place in Yokohama, Japan during August 2013. It was narrowly won by JUNIOR from JONNY with HIARCS, PANDIX, SHREDDER and MERLIN occupying the remaining positions. There are references to the detailed chess biographies of the engines and engine-authors in the Chessprogramming Wiki. The games, occasionally annotated, are available here.

  17. Scientific Instruments for Education in Early Twentieth-Century Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Castell, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    1898 marked a crucial point in the end of the nineteenth-century Spanish crisis. The military defeat ending the Spanish-American War was seen as proof that the country was in terminal decline. With the ideals of regeneration spreading throughout Spanish society, the State became more interested in supporting and sponsoring science and technology,…

  18. EL USO DE LA LECTURA Y LA ESCRITURA COMO ESTRATEGIA PARA ENSEÑAR LA HIGIENE EN LA ESCUELA COLOMBIANA DE LOS ALBORES DEL SIGLO XX / THE USE OF THE READING AND THE WRITING LIKE STRATEGY TO TEACH THE HYGIENE IN THE COLOMBIAN SCHOOL AT THE BEGINNING OF THE 20TH CENTURY

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Doris Lilia, Torres Cruz; Tulio Alfonso, Ramírez.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El objeto de este trabajo es resaltar el impacto que tuvo el pensamiento higienista en la escuela colombiana a comienzos del siglo XX en la enseñanza de la lectura y escritura. La investigación es de tipo documental, la cual se soporta en la búsqueda de fuentes primarias en los archivos del Minister [...] io de Educación Nacional, la Biblioteca Nacional de Colombia, el Fondo Pedagógico y Fondo Posada de la Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia; las Memorias del Ministerio de Instrucción Pública de 1903-1930, junto con el Diario Oficial, ubicado en el Archivo del Departamento de Boyacá. Este documento ofrece la posibilidad de reconocer la incidencia de los factores externo sa la enseñanza de la Lectura y escritura,como elementos significativos en el desarrollos del proceso lector escritural que tuvo Colombia a comienzos del siglo XX. Si bien la lectura y escritura se promovió con fines utilitaristas y prácticos, que aportaron al manejo de la técnica, la industria fabril y la agricultura; también estuvo al servicio del pensamiento higienista que promovió la limpieza y el esplendor de la lengua. El identificar la lectura y escritura como instrumentos ajenos a la condición misma del sujeto, genera la imposibilidad de incrementar procesos críticos, con sentido y participación dentro de un proceso de construcción de nación. Abstract in english The purpose of this paper is to shown the impact it had thought hygienist school in Colombia in the early twentieth century in the teaching of reading and writing. The research is documentary, which is supported in the search for primary sources in the archives of the Ministry of National Education, [...] the National Library of Colombia, the Fund and Fund Teaching in Pedagogical and Technological University of Colombia, the Memoirs of Ministry of Education in 1903-1930, the Official Gazette, located in the Archives of the Department of Boyacá. This document offers the possibility of recognizing the impact of external factors on the teaching of reading and writing, as significant elements in the development of reading process that took Colombia to the earlytwentieth century. While literacy was promoted utilitarian and practical purposes, which contributed to the management of technology, manufacturing industry and agriculture, also was in the service of thought that promoted hygienist and splendor of the language. Identifying reading and writing as tools other than the condition of the subject itself, generates the impossibility of raising critical processes, and meaningful participation in a process of nation building.

  19. A Century of Ideas Perspectives from Leading Scientists of the 20th Century

    CERN Document Server

    Sidharth, B. G

    2008-01-01

    Shortly after its inauguration in 1985 the Birla Science Centre, Hyderabad, India, started a series of lectures by Nobel Laureates and other scientists of international renown, usually in Physics and Astronomy, sometimes in Life Sciences and Chemistry. The present collection mostly consists of lectures on frontier topics. The transcript of each lecture is preceded by a short biography of the Nobel Laureate/Scientist in question. The lectures are aimed at, and accessible to a wide non-specialist but higher educated audience.

