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1

External forcing of the early 20th century Arctic warming  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The observed Arctic warming during the early 20th century was comparable to present-day warming in terms of magnitude. The causes and mechanisms for the early 20th century Arctic warming are less clear and need to be better understood when considering projections of future climate change in the Arctic. The simulations using the Bergen Climate Model (BCM can reproduce the surface air temperature (SAT fluctuations in the Arctic during the 20th century reasonably well. The results presented here, based on the model simulations and observations, indicate that intensified solar radiation and a lull in volcanic activity during the 1920s–1950s can explain much of the early 20th century Arctic warming. The anthropogenic forcing could play a role in getting the timing of the peak warming correct. According to the model the local solar irradiation changes play a crucial role in driving the Arctic early 20th century warming. The SAT co-varied closely with local solar irradiation changes when natural external forcings are included in the model either alone or in combination with anthropogenic external forcings. The increased Barents Sea warm inflow and the anomalous atmosphere circulation patterns in the northern Europe and north Atlantic can also contribute to the warming. In summary, the early 20th century warming was largely externally forced.

Lingling Suo

2013-12-01

2

Festive Aprons in the Lithuanian Culture. 19th Century – Early 20th Century  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This doctoral dissertation analyses a part of the traditional folk costume – festive apron – which is presented not only as a garment, but also as a relatively independent and multidimensional cultural object, and a symbol of ethnic traditions and expressions of national identity. The research covers the period from the 19th century through the early 20th century. It is the first research systematically revealing the process of the apron losing its originally intended use and being given ...

2013-01-01

3

Atomic Modeling in the Early 20th Century: 1904 - 1913  

CERN Document Server

The scope of this paper is to discuss the major works that appeared in the period of 1904 to 1913: atomic models proposed by Thomson and Hantaro Nagaoka (1904), Rutherford (1911), and Bohr (1913), and the experimental work that motivated them. It will be seen that, although all of the models discussed here were later shown to be incorrect or incomplete, each one represented an essential step towards an understanding of the nature of matter, a view of the physical world often taken for granted a century down the road.

Baily, Charles

2011-01-01

4

Beneath Moral Economy: Informal assistance in early 20th century Finland  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study concerns informal assistance between households as a form of social security in early 20th century Finland. Its sources consist of oral histories, tax, demographic and welfare records and household budgets. According to the study, the popular ideology related to informal assistance excluded outsiders, idealized shared poverty, relied on familiarity and reciprocity, and appealed to material imperative. It turned necessity into a virtue. In different historical situations, entitlement...

Saaritsa, Sakari

2008-01-01

5

The mid 19th and early 20th Century Pull of a Nearby Eclipse Shadow Path  

Science.gov (United States)

The unique observing conditions allowed by total solar eclipses made them a highly desirable target of 19th and early 20th century astronomical expeditions, particularly after 1842. Due to the narrowness of the lunar shadow at the Earth's surface this usually implied traveling to faraway locations with all the subsequent inconveniences, in particular, high costs and complex logistics. A situation that improved as travel became faster, cheaper and more reliable. The possibility to observe an eclipse in one's own country implied no customs, no language barriers, usually shorter travelling distances and the likely support of local and central authorities. The eclipse proximity also provided a strong argument to pressure the government to support the eclipse observation. Sometimes the scientific elite would use such high profile events to rhetorically promote broader goals. In this paper we will analyse the motivation, goals, negotiating strategies and outcomes of the Portuguese eclipse expeditions made between 1860 and 1914. We will focus, in particular, on the observation of the solar eclipses of 22 December 1870 and 17 April 1912. The former allowed the start-up of astrophysical studies in the country while the movie obtained at the latter led Francisco da Costa Lobo to unexpectedly propose a polar flattening of the Moon.

Bonifácio, Vitor

2012-09-01

6

Einstein and early 20th Century avant-garde art: points of contact?  

CERN Multimedia

Art history linked some early 20th Century avant-garde visual art movements to contemporary systems of ideas in mathematics and theoretical physics. One of the proposed connections is the one that might have existed between Cubism and Relativity, or more precisely, between Picasso and Einstein. The suggested links are similarity (in a weak version) or identity (in a strong version) in matters of space, time and simultaneity. It is possible, however, that these supposed links of Einstein and avant-garde art movements were more the product of the imagination of historians and critics, than the result of connections between painters and scientists. On the one hand, the visual arts (in contrast to music, as far as we now) were of no interest to Einstein, who, moreover, did not seem inclined or knowledgeable enough to appreciate advanced forms. On the other hand, Einstein's theories fell outside the artists' ken, let alone their understanding, although there are firm clues pointing to the fact that repercussions o...

Martini, José X

2007-01-01

7

Exploring 20th Century London  

Science.gov (United States)

From the expansion of the Underground to the waves of new arrivals from the British colonies, London was greatly transformed through the 20th century. Recently, several London institutions, including the Museum of London, combed through their respective resources to create this interactive exhibit and archive that would tell visitors a bit about the city's evolution during those 100 years. The materials can be viewed through three sections: "Timeline", "Themes", and "Places". In the "Timeline" section, visitors can browse through featured objects and also learn about major events during the period. Moving on, the "Themes" area organizes the city's recent past into topical areas that focus on art and design, the built environment, ethnic communities, and leisure activities. The "Places" section features a clickable map of London's boroughs which reveals artifacts from each of these respective areas.

8

Empire, religion and national identity: Scottish Christian imperialism in the 19th and early 20th centuries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis examines the connection between participation in the British empire and constructions of Scottish national identity, through investigating the activities of civil society organisations in Scotland, in particular missionary societies and the Presbyterian churches in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Though empire is commonly thought to have had a significant impact on Scots' adoption of a British identity. The process of how representations of empire were transmitted and understoo...

2005-01-01

9

Female Identity Problem in Lithuanian Women’s Creative Writing in the Late 19th – Early 20th Century  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ramun? Bleizgien?‘s dissertaiton Female Identity Problem in Lithuanian Women’s Creative Writing in the Late 19th – Early 20th Century analyses identity as a result of an interaction between a person and his/her socio-cultural context, by raising a question how the development of modern Lithuanian society influenced the forms of female identity. A heterogeneous methodological perspective introduces a shift in female identity as an inseparable part of the process of women becoming publ...

Bleizgiene?, Ramune?

2009-01-01

10

The controversial early brightening in the first half of 20th century: a contribution from pyrheliometer measurements in Madrid (Spain)  

CERN Document Server

A long-term decrease in downward surface solar radiation from the 1950s to the 1980s ("global dimming") followed by a multi-decadal increase up to the present ("brightening") have been detected in many regions worldwide. In addition, some researchers have suggested the existence of an "early brightening" period in the first half of 20th century. However, this latter phenomenon is an open issue due to the opposite results found in literature and the scarcity of solar radiation data during this period. This paper contributes to this relevant discussion analyzing, for the first time in Southern Europe, the atmospheric column transparency derived from pyrheliometer measurements in Madrid (Spain) for the period 1911-1928. This time series is one of the three longest dataset during the first quarter of the 20th century in Europe. The results showed the great effects of the Katmai eruption (June 1912, Alaska) on transparency values during 1912-1913 with maximum relative anomalies around 8%. Outside the period affect...

Antón, M; Aparicio, A J P

2014-01-01

11

The construction of the social role of women in public discourse in mid-19th – early 20th-century Lithuania  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Vytautas Kavolis noticed that an analysis of the attitude towards women is important not only to reveal specific aspects of social life but also to distil out the general sociocultural and sociopolitical tendencies of a period. Lithuanian historiography that examines the formation of the modern society in the mid-19th – early 20th-century Lithuania is especially focused on the discussion of the awakening of consciousness and activity of the various social groups. But the construction of the...

Miknyte?, Jurga

2009-01-01

12

Investment Study on Christie’ Chinese 20th Century Art  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis focuses on the blooming market of Chinese 20th Century Art. The study object is one category of Christie’s Auction house, Chinese 20th Century Art, before 2009. Eight artists’ auction results are selected to the dataset for the research. We find that the previous researches based on the collection of Western arts cannot explain the whole situation of Chinese 20th Century Art. It has speculative character as an invest option in global art market. And some factors would affect t...

Wei, Linna; Zhao, Xichan

2010-01-01

13

Early 20th Century Education in the United States: The Role of the Brothers of Holy Cross  

Science.gov (United States)

The French Revolution bears an ironic responsibility for generating works of charity. To counteract the devastating social effects of that late 18th century uprising, numerous religious communities were founded in France, among them the Congregation of Holy Cross. The Congregation of Holy Cross, the founding religious community behind the…

Armstrong, Philip C.

2007-01-01

14

20th Century Accounts of American Citizenship  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Accounts of citizenship by Presidents of the American Political Science Association (APSA are examined through Mannheim’s sociology of knowledge. We use Marshall as a platform to reconceptualise the dynamics of Mannheim’s three incommensurable ‘thought styles’: one liberal; one conservative; and one dialectically social. We suggest on this basis that American political citizenship in the twentieth century entails three incompatible but concurrent ‘thought styles’, that involve a triple helix of political rationalities (see White and Donoghue 2003. The model is tested in a longitudinal study of ‘citizenship and democracy’ in regular social scientific usage. The empirical material comprises the presidential addresses to the American Political Science Association (APSA published in the American Political Science Review (APSR from 1906 to 1997. The findings suggest that the addresses by the presidents of the Political Science Association of America invoke intertwining rationalities that relate twentieth century citizenship to classical political discourses.

Jed Donoghue

2014-01-01

15

A Look at 20th Century Droughts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Droughts exercise a profound effect on the social and economic fabric of nations. Many nations of the world experienced droughts encompassing the full spectrum of severity, areal extent and duration. The result has been that the economic development was hampered and many countries have not yet recouped fully from the ravages of droughts. The first decade of the 21st century has also witnessed varying degrees of droughts across the globe. Therefore, we ask the following questions: (a) Do...

2011-01-01

16

Australian Literature Database: A Collection of 18th, 19th and early 20th century Australian texts  

Science.gov (United States)

Part of the metasite of the Scholarly Electronic Text and Image Service (SETIS) at the University of Sydney Library, this site allows users to access hundreds of complete texts of literary and historical works written by Australians in the last three centuries. Included here are poems, short stories, novels, reference works, memoirs, historical narratives and documents, and much more. The texts can be browsed or searched with options allowing users to search or limit searches by date, publisher, author, title, genre, gender of author, or opening lines. A limited number of historically valuable texts are displayed in page image format; the rest are offered in standard .html. Since many of these texts can be difficult for students and researchers not on the southern continent to find, the database is all the more valuable to those doing work in this field.

17

Dietary Changes in Sweden and Belgium During the Late 20th and Early 21st Century and Their Implications for Sustainability  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This dissertation focuses on the changing food consumption patterns in Sweden and Belgium during the latter half of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century and the implications as seen from a sustainability point of view, both from a qualitative and quantitative perspective. It is shown that changes in agriculture, food processing, distribution and consumption during the period under assessment were considerable and had a clear impact on the food consumption pattern in both cou...

Geeraert, Friedel

2011-01-01

18

?????????? ????????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????? ? ????? XIX-?????? XX ????(Scandinavian missions in the materials of the Russian Orthodox magazines (from the late 19th and early 20th centuries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Russian Orthodox magazines - Pravoslavny Blagovestnik, Missio- nerskoe obozrenie, Amerikansky pravoslavny vestnik, and others - are important and interesting sources. These periodicals describe missionary activity in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Naturally, these magazines were primarily concerned with the missionary attempts of the "Great Powers". But the work of Scandinavian missions was also covered. The material can be divided into three categories: historical reviews, statistics, and so-called "missionary problems". The reviews deal with the history of all influential Scandinavian missionary organizations - The Norwegian Missionary Society, The Norwegian Covenant Mission, The Danish Missionary Society, The Church of Sweden Mission. The statistical material - the number of missionary organizations and missionaries, native assistants, converts, financial support - offers a chance to compare Scandinavian missionary activity on an international scale. At the turn of the 19th century the problems between missionaries and native inhabitants became very topical. These problems, too, were touched upon in Russian religious magazines. On the whole, the role of Scandinavian missions in the missionary movement was evaluated in an objective manner.

I. A. Garcev

1998-02-01

19

The early vs the late 20th century Arctic warming: The role of energy and aerosol fluxes in reanalysis driven datasets  

Science.gov (United States)

During the last two decades, the Arctic was put into the scientific focus as one of the most impacted regions worldwide concerning anthropogenic global warming. However, the warming between 1920 and 1940 proofs the importance of internal variability on yearly and decadal scale. Therefore, it is important to further investigate the role of external and internal forcings on the Arctic climate attribute process and causes leading to changes in the Arctic climate regime (Serreze & Barry 2009). Although much research effort was spent to understand the links and influences of and on the Arctic climate, there is still a need for further insights concerning this topic. Especially the results and discussion about anthropogenic global warming and Arctic amplification put the Arctic into the public and academic focus (Serreze & Barry 2011). However, the early 20th century Arctic warming, although discovered immediately, was scientifically forgotten until recently (Delworth & Knutson 2000, Bengtsson et al 2004, Grant et al 2009, Bekryaev et al 2010). The comparison of this earlier Arctic warming and the recent warming period grants a chance to deepen knowledge about the drivers of Arctic climate and can be used to evaluate the anthropogenic impact. The authors use the Twentieth Century Reanalysis (20CR) dataset and a nudged, reanalysis-driven Aerosol Global Circulation Model (A-GCM) to investigate the impact of atmospheric energy and aerosol fluxes into the Arctic during the 20th century. The 20CR dataset covers the period of 1871 - 2010 with a temporal resolution of 6hr and a spatial resolution of 2° x 2°. For the first time, this dataset (and ist 56 ensemble member) is used to compute the atmospheric energy flux, consisting of sensble heat, latent heat, potential energy and kinetic energy. The values are integrated around 70° N and between 1000 - 100 hPa. Aerosol fluxes for the same domain but for the years 1957 - 2000 are calculated based on the A-GCM nudged to the ECMWF 40 year Re-analysis (ERA) and correlated to circulation patterns. Based on these dataset we analyze timeseries and patterns of several variables, with a focus on the temperature changes in the Arctic domain. We show that the 20CR can recreate recent sensible heat fluxes, meaning from the 1950s onward. Before this timeperiod 20CR exhibits a strong positive energy influx between 1920 and 1930, which is difficult to validate, however probably arises due to missrepresentation of local wind maxima, mostly over the Canadian Arctic. The authors highlight the impact of this flaw by investigating snow cover and atmospheric stability over the Arctic. Finally, the two datasets are compared and exemplary extreme events in aerosol fluxes are analysed in terms of warming impact and the related circulation patterns. Possible implications for the future use of 20CR are discussed, together with the impact of our findings for the interpretation of the early 20th warming in todays context.

Wegmann, Martin; Broennimann, Stefan

2014-05-01

20

Rational Number Theory in the 20th Century  

CERN Multimedia

The last one hundred years have seen many important achievements in the classical part of number theory. After the proof of the Prime Number Theorem in 1896, a quick development of analytical tools led to the invention of various new methods, like Brun's sieve method and the circle method of Hardy, Littlewood and Ramanujan; developments in topics such as prime and additive number theory, and the solution of Fermat's problem. "Rational Number Theory in the 20th Century: From PNT to FLT" offers a short survey of 20th century developments in classical number theory, documenting between

Narkiewicz, Wladyslaw

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Great Engineering Achievements of the 20th Century  

Science.gov (United States)

This site from the National Academy of Engineering features some of the greatest engineering achievements of the 20th century. Most of these technological advances are taken for granted by us as we use them in our everyday lives. Examples include air conditioning and refrigeration, radio and television and the internet.

2011-06-28

22

O discurso médico-higienista no Brasil do início do século XX / The discourse of the hygienist physician in the early 20th century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho é contribuir para a compreensão da relação entre higienismo e educação nas primeiras décadas do século XX no Brasil. Para isso, analisou-se o discurso médico-higienista presente nas teses da I Conferência Nacional de Educação, realizada pela Associação Brasileira de Educaçã [...] o em Curitiba, Paraná, em 1927, utilizando-se, principalmente, os livros Os anormais (2002) e A ordem do discurso (2009), ambos do filósofo francês Michel Foucault. O exame das teses, bem como a revisão de literatura em história da educação, possibilitou perceber que o objetivo dos médicos, intelectuais e políticos brasileiros da década de 1920 era formar uma consciência higiênica nacional voltada para o progresso do país, instaurando a preocupação com a saúde física, mental e social da população. Abstract in english The purpose of this article is to contribute to the understanding of the relationship between hygienism and education in the early decades of the 20th century in Brazil. For this, an analysis was made of the discourse of the hygienist physician show-cased in the theses of the 1st National Conference [...] on Education, organized by the Brazilian Association of Education in Curitiba, Paraná, in 1927, mostly using the books titled "Os anormais" (The freaks) (2002) and "A ordem do discurso" (The order of discourse) (2009), both authored by French philosopher Michel Foucault. The examination of theses, as well as the review of the literature in the history of education, led to the realization that, in the 1920s, physicians, intellectuals, and politicians intended to form national awareness on hygiene focused on the progress of the country, establishing concern with the population's physical, mental, and social health.

Laerthe de Moraes, Abreu Junior; Eliane Vianey de, Carvalho.

23

Geodiversity and biodiversity interactions in the sand landscapes of the Netherlands on 19th and early 20th century landscape paintings  

Science.gov (United States)

Sand landscapes occupy about half of the territory of the Netherlands. Apart from an insignificant amount of Tertiary deposits, these sands are of Pleistocene and Holocene age. They include Saalian push moraines, Weichselian cover sands and Holocene drift sands. To these geological landscapes, cultural variants should be added such as the essen, i.e. a landscape with plaggen soils, and reclaimed lands (e.g. former moors). Not included are the coastal sands, which we dealt with in an earlier EGU contribution (van den Ancker & Jungerius 2012). Nature and man created a wide variety of sceneries that inspired painters in the 19th and early 20th century (Jungerius et al. 2012). Painter communities on the sandy soils flourished in Oosterbeek/Wolfheze, Laren/Blaricum, Nijkerk, Nunspeet/Elspeet, Hattem and Heeze. Many of the landscape paintings are found in the database of Simonis en Buunk that can be freely consulted on line (http//www.simonis&buunk.com). For this presentation we selected specimens that show geodiversity-biodiversity relationships, some of which have changed since. Painters of push moraines were attracted by the rolling terrain, the dry valleys and occasionally the colourful podzol soil profiles. Popular themes in the cover sands were the undulating relief and heathlands with herds of sheep, sandy footpaths and country roads with erosion phenomena. The dynamics of erosion captivated the painters of Holocene drift sand scenery, as did the bare fields of cultivated lands. Their paintings show the rural areas that since the beginning of the 20th century lost their traditional charm in large-scale re-allotment schemes and artificial nature-building project, that changed geodiversity-biodiversity relationships. Changes in the sandy terrains that can be inferred from the paintings are on a landscape scale, the scale of the landform and vegetation type, and are illustrated by changes in colour, pattern, structure and texture. Examples are: · active drift sands with erosional phenomena, most vanished as a result of afforestation and eutrophic precipitation; · wetland heath habitats, that largely disappeared due to reclamation and regional lowering of the groundwater table; · grazing of herded sheep of local breed on geo-structured heathlands, that is recently re-introduced for nature mangement purposes; · smaller agricultural plots on undulating 'essen' with crops such as buckwheat and wheat, now replaced by level terrain and maize monocultures; · monumental old trees on the oldest landscape paintings, often on river banks, are notably absent on later paintings. References Jungerius P, van den Ancker H, Wevers N 2012. The contribution of Dutch landscape painters to the conservation of geoheritage. Geology Today 28,3. Hanneke van den Ancker & Pieter Dirk Jungerius, 2012. Landscape paintings, a tool for research, planning and management of the coastal zone. Presentation General Assembly European Geosciences Union EGU - SSS, Vienna.

Jungerius, Pieter; van den Ancker, Hanneke

2014-05-01

24

Nuclear tracks: A success story of the 20th century  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Starting with the observation of a few feeble trails of damage in a sheet of mica exposed to fission fragments some 40 years ago, the discipline based on their correct interpretation has emblazoned a resounding success story in the second half of the 20th century. The spectrum of information revealed by the technique extends from delineating the history of the cosmos over billions of years to observing exotic decays lasting from a minute to a fraction of a second. More, directly useful researches have included medical and biological uses as well as industrial applications. A topic of great current interest is the study of the environmental and health effects of the naturally occurring radon gas. These and other highlights of the track work over the past 40 odd years of the 20th century - with some tentative glimpses of things to come in the 21st - are presented and examined in this review paper

2001-06-01

25

Nuclear tracks: A success story of the 20th century  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Starting with the observation of a few feeble trails of damage in a sheet of mica exposed to fission fragments some 40 years ago, the discipline based on their correct interpretation has emblazoned a resounding success story in the second half of the 20th century. The spectrum of information revealed by the technique extends from delineating the history of the cosmos over billions of years to observing exotic decays lasting from a minute to a fraction of a second. More, directly useful researches have included medical and biological uses as well as industrial applications. A topic of great current interest is the study of the environmental and health effects of the naturally occurring radon gas. These and other highlights of the track work over the past 40 odd years of the 20th century - with some tentative glimpses of things to come in the 21st - are presented and examined in this review paper.

Durrani, S.A. E-mail: s.a.durrani@bham.ac.uk

2001-06-01

26

[The 20th century: 100 years of misfortune and splendor].  

Science.gov (United States)

The 20th century has been one of the most intense and convulsive periods in the History of humanity. A century of paradoxes and contrasts, it began with optimism, it witnessed the apocalypse of two world wars, and finished with unimaginable scientific progress that gave us a new civilization that we cannot yet grasp. In this century, significant events happened that shaped our time and projected their results toward an immediate future. Some of these were providential in understanding man's life, fighting against illnesses and prolonging life, and others were of undeniable social importance for humanity. Some knowledge was based on the work of others. Philosophy was embedded in mathematics, as was science in philosophy, while politics and the economy exercised so decisive an influence in our way of feeling and living that culture and society were affected to the core. Within that century the biggest technological revolution of all the time was also created, as transcendent as it was unimaginable, which put mankind on the road to the stars with the moon landing and in the process created the information society whose signature symbol, the internet, emerged as a new demiurge. However, the 20th century, with all its misfortune and splendor, paradoxes and contrasts, creation and destruction, was the most transcendent in the whole of history and it bequeaths to the future a promising horizon in the search for a renovated meaning of life and a yearning for peaceful coexistence for the whole humanity. PMID:15754756

Urdaneta-Carruyo, Eliéxer

2005-01-01

27

Radiosonde daytime biases and late-20th century warming.  

Science.gov (United States)

The temperature difference between adjacent 0000 and 1200 UTC weather balloon (radiosonde) reports shows a pervasive tendency toward cooler daytime compared to nighttime observations since the 1970s, especially at tropical stations. Several characteristics of this trend indicate that it is an artifact of systematic reductions over time in the uncorrected error due to daytime solar heating of the instrument and should be absent from accurate climate records. Although other problems may exist, this effect alone is of sufficient magnitude to reconcile radiosonde tropospheric temperature trends and surface trends during the late 20th century. PMID:16099950

Sherwood, Steven C; Lanzante, John R; Meyer, Cathryn L

2005-09-01

28

The Expression of Emotions in 20th Century Books  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We report here trends in the usage of mood words, that is, words carrying emotional content, in 20th century English language books, using the data set provided by Google that includes word frequencies in roughly 4% of all books published up to the year 2008. We find evidence for distinct historical periods of positive and negative moods, underlain by a general decrease in the use of emotion-related words through time. Finally, we show that, in books, American English has become decidedly mor...

Acerbi, Alberto; Lampos, Vasileios; Garnett, Philip; Bentley, R. Alexander

2013-01-01

29

The Expression of Emotions in 20th Century Books  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We report here trends in the usage of “mood” words, that is, words carrying emotional content, in 20th century English language books, using the data set provided by Google that includes word frequencies in roughly 4% of all books published up to the year 2008. We find evidence for distinct historical periods of positive and negative moods, underlain by a general decrease in the use of emotion-related words through time. Finally, we show that, in books, American English has become decided...

Acerbi, Alberto; Lampos, Vasileios; Garnett, Philip; Bentley, R. Alexander

2013-01-01

30

FRUIT GROWING IN ROMANIA IN THE 20TH CENTURY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Romania, fruit growing has an old and rich tradition. During the 20th century, the Romanian fruit growing witnessed dramatic changes. The acreage grown with fruit trees was 340,100 ha in 1927, 184,200 ha in 1950, 428,400 ha in 1970 and 239,900 ha in 1999. Total fruit yield varied during this period of time between 401,100 tons in 1950 and 2,183,000 tons in 1993. In spite of the fact that in 1993 was produced the highest total fruit yield, the average fruit consumption/capita was only of 35...

Ropan, G.; Ardelean, M.; Sestras, R.; Mitre, V.; Mitre, I.; Roman, I.

2002-01-01

31

Spitsbergen landscape under 20th century climate change: Sørkapp Land.  

Science.gov (United States)

A reaction of the European Arctic landscape to a climate change on the scale of a typical middle-sized region is outlined. A wide scope of the methods was used, first of all field mapping and observations. Glaciers are important in the Sørkapp Land landscape because they cover the majority of its territory and undergo quick recessions as a result of the 20th century warming. Glacial recession influence intensively: relief with Quaternary deposits, waters, animals, vegetation and soils. The most important landscape changes in the 20th century are: uplift of the equilibrium line altitude on glaciers by 100-200 m; large glacial recession in both surface and volume; significant decrease of the land area due to recession of tidewater glaciers; lengthening of the coastline, and especially of glacial cliffs; development of the land water network; start of the plant succession in areas abandoned by glaciers. No isostatic uplift has taken place in Sørkapp Land since the Little Ice Age. PMID:15387062

Ziaja, Wieslaw

2004-08-01

32

The Risorgimento in 20th century Italian political discourse  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this paper is to understand both continuities and changes in the reference to the Risorgimento in 20th century political discourse. The narrative proceeds by analyzing historical â??snapshots,â? from the Liberal period to post-Cold War Italy, that allows us to spell out what has changed and what has remained constant in the memorization and actualization of the Risorgimento in the 20th century political discourse. We single out historical events, public rituals and public discourses unfolding in the context of symbolic years and anniversaries of the nation like 1911, 1932, and 1961 where the nexus between the Risorgimento past and the political present came to the fore with particular emphasis. In the contextual discussion of these memorization events, we discuss intellectual elaborations of Risorgimento memorization and indicate how such elaborations spread to wider layers of the populace. In the final section, we bring the analysis up to date by briefly discussing more current interpretations and evocations of the Risorgimento, with a focus on the highly symbolic Presidency of Carlo Azeglio Ciampi (1999-2006).

Thomassen, Bjørn; Forlenza, Rosario

33

[Modern medicine environment and adaptation of Korean trader for medicinal herbs from the late 19th century to the early 20th century].  

Science.gov (United States)

Since the late 18th century, the Korean traditional medicine trade witnessed a steady growth. There were lots of stores which sold Korean medicinal herbs in Seoul and every major towns had at least one or more stores in Korea, which led to a subsequent growth of people involved in the trade. However, Korean medicine merchants encountered a new environment with the influx of western medicines after the Opening of Ports and the execution of modern medicine policies. Such change of atmosphere led the merchants to seek new breakthroughs. Some of the merchants found the answer in producing and selling patent medicine. The people in the industry had little knowledge of western medicine, so that they had little choice but to combine their experience of Korean medicine with whatever information they had about western counterpart. Such resolution generated a new kind of medicine known as patent medicine. Patent medicine businessmen observed the new medicine policies of the Korean Empire. Some visionary ones even sought to eagerly utilize the trademark system to secure the selling route. The Japanese colonial government strengthened the medicine policies. It revised the legislature and mobilized administrative powers to manage and control the industry. However, such colonial policies in the 1910s implicated certain limits due to its lack of understanding of Korean medicine industry. Also, the colonial government showed poor efforts in introducing modern medicine facilities and systems, so that the ground was set for the patent medicine business to flourish. Patent medicine enjoyed a high turnover. So, the entrepreneurs endeavored to promote the sales in whatever means necessary. The most basic form of advertisement was through the newspaper. Indirect promotion through newspaper articles, issuing medicine flyers, free gift draw, reputation of an influential expert were widely used for its sales. Consequently, patent medicine industry in the 1910s saw a healthy prosperity. One example of such golden days was the case of Hwuapyungdangyakbabg (one of the biggest patent medicine companies), which won a third place along with Kyungsungbangjik, which was the top Korean company at that time, in the advertisement design contest hosted by the classified department of Dong-a Daily in 1926. But actually, a few Japanese medicine merchants led the industry. So prosperity of Korean medicine merchant had its limits. PMID:17575704

Yang, Jeongpil

2006-12-01

34

Modern Medicine Environment and Adaptation of Korean Trader for Medicinal Herbs From the Late 19th Century to the Early 20th Century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since the late 18th century, the Korean traditional medicine trade witnessed a steady growth. There were lots of stores which sold Korean medicinal herbs in Seoul and every major towns had at least one or more stores in Korea, which led to a subsequent growth of people involved in the trade. However, Korean medicine merchants encountered a new environment with the influx of western medicines after the Opening of Ports and the execution of modern medicine policies. Such change of atmosphere led the merchants to seek new breakthroughs. Some of the merchants found the answer in producing and selling patent medicine. The people in the industry had little knowledge of western medicine, so that they had little choice but to combine their experience of Korean medicine with whatever information they had about western counterpart. Such resolution generated a new kind of medicine known as patent medicine. Patent medicine businessmen observed the new medicine policies of the Korean Empire. Some visionary ones even sought to eagerly utilize the trademark system to secure the selling route. The Japanese colonial government strengthened the medicine policies. It revised the legislature and mobilized administrative powers to manage and control the industry. However, such colonial policies in the 1910s implicated certain limits due to its lack of understanding of Korean medicine industry. Also, the colonial government showed poor efforts in introducing modern medicine facilities and systems, so that the ground was set for the patent medicine business to flourish. Patent medicine enjoyed a high turnover. So, the entrepreneurs endeavored to promote the sales in whatever means necessary. The most basic form of advertisement was through the newspaper. Indirect promotion through newspaper articles, issuing medicine flyers, free gift draw, reputation of an influential expert were widely used for its sales. Consequently, patent medicine industry in the 1910s saw a healthy prosperity. One example of such golden days was the case of Hwapyungdangyakbabg(one of the biggest patent medicine companies, which won a third place along with Kyungsungbangjik, which was the top Korean company at that time, in the advertisement design contest hosted by the classified department of Dong-a Daily in 1926. But actually, a few Japanese medicine merchants led the industry. So prosperity of Korean medicine merchant had its limits.

YANG Jeongpil

2006-12-01

35

Changes in Astronomical Publications During the 20th Century  

Science.gov (United States)

Among the major changes in astronomical publication during the 20th century are the virtual demise of observatory publication, the growth of conference proceedings, and the continuing dominance of journal publications. The numbers of research papers were found to depend only on the number of researchers and not upon the speed of new detectors and computers or the availability of large telescopes. Papers have grown in average length by a factor of 5 but their lengths have leveled off because many data are published on-line only. The fraction of papers with authors from two or more countries is currently 40% and growing by 1% per year. After trying various publication methods (microfiche, CD-ROMs, videos), the trend is toward on-line publication. With the growth and complexity of science, it is increasingly important to obtain independent reviews of papers. Current auxiliary tools include search engines, the Science Citation Index, and preprint servers.

Abt, H. A.

2003-03-01

36

ENTRE LO TRADICIONAL Y LO MODERNO BOGOTÁ A COMIENZOS DEL SIGLO XX / Between traditional and modern. Bogotá, in the early 20th century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El documento expone los procesos de transformación de Bogotá en las primeras tres décadas del siglo XX, centrando la mirada en tres factores específicos. 1) Las adecuaciones urbanísticas: servicios públicos; construcción de barrios para las élites y desarrollo de los denominados "barrios obreros". C [...] ivilización, modernización vs. tradición es lo que allí se establece como contradicción. 2) El desarrollo de la administración pública bogotana y los modos en que asume la modernización de la ciudad. 3) Los modos en que los habitantes de la ciudad comenzaban a sentir las experiencias de vida urbana a partir de la configuración de nuevos escenarios públicos, como parques, plazas, cine, entre otros. Finalmente, se presentan algunas conclusiones centradas en las tensiones entre tradición y modernidad para dar cuenta de un momento en el que se produce y se siente el tránsito entre la vida de pueblo y los elementos de ciudad. Abstract in english This document portrays the process of material and cultural transformation of Bogotá (Colombia) during the first three decades of 20th century from three points of view. First, the urban modifications: public services, development of elites and poor neighborhoods. The categories Civilization versus [...] Tradition are used to establish the central contradiction. Second, the development of public administration of de city and how is understood the modernization of the Bogotá by that public administration. Third, how the urban people started to feel the new experiences about the urban life from the configurations of new public scenarios such as parks, squares, cinemas, etc. Finally, this document offers some conclusions centered in the tensions between tradition and modernity with the purpose to depict the circumstances how the people in Bogotá started to feel the transition from the dynamic of a small town life to the city life.

Jorge Orlando, Blanco Suárez; Giovanny Francesco, Salcedo Cruz.

2012-07-15

37

Essential shift: Scientific revolution in the 20th century  

Science.gov (United States)

With the publishing of Sir Isaac Newton's Principia Mathematica in 1687, a scientific paradigm was established that clearly dominated society for two and half centuries. Many historians of science have identified the Copenhagen interpretation of the quantum theory, formulated c.1927, as having completed a scientific revolution that ended the reign of classical Newtonian science. A rival claim to contemporary scientific revolution, however, has been put forward by Ilya Prigogine and the Brussels school of thermodynamics based on Prigogine's work in non-equilibrium thermodynamics. Using the historical consensus model of scientific revolution first articulated by Thomas S. Kuhn in 1962, this analysis examines the extent to which the Copenhagen interpretation of the quantum theory and the work of IIya Prigogine complete the conceptual, scientific paradigm-shift necessary for a scientific revolution. The resulting historical evidence shows that the Copenhagen interpretation did not complete a paradigm-shift; instead, it was a self-revelation by the scientific community which revealed the essence and fundamental limitations of Newtonian science. Evidence further indicates that the valid claim to scientific revolution in the 20th century lies with the contemporary work of Prigogine and the Brussels school. By abandoning the deterministic, mechanical world-view of the Newtonian paradigm and accepting a new reality of process and irreversible time, Prigogine and his associates have established the foundations for a revolutionary new scientific paradigm.

Ismay, David K.

1993-05-01

38

A Look at Aircraft Accident Analysis in the Early Days: Do Early 20th Century Accident Investigation Techniques Have Any Lessons for Today?  

Science.gov (United States)

In the early years of powered flight, the National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics in the United States produced three reports describing a method of analysis of aircraft accidents. The first report was published in 1928; the second, which was a revision of the first, was published in 1930; and the third, which was a revision and update of the second, was published in 1936. This paper describes the contents of these reports, and compares the method of analysis proposed therein to the methods used today.

Holloway, C. M.; Johnson, C. W.

2007-01-01

39

The Top Ten Astronomical 'breakthroughs' of the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Astronomy was revolutionized in the 20th century. The electron was discovered in 1897 and this transformed spectroscopy and introduced plasma and magnetohydrodynamic physics and astro-chemistry. Einstein’s E = mc2, solved the problem of stellar energy generation and spawned the study of elemental nuclear synthesis. Large telescopes led to a boom in astronomical spectroscopic and photometric data collection, leading to such cornerstones as the Hertzprung-Russell diagram and the mass-luminosity relationship, and to the realization that the Universe contained a multitude of galaxies and was expanding. Radio astronomy was introduced and the advent of the space age saw the astronomical wavelength range expand into the ultraviolet, X-ray and gamma-ray regions, as well as the infrared and millimetre. We also startedwandering around roaming the Solar System instead of merely glimpsing its members from the bottom of our warm, turbulent atmosphere. Astronomical “breakthroughs” abounded. We have asked astronomers to select their “top ten” and these are listed and discussed in this paper.

Hughes, D. W.

2007-10-01

40

FRUIT GROWING IN ROMANIA IN THE 20TH CENTURY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Romania, fruit growing has an old and rich tradition. During the 20th century, the Romanian fruit growing witnessed dramatic changes. The acreage grown with fruit trees was 340,100 ha in 1927, 184,200 ha in 1950, 428,400 ha in 1970 and 239,900 ha in 1999. Total fruit yield varied during this period of time between 401,100 tons in 1950 and 2,183,000 tons in 1993. In spite of the fact that in 1993 was produced the highest total fruit yield, the average fruit consumption/capita was only of 35.7 kg which is significantly lower than that considered optimal for adult people in temperate zones (62 kg/capita. The main reason of this situation is the poor varietal structure of fruits in which plum trees represented more than 40% of all the fruit trees grown. Another reason would be the low yields/ha registered in all species and cultivars of fruit trees grown in Romania in the last 30-40 years. With a very serious shrink of acreages grown with fruit trees in 1999, the average consumption/capita is expected to become totally unfavorable. There are not many solutions to this problems and one of them certainly means the significant increase of average yields in all fruit species grown in Romania, at least to the level of those achieved in industrial orchards of Western Europe.