  20. Proceedings of the 20th International Meshing Roundtable

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    This volume contains the articles presented at the 20th International Meshing Roundtable (IMR) organized, in part, by Sandia National Laboratories and was held in Paris, France on Oct 23-26, 2011. This is the first year the IMR was held outside the United States territory. Other sponsors of the 20th IMR are Systematic Paris Region Systems & ICT Cluster, AIAA, NAFEMS, CEA, and NSF. The Sandia National Laboratories started the first IMR in 1992, and the conference has been held annually since. Each year the IMR brings together researchers, developers, and application experts, from a variety of disciplines, to present and discuss ideas on mesh generation and related topics. The topics covered by the IMR have applications in numerical analysis, computational geometry, computer graphics, as well as other areas, and the presentations describe novel work ranging from theory to application.     .

  1. Anatomists and entrepreneurs in early eighteenth-century London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrini, Anita

    2004-04-01

    Anatomical demonstration in the eighteenth century took place in many formats. In this essay I discuss public anatomical demonstration as performed by entrepreneurial anatomists in London between 1700 and 1740. These anatomists offered courses, advertised in newspapers, to anyone who was willing to pay. In contrast to courses offered in official settings to prospective physicians and surgeons, these courses emphasized natural philosophy and natural theology rather than practical knowledge. Entrepreneurial lecturers also aimed to entertain. In this article I examine the lectures of James Douglas, William Cheselden, and Frank Nicholls, each of whom differed significantly from the others in style and content but were all anatomical entrepreneurs. All of them, moreover, employed not only human cadavers but also living and dead animals in their lessons. I examine the content of the lectures and the motivations of the lecturers' audiences. I also argue that the prevailing historiographical representation of eighteenth-century science as "polite" requires considerable revision to accommodate as impolite an activity as public anatomy. PMID:15109154

  2. Towards a definition of Islamophobia: approximations of the early twentieth century

    OpenAIRE

    Bravo Lo?pez, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This paper contributes to the debate on the meaning of the term “Islamophobia”. It proposes an examination of the early twentieth century approaches to Islamophobia, both the term and the phenomenon. The aim is to show that the phenomenon had already been identified at the end of the nineteenth century and that it had been defined by the beginning of the twentieth. That definition could throw some light on the current debate about the meaning of the term.

  3. Child delinquency and the prophylaxis of crime in early 20th-century Latin America La delincuencia infantil y la profilaxis del crimen a principios del siglo XX en América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Villaveces

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A fin de ahondar en la visión que predominaba a principios del siglo XX sobre el maltrato infantil, sus efectos sobre el comportamiento de los jóvenes y las estrategias para prevenir la delincuencia juvenil se ofrece una síntesis en inglés de la conferencia " La delincuencia infantil y la profilaxis del crimen" , presentada en 1929 por el pediatra e higienista social colombiano Jorge Bejarano Martínez y se resaltan sus teorías sobre el abuso y la desatención infantil, y la prevención del crimen. Mediante citas del texto original de 88 páginas, esta síntesis presenta los puntos de vista de Bejarano sobre las condiciones sociales que él consideraba cruciales en la etiología de la delincuencia infantil en Colombia (la falta de mecanismos sociales de protección y de oportunidades educacionales para los niños, la pobreza en el hogar, el trabajo infantil, el abandono, y el abuso y la desatención de los niños. Aunque en Colombia aún subsisten problemas de fondo similares, se han logrado avances en la protección de los niños contra el abuso y la desatención para prevenir la delincuencia en etapas posteriores de su vida. Esta conferencia demuestra que Bejarano fue un precursor de estos esfuerzos en América Latina y ofrece elementos sobre los orígenes de las estrategias actuales para reducir la violencia juvenil.