G ROPAN

2002-11-01

 
 
 
 
41

History reconstruction: Third century parallels to 20th century South African Church 'History Origen Adamantinus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

History reconstruction: Third century parallels to 20th century South African Church History - Origen Adamantinus. In this paper a possible third century contribution to Church History reconstruction is considered. This is employed as an example for South African church historians who are dedicated to history interpretation, whether it be from the perspective of: acceptance on face value; justification; verification; criticism or renunciation of twentieth century historical events and the WG)...

Maritz, P. J.

1997-01-01

42

Global physical water scarcity trajectories for the 20th century  

Science.gov (United States)

Food security and the overall wellbeing of human kind are threatened by overexploitation of our freshwater resources. Water scarcity is not only a threat to people, but also to many of the planet's key ecosystems. Due to increasing population pressure, changing water consumption behaviour, and climate change, the threat is projected to become even worse in the future. Water can be physically scarce in two ways: population-driven water shortage occurs in areas where a large population has to depend on a limited resources (indicated by m3/capita/yr), while demand-driven water stress is related to the excessive use of otherwise sufficient water resources (indicated by demand/supply ratio). Although many studies have increased our understanding of current water scarcity and how this may increase in the future, the understanding of trajectories with the past development of the water scarcity is less well understood. To date, studies of past water resources have focused on either water shortage or water stress. We aim to calculate global water scarcity, both water stress and water shortage, for the period 1900-2005. We can thus provide, for the first time, continuous regional trends and local analyses of trajectories of water scarcity for the entire 20th century. By including both dimensions of water scarcity, we can increase the understanding of reasons behind the scarcity. We found that in year 1900 13% of the population (i.e. 0.22 billion people) was living in areas that suffer some kind of water scarcity (0.2), while in year 2005 this percentage has increased to 57% (3.80 billion). Especially the population suffering from both high water stress (ratio >0.4) and high water shortage (planning to tackle with the future challenges in terms of water scarcity.

Kummu, Matti; de Moel, Hans; Eisner, Stefanie; Flörke, Martina; Siebert, Stefan; Varis, Olli

2014-05-01

43

Increasing cloud cover in the 20th century: review and new findings in Spain  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Visual observations of clouds have been performed since the establishment of meteorological observatories during the early instrumental period, and have become more systematic and reliable after the mid-19th century due to the establishment of the first national weather services. During the last decades a large number of studies have documented the trends of the total cloud cover (TCC) and cloudy types; most of these studies are focused on the trends since the second half of the 20th cent...

Sanchez-lorenzo, A.; Calbo?, J.; Wild, M.

2012-01-01

44

Modeling the temperature evolution of Svalbard permafrost during the 20th and 21st century  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Variations in ground thermal conditions in Svalbard were studied based on measurements and modelling. Ground temperature data from boreholes were used to calibrate a transient heat flow model describing depth and time variations in temperatures. The model was subsequently forced with historical surface air temperature records and possible future temperatures downscaled from multiple global climate models. We discuss ground temperature development since the early 20th century, and the thermal ...

Etzelmu?ller, B.; Schuler, T. V.; Isaksen, K.; Christiansen, H. H.; Farbrot, H.; Benestad, R.

2011-01-01

45

Spatial and temporal patterns of global burned area in response to anthropogenic and environmental factors: Reconstructing global fire history for the 20th and early 21st centuries  

Science.gov (United States)

is a critical component of the Earth system, and substantially influences land surface, climate change, and ecosystem dynamics. To accurately predict the fire regimes in the 21st century, it is essential to understand the historical fire patterns and recognize the interaction among fire, human, and environment factors. Until now, few efforts are put on the studies regarding to the long-term fire reconstruction and the attribution analysis of anthropogenic and environmental factors to fire regimes at global scale. To fill this knowledge gap, we developed a 0.5° × 0.5° data set of global burned area from 1901 to 2007 by coupling Global Fire Emission Database version 3 with a process-based fire model and conducted factorial simulation experiments to evaluate the impacts of human, climate, and atmospheric components. The average global burned area is ~442 × 104 km2 yr-1 during 1901-2007 and our results suggest a notable declining rate of burned area globally (1.28 × 104 km2 yr-1). Burned area in tropics and extratropics exhibited a significant declining trend, with no significant trend detected at high latitudes. Factorial experiments indicated that human activities were the dominant factor in determining the declining trend of burned area in tropics and extratropics, and climate variation was the primary factor controlling the decadal variation of burned area at high latitudes. Elevated CO2 and nitrogen deposition enhanced burned area in tropics and southern extratropics but suppressed fire occurrence at high latitudes. Rising temperature and frequent droughts are becoming increasingly important and expected to increase wildfire activity in many regions of the world.

Yang, Jia; Tian, Hanqin; Tao, Bo; Ren, Wei; Kush, John; Liu, Yongqiang; Wang, Yuhang

2014-03-01

46

Simulation of Daily Soil Moisture Content and Reconstruction of Drought Events from the Early 20th Century in Seoul, Korea, using a Hydrological Simulation Model, BROOK  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To understand day-to-day fluctuations in soil moisture content in Seoul, I simulated daily soil moisturecontent from 1908 to 2009 using long-term climatic precipitation and temperature data collected at the Surface SynopticMeteorological Station in Seoul for the last 98 years with a hydrological simulation model, BROOK. The output data setfrom the BROOK model allowed me to examine day-to-day fluctuations and the severity and duration of droughts in theSeoul area. Although the soil moisture content is highly dependent on the occurrence of precipitation, the pattern ofchanges in daily soil moisture content was clearly quite different from that of precipitation. Generally, there were severalphases in the dynamics of daily soil moisture content. The period from mid-May to late June can be categorized as theinitial period of decreasing soil moisture content. With the initiation of the monsoon season in late June, soil moisturecontent sharply increases until mid-July. From the termination of the rainy season in mid-July, daily soil moisture contentdecreases again. Highly stochastic events of typhoons from late June to October bring large amount of rain to the Koreanpeninsula, culminating in late August, and increase the soil moisture content again from late August to early September.From early September until early October, another sharp decrease in soil moisture content was observed. The periodfrom early October to mid-May of the next year can be categorized as a recharging period when soil moisture contentshows an increasing trend. It is interesting to note that no statistically significant increase in mean annual soil moisturecontent in Seoul, Korea was observed over the last 98 years. By simulating daily soil moisture content, I was also able toreconstruct drought phenomena to understand the severity and duration of droughts in Seoul area. During the periodfrom 1908 to 2009, droughts in the years 1913, 1979, 1939, and 2006 were categorized as ‘severe’ and those in 1988and 1982 were categorized as ‘extreme’. This information provides ecologists with further potential to interpret naturalphenomenon, including tree growth and the decline of tree species in Korea.

Eun-Shik Kim

2010-03-01

47

Adult lipids associated with early life growth in traditional melanesian societies undergoing rapid modernization: a longitudinal study of the mid-20th century.  

Science.gov (United States)

Both poor fetal development and accelerated post-natal growth have been linked to adult dyslipidemias in many studies conducted in developed societies. It is not known, however, whether these relationships only characterize populations with typical Western diets or if they also may develop in groups at the early stages of a dietary transition. Our longitudinal study of traditional rural populations in the Southwest Pacific during a period of extremely rapid modernization in diet and life-styles shows a nascent association between child growth retardation, subsequent growth acceleration, and adult lipid values in spite of a continuing prevalence of very low lipid levels. However, our results do not entirely conform to results from populations with "modern" diets. Outcome (i.e., young adult) cholesterol and triglyceride levels are more consistently related to initial measures of body fat and growth in body fat measures than with stature, while outcome apo A-1 is more consistently related to initial stature or stature growth than to measures of body fat. We suggest this may reflect a pattern characteristic of the initial stages of "modernization" associated with dietary change, with stronger and more pervasive relationships emerging only later as populations complete the dietary transition. PMID:24382639

Weitz, Charles A; Friedlaender, Françoise Y; Friedlaender, Jonathan S

2014-04-01

48

History reconstruction: Third century parallels to 20th century South African Church 'History Origen Adamantinus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available History reconstruction: Third century parallels to 20th century South African Church History - Origen Adamantinus. In this paper a possible third century contribution to Church History reconstruction is considered. This is employed as an example for South African church historians who are dedicated to history interpretation, whether it be from the perspective of: acceptance on face value; justification; verification; criticism or renunciation of twentieth century historical events and the WG'S in which they have influenced the prophetic task of the church in South Africa. To this end, a parallel is drawn between third century Origen and a few South African church figures from the twentieth century, which will highlight the church's continuing prophetic ministry.

P.J. Maritz

1997-07-01

49

Part IV. The 20th century: the maelstrom of progress.  

Science.gov (United States)

century were occupied with the detailed study of the morphology of tumours, the separation of the varieties of disease, the elucidation of histogenesis and the writing of the natural history of malignant diseases. The twentieth century opens as the experimental era. It seems likely to become noteworthy as the period of specific aetiological investigations which promise to widely separate many neoplastic diseases formerly held to be closely related. It may, thereby, prove to be the era of successful therapeutics and prophylaxis. PMID:10527604

Rew, D A

1999-10-01

50

Observed and model simulated 20th century Arctic temperature variability: Canadian Earth System Model CanESM2  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present simulations of the 20th century Arctic temperature anomaly from the second generation Canadian Earth System Model (CanESM2. The new model couples together an atmosphere-ocean general circulation model, a land-vegetation model and terrestrial and oceanic interactive carbon cycle. It simulates well the observed 20th century Arctic temperature variability that includes the early and late 20th century warming periods and the intervening 1940–1970 period of substantial cooling. The addition of the land-vegetation model and the terrestrial and oceanic interactive carbon cycle to the coupled atmosphere-ocean model improves the agreement with observations from 1900–1970, however, it increases the overestimate of the post 1970 warming. In contrast the older generation coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models Canadian CanCM3 and NCAR/LANL CCSM3, used in the IPCC 2007 climate change assessment report, overestimate the rate of the 20th century Arctic warming by factor of two to three and they are unable to reproduce the observed 20th century Arctic climate variability.

P. Chylek

2011-08-01

51

Physics history. The physics in the 20th century  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book proposes a synthesis of the physics evolution and of upsettings produced by the many discoveries in this century: Relativity theory, quantum mechanics, quantum statistics, thermodynamics, optics, electromagnetism, atomic physics, molecular physics, condensed matter physics, nuclear physics and high energy physics, information processing and computers. Many examples are illustrated

1991-01-01

52

The Metaphysical Structure of Education in the 20th Century.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lists presuppositions or assumptions that have been fundamental to educational thought in this century. Explores the "metaphysics of education" through a historical comparison and contrast of Eastern and Western educational thought and development. Discusses universal schooling as necessary for economic success and industrialization in the…

Winchester, Ian

1999-01-01

53

Industrial policy in Europe in the 20th century  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This survey outlines the characteristics and drivers of the phases of European industrial policy over the last century and attempts some conclusions about policy impacts. The first liberal phase and the second, ultimately autarkic, phase were ended by war. The third phase terminated with the oil price shocks of the 1970s at the high tide of interventionism. These shocks, and the associated economic growth retardation, contributed to the financial stringencies in the fourth phase that eventual...

Foreman-peck, James

2006-01-01

54

New Testament Studies in the 20th Century  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Considered diachronically, NT studies in the twentieth century is a story of vigorous scholarship. Especially after World War II, there is increasing diversification in approach and in the makeup of scholars, with a noticeable shift of centre to English-speaking settings (especially North America), and greater involvement of Roman Catholic, Evangelical, and Jewish scholars, a growing prominence of women, and a proliferation of approaches.

Hurtado, Larry W.

2009-01-01

55

Nooreestlased arvustuses ja arvustajatena: lugejakontseptsioonist 20. sajandi alguse kriitikas. The Young Estonians as Critics and in the Eyes of Critics: On the Concept of the Reader in Early 20th Century Estonia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Until recently, the treatment of Estonian literature from the beginning of the 20th century has been influenced by the literary and cultural activities and programmatic articles of the Young Estonia movement. Current research on Young Estonia has addressed their more everyday realm of activity, which has heretofore received less attention: the Young Estonians as readers of the new works of their literary contemporaries and their practical criticism in reviews, particularly in daily newspapers...

Marju Mikkel

2012-01-01

56

Nooreestlased arvustuses ja arvustajatena: lugejakontseptsioonist 20. sajandi alguse kriitikas. The Young Estonians as Critics and in the Eyes of Critics: On the Concept of the Reader in Early 20th Century Estonia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Until recently, the treatment of Estonian literature from the beginning of the 20th century has been influenced by the literary and cultural activities and programmatic articles of the Young Estonia movement. Current research on Young Estonia has addressed their more everyday realm of activity, which has heretofore received less attention: the Young Estonians as readers of the new works of their literary contemporaries and their practical criticism in reviews, particularly in daily newspapers...

Marju Mikkel

2009-01-01

57

Mongolian Tree Rings and 20th-Century Warming  

Science.gov (United States)

A 450-year tree-ring width chronology of Siberian pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour) growing at timberline (2450 meters) in the Tarvagatay Mountains in west central Mongolia shows wide annual growth rings for the recent century. Ecological site observations and comparisons with instrumental temperature records indicate that the ring widths of these trees are sensitive to annual temperature variations. Low-frequency variations in the Tarvagatay tree-ring record are similar to those in a reconstruction of Arctic annual temperatures, which is based on 20 tree-ring width series from northern North America, Scandinavia, and western Russia. The results indicate that recent warming is unusual relative to temperatures of the past 450 years.

Jacoby, Gordon C.; D'Arrigo, Rosanne D.; Davaajamts, Tsevegyn

1996-08-01

58

Mongolian tree rings and 20th-century warming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A 450-year tree-ring width chronology of Siberian pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour) growing at timberline (2450 meters) in the Tarvagatay Mountains in west central Mongolia shows wide annual growth rings for the recent century. Ecological site observations and comparisons with instrumental temperature records indicate that the ring widths of these trees are sensitive to annual temperature variations. Low-frequency variations in the Tarvagatay tree-ring record are similar to those in a reconstruction of Arctic annual temperatures, which is based on 20 tree-ring width series from northern North America, Scandinavia, and western Russia. The results indicate that recent warming is unusual relative to temperatures of the past 450 years. 29 refs., 2 figs.

Jacoby, G.C.; D`Arrigo, R.D. [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Palisades, NY (United States); Davaajamts, T. [Institute of Botany, Ulaabaatar (Mongolia)

1996-08-09

59

Effects of Irrigation on Global Climate During the 20th Century  

Science.gov (United States)

Various studies have documented the effects of modern ]day irrigation on regional and global climate, but none, to date, have considered the time ]varying impact of steadily increasing irrigation rates on climate during the 20th century. We investigate the impacts of observed irrigation changes over this century with two ensemble simulations using an atmosphere general circulation model. Both ensembles are forced with transient climate forcings and observed sea surface temperatures from 1902 to 2000; one ensemble includes irrigation specified by a time ]varying data set of irrigation water withdrawals. Early in the century, irrigation is primarily localized over southern and eastern Asia, leading to significant cooling in boreal summer (June.August) over these regions. This cooling spreads and intensifies by century fs end, following the rapid expansion of irrigation over North America, Europe, and Asia. Irrigation also leads to boreal winter (December.February) warming over parts of North America and Asia in the latter part of the century, due to enhanced downward longwave fluxes from increased near ]surface humidity. Precipitation increases occur primarily downwind of the major irrigation areas, although precipitation in parts of India decreases due to a weaker summer monsoon. Irrigation begins to significantly reduce temperatures and temperature trends during boreal summer over the Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes and tropics beginning around 1950; significant increases in precipitation occur in these same latitude bands. These trends reveal the varying importance of irrigation ]climate interactions and suggest that future climate studies should account for irrigation, especially in regions with unsustainable irrigation resources.

Puma, M. J.; Cook, B. I.

2010-01-01

60

Progress in Reconstructing 20th Century Oceanic Precipitation  

Science.gov (United States)

Global land and ocean precipitation analyses are available using satellite data beginning 1979. Prior to 1979 gauge data provide coverage for much of the land, but over oceanic regions there are only a few island gauges. In recent years attempts have been made to reconstruct large-scale oceanic precipitation variations using the sparse gauge network and large-scale spatial covariance. Covariance statistics are based on analyses using satellite data. Sufficient gauge observations are available to permit reconstructions to begin as early as 1900, providing a time series more than 100 years in length. Earlier reconstruction efforts have resolved ENSO variations, which have large scales and strong signals. Recent studies at ESSIC/CICS have improved these reconstructions by using a new, more homogeneous satellite analysis for statistics and improved tuning of the method. This has improved reconstruction skill of interannual variations over the Northern Hemisphere extra-tropical oceans, and allowed reconstructions to be extended to 1900. However, the gauge-based methods do a poor job at oceanic inter-decadal variations for the satellite period. To address that problem, a new method was developed using a CCA to compute the annual-average precipitation anomaly from annual-averages of sea-level pressure and sea-surface temperature anomalies. Initial results suggest that this method resolves the large-scale inter-decadal variations. At present we are developing a two-part reconstruction, using the CCA-based method to analyze inter-decadal variations and the gauge-based analysis to resolve interannual variations. An improved, longer homogeneous satellite- period analysis is also under development to provide improved reconstruction statistics. Progress toward the goal of a comprehensive global precipitation product beginning in 1900 will be discussed.

Arkin, P.; Smith, T.; Sapiano, M.; Chang, C.

2008-12-01

 
 
 
 
61

Ottoman Greek Education System and Greek Girls' Schools in Istanbul (19th and 20th Centuries)  

Science.gov (United States)

Modernization efforts in education, which were initiated in the 19th century, can be seen as forerunners of the modernization attempts in the Republic period. In this article, Greek education system in the Ottoman Empire will be discussed and the effects and importance of the changes observed in Greek girls' education in 19th and 20th centuries on…

Daglar Macar, Oya

2010-01-01

62

Anti-venereal fight in Antioquia during the late 19th and early 20th centuries: a moral question. Lucha antivenérea en Antioquia entre finales del siglo XIX e inicios del siglo XX: una cuestión moral  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article aims to define in what ways the anti-venereal fight in Antioquia, during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, which was part of the hygienic device, was really a fight against the immorality. In order to write it, secondary bibliographic sources were revised. In its ethical and cultural dimension, the regional project included a modernizing project. Doctors were in charge of this project which was adjusted to fit the puritan moral the Church promoted. They began a fight against sexual transmission diseases tah was bases upon illustration of communities: sexuality was to be reserved to family environments and populations where diseases appeared should be morally rejected. An so, medical scientific speech be judged low class populations` actions while men of science entered the social scenario with power from having moral hierarchy. El presente artículo busca responder en qué sentido la lucha antivenérea en Antioquia a finales del siglo XIX y principios del XX, parte del dispositivo higienista, fue una lucha contra la inmoralidad. Para su construcción se realizó revisión bibliográfica de fuentes secundarias. El proyecto regional en su dimensión ética-cultural incluyó una apuesta modernizadora, a cargo de los médicos, ajustada a la moral puritana promovida por la Iglesia, para ello emprendieron una lucha antivenérea que consistió en ilustrar a las masas populares: se debía reservar la sexualidad a la familia y reprochar moralmente a la población donde aparecían dichas enfermedades. Así, el discurso médico-científico juzgó las prácticas de los sectores populares mientras los hombres de ciencia ingresaban al escenario social con poder por tener jerarquía moral.

Juliana Martínez Londoño

2008-12-01

63

Distinct causes for two principal U.S. droughts of the 20th century  

Science.gov (United States)

Diagnosis of observational and climate model data reveals that the two major U.S. droughts of the 20th Century had distinct causes. Drought severity over the Southern Plains during 1946-1956 is very likely attributable to remote influences of global sea surface temperatures (SSTs). The Southern Plains and adjacent Southwest are regions particularly sensitive to SST variability, and strong La Niña events that occurred during 1946-1956 exposed that region's drought vulnerability. Drought severity over the Northern Plains during 1932-1939 was likely triggered instead by random atmospheric variability. The Northern Plains lies within a region of comparatively low sensitivity to SST variability, and that region's drought exhibited little sensitivity to SST conditions during the Dust Bowl period. Our results indicate that the southern portions of the Great Plains lie within an epicenter of potentially skillful drought predictions for which an ocean observing system is also a vital drought early warning system.

Hoerling, Martin; Quan, Xiao-Wei; Eischeid, Jon

2009-10-01

64

Modeling the temperature evolution of Svalbard permafrost during the 20th and 21st century  

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Full Text Available Variations in ground thermal conditions in Svalbard were studied based on measurements and modelling. Ground temperature data from boreholes were used to calibrate a transient heat flow model describing depth and time variations in temperatures. The model was subsequently forced with historical surface air temperature records and possible future temperatures downscaled from multiple global climate models. We discuss ground temperature development since the early 20th century, and the thermal responses in relation to ground characteristics and snow cover. The modelled ground temperatures show a gradual increase between 1912 and 2010, by about 1.5 °C to 2 °C at 20 m depth. The active layer thickness (ALT is modelled to have increased slightly, with the rate of increase depending on water content of the near-surface layers. The used scenario runs predict a significant increase in ground temperatures and an increase of ALT depending on soil characteristics.

B. Etzelmüller

2011-02-01

65

Pilk ingliskeelse kirjanduse tõlgetele 18. sajandi lõpust 20. sajandi algusveerandini / A Look at Estonian Translations of English Literature from the late 18th Century to the Early 20th Century  

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Full Text Available The aim of this article is to provide an overview of translations of English literature into Estonian between 1779 and 1917. There is an attempt to analyse the texts by describing them on the basis of, or in their departure from, a text or texts that chronologically and logically precede them. The discussion includes the nature of the transfer and the changes that have been made to the text, either because they existed in the source or mediating text or because of the expectations or requirements in the receptor, i.e. Estonian culture. The translated texts are seen in their historical-cultural context. For the analysis, a corpus of translated texts – religious, fiction, drama and non-fiction (published in a book form was compiled. The general orientation of Estonia until the 1880s was to the German cultural sphere. So the first translations of English literature were made via a mediating language, which was German. English Puritan writers were introduced by the Pietist missionaries with the aim of spreading their teachings in the second half of the 18th century. At about the same time the narrative element was introduced into stories with religious content. Some internationally popular stories, e.g. the Inkle and Yarico story, later robinsonades, stories of slavery and plant at ion life, as well as Amer ican Indian st or ies wer e also t r anslat ed fr om Ger man. However, until  1875  ver  y  few  translations  of  English  literature  into  E stonian were  published.  The  last quarter of the 19th century saw an explosion in literary production: there was a substantial increase  both  in  the  number  of  translations  of  English  literature  into  E stonian  as  well  as diversification of genres. This continued into the first decade of the 20th  centur y,  when  the sociopolitical situation in Estonia changed. In addition, books came to be translated directly from  English,  although  many  translations  of  English  literature  were  still  made  via  German and, to a lesser extent, via Russian, Swedish or Finnish. Thus, English literature often reached the Estonian audiences in a mediated form. The selection of authors and books, the structure of the texts and the overall meaning and tone of the texts often depended on the mediating text or culture. However, many changes were made by the translator: explanations of new words and phrases, pronunciations, references to the Estonian reader, etc. Here paratexts are quite important: the titles often explained the content or the purpose of the book and referred to the language from which the book was translated. In the prefaces, translators or publishers explained their aims or connected the book to discussions in society (e.g. the translator of Uncle Tom’s Cabin connected it to anabolitionist argument of slavery as a moral evil; on the other hand, the editor connected it to the Estonian fight for freedom; the translation of The Pathfinder was related to the polemics in the Estonian newspapers over migration. However, in very many cases it was difficult to positively identify the mediating or source language or text and to establish whether it was a translation of English literature.

Krista Mits

2012-06-01

66

A brief history of 20th century dam construction and a look into the future  

Science.gov (United States)

In this presentation, an overview is given of global dam building activities in the 20th century. Political, economical and hydrological factors shaped the building of large dams. The development of the relations between these three factors and dam building over time is examined. One can argue whether or not history is simply "one damn thing after another" but the second half of the 20th century suggests that history is at least reflected by the construction of one dam after another. The financial crisis of the 1930's started the first construction wave of large hydropower dams in the United States. This wave continued into the Second World War. During the Cold War, the weapon race between the USA and USSR was accompanied by a parallel neck-and-neck race in dam construction. By the 1970's, dam construction in the USA tapered off, while that in the USSR continued until its political disintegration. In China, we see two spurts in dam development, the first one coinciding with the disastrous Great Leap Forward and the second with the liberalization of the Chinese economy after the fall of the Berlin Wall. Economic and political events thus shaped to an important extent decisions surrounding the construction of large dams. Clearly, there are some hydrological prerequisites for the construction of dams. The six largest dam building nations are USSR, Canada, USA, China, Brazil, and India, all large countries with ample water resources and mountain ranges. Australia has relatively little reservoir storage for the simple fact that most of this country is flat and dry. A few countries have relatively large amounts of reservoir storage. Especially Uganda (Owens Falls), Ghana (Akosombo), and Zimbabwe (Kariba) are examples of small countries where gorges in major rivers were "natural" places for large dams and reservoirs to be built early on. It seems that, deserts aside, the average potential storage capacity lies for most continents around 10 cm or about 50% of the total yearly continental runoff. Some of the least developed countries, such as Papua New Guinea, Congo DR, and Myanmar, still have large hydropower development potential. In most countries, however, dam construction seems to have reached its peak. For the presentation, use is made of GapMinder software (www.gapminder.org), which provides direct insight in the dynamic and multi-dimensonial aspects of 20th century dam construction.

van de Giesen, Nick

2010-05-01

67

Characterizing Hydrologic Variability in Tributaries of the Upper Colorado River Basin Over the 20th Century  

Science.gov (United States)

Increasing hydrologic variability is cited as a major cause of decreasing accuracy and lead time of water supply forecasts in the Colorado River Basin. Factors contributing to hydrologic variability include climate cycles, climate change and modifications to land use, land cover and water use. This research strives to understand the underpinnings of hydrologic variability (i.e., temperature, precipitation and streamflow) associated with climate cycles, and subsequent effects of external forcings on climate cycles over the 20th Century in tributaries of the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB). Results for three climate cycles during the 20th Century (i.e. cool/wet, warm/dry and cool/wet) for tributaries of the UCRB show that hydrologic variability involves two components; (a) general seasonal temperature conditions that are the same for fall and winter seasons (i.e., warmer fall/warmer winter or cooler fall/cooler winter) which do not change with climate cycle type (e.g., warmer/drier or cooler/wetter climate cycles), and (b) underlying complementary temperature and precipitation patterns that are unique to the type of climate cycle. The complementary temperature and precipitation patterns establish by fall, are detectable as early as September and are related to relative magnitude of upcoming annual basin yield. External forcings, including climate change and modifications to land use, act upon the complementary patterns, changing details of the complementary patterns, such as timing and magnitude of temperature and precipitation, yet leaving the fundamental complementary patterns in tact. Thus, hydrologic variability in the UCRB over the 20th Century is recognized as complementary patterns in temperature and precipitation which alternate with climate cycles, and upon which external forcings act, altering details of complementary patterns, as well as streamflow. The results expand our understanding of hydrologic processes in the UCRB, and may be used to improve forecast models and data, well as to increase forecast accuracy and advance lead time by as much as 6-7 months or more. In addition, results may also be used in downscaling climate models.

Matter, M. A.; Garcia, L. A.; Fontane, D. G.

2008-12-01

68

Book of extremes why the 21st century isn’t like the 20th century  

CERN Document Server

What makes the 21st century different from the 20th century? This century is the century of extremes -- political, economic, social, and global black-swan events happening with increasing frequency and severity. Book of Extremes is a tour of the current reality as seen through the lens of complexity theory – the only theory capable of explaining why the Arab Spring happened and why it will happen again; why social networks in the virtual world behave like flashmobs in the physical world; why financial bubbles blow up in our faces and will grow and burst again; why the rich get richer and will continue to get richer regardless of governmental policies; why the future of economic wealth and national power lies in comparative advantage and global trade; why natural disasters will continue to get bigger and happen more frequently; and why the Internet – invented by the US -- is headed for a global monopoly controlled by a non-US corporation. It is also about the extreme innovations and heroic innovators yet t...

Lewis, Ted G

2014-01-01

69

Serbian schools and teaching of Serbian language in Greece in the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The topic of this work is Serbian schools and the teaching of Serbian language in Greece in the 20th century. During the first half of the 20th century the existence of Serbian people in Turkey (later in Greece was acknowledged through school and church. Thanks to the Serbian schools, Serbs as an invisible minority became a visible one. In the second half of the 20th century there is primarily a teaching of Serbian language as a foreign language. During this period, Serbian was accepted primarily by Greeks at courses and private classes. At the beginning of the nineties in the 20th century because of the war in the territory of Yugoslavia, a large number of refugees went to Greece. Teaching of Serbian as a native language was organized only ten years later (at the beginning of 21st century. In some places, the schools are located in consular sections and have the assistance of the country of origin (Thessalonica, Katerini while in Hani (Crete immigrants organized them-selves without the assistance from the country of origin. By studying Serbian schools and the teaching of Serbian language, this work considers relation towards language as a symbol of ethnic identity - at the individual level, at the level of receiving country and at the level of country of origin.

Blagojevi? Gordana

2007-01-01

70

Increasing cloud cover in the 20th century: review and new findings in Spain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Visual observations of clouds have been performed since the establishment of meteorological observatories during the early instrumental period, and have become more systematic and reliable after the mid-19th century due to the establishment of the first national weather services. During the last decades a large number of studies have documented the trends of the total cloud cover (TCC and cloudy types; most of these studies focus on the trends since the second half of the 20th century. Due to the lower reliability of former observations, and the fact that most of this data is not accessible in digital format, there is a lack of studies focusing on the trends of cloudiness since the mid-19th century. In the first part, this work attempts to review previous studies analyzing TCC changes with information covering at least the first half of the 20th century. Then, the study analyses a database of cloudiness observations in Southern Europe (Spain since the second half of the 19th century. Specifically, monthly TCC series were reconstructed since 1866 by means of a so-called parameter of cloudiness, calculated from the number of cloudless and overcast days. These estimated TCC series show a high interannual and decadal correlation with the observed TCC series originally measured in oktas. After assessing the temporal homogeneity of the estimated TCC series, the mean annual and seasonal series for the whole of Spain and several subregions were calculated. The mean annual TCC shows a general tendency to increase from the beginning of the series until the 1960s; at this point, the trend becomes negative. The linear trend for the annual mean series, estimated over the 1866–2010 period, is a highly remarkable (and statistically significant increase of +0.44% per decade, which implies an overall increase of more than +6% during the analyzed period. These results are in line with the majority of the trends observed in many areas of the world in previous studies, especially for the records before the 1950s when a widespread increase of TCC can been considered as a common feature.

A. Sanchez-Lorenzo

2012-07-01

71

Increasing cloud cover in the 20th century: review and new findings in Spain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Visual observations of clouds have been performed since the establishment of meteorological observatories during the early instrumental period, and have become more systematic and reliable after the mid-19th century due to the establishment of the first national weather services. During the last decades a large number of studies have documented the trends of the total cloud cover (TCC and cloudy types; most of these studies are focused on the trends since the second half of the 20th century. Due to the lower reliability of former observations, and the fact that most of this data is not accessible in digital format, there is a lack of studies focusing on the trends of cloudiness since the mid-19th century. In the first part, this work attempts to review the previous studies analyzing TCC changes with information covering at least the first half of the 20th century. Then, the study analyses a database of cloudiness observations in Southern Europe (Spain since the second third of the 19th century. Specifically, monthly TCC series were reconstructed since 1866 by means of a so-called parameter of cloudiness, calculated from the number of cloudless and overcast days. This estimated TCC series show a high interannual and decadal correlation with the observed TCC series originally measured in oktas. After assessing the temporal homogeneity of the estimated TCC series, the mean annual and seasonal series for the whole of Spain and several subregions were calculated. The mean annual TCC shows a general tendency to increase from the beginning of the series until the 1960s; at this point, the trend becomes negative. The linear trend for the annual mean series, estimated over the 1866–2010 period, is a highly remarkable (and statistically significant increase of +0.44% per decade, which implies an overall increase of more than +6% during the analyzed period. These results are in line with the major part of the previous trends observed at many areas of the World, especially for the records before the 1950s, when a widespread increase of TCC can been considered as a common feature.

A. Sanchez-Lorenzo

2012-04-01

72

Dancetime! 500 Years of Social Dance. Volume II: 20th Century. [Videotape].  

Science.gov (United States)

This 50-minute VHS videotape is the second in a 2-volume series that presents 500 years of social dance, music, and fashion. It features dance and music of the 20th century, including; 1910s: animal dances, castle walk, apache, and tango; 1920s: black bottom and charleston; 1930s: marathon, movie musicals, big apple, and jitterbug; 1940s: rumba;…

Teten, Carol

73

From Generation to Generation: Oral Histories of Scientific Innovations From the 20th Century  

Science.gov (United States)

The 20th century saw some of the most important technological and scientific discoveries in the history of humankind. The space shuttle, the internet, and other modern advances changed society forever, and yet many students cannot imagine what life was li

Bedrossian, Mindy J.

2010-07-01

74

History of prices in Switzerland: 19th to 20th century  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

'Prices play an important role in market societies. The article illustrates the development of prices in Switzerland form the beginning of the 19th to the end of the 20th century. Important sources of price statistics as well as institutional and economic causes of the long term development of prices are discussed.' (author's abstract)

2009-01-01

75

Reflections on the Most Important Educational Developments of the 20th Century: Kappa Delta Pi Laureates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Twenty-three Kappa Delta Pi Laureates describe the primary educational developments of the 20th century. Commonly cited milestones include the Supreme Court's Brown v Board of Education decision, federal financial aid, the works of Dewey and Freire, technology, the GI Bill, Head Start, progressive education, centralization and decentralization,…

Wolfe, Michael P., Comp.

2001-01-01

76

Transformations in understanding the health impacts of air pollutants in the 20th century  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The transformations of air pollution in the 20th century are well known. The century opened with urban atmospheres polluted by the combustion products of burning coal: smoke and sulfur dioxide. At the millennium these pollutants had almost vanished, replaced by the pollutants, both primary and secondary, a function of fossil-fuelled vehicles. However transitions in terms of health outcomes have been equally dramatic. Fine particulate matter causes notable cardiovascular problems such as incre...

2009-01-01

77

Solar cycle length and 20th Century northern hemisphere warming: Revisited  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been suggested that the length of the solar cycle (SCL) is related to solar forcing of global climate change [Friis-Christensen and Lassen, 1991]. Although no physical mechanism had been proposed, the relation seemed to be supported by interesting correlations with several paleoclimate records and, separately, with the 20th century Northern Hemisphere instrumental record. Actually, what has been correlated is the quasi-sinusoidal Gleissberg cycle which is slightly greater in the 18th century than in the 20th century. Using the pre-industrial record as a boundary condition, the SCL-temperature correlation corresponds to an estimated 25% of global warming to 1980 and 15% to 1997.

Damon, Paul E.; Peristykh, Alexei N.

78

Observed 20th century desert dust variability: impact on climate and biogeochemistry  

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Full Text Available Desert dust perturbs climate by interacting with incoming solar and outgoing long wave radiation, thereby changing precipitation and temperature, in addition to modifying ocean and land biogeochemistry. While we know that desert dust is sensitive to perturbations in climate and human land use, previous studies have been unable to determine whether humans were in the net increasing or decreasing desert dust. Here we present observational estimates of desert dust based on paleodata proxies showing a doubling of desert dust during the 20th century over much, but not all the globe. Large uncertainties remain in estimates of desert dust variability over 20th century due to limited data. Using these observational estimates of desert dust change in combination with ocean, atmosphere and land models, we calculate the net radiative effect of these observed changes (top of atmosphere over the 20th century to be ?0.14±0.11 W/m2 (1990–1999 vs. 1905–1914. The estimated radiative change due to aerosols is especially strong between the dusty 1980–1989 and the less dusty 1955–1964 time periods (?0.57±0.46 W/m2, which model simulations suggest may have reduced the rate of temperature increase between these time periods by 0.11 °C. Model simulations also indicate strong regional shifts in precipitation and temperature from the desert dust changes, causing 6 ppm (12 Pg C reduction in model carbon uptake by the terrestrial biosphere over the 20th century. Desert dust carries iron, an important micronutrient for ocean biogeochemistry that can modulate ocean carbon storage; here we show that dust deposition trends increase ocean productivity by an estimated 6% over the 20th century, drawing down an additional 4 ppm (8 Pg C of carbon dioxide into the oceans. Thus, perturbations to desert dust over the 20th century inferred from observations are potentially important for climate and biogeochemistry, and our understanding of these changes and their impacts should continue to be refined.