  4. Child delinquency and the prophylaxis of crime in early 20th-century Latin America / La delincuencia infantil y la profilaxis del crimen a principios del siglo XX en América Latina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andrés, Villaveces; Lisa A., DeRoo.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish A fin de ahondar en la visión que predominaba a principios del siglo XX sobre el maltrato infantil, sus efectos sobre el comportamiento de los jóvenes y las estrategias para prevenir la delincuencia juvenil se ofrece una síntesis en inglés de la conferencia " La delincuencia infantil y la profilaxis [...] del crimen" , presentada en 1929 por el pediatra e higienista social colombiano Jorge Bejarano Martínez y se resaltan sus teorías sobre el abuso y la desatención infantil, y la prevención del crimen. Mediante citas del texto original de 88 páginas, esta síntesis presenta los puntos de vista de Bejarano sobre las condiciones sociales que él consideraba cruciales en la etiología de la delincuencia infantil en Colombia (la falta de mecanismos sociales de protección y de oportunidades educacionales para los niños, la pobreza en el hogar, el trabajo infantil, el abandono, y el abuso y la desatención de los niños). Aunque en Colombia aún subsisten problemas de fondo similares, se han logrado avances en la protección de los niños contra el abuso y la desatención para prevenir la delincuencia en etapas posteriores de su vida. Esta conferencia demuestra que Bejarano fue un precursor de estos esfuerzos en América Latina y ofrece elementos sobre los orígenes de las estrategias actuales para reducir la violencia juvenil. Abstract in english [...

  5. '¿Qué quieren las mujeres?': Ciudadanía femenina y escrituras de la intimidad en la Argentina de inicios del siglo XX / 'What do women want?': women's citizenship and private writing in Argentina's early 20th Century

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marina, Becerra.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las llamadas 'escrituras de la intimidad' - autobiografías, cartas, relatos de viajes, diarios íntimos - permiten analizar los deslizamientos posibles entre lo público y lo privado en una coyuntura histórica en la cual los derechos para cada sexo estaban claramente predefinidos en cada uno de los es [...] pacios de acción. Es decir que, desnaturalizando el presente al narrarlo, las 'escrituras de la intimidad' permiten pensar las estrategias de las mujeres, confinadas por ley al espacio doméstico, de proyectar sus voces en la esfera pública. A partir del irresoluble enigma planteado por una de las primeras voces masculinas que defendieron los derechos de las mujeres en Argentina - el socialista Enrique Del Valle Iberlucea -, aquí analizo cómo es contada - ¿vivida, representada? - la ciudadanía por las propias mujeres. Para ello, analizo los relatos de viajes de la escritora y maestra normal Ada María Elflein (1880-1919). Abstract in english The so-called "private writings" - autobiographies, letters, travel journals, diaries - allow us to analyze the possible interstices between the private and the public sphere in a historical moment in which legal rights were clearly pre-defined according to gender. In this sense, "private writings" [...] permit us to reflect upon women's strategies to speak their own minds in the public arena, in a context in which they were confined to the domestic sphere. My starting point is the insoluble conflict put forward by one of the first male voices to stand for women's rights in Argentina - the Socialist Enrique Del Valle Iberlucea - in order to analyze the ways in which women's citizenship is narrated - lived? Represented? - by women themselves. For that, I examine both the reports of female-writer's travel journals and those of a schoolteacher: Ada María Elflein (1880-1919).

  6. Dicotomía progreso=orden vs. retroceso=desorden durante las huelgas generales en la Argentina de principios del siglo XX / The dichotomy progress=order vs. backwardness=disorder during the general strikes of early-20th century in Argentina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gloria María, Hintze.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este artículo tiene como objetivo analizar el discurso que Clorinda Matto de Turner pronunció en el Consejo Nacional de Mujeres de la República Argentina en el año 1904, titulado "La obrera y la mujer". Su postura transita entre la doctrina de las esferas separadas y la defensa de un feminismo moder [...] ado que no participa de las posiciones más radicales de las socialistas ni de las anarquistas que ya tenían presencia activa en el campo cultural de Buenos Aires. Abstract in english This article analyzes the speech "Women laborers and women", given by Clorinda Matto de Turner at the Argentine National Council of Women in 1904. Her position stands between the doctrine of separated spheres and the defense of moderate feminism, which does not partake in the more radical position o [...] f feminists and anarchists, who already had, at the time, an active presence in Buenos Aires' culture.