N. M. Mahowald

2010-05-01

79

Observed 20th century desert dust variability: impact on climate and biogeochemistry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Desert dust perturbs climate by directly and indirectly interacting with incoming solar and outgoing long wave radiation, thereby changing precipitation and temperature, in addition to modifying ocean and land biogeochemistry. While we know that desert dust is sensitive to perturbations in climate and human land use, previous studies have been unable to determine whether humans were increasing or decreasing desert dust in the global average. Here we present observational estimates of desert dust based on paleodata proxies showing a doubling of desert dust during the 20th century over much, but not all the globe. Large uncertainties remain in estimates of desert dust variability over 20th century due to limited data. Using these observational estimates of desert dust change in combination with ocean, atmosphere and land models, we calculate the net radiative effect of these observed changes (top of atmosphere over the 20th century to be ?0.14 ± 0.11 W/m2 (1990–1999 vs. 1905–1914. The estimated radiative change due to dust is especially strong between the heavily loaded 1980–1989 and the less heavily loaded 1955–1964 time periods (?0.57 ± 0.46 W/m2, which model simulations suggest may have reduced the rate of temperature increase between these time periods by 0.11 °C. Model simulations also indicate strong regional shifts in precipitation and temperature from desert dust changes, causing 6 ppm (12 PgC reduction in model carbon uptake by the terrestrial biosphere over the 20th century. Desert dust carries iron, an important micronutrient for ocean biogeochemistry that can modulate ocean carbon storage; here we show that dust deposition trends increase ocean productivity by an estimated 6% over the 20th century, drawing down an additional 4 ppm (8 PgC of carbon dioxide into the oceans. Thus, perturbations to desert dust over the 20th century inferred from observations are potentially important for climate and biogeochemistry, and our understanding of these changes and their impacts should continue to be refined.

N. M. Mahowald

2010-11-01

80

Marxism's 'Communicative Crisis'? Mapping Debates over Leninist Print-Media Practices in the 20th Century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Despite the scholarly neglect of Marxism’s ‘communicative crisis’, it was a topic of concern that was addressed, debated and negotiated over by party leaders, intellectuals and activists on a continuous basis throughout the 20th century. These concerns revolved around three areas: first, the primary means of print communication, the party paper; second, the specialization of production, particularly around the role of writers and journalists; and third, the search for a popular rhetoric and writing style, which would appeal to the general public. This paper maps out the ‘communicative crisis’ of Marxism in the 20th century through an examination of key intersections of disputes over the correct approach to its practices of print communication, as a starting point for an historical analysis of the failures and successes of Marxist political praxis.

Herbert F. Pimlott

2006-09-01

 
 
 
 
81

Innovations in management accounting at the turn of the 20th and 21st century  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Diffusion of innovative management accounting methods constitutes an incredibly interesting and a widely presented subject in literature all over the world. In the context of significance of innovative management accounting methods diffusion, the following objective of the article has been formulated – the article aims to analyze the concept of innovations in management accounting and analyze their significance and diffusion at the turn of the 20th and 21st century. In order ...

Wnuk-pel, Tomasz

2011-01-01

82

Looking for an Accounting Identity : The Case of Romania during the 20th Century  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article aims to provide a longitudinal presentation of developments in Romanian accounting during the 20th century and to propose a neo-institutional explanation of this evolution. The historical research methodology employed here is complex. We use a constructive research philosophy, an inductive research approach, a mixture of research types (narrative, oral and interpretative histories), content analysis as our research method and four types of data collection (archives, secondary dat...

Barbu, E.; Farcane, N.; Popa, A.

2010-01-01

83

Trends and extremes of drought indices throughout the 20th century in the Mediterranean  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Average monthly precipitation, the original Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and a recent adaptation to Europe, the Self Calibrated PDSI (scPDSI) have been used here to analyse the spatial and temporal evolution of drought conditions in the Mediterranean during the 20th century. Monthly, seasonal and annual trends were computed for the period 1901–2000 and also for the first and second halves of this period. The statistical significance of trends was obtained with a modified version of ...

Sousa, P. M.; Trigo, R. M.; Aizpurua, P.; Nieto, R.; Gimeno, L.; Garcia-herrera, R.

2011-01-01

84

Several peculiarities of the 19th and 20th centuries Catholic religious song lyrics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article analyses several aspects of Catholic religious song lyrics of the 19th and 20th centuries from the viewpoint of language, editing and publication: anonymity of some songs and reasons of this, as well as unstable song lyrics due to multiple editions (even those created by Lithuanian literary classical authors) and abridgement of religious songs. The article discusses who should be considered the author of a religious song when, after a number of publications and editions, the initi...

2012-01-01

85

Give and Take: Political Competition, Participation and Public Finance in 20th Century Latin America  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rational choice models predict that political competition and political participation have opposite effects on the size of government. We investigate these theories using data from a panel of 18 Latin American countries during the 20th century. Our research builds evidence for the prediction that reforms enhancing political competition tend to limit the size of government. Furthermore, we find that reforms which remove literacy requirements from franchise laws are associated with government e...

2007-01-01

86

Numerical Simulation of the Water Cycle Change Over the 20th Century  

Science.gov (United States)

We have used numerical models to test the impact of the change in Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration on the global circulation, particularly focusing on the hydrologic cycle, namely the global cycling of water and continental recycling of water. We have run four numerical simulations using mean annual SST from the early part of the 20th century (1900-1920) and the later part (1980-2000). In addition, we vary the CO2 concentrations for these periods as well. The duration of the simulations is 15 years, and the spatial resolution is 2 degrees. We use passive tracers to study the geographical sources of water. Surface evaporation from predetermined continental and oceanic regions provides the source of water for each passive tracer. In this way, we compute the percent of precipitation of each region over the globe. This can also be used to estimate precipitation recycling. In addition, we are using the passive tracers to independently compute the global cycling of water (compared to the traditional, Q/P calculation).

Bosilovich, Michael G.; Schubert, Siegfried D.

2003-01-01

87

Inconsistencies and Fallacies: IPCC 20th Century Simulations, Multi-Model Ensembles and Climate Sensitivity  

Science.gov (United States)

The IPCC used an experiment that had approximately 20 different climate models fit the temperature history of the 20th century. A remarkably good and convincing fit was obtained by combining selected models into a multi-model ensemble. This may be seen in figure 9.5 of the AR4 Scientific Basis report. The fallacy is that each modeling group used different forcings, effectively simulating a different imaginary planet. Since the IPCC models differ by more than 2-1 in climate sensitivity it would be quite amazing if they could all agree on temperature in the late 20th century when CO2 was rapidly increasing. Allowing each model to be excited by different forcings effectively makes the model be a rather complicated curve fitting program. If one accepts that the models are being used to do curve fitting then the supposedly better results obtained by averaging multiple models is easily explainable as the reduction of error that results from averaging approximations to a function with uncorrelated errors. Finally the late 20th century temperature rise is too small for a 3 degree climate sensitivity for doubling of CO2 and the explanations for the warming shortfall that rely on aerosol cooling or ocean warming are easily refuted.There may be alternative explanations for the shortfall or it may be that climate sensitivity is much lower than projected by the IPCC.

Rogers, N. L.

2009-12-01

88

A short history of ocean acidification science in the 20th century: a chemist's view  

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This review covers the development of ocean acidification science, with an emphasis on the creation of ocean chemical knowledge, through the course of the 20th century. This begins with the creation of the pH scale by Sørensen in 1909 and ends with the widespread knowledge of the impact of the "High CO2 Ocean" by then well underway as the trajectory along the IPCC scenario pathways continues. By mid-century the massive role of the ocean in absorbing fossil fuel CO2

Brewer, P. G.

2013-01-01

89

Breve historia de la observación de aves en México en el siglo XX y principios del siglo XXI / A brief history of birdwatching in Mexico in the 20th and early 21st century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Un observador de aves es una persona que dedica tiempo a observar aves en el medio natural, principalmente con fines recreativos. La observación de aves en México ha aumentado significativamente en los últimos años; sin embargo, el contexto y el desarrollo histórico de la observación de aves en Méxi [...] co no han sido descritos. En este artículo, describimos brevemente la influencia del desarrollo inicial de la observación de aves en los Estados Unidos de América, los primeros observadores de aves que visitaron México, las circunstancias que inspiraron a los primeros observadores de aves mexicanos, y algunos adelantos recientes. Nuestros comentarios están enfocados al siglo XX, tratando con más detalle aspectos ocurridos antes de mediados de la década de los 1970s. Abstract in english A birdwatcher or birder is a person who spends time observing birds in the wild mainly for recreation. Birdwatching has increased significantly in Mexico in recent years, yet the context and history of birdwatching in Mexico have not been described. In this paper we briefly describe the influence of [...] the initial development of birdwatching in the United States, the first birdwatchers who visited Mexico, the circumstances that influenced the first Mexican birdwatchers to carry out this activity, and a few recent developments. Our comments focus on the 20th century, particularly on events prior to the mid-1970s.

Héctor, Gómez de Silva; Ernesto, Alvarado Reyes.

90

How unusual is the 20th century within the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool?  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the past 150 years, global temperatures have increased by 0.6°C. It has been suggested that this increase in temperature, especially since 1980, has been unprecedented over the past millennium. In order to put the current warming trend into context, various efforts are underway to reconstruct the longer pre-instrumental history of climate variability. Here, we present a sea surface temperature (SST) record of the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool (IPWP) for the Common Era by combining five high-resolution records of Globigerinoides ruber Mg/Ca from different locations within the Indonesian Seas. The much broader spatial coverage and enhanced temporal resolution of this composite record allows us to assess whether the observed 20th century warming and the rate of 20th century temperature change within IPWP have been unprecedented in the past two millennia. The novelty of this study is in our approach to uncertainty quantification, which entails Monte-Carlo simulations that simultaneously take into account both age model and proxy uncertainties. First, we used a Monte-Carlo process (n=10,000) to generate possible age models for each sedimentary record used in the composite. This Monte-Carlo approach takes into consideration the analytical uncertainty in the 14C and 210Pb measurements used for chronology, the uncertainty in the calibration curve and the reservoir age, and the subjective nature of the interpolation scheme. Second, we take into consideration two sources of error in the SST estimates: the analytical uncertainty for the Mg/Ca results, which was assumed to be normally distributed and independent from sample to sample, and the uncertainty in the calibration equation, which was assumed to be dependent (i.e. each Monte-Carlo record is converted using a solution of the calibration equation). To do so, we use a Bayesian approach to enumerate possible solutions of the calibration equation. Finally, we binned the resulting SSTs into 20-year, 50-year, and 100-year non-overlapping windows and averaged them over the 5 records. The result of this exercise is a SST probability distribution for each 20-year, 50-year, and 100-year time slice over the Common Era. The advantages of this method over the traditional linear propagation of error are: 1. The uncertainty in the age model is transformed into an uncertainty in SST through the binning process. 2. Each realization of the composite record preserves the dependence among the SST estimates introduced by the calibration. To assess the magnitude (and rate) of 20th century warming compared to the Common Era, we took the difference between the last 20th century bin and the SST in the bin of interest for each Monte Carlo trial. The probability of the 20th century being warmer was then assessed as the area under the curve greater than zero. Our results indicate that (1) there exists a few intervals over the past 2,000 years when SST within IPWP was likely (>66% probability) higher than the 20th century value but that (2) the rate of 20th century warming is likely (>66% probability) unprecedented over the past two millennia.

Khider, D.; Stott, L. D.; Saikku, R.; Partin, J. W.; Jackson, C. S.; Hammond, D. E.; Newton, A.; Thunell, R.

2013-12-01

91

Circuito aberto: idéias e intercâmbios médico-científicos na América Latina nos primórdios do século XX / Open circuit: the exchange of medical and scientific knowledge in Latin America in the early 20th century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo aborda a realização dos Congressos Médicos Latino-Americanos e das Exposições Internacionais de Higiene nas primeiras décadas do século XX como estratégia de legitimação e persuasão do conhecimento médico produzido perante a comunidade especializada e as autoridades públicas, suportes es [...] tes fundamentais para sua apresentação à sociedade em geral como portadores do saber oficial da arte de medicar. Tais eventos fizeram parte de um movimento mais amplo de internacionalização e organização do campo profissional da medicina na América Latina. O artigo sugere ainda que as atividades desenvolvidas durante esses eventos tiveram papel central na difusão de idéias e na troca de experiências entre os países latino-americanos, caracterizando uma rede de intercâmbios científicos no continente. Abstract in english This article discusses the Latin American Medical Congresses and International Exhibitions on Hygiene held in the first few decades of the 20th century as a strategy for underpinning and influencing medical knowledge within the specialized community itself and for public authorities, which were fund [...] amental for presenting to society at large as they were seen as the vehicles of official know-how on the art of medicating. These events made up part of a broader movement to internationalize and coordinate the professional field of medicine in Latin America. The article further suggests that the activities that took place during these events played a key role in the propagation of ideas and exchange of experience between Latin American nations, forming a network of scientific exchange in the continent.

Marta de, Almeida.

92

Jews in Leipzig : nationality and community in the 20th century  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The thesis is a study of the Jewish community of Leipzig, Germany over the course of the 20 th century. It begins with an overview of the Jews of the city until the rise to power of Adolf Hitler, emphasizing divisions with the Jewish community over the ideology of Zionism and between German-born and foreign-born Jews. It goes on to describe the lives of Jews as the Nazis come to state authority, the riots of November, 1938, and the gradual exclusion of Jews from professional and pubic life in...

Willingham, Robert Allan

2008-01-01

93

Commentary: Mid-20th Century Development of Brazilian Archaeology (1964–1985)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two recent articles in the International Journal of Historical Archaeology provide a bit of light on the development of Brazilian archaeology in the middle 20th century. The first is one by Pedro Paulo de Abreu Funari entitled ‘Class Interests in Brazilian Archaeology’ (Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 209–216, 2002) and the second is a heated response to Funari, along with his rejoinder, by James A. Delle, Igor Chmyz, Ondemar Ferreira Dias, Tania Andrade Lima, Betty J. Meggers, and Pedro Paulo de...

Browman, David L.

2004-01-01

94

Greeks’ Identities in Smyrna, 19th - 20th Century Local and Global Parameters  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this research we pose an historic question about the Greek identities that have been grown and excelled in Smyrna, in the late of 19th-20th century. The basic elements for the construction of the Greek identity were the orthodox Christian religion, the language, the origins from ancient times, and the education. The awakening of the Greek national consciousness in the years of the Ottoman Rule relied mainly on the use of the Greek language, as it was grow, secretly or openly, by the church...

Evangelia Boubougiatzi; Ifigenia Vamvakidou; Argyris Kyridis

2013-01-01

95

US-Chinese Relations at the First Half of the 20th-Century  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Since World War II ended, the United States of America has been known as one of the greatest powers in our world. The USA has various kinds of relationships with other countries, as for instance the United Kingdom, China. In my thesis I am concerned with the relationship of the US with East Asia, more specifically China. Studying US-Chinese relations during the first half of the 20th-century makes it inevitable to introduce one of the most influential policies during the first half of the 20t...

Kiss, Ange?la

2011-01-01

96

From waste to opportunity : ethanol in Sweden during the first half of the 20th century  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

At the beginning of the 20th century the pulp industry in Sweden faced major problems with waste. Pine and spruce contain at the best 40 % cellulose. The remainder was released into the air and water, causing major environmental problems. In 1909 two Swedish engineers patented a method to ferment sulphite lye into alcohol. Apart for consumption, the alcohol could be used as fuel. The rest of the lye, reduced of it’s saccariferous contents, was expected to become the basis of a new chemical ...

Sundin, Bo

2007-01-01

97

Modelling the 20th and 21st century evolution of Hoffellsjökull glacier, SE-Vatnajökull, Iceland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Little Ice Age maximum extent of glaciers in Iceland was reached about 1890 AD and most glaciers in the country have retreated during the 20th century. A model for the surface mass balance and the flow of glaciers is used to reconstruct the 20th century retreat history of Hoffellsjökull, a south-flowing outlet glacier of the ice cap Vatnajökull, which is located close to the southeastern coast of Iceland. The bedrock topography was surveyed with radio-echo soundings in 2001. A wealth of data are available to force and constrain the model, e.g. surface elevation maps from ~1890, 1936, 1946, 1989, 2001, 2008 and 2010, mass balance observations conducted in 1936–1938 and after 2001, energy balance measurements after 2001, and glacier surface velocity derived by kinematic and differential GPS surveys and correlation of SPOT5 images. The approximately 20% volume loss of this glacier in the period 1895–2010 is realistically simulated with the model. After calibration of the model with past observations, it is used to simulate the future response of the glacier during the 21st century. The mass balance model was forced with an ensemble of temperature and precipitation scenarios derived from 10 global and 3 regional climate model simulations using the A1B emission scenario. If the average climate of 2000–2009 is maintained into the future, the volume of the glacier is projected to be reduced by 30% with respect to the present at the end of this century. If the climate warms, as suggested by most of the climate change scenarios, the model projects this glacier to almost disappear by the end of the 21st century. Runoff from the glacier is predicted to increase for the next 30–40 yr and decrease after that as a consequence of the diminishing ice-covered area.

G. Aðalgeirsdóttir

2011-11-01

98

What caused the significant increase in Atlantic Ocean heat content since the mid-20th century?  

Science.gov (United States)

As the upper layer of the world ocean warms gradually during the 20th century, the inter-ocean heat transport from the Indian to Atlantic basin should be enhanced, and the Atlantic Ocean should therefore gain extra heat due to the increased upper ocean temperature of the inflow via the Agulhas leakage. Consistent with this hypothesis, instrumental records indicate that the Atlantic Ocean has warmed substantially more than any other ocean basin since the mid-20th century. A surface-forced global ocean-ice coupled model is used to test this hypothesis and to find that the observed warming trend of the Atlantic Ocean since the 1950s is largely due to an increase in the inter-ocean heat transport from the Indian Ocean. Further analysis reveals that the increased inter-ocean heat transport is not only caused by the increased upper ocean temperature of the inflow but also, and more strongly, by the increased Agulhas Current leakage, which is augmented by the strengthening of the wind stress curl over the South Atlantic and Indian subtropical gyre.

Lee, Sang-Ki; Park, Wonsun; van Sebille, Erik; Baringer, Molly O.; Wang, Chunzai; Enfield, David B.; Yeager, Stephen G.; Kirtman, Ben P.

2011-09-01

99

Lezione sulla medievistica del Novecento Lecture on medieval studies in the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Si tratta del testo di una lezione tenuta nel 1994 a un pubblico di insegnanti della scuola media superiore. In rapida sintesi, si propongono i grandi problemi attorno ai quali si è incentrata nel Novecento la ricerca sul medioevo europeo (sino al secolo XI: rapporti tra mondo latino e mondo tedesco, relazioni tra cristianesimo e potere, dialettica tra universalismi e localismi.

This paper comes from a lecture delivered in 1994 to high school teachers. It briefly deals with the relevant problems faced by the research on the European Middle Age (considered until the 11th century in the 20th-century: relationships between Latin and German world, Christianity and political power, dialectic between universalism and localism.

Giovanni Tabacco

2006-12-01

100

„One-way ticket” Romanian Migration at the beginning of the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Unlike the new age of migration that we are experiencing now, the social mobility specific to the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century may be defined by the expression “one way ticket”; the immigrant, usually a man, used to leave his country of origin and settle for good in his host-country (he did not look for his happiness from state to state, as it happens now. The Romanian migration of that time was directed mainly towards the New World (particularly to the USA, and less to Canada. This paper is an attempt to sketch the image of Romanian emigration by taking into account the peculiarities determined by: emigration causes, geographical predominance, social composition, occupational options in the host-country, and the structure of Romanian immigrant communities.

Silvia Bocancea

2011-12-01

 
 
 
 
101

Transformations in understanding the health impacts of air pollutants in the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The transformations of air pollution in the 20th century are well known. The century opened with urban atmospheres polluted by the combustion products of burning coal: smoke and sulfur dioxide. At the millennium these pollutants had almost vanished, replaced by the pollutants, both primary and secondary, a function of fossil-fuelled vehicles. However transitions in terms of health outcomes have been equally dramatic. Fine particulate matter causes notable cardiovascular problems such as increased incidence of stroke and heart attack, although the mechanism remains somewhat unclear. Cancer inducing air pollutants remain a concern, but in addition more recently there has been a rising interest in the presence of neurotoxins and endocrine disrupting substances in the environment.

Brimblecombe P.

2009-02-01

102

Modelling the 20th and 21st century evolution of Hoffellsjökull glacier, SE-Vatnajökull, Iceland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Little Ice Age maximum extent of glaciers in Iceland was reached about 1890 AD and most glaciers in the country have retreated during the 20th century. A model for the surface mass balance and the flow of glaciers is used to reconstruct the 20th century retreat history of Hoffellsjökull, a south-flowing outlet glacier of Vatnajökull, which is located close to the southeast coast of Iceland. The bedrock topography was surveyed with radio-echo soundings in 2001. A wealth of data are available to force and constrain the model, e.g. surface elevation maps from ~1890, 1936, 1946, 1986, 2001, 2008 and 2010, mass balance observations conducted in 1936–1938 and after 2001, energy balance measurements after 2001, and glacier surface velocity derived by DGPS and correlation of SPOT5 images. The 21% volume loss of this glacier in the period 1895–2010 is realistically simulated with the model. After calibration of the model with past observations, it is used to simulate the future response of the glacier during the 21st century. The mass balance model was forced with an ensemble of temperature and precipitation scenarios from a study of the effect of climate change on energy production in the Nordic countries (the CES project. If the average climate of 2000–2009 is maintained into the future, the volume of the glacier is projected to be reduced by 30% with respect to the present at the end of this century, and the glacier will almost disappear if the climate warms as suggested by most of the climate change scenarios. Runoff from the glacier is predicted to increase for the next 30–40 years and decrease after that as a consequence of the diminishing ice-covered area.

G. Aðalgeirsdóttir

2011-04-01

103

Public Opinion, and Propaganda in 20th Century America: The Case of the Lippmann/Dewey Debate  

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Full Text Available The nexus between the public, public opinion, and propaganda garnered scholarly attention not until the 18th century. In the United States, for instance, the debate between the journalist Walter Lippmann and the philosopher John Dewey in the early 20th century on the role of instrumental rationality was key. While the former argued that the opinions of the public are inchoate, and therefore less reliable in running the State, the latter insisted that such a position is anti-democratic, and undermines the sovereign will of the people and their participation in civic discourse. The authors’ respective rhetoric bears implications for the conduct of the mass media in relation to propaganda and manufacture of consent in liberal democracies.

Wincharles Coker

2013-04-01

104

Nooreestlased arvustuses ja arvustajatena: lugejakontseptsioonist 20. sajandi alguse kriitikas. The Young Estonians as Critics and in the Eyes of Critics: On the Concept of the Reader in Early 20th Century Estonia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Until recently, the treatment of Estonian literature from the beginning of the 20th century has been influenced by the literary and cultural activities and programmatic articles of the Young Estonia movement. Current research on Young Estonia has addressed their more everyday realm of activity, which has heretofore received less attention: the Young Estonians as readers of the new works of their literary contemporaries and their practical criticism in reviews, particularly in daily newspapers. This article uses a receptionhistorical approach to analyze a large body of source material: the Young Estonians voluminous critical oeuvre in the period 1905–1915. The Young Estonians to be examined are all members of the core group of the movement: Gustav Suits, Bernhard Linde, Aino Kallas, Johannes Aavik, Villem Grünthal-Ridala, Jaan Oks, August Alle, and Johannes Semper. Within the larger framework of collective horizons of expectation, the focus of the study is the critics` concept of the reader. In addition, I will briefly discuss the dynamics of how such conceptions change. Research results indicate that in critical reviews from the time of Young Estonia, the topic of the reader was addressed from different standpoints depending on the addressee. Texts directed rhetorically toward a broad readership are characterized by the pursuit of objectivity and generalizations. When the concept of the reader is critic-centered, the text emphasizes subjective judgments, experience, and emotion. When focusing on the author and the text, the reviewer describes the influence on the reader, the cause of which is either the literary work directly or the author’s genius. In the case of polemic on the subject of reading, found mainly in responses written to reviews, the writer interprets another reader (or other readers` reading, opposing it to his or her own. When we follow the way the readers of Young Estonia and the Young Estonians themselves handle the characteristics and functions of the reader, it becomes apparent that the reader is defined primarily according to relations – whether these are with the author, the text, the content, the critic, the reader himself/ herself, or with literature in general. The reader is regarded as a passive subject in the literary process who needs to be influenced by the author and directed by the critic. At the beginning of the era of Young Estonia, the reader’s primary role is seen as supporting original literary works. Those critics who did not belong to Young Estonia’s core group orient themselves to the common reader, and to a heterogenous content familiar from everyday life. The Young Estonians` longing for „better” literature, and expectations connected with the literary representation of educated people are aimed at authors; there is also the expectation that educated people will form a readership. In the middle of the Young Estonia period, topics of ongoing discussion include the question of rereading, or repeated reading of books, and prejudices formed based on an author’s prior works and the broader literary context. In mid-period, a clearer separation comes into focus between reviewer and reader, and the judgments of readers and reviewers can be seen to diverge. Toward the end of the period, the evaluation of literary texts takes a further step from the search for objective values toward recognizing the individuality of the reader. In conclusion, during the decade 1905–1915, the definition of the reader in the eyes of the critic underwent an expansion, merging with the Young Estonians’ specific expectations. Though the Young Estonians’ own principles – quite resolute at first – later became somewhat tempered, they still maintained their elitist positions and uncompromising stance toward their opposition. The result is an enrichment in the criteria for judging literature rather than a replacement of one set of criteria by another. Horizons of interpretation continue to approach one another, until the horizon of expectation of Young Estonia’s reade

Marju Mikkel

2012-04-01

105

Source parameters of four strong earthquakes in Bulgaria and Portugal at the beginning of the 20th century  

Science.gov (United States)

Using original seismograph records and bulletin data we re-determined theorigin time, location, seismic moment (M0) and magnitudes(MS and Mw) for four earthquakes in the beginning of the20th century. These are two strong earthquakes April 4, 1904 nearKrupnik, Bulgaria (Mw = 6.8, MS = 7.2 respectively), the April 231909 earthquake near Benavente, Portugal (MS = 6.3), and the June14, 1913 earthquake near Gorna Orjahovitza, Bulgaria (MS = 6.3).Twenty-nine traces from original records have been analysed, a largenumber of original station bulletins have been consulted and a consistentmethodology for analysing these early 20th century instrumentalinformation is presented.In spite of a thorough effort in re-assembling and quality control of theoriginal data, large inaccuracies remain in the improved instrumentalepicentre locations and origin times. The seismic moment estimates weobtained (2.3 1018 M0 3.9 1019Nm) are the first ever determined for these events. The magnitudeestimates (6.3 MS 7.2 and 6.2 Mw 7.0) are robust and systematically lower than most of previousestimates for all earthquakes (Gutenberg and Richter, 1954; Christoskovand Grigorova, 1968; Karnik, 1969). For the largest Krupnik event ourestimates agree with those of Abe and Noguchi (1983b) and Pacheco andSykes (1992). The studied earthquakes all occur in moderately seismicactive regions, therefore our results may have significant consequences forhazard estimates in those regions.

Dineva, S.; Batllo, J.; Mihaylov, D.; et al.

106

Corpus methods and their reflection in linguistic theories of the 20th century  

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Full Text Available In the 20th century structuralism established itself as the central linguistic theory, in the first half mainly through its originator Ferdinand de Saussure, and in the second half with the figure of Noam Chomsky. The latter consistently refused to acknowledge analysis of extensive quantity of texts as a valuable method, and favoured linguistic intuition of a native speaker instead. In parallel with structuralism other trends in linguistics emerged which pointed to the inadequateness of the prevailing linguistic paradigm and to theoretical insights which were only possible after the systematic analysis of large quantities of texts. The paper discusses some of the dilemmas stemming from this dichotomy and places corpus linguistics in a broader linguistic context.

Simon Krek

2013-05-01

107

Causes of mortality and development: Evidence from large health shocks in 20th century America  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Exploiting pre-intervention variation in flu/pneumonia, tuberculosis and maternal mortality, together with time variation arising from medical breakthroughs starting in the late 1930s, this paper studies the aggregate impact of large health shocks across US states. The analysis demonstrates that the shocks influenced income per capita in different ways. While the shock to flu/pneumonia mortality has been conductive for development, the large reduction in the incidence of tuberculosis deaths has been a negative force in the development of US states over the second-half of 20th century. In addition, the decline in maternal mortality has a fragile, but positive relationship with income per capita. Because these specific health shocks affected mortality across the life cycle differently, the evidence here underscores the general tenet of regarding health as multifaceted.

Worm Hansen, Casper

2012-01-01

108

RTG's for space exploration at the end of the 20th century  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG's) are the only type of energy conversion devices that are available for spacecraft designed for environments where sunlight is weak. The two upcoming missions Galileo and Ulysses will both use General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) RTG's. Two other missions that are planned for mid nineties and will carry RTG's on board are: Comet Rendezvous Astroid Flyby (CRAF) and Cassini. Another mission that might become a program start in the last decade of the 20th century is Solarprobe. Solarprobe is most likely to use Modular RTG's. Several other missions that are in different planning stages are in need of RTG's to meet their power requirements: Mars Rover Sample Return, planetary penetrators, microspacecraft and Mars Egg. The paper briefly describes all of these missions stressing their RTG requirements

1989-08-06

109

Simulation of sea ice in FGOALS-g2: Climatology and late 20th century changes  

Science.gov (United States)

Sea ice is an important component in the Earth's climate system. Coupled climate system models are indispensable tools for the study of sea ice, its internal processes, interaction with other components, and projection of future changes. This paper evaluates the simulation of sea ice by the Flexible Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System model Grid-point Version 2 (FGOALS-g2), in the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP5), with a focus on historical experiments and late 20th century simulation. Through analysis, we find that FGOALS-g2 produces reasonable Arctic and Antarctic sea ice climatology and variability. Sea ice spatial distribution and seasonal change characteristics are well captured. The decrease of Arctic sea ice extent in the late 20th century is reproduced in simulations, although the decrease trend is lower compared with observations. Simulated Antarctic sea ice shows a reasonable distribution and seasonal cycle with high accordance to the amplitude of winter-summer changes. Large improvement is achieved as compared with FGOALS-g1.0 in CMIP3. Diagnosis of atmospheric and oceanic forcing on sea ice reveals several shortcomings and major aspects to improve upon in the future: (1) ocean model improvements to remove the artificial island at the North Pole; (2) higher resolution of the atmosphere model for better simulation of important features such as, among others, the Icelandic Low and westerly wind over the Southern Ocean; and (3) ocean model improvements to accurately receive freshwater input from land, and higher resolution for resolving major water channels in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.

Xu, Shiming; Song, Mirong; Liu, Jiping; Wang, Bin; Li, Lijuan; Huang, Wenyu; Liu, Li; Xia, Kun; Xue, Wei; Pu, Ye; Dong, Li; Shen, Si; Hu, Ning; Liu, Mimi; Sun, Wenqi

2013-05-01

110

Fire dynamics during the 20th century simulated by the Community Land Model  

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Full Text Available Fire is an integral Earth System process that interacts with climate in multiple ways. Here we assessed the parametrization of fires in the Community Land Model (CLM-CN and improved the ability of the model to reproduce contemporary global patterns of burned areas and fire emissions. In addition to wildfires we extended CLM-CN to account for fires related to deforestation. We compared contemporary fire carbon emissions predicted by the model to satellite based estimates in terms of magnitude, spatial extent as well as interannual and seasonal variability. Longterm trends during the 20th century were compared with historical estimates. Overall we found the best agreement between simulation and observations for the fire parametrization based on the work by Arora and Boer (2005. We obtain substantial improvement when we explicitly considered human caused ignition and fire suppression as a function of population density. Simulated fire carbon emissions ranged between 2.0 and 2.4 Pg C/year for the period 1997–2004. Regionally the simulations had a low bias over Africa and a high bias over South America when compared to satellite based products. The net terrestrial carbon source due to land use change for the 1990s was 1.2 Pg C/year with 11% stemming from deforestation fires. During 2000–2004 this flux decreased to 0.85 Pg C/year with a similar relative contribution from deforestation fires. Between 1900 and 1960 we simulated a slight downward trend in global fire emissions, which is explained by reduced fuels as a consequence of wood harvesting and partly by increasing fire suppression. The model predicted an upward trend in the last three decades of the 20th century caused by climate variations and large burning events associated with ENSO induced drought conditions.

S. Kloster

2010-01-01

111

Fire dynamics during the 20th century simulated by the Community Land Model  

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Full Text Available Fire is an integral Earth System process that interacts with climate in multiple ways. Here we assessed the parametrization of fires in the Community Land Model (CLM-CN and improved the ability of the model to reproduce contemporary global patterns of burned areas and fire emissions. In addition to wildfires we extended CLM-CN to account for fires related to deforestation. We compared contemporary fire carbon emissions predicted by the model to satellite-based estimates in terms of magnitude and spatial extent as well as interannual and seasonal variability. Long-term trends during the 20th century were compared with historical estimates. Overall we found the best agreement between simulation and observations for the fire parametrization based on the work by Arora and Boer (2005. We obtained substantial improvement when we explicitly considered human caused ignition and fire suppression as a function of population density. Simulated fire carbon emissions ranged between 2.0 and 2.4 Pg C/year for the period 1997–2004. Regionally the simulations had a low bias over Africa and a high bias over South America when compared to satellite-based products. The net terrestrial carbon source due to land use change for the 1990s was 1.2 Pg C/year with 11% stemming from deforestation fires. During 2000–2004 this flux decreased to 0.85 Pg C/year with a similar relative contribution from deforestation fires. Between 1900 and 1960 we predicted a slight downward trend in global fire emissions caused by reduced fuels as a consequence of wood harvesting and also by increases in fire suppression. The model predicted an upward trend during the last three decades of the 20th century as a result of climate variations and large burning events associated with ENSO-induced drought conditions.

S. Kloster

2010-06-01

112

[Prima inter pares--internal medicine in Vienna at the beginning of the 20th century].  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1901 the Society for Internal Medicine was founded, the purpose of which was to reestablish unity within the field of internal medicine. Paediatrics, dermatology, laryngology, and neurology had established themselves as independent specialties and the unity of internal medicine had disintegrated in the 19th century. On the basis of Nothnagel's complications (First Department of Medicine) and Schrötter's treatment of tuberculosis in sanatoria (Third Department of Medicine), the 19th century continued to exert an influence on medicine until well into the first decade of the 20th century. Neusser furthered haematology and endocrinology and laid the foundations for the Central Roentgen Institute. Before the main task of neurological research became the concern of psychiatry, Frankl-Hochwart conducted research in the fields of neurology and neuro-endocrinology. With the appointment of Noorden, the study of pathological metabolism and diabetes became the principal concern of the First Medical Department. Nevertheless, the research work of his assistant Eppinger made a major contribution to electrocardiography in the first decade of our century. Similarly, Wilhelm Türk at Neusser's department helped to make Vienna a centre of haematology through his improvements in technique, his textbooks and, among other things, his description of agranulocystosis. Nesser's self-willed disciple, Franz Chvostek, continued to propagate making spot diagnoses, as introduced by his mentor, and Schrötter's disciple, Josef Sorgo, expanded on his teacher's endoscropic methods, which he eventually managed to develop into a new therapeutic procedure. Adolf von Strümpell took over Schrötter's "propaedeutic clinic," but returned to his homeland, Germany, a year after having been appointed to the position in Vienna. PMID:6649644

Wyklicky, H

1983-09-16

113

A 21st Century Library in a 20th Century Space  

Science.gov (United States)

The library at George C. Marshall High School in Fairfax County, Virginia, needed an update to better meet the needs of 21st century students. A major renovation was in the works, but head librarian Graboyes wanted to do something to make the library useful and appealing for current students. With careful budgeting and donations of time and money,…

Graboyes, Alanna S.

2012-01-01

114

Santorini Volcano's 20th Century Eruptions: A Combined Petrogenetical, Volcanological, Sociological and Environmental Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Santorini, the famous stratovolcano in the Aegean Sea, erupted three time periods during the 20th century (1925-1928, 1939-1941, 1950) and since then remains dormant. This study tried to combine and evaluate new and published volcanological, petrological, geochemical, environmental and sociological data of these three phases of Santorini's activity, which practically restricted to the caldera center on the Nea Kameni Islet. After field work on the formed dacite flows, pyroclastics and domes, representative rock samples and enclaves were collected and investigated for their texture, physical parameters, mineralogy and chemical composition by polarizing light microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDS), XRD, Raman spectroscopy and ICP-MS. The petrogenetic evaluation of the data obtained suggests slight but significant changes in the solid and aerial phases produced during the three explosion stages, which can be attributed to minor variations in the magmatic differentiation and magma chamber physicochemical conditions. These variations were also expressed by decrease of duration and intensity of the eruptions, as well as in their volume of ejecta and lava. Probably, the subsequent relatively long dormant period of the volcano is also related to this tension of decrease. The first compared results were collected from scientific literature, old photos as well as local and regional press and state documents from the different periods of volcanism, record the past hazard case scenarios and civil defense planning of the individual eruptions. As part of the disaster management a pilot survey, in which personal interviews with aged local islanders that were eye-witnesses of the events and elderly people or tourists that they indirectly experienced or have heard about them, was also conducted. This event-tracing, along with air pollution software models using volcanological data have shown the social impacts and the environmental consequences of the volcanic activities seem generally to follow the same way of reduction with time as above. Conclusively, this integrated comparison of the three successive per decade eruption periods within the 20th century, which had followed a long dormant period of about 60 years, provide worthy hazard and risk assessment for Santorini volcano future waking up.

Drymoni, Kyriaki; Magganas, Andreas; Pomonis, Panagiotis

2014-05-01

115

1900 ?zmir ve 1901 ?stanbul Salg?nlar? Ba?lam?nda Veban?n XX. Yüzy?l Ba?lar?nda Osmanl? ?mparatorlu?u’nda Devam Eden Etkisi///The Ongoing ?mpact Of The Most Dreadful Disease Of World History Plague In The Ottoman Empire In The Early 20th Century Within The Contexts Of 1900 Izmir And 1901 Istanbul Epidemics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available At the beginning of the 20th century plague had almost become a local, demographically ineffective and even an ordinary disease. However, even at such a late period, in the epidemics occured in any part of the ottoman territories, plague continued to cause economy based troubles similar to the ones in the previous centuries, due to the quarantines.

Mesut AYAR

2010-07-01

116

The NPR 100: The 100 most important American musical works of the 20th century  

Science.gov (United States)

Last October, working off of a list created by NPR staff, critics, and scholars, NPR listeners and a panel of musicians voted for the 100 most important American musical works of the 20th century. Throughout this year, NPR has been broadcasting stories featuring these works on All Things Considered NPR's Performance Today, and other NPR shows. The Website currently features 53 of these broadcasts, which typically run about ten minutes and feature performances of the musical piece along with a background report on its genesis and significance to American music. The list is both fascinating and profoundly eclectic, ranging from Stravinsky's Symphony of Psalms to Nirvana's "Smells like Teen Spirit" with representatives from folk, rock, jazz, R 'n' B, gospel, punk, American musicals, the hit parade, and country. The broadcasts are listed in order of appearance (most recent first) with annotations, or alphabetically without annotations. A description of the voting process is also posted. Visitors will need RealPlayer to listen to the broadcasts. Note: we do wish that the creators of the site had chosen the QuickTime audio application so as to avoid that wobbly streaming effect that so undermines a piece like Barber's Adagio for Strings.

117

Brief resume of exploration history in Azerbaijan sector of Caspian sea in 20th century  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text : This article contains information about seismic exploration activities in the shallow water part of Azeri sector of Caspian see in the 20th century. During this time 145 perspective structures had been discovered in Azeri sector of Caspian as a result of the exploration. On some of those perspectives that were prepared for geological prospecting deep-hole exploration drilling was carried out and according to the data acquired, there were 27 oil and gas gas fields discovered at that time. The distinctive feature of these deposits is that the production was conducted by means of special dums, piers, built from the shore and also by deviated wells having there wellhead on the land. After World War 2, due to depletion of the main oil producing region, i.e. Apsheron peninsular, Azerbaijan geologists appealed to exploring new oil bearing deposits in other regions of Azerbaijan. Analyses of the geological and geophysical data reveal that along with the high probability of new deposit detection within already discovered structures, positive results may also be acquired by exploration of non-anticlinal traps and pliocene deposits of the western slope of Caspian sea.

2002-09-01

118

Quantifying 20th century deposition in complex estuarine environment: An example from the Hudson River  

Science.gov (United States)

Sediment processes in estuaries are controlled by the interaction of factors that include tides, fresh water inputs, bed morphology, sediment supply, and hydrodynamics. The interaction of these factors strongly influences the pattern of sediment deposition. The ability to quantify sediment deposition on a regional scale will improve the understanding of the underlying processes, and provide valuable information for managing estuarine systems. This paper describes our approach for obtaining the deposition pattern and quantifying the amount of 20th century impacted sediments in the Haverstraw Bay section of the Hudson River Estuary. Through the combination of high-resolution seismic data and rapidly acquired geochemical information from numerous sediment cores, we estimate that our study site experiences an average sediment accumulation rate of ˜3 mm/y and that ˜75,000 t/y or ˜10% of the annual total sediment input measured at the Poughkeepsie, NY gauging station (USGS) is stored in this reach of the Hudson River on ˜100 y timescales. A detailed analysis of the depositional pattern indicates that the accumulation rate varies considerably throughout the study area ranging from non-depositional to >8 mm/y. Our data also clearly indicate that the dredged channel in Haverstraw Bay is currently the main focus of deposition in this area.

Nitsche, F. O.; Kenna, T. C.; Haberman, M.

2010-09-01

119

Stationarity analysis of historical flood series in France and Spain (14th–20th centuries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Interdisciplinary frameworks for studying natural hazards and their temporal trends have an important potential in data generation for risk assessment, land use planning, and therefore the sustainable management of resources. This paper focuses on the adjustments required because of the wide variety of scientific fields involved in the reconstruction and characterisation of flood events for the past 1000 years. The aim of this paper is to describe various methodological aspects of the study of flood events in their historical dimension, including the critical evaluation of old documentary and instrumental sources, flood-event classification and hydraulic modelling, and homogeneity and quality control tests. Standardized criteria for flood classification have been defined and applied to the Isère and Drac floods in France, from 1600 to 1950, and to the Ter, the Llobregat and the Segre floods, in Spain, from 1300 to 1980. The analysis on the Drac and Isère data series from 1600 to the present day showed that extraordinary and catastrophic floods were not distributed uniformly in time. However, the largest floods (general catastrophic floods were homogeneously distributed in time within the period 1600–1900. No major flood occurred during the 20th century in these rivers. From 1300 to the present day, no homogeneous behaviour was observed for extraordinary floods in the Spanish rivers. The largest floods were uniformly distributed in time within the period 1300–1900, for the Segre and Ter rivers.

M. Barriendos

2003-01-01

120

Molecular evolution of Zika virus during its emergence in the 20(th) century.  

Science.gov (United States)

Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus first isolated in Uganda in 1947. Although entomological and virologic surveillance have reported ZIKV enzootic activity in diverse countries of Africa and Asia, few human cases were reported until 2007, when a Zika fever epidemic took place in Micronesia. In the context of West Africa, the WHO Collaborating Centre for Arboviruses and Hemorrhagic Fever at Institut Pasteur of Dakar (http://www.pasteur.fr/recherche/banques/CRORA/) reports the periodic circulation of ZIKV since 1968. Despite several reports on ZIKV, the genetic relationships among viral strains from West Africa remain poorly understood. To evaluate the viral spread and its molecular epidemiology, we investigated 37 ZIKV isolates collected from 1968 to 2002 in six localities in Senegal and Côte d'Ivoire. In addition, we included strains from six other countries. Our results suggested that these two countries in West Africa experienced at least two independent introductions of ZIKV during the 20(th) century, and that apparently these viral lineages were not restricted by mosquito vector species. Moreover, we present evidence that ZIKV has possibly undergone recombination in nature and that a loss of the N154 glycosylation site in the envelope protein was a possible adaptive response to the Aedes dalzieli vector. PMID:24421913

Faye, Oumar; Freire, Caio C M; Iamarino, Atila; Faye, Ousmane; de Oliveira, Juliana Velasco C; Diallo, Mawlouth; Zanotto, Paolo M A; Sall, Amadou Alpha

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Trends in coastal upwelling intensity during the late 20th century  

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Full Text Available This study presents linear trends of coastal upwelling intensity in the later part of the 20th century (1960–2001 employing various indices of upwelling, derived from meridional wind stress and sea surface temperature. The analysis was conducted in the four major coastal upwelling regions in the world, which are off North-West Africa, Lüderitz, California and Peru. The trends in meridional wind stress showed a steady increase of intensity from 1960–2001, which was also reflected in the SST index calculated for the same time period. The steady cooling observed in the instrumental records of SST off California substantiated this observation further. It was also noted that the trends in meridional wind stress obtained from different datasets differ substantially from each other. Correlation analysis showed that basin-scale oscillations like the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO could not be directly linked to the observed increase of upwelling intensity off NW Africa and California respectively. The relationship of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO with coastal upwelling off NW Africa turned out to be ambiguous due to a negative correlation between the NAO index and the meridional wind stress and a lack of correlation with the SST index. Our results give additional support to the hypothesis that the coastal upwelling intensity increases globally because of raising greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere and an associated increase of the land-sea pressure gradient and meridional wind stress.

N. Narayan

2010-09-01

122

Trends in coastal upwelling intensity during the late 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study presents linear trends of coastal upwelling intensity in the later part of the 20th century (1960–2001 employing various indices of upwelling, derived from meridional wind stress and sea surface temperature. The analysis was conducted in the four major coastal upwelling regions in the world, which are off North-West Africa, Lüderitz, California and Peru respectively. The trends in meridional wind stress showed a steady increase of intensity from 1960–2001, which was also reflected in the SST index calculated for the same time period. The steady cooling observed in the instrumental records of SST off California substantiated this observation further. Correlation analysis showed that basin-scale oscillations like the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO could not be directly linked to the observed increase of upwelling intensity off NW Africa and California respectively. The relationship of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO with coastal upwelling off NW Africa turned out to be ambiguous due to a negative correlation between the NAO index and the meridional wind stress and a lack of correlation with the SST index. Our results give additional support to the hypothesis that the coastal upwelling intensity increases globally because of raising greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere and an associated increase of the land-sea pressure gradient and meridional wind stress.

N. Narayan

2010-02-01

123

Observed Abrupt Changes in Minimum and Maximum Temperatures in Jordan in the 20th Century  

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Full Text Available This study examines changes in annual and seasonal mean (minimum and maximum temperatures variations in Jordan during the 20th century. The analyses focus on the time series records at the Amman Airport Meteorological (AAM station. The occurrence of abrupt changes and trends were examined using cumulative sum charts (CUSUM and bootstrapping and the Mann-Kendall rank test. Statistically significant abrupt changes and trends have been detected. Major change points in the mean minimum (night-time and mean maximum (day-time temperatures occurred in 1957 and 1967, respectively. A minor change point in the annual mean maximum temperature also occurred in 1954, which is essential agreement with the detected change in minimum temperature. The analysis showed a significant warming trend after the years 1957 and 1967 for the minimum and maximum temperatures, respectively. The analysis of maximum temperatures shows a significant warming trend after the year 1967 for the summer season with a rate of temperature increase of 0.038°C/year. The analysis of minimum temperatures shows a significant warming trend after the year 1957 for all seasons. Temperature and rainfall data from other stations in the country have been considered and showed similar changes.

Mohammad M.  samdi

2006-01-01

124

Serbian societies in Dubrovnik at the beginning of the 20th century  

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Full Text Available In the second half of the 19th century and at the beginning of the 20th century. Dubrovnik was the center of the coastline Serbs, both Catholic and Orthodox. National activities of the Serbs developed through cultural and economic societies. The educational-economic society Srpska Zora (Serbian Dawn was founded in 1901 in Knin. It encouraged the establishment of agricultural co-operatives in villages and savings banks in towns. After the initiative of Srpska Zora, The Alliance of Serbian Economic Co-operatives at the coast was founded in 1905. The main activity of Srpska Zora was to strengthen the Serbian intelligentsia by helping the poor pupils. It helped financially the work of Serbian singing societies at the coast. Matica Srpska in Dubrovnik was founded in 1909 as an endowment of the merchant Konstantin Vu?kovi?. The first gymnastics (chivalrous societies at the coast were founded in 1907, Dušan Silni (Dušan the Great in Dubrovnik and Srpski Soko (Serbian Falcon in Risan. The chivalrous education was at the same time physical, moral and national. The Srpski Soko center at the coast was founded in 1911 in Herceg Novi. The center was a part of the Association of the Serbian Soko Movement in Belgrade. It held a spots rally in Dubrovnik in 1913 and in Knin in 1914. After Austria-Hungary declared war to Serbia in 1914 all Serbian societies were banned. The coastal Serbs tried to defect and to join the army of the Serbian states as volunteers. The Serbian army entered Dubrovnik on November 13, 1918. On the Unification Day, December 1, 1924, the monument to the King Peter I was unveiled. In 1925, Dubrovnik was visited by the King Aleksandar and Queen Maria. With very modest resources and with devoted work, the national entrepreneurs managed to gather, inspire and lead to coastal Serbs to the fight for liberation and unification.

Nedeljkovi? Saša

2007-01-01

125

Ochres and earths: matrix and chromophores characterization of 19th and 20th century artist materials.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present paper describes the main results obtained from the characterization of a wide range of natural and synthetic ochre samples used in Portugal from the 19th to the 20th century, including powder and oil painting samples. The powder ochre samples came from several commercial distributors and from the collection of Joaquim Rodrigo (1912-1997), a leading Portuguese artist, particularly active during the sixties and seventies. The micro-samples of oil painting tubes came from the Museu Nacional de Arte Contemporânea-Museu do Chiado (National Museum of Contemporary Art-Chiado Museum) in Lisbon and were used by Columbano Bordalo Pinheiro (1857-1929), one of the most prominent naturalist Portuguese painters. These tubes were produced by the main 19th century colourmen: Winsor & Newton, Morin et Janet, Maison Merlin, and Lefranc. The samples have been studied using ?-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (?-FTIR), Raman microscopy, ?-Energy Dispersive X-ray fluorescence (?-EDXRF), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The analyzed ochres were found to be a mixture of several components: iron oxides and hydroxides in matrixes with kaolinite, gypsum and chalk. The results obtained allowed to identify and characterize the ochres according to their matrix and chromophores. The main chromophores where identified by Raman microscopy as being hematite, goethite and magnetite. The infrared analysis of the ochre samples allowed to divide them into groups, according to the composition of the matrix. It was possible to separate ochres containing kaolinite matrix and/or sulfate matrix from ochres where only iron oxides and/or hydroxides were detected. ?-EDXRF and Raman were the best techniques to identify umber, since the presence of elements such as manganese is characteristic of these pigments. ?-EDXRF also revealed the presence of significant amounts of arsenic in all Sienna tube paints. PMID:23274225

Montagner, Cristina; Sanches, Diogo; Pedroso, Joana; Melo, Maria João; Vilarigues, Márcia

2013-02-15

126

Water Quality Loading: Trends in the Northeastern Corridor of US During the 20th Century  

Science.gov (United States)

Water quality in surface waters is influenced by watershed climate, hydrology, land cover and land use. Inputs from anthropogenic sources, such as fertilizers, wastewater and livestock, can greatly degrade water quality as they are transferred into surface water bodies. It is important to quantify the rate and severity of this transformation in order to minimize water quality damages to water resources. Additionally, throughout the 20th century, land use practices have constantly shifted with technological advancements and increases in population. Export coefficient models are useful regional scale models, which can address non-point pollution sources; however, such models only address land use practices without regard for other inputs to the hydrologic system. While physical models can model the relationships between the hydrologic system, human activities and water quality, such models are complex to develop and only apply to localized areas. Our primary goal is to quantify and characterize the trends in total nitrogen, total phosphorus and BOD loading into surface waters in the Northeast Corridor of the US from 1920-2000. The models combine features of export coefficient models and physical models using streamflow, climate, land use and anthropogenic inputs. Models are developed for 26 watersheds across the Northeast Corridor, which have over 10 years of water quality data. These models are representative of a wide range of land use types and thus may be applied to HUC 8 watersheds within the region. The resulting models describe how land use practices and the hydrologic system have affected water quality for this time period. Cross validation methods are employed to test and evaluate the resulting models.

Ng, M.; Vogel, R. M.; Hale, R. L.; Thomas, B.; Hoover, J. H.; Brideau, J. M.

2010-12-01

127

Developing the 20th Century Reanalysis version 3 (1850-2013) (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

The historical reanalysis dataset generated by NOAA ESRL and the CIRES Climate Diagnostics Center, the Twentieth Century Reanalysis version 2 (20CRv2), is a comprehensive global atmospheric circulation dataset spanning 1871-2011, assimilating only surface pressure and using monthly Hadley Centre SST and sea ice distributions (HadISST1.1) as boundary conditions. It has been made possible through collaboration with GCOS, WCRP, and the ACRE initiative. It is chiefly motivated by a need to provide an observational validation dataset, with quantified uncertainties, for assessments of climate model simulations of the 20th century, with emphasis on the statistics of daily weather. It uses, together with an NCEP global numerical weather prediction (NWP) land/atmosphere model to provide background "first guess" fields, an Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) data assimilation method. This yields a global analysis every 6 hours as the most likely state of the atmosphere, and also yields the uncertainty of that analysis. The 20CRv2 dataset provides the first estimates of global tropospheric variability, and of the dataset's time-varying quality, spanning 1871 to the present at 2 degree spatial resolution. Intercomparisons with independent radiosonde and station temperature data indicate that the reanalyses are of high quality. Overall, the quality is approximately that of current three-day NWP forecasts. It is anticipated that the 20CRv2 will be useful to the climate research community for both diagnostic studies and model validations. Some surprising results are already evident. For instance, the long-term trends of the tropical Pacific Walker Circulation are weak or non-existent over the full period of record in this dataset. Following 20CRv2, with GCOS, WCRP, and ACRE, we are investigating 20CR version 3: an improved version of the historical reanalysis dataset. Results illustrating the effects of higher spatial resolution and increased observational density compared to 20CRv2 will be presented. 20CRv3 will have a companion ocean reanalysis generated by Texas A&M University using the Simple Ocean Data Assimilation system. The effects of using SODA boundary conditions compared to HadISST in 20CRv3 will be investigated. Together 20CRv3 and SODA will provide global states of the atmosphere, land, and ocean back to 1850.

Compo, G.; Whitaker, J. S.; Sardeshmukh, P. D.; Giese, B. S.

2013-12-01

128

Careers of men and women in the 19th and 20th centuries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis studies the process of status attainment during the careers of men and women in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and the influence of modernization processes on that process of status attainment. During the decades following World War II, the Western world saw an increasing confidence among the working population and social scientists alike that most people would have occupational careers characterized by upward mobility and by ‘good jobs’. The breeding ground ...

Schulz, W.

2013-01-01

129

Manuais didáticos no início do século XX em Sergipe: cultura material escolar dos grupos escolares / Textbooks from the early 20th century in Sergipe: institutional teaching material for school groups  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Ao investigar a cultura escolar dos grupos escolares sergipanos, questionou-se acerca da presença de manuais didáticos nestas instituições no início do século XX e suas características. Assim, com base em pesquisa bibliográfica e documental desenvolvidas sob a perspectiva da História Cultural, objet [...] ivou-se identificar quais manuais didáticos integraram a cultura dos grupos escolares, analisar a materialidade dos documentos e identificar aspectos característicos da cultura escolar do período, por meio da análise do conteúdo dos textos dos manuais escolares. Abstract in english When investigating the school institutions of Sergipe, the presence and characteristics of textbooks at the beginning of the twentieth century were examined. Thus, based on a literary and documentary search developed from the perspective of Cultural History, the objective was to identify which textb [...] ooks had been integrated into the school institutions, then analyze the materiality of the documents, identifying characteristic features of the school institutions of that period through an analysis of the content of the textbooks.

Azevedo, Crislane Barbosa.

130

Evaluation for sustainable agriculture water use from River, Reservoirs and Groundwater in the 20th century  

Science.gov (United States)

High water stress due to economic growth and climate change (ex. global warming) will be falling into 2 billion people to 4 billion people in the future. Agricultural water use accounting for about 70% of global water consumption might continue to increase due to production of foods and biofuels occurred by population growth in the future. In particular, water demand, food and biofuel production have an inextricable link. It is very important to evaluate these relationship for sustainable water use from past to the future. In this study, we focused on the objective to assess the impact of water withdrawal from various sources (stream flow, medium-sized reservoirs and nonrenewable nonlocal blue water) in the 20th century by considering irrigation area and climate change. Irrigation water withdrawal is the most important water use sector accounting for about 90% of total water withdrawal. First, we make the global spatial database of equipped irrigation area change and medium-sized reservoirs capacity. Then, water withdrawal from each sources for 50 years from 1950 to 2000 were simulated in global-scale at a resolution of 1.0 degree x 1.0 degree using an integrated global water resources model (hereafter, the H08 model). The H08 model can simulate both natural or anthropogenic water flow and anthropogenic water withdrawals. For comparison with our results, distribution of agricultural, industrial and domestic water withdrawals from 1950 to 2000 were estimated by distributing the country-based withdrawal data from AQUASTAT with irrigation area, urban population and total population, respectively. Groundwater withdrawal was then estimated by distributing the country-based withdrawal data based on statistical data from WRI, IGRAC and AQUASTAT with the total water withdrawal. As a result, agricultural water withdrawal change from nonrenewable nonlocal blue water during the past 50 years agreed well with the observed groundwater abstraction based on statistical data. In addition, many of the well-known hot spots of groundwater depletion (northeast Pakistan, northeast China, the Ogallala Aquifer, Iran and southeast Spain) appeared in spatial distribution of the change. In conclusion, this study was successful in simulations of global water withdrawals change from nonrenewable nonlocal blue water during the past 50 years using by the H08 model consisting of physical based hydrology. If irrigation areas continue to increasing, groundwater depletion might become more serious.

Yoshikawa, S.; Yamada, H.; Hanasaki, N.; Kanae, S.

2011-12-01

131

Two hegemonies – two technological regimes :American and Norwegian whaling in the 19th and 20th Century  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The 19th century whaling industry was dominated by the United States while the 20th century industry had its origins in Norway and was dominated for years by that nation. The focus of the paper, is to explore the relationship between the two so-called hegemonic whaling nations. Specifically, we are looking for encounters between the two industries that in one way or another may explain why the Norwegians did not enter into traditional pelagic whaling in the mid 19th century, and why the Ameri...

Basberg, Bjørn L.

2006-01-01

132

Business and politics in early 20th century Japan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper by Masato Kimura seeks to clarify the contributions and limitations of Japanese business diplomacy by looking at the business mission to Britain and the US in 1921-22, and the Japanese Economic Mission to Europe and the United States of 1937. The paper argues that Japanese business diplomacy, while of significance particularly in building up international human networks, was insufficiently influential to prevent political and military conflict. Peter von Staden's paper focuses on th...

Kimura, Masato; Von Staden, Peter

2002-01-01

133

Lessons Learned and Present Day Challenges of Addressing 20th Century Radiation Legacies of Russia and the United States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The decommissioning of nuclear submarines, disposal of highly-enriched uranium and weapons-grade plutonium, and processing of high-level radioactive wastes represent the most challenging issues facing the cleanup of 20th century radiation legacy wastes and facilities. The US and Russia are the two primary countries dealing with these challenges, because most of the world's fissile inventory is being processed and stored at multiple industrial sites and nuclear weapons production facilities in these countries.

KRISTOFZSKI, J.G.

2000-10-26

134

Lessons Learned and Present Day Challenges of Addressing 20th Century Radiation Legacies of Russia and the United States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The decommissioning of nuclear submarines, disposal of highly-enriched uranium and weapons-grade plutonium, and processing of high-level radioactive wastes represent the most challenging issues facing the cleanup of 20th century radiation legacy wastes and facilities. The US and Russia are the two primary countries dealing with these challenges, because most of the world's fissile inventory is being processed and stored at multiple industrial sites and nuclear weapons production facilities in these countries

2000-01-01

135

Svea People in the Land of Babel : Swedish Identity in Canada during the First Half of the 20th Century  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this thesis is to shed light upon the construction of identity within the Swedish- Canadian immigrant group during the first half of the 20th century. The most important sources of ethnic and nationalistic influences this study scrutinizes are the homeland Sweden, Swedish-America, Scandinavian-Canada and the Canadian host society. It also examines the interaction with other social identities, such as gender and religion. Theoretically, this dissertation takes its point of departure...

2004-01-01

136

21st century regionalism: Filling the gap between 21st century trade and 20th century trade rules  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper weaves several sets of facts into an argument that: 1) today's trade is radically more complex, involving a trade-investment-service nexus, 2) this 21st century trade demanded deeper disciplines which were supplied by 21st century regionalism while the WTO was otherwise occupied, and 3) 21st century regionalism has quite different implications for the world trading system than the traditional thinking suggests. The paper also argues that the traditional thinking (building-stumbling...

Baldwin, Richard

2011-01-01

137

Potential forest fire danger over Northern Eurasia: Changes during the 20th century  

Science.gov (United States)

Significant climatic changes over Northern Eurasia during the 20th century have been reflected in numerous variables of economic, social, and ecological interests, including the natural frequency of forest fires. For the former USSR, we are now using the Global Daily Climatology Network (Gleason et al. 2002) and a new Global Synoptic Data Network archive, GSDN, created jointly by NCDC an RIHMI. Data from these archives are employed to estimate systematic changes in indices used in the United States and Russia to assess potential forest fire danger. Within the boundaries of the former USSR, each of the archives, GHCN and GSDN, includes more than 2100 stations with only approximately 1500 of them having sufficiently long meteorological time series suitable for participation in our analyses. We use three indices: (1) Keetch-Byram Drought Index, (KBDI; this index uses only daily data on maximum temperature and precipitation and is developed and widely used in the United States); (2) Modified Nesterov, and (3) Zhdanko Indices (these indices are developed and widely used in Russia; their computation requires synoptic daytime data on temperature and humidity and daily precipitation and snow on the ground). Analyses show that after calibration, time series of the days with increased potential forest fire danger constructed using each of these three indices (a) are well correlated and (b) deliver similar conclusions about systematic changes in the weather conditions conducive to forest fires. Specifically, over the entire Eastern half of Northern Eurasia (Siberia and the Russian Far East) we found a statistically significant increase in indices that characterize the weather conditions conducive to forest fires. These areas coincide with the areas of most significant warming during the past several decades south of the Arctic Circle. West of the Ural Mountains, the same indices show a steady decrease in the frequency of the "dry weather summer days" during the past sixty years. This study supports and justifies our previous findings based on a data set five-times smaller (Groisman et al. 2003) and is corroborated with available statistics of forest fires (Korovin and Zukkert 2003) and with observed changes in characteristics of the forest phenology (Lapenis et al. 2004). Scenarios of the possible future climatic change in Northern Eurasia (IPCC 2001) indicate that the changes will be most prominent in the region. The superposition of these scenarios with the present characteristics of the potential forest fire danger in the Eastern half of Northern Eurasia, show that forest fires themselves may be an important feedback mechanism affecting both the rate and magnitude of the continental climatic changes. An unfortunate corollary is a need to reassess the existing scenarios of future climatic change in Northern Eurasia. These scenarios should include accounting for interactions with the biosphere and its changes.

Sherstyukov, B. G.; Razuvaev, V. N.; Groisman, P. Y.; Knight, R. W.; Enloe, J. G.

2004-12-01

138

Effects of breeding activity on durum wheat traits breed in Italy during the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Italy is the first world producer of pasta from durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. and an intense breeding activity has been conducted over the last century to support the long tradition of pasta making. This manuscript reviews the results achieved through the Italian breeding programs over last century. The analysis of data allows to appreciate the selective pressure imposed by the breeders on plant height and phenology to select cultivars well adapted to the Italian semi-arid conditions, where early maturity allows to escape the drought season. The annual genetic gain in terms of yield ranged from 17 to 24.6 kg ha-1 year-1 and it was most clearly associated with a higher kernels number m-2 indicating a larger grain-sink size and a higher number of spikes m-2. Regarding the quality traits, the grain protein concentration showed a decreasing trend over time of release of about 0.02% per year, confirming the negative relationship with grain yield.The progressive incorporation into recent cultivars of favourable alleles (7+8 glutenin subunit composition coding for superior quality subunits reflects the improvement in pasta making quality of the recent genotypes.

Luigi Cattivelli

2011-02-01

139

Effects of breeding activity on durum wheat traits breed in Italy during the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Italy is the first world producer of pasta from durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. and an intense breeding activity has been conducted over the last century to support the long tradition of pasta making. This manuscript reviews the results achieved through the Italian breeding programs over last century. The analysis of data allows to appreciate the selective pressure imposed by the breeders on plant height and phenology to select cultivars well adapted to the Italian semi-arid conditions, where early maturity allows to escape the drought season. The annual genetic gain in terms of yield ranged from 17 to 24.6 kg ha-1 year-1 and it was most clearly associated with a higher kernels number m-2 indicating a larger grain-sink size and a higher number of spikes m-2. Regarding the quality traits, the grain protein concentration showed a decreasing trend over time of release of about 0.02% per year, confirming the negative relationship with grain yield.The progressive incorporation into recent cultivars of favourable alleles (7+8 glutenin subunit composition coding for superior quality subunits reflects the improvement in pasta making quality of the recent genotypes.

Luigi Cattivelli

2007-12-01

140

See no evil, hear no evil: the rise and fall of child sexual abuse in the 20th century  

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Full Text Available This paper examines the development of a medical perspective on child sexual abuse during the course of the 20th century and argues that such a perspective has not served the best interests of sexually abused children. An alternate social perspective is outlined, which would appear to have the potential to adequately address the needs of sexually abused children in the 21st century. The paper concludes by arguing that, despite its merits, the social perspective is likely to be of little value unless we can learn to more effectively see and hear the voices of child survivors.

Steven J Collings

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Observational and model evidence of global emergence of permanent, unprecedented heat in the 20th and 21st centuries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Given the severe impacts of extreme heat on natural and human systems, we attempt to quantify the likelihood that rising greenhouse gas concentrations will result in a new, permanent heat regime in which the coolest warm-season of the 21st century is hotter than the hottest warm-season of the late 20th century. Our analyses of global climate model experiments and observational data reveal that many areas of the globe are likely to permanently move into such a climate space over the next four ...

Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; Scherer, Martin

2011-01-01

142

Impact of anthropogenic forcing on long-term precipitation trend in Africa in the 20th Century  

Science.gov (United States)

A drying trend over tropical Africa is one of the pronounced climatic changes in the 20th Century. The drying trend is observed not only in the northern part of tropical Africa (NAF) in boreal summer but also in the southern part of tropical Africa (SAF) in austral summer. Hoerling et al. [2006] pointed out that the African drying trend was directly attributable to changes in sea surface temperature (SST) of surrounding oceans. On the other hand, Paeth and Feichter [2006] reported that global warming due to greenhouse gases (GHGs) and increase in anthropogenic aerosols could affect the changes in precipitation in Africa. Here, we investigate impacts of anthropogenic forcings on the drying trends over the NAF and the SAF using the 20th Century simulations performed by a Coupled General Circulation Model, generally known as MIROC [Nozawa et al., 2005]. We looked into the relative contribution of individual anthropogenic forcing factors by analyzing several experiments forced with different combinations of external climate forcing factors. We also diagnosed physical mechanisms of the drying trend using an approximated moisture budget equation shown in Chou et al. [2009]. As a result, the impact of increased aerosols on precipitation was larger than that of global warming in the NAF. Global warming thermodynamically induced a moistening trend over the NAF in boreal summer, but it was cancelled out by a drying trend due to the dynamic effect of global warming. In contrast, the increase in anthropogenic aerosols thermodynamically induced a drying trend due to a tropospheric cooling and dynamically induced an additional drying trend due to an atmospheric local circulation change [Kawase et al., 2010]. On the other hand, global warming and increased black carbon (BC) aerosols controlled the drying trend over the SAF in austral summer. The descending wind anomaly, which caused the drying trend, over the SAF was induced by the ascending wind anomalies over surrounding oceans. The ascending wind anomaly over Indian Ocean was caused by warmed SST of Indian Ocean due to global warming, while that over Atlantic Ocean was caused by the lower-atmospheric heating by the increased BC aerosols. In addition, the increase in BC aerosols changed a surface radiation budget, which brought the additional drying trend over the SAF. References Chou, C., et al. (2009), Evaluating the "rich-get-richer" mechanism in tropical precipitation change under global warming, J. Climate, 22, 1982-2005. Hoerling, M., et al. (2006), Detection and attribution of twentieth-century northern and southern African rainfall change, J. Climate, 19, 3989-4008. Kawase, H., et al. (2010), Physical mechanism of long-term drying trend over tropical North Africa, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L09706, doi:10.1029/2010GL043038. Nozawa, T., et al. (2005), Detecting natural influence on surface air temperature change in the early twentieth century, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L20719, doi:10.1029/2005GL023540. Paeth H., and J. Feichter (2006), Greenhouse-gas versus aerosols forcing and African climate response, Climate Dyn., 26, 35-54.

Kawase, H.; Takemura, T.; Nozawa, T.

2010-12-01

143

The decline of winter monsoon velocity in the South China Sea through the 20th century: Evidence from the Sr/Ca records in corals  

Science.gov (United States)

A modern massive Porites coral was collected from the Longwan Bay (19??20???N, 110??39???E) on the east coast of the Hainan Island, China. The coral was sectioned vertical to the growth axis into discs of double density-bands representing annual growth. The samples were analyzed for the Sr/Ca ratio by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The history of winter sea-surface temperature (SST) is reconstructed using the Sr/Ca ratio in winter bands of corals. The winter SST at Xisha in the middle of the South China Sea (SCS) is weakly correlated with the instrument-measured winter monsoon velocity (WMV) with a correlation coefficient of 0.19. The winter SST data from corals at Longwan Bay, Hainan, in the northern SCS are moderately correlated with the WMV (r = 0.40). Interestingly we found that the difference of winter SSTs between the two sites (Xisha and Longwan Bay, Hainan) (the X-H index) is significantly negatively correlated with the WMV (r = - 0.73). This negative correlation may be related to the intrusion of the warm Kuroshio Current into the SCS through the Luzon Strait promoted by the strong northeastern monsoon winds in the winter. Using the relationship between our coralline data and observed WMV, the calculated winter monsoon velocity (WMVc) was obtained for 87??years. This data set in combination with the instrument-measured data between 1993 and 1998 generate a record of WMVc for a period of 93??years from 1906 to 1998. The WMVc in the 20th century shows significant interannual and decadal variability with a trend of persistent decline in the whole 20th century at the rate of decrease of - 0.02 (m/s)/a. The lowest wind velocity occurred during the last two decades of the 20th century. The WMVc has decreased significantly by about 30% from the early to the late of 20th century. The 20th century decline of winter monsoon velocity evidenced from the SCS coral records is consistent with the atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) simulations for monsoon response to increasing temperatures. In addition, an obvious decline shift of WMV around 1976 can be seen in both instrumental and proxy records and it coincides with many other Pacific records. This shift is likely to correspond to a Pacific-wide change in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation occurring at the same time. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Liu, Y.; Peng, Z.; Chen, T.; Wei, G.; Sun, W.; Sun, R.; He, J.; Liu, G.; Chou, C. -L.; Zartman, R. E.

2008-01-01

144

PHOTOGRAPHY AND MODERNIZATION OF THE PRESS IN BRAZILIAN CAPITAL: The First Fifty Years of the 20th Century  

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Full Text Available The process which created the conditions for the development ofmass media press in Brazil was consolidated in the first half of the 20th Century with the emergence of newspaper companies based on an industrial form of production, the modernization of the writing style and design, plus the use of photography as a newsy element. There was a strong investment in technology in order to modernize the nation and photography, as a technical image par excellence, started to portray the acceleration of the passage of time that was accentuated by the 1890’s. In the beginning of the 20th century a new technological trend occurred mediated by the photographic apparatus and diffused through the newspaper and illustrated magazines pages that were multiplying in the nation’s capital, Rio de Janeiro1. The press used photography and a series of technological artifacts to acquire the status of a modern entity and multiply the number of readers, changing its forms of production and its auto-referential discourse, starting to be more and more the icon of modernity. The technologies capable of giving a wider dimension to the concept of time and space were decisive in shaping the new symbolic world which emerged since the turn of the century. The world got closer and more visible, the perception of the “other” changed gradually and temporality took on a new dimension. This article traces a panorama of the use of photography by the main newspapers published in the capital of Brazil in the first half of the 20th century, seeking in photography the reflection of the modernizing process that Brazilian society desired and underwent.

Silvana Louzada

2009-12-01

145

Croatian Chemistry in the 20th Century. III. From the Establishment of the Republic of Croatia on June 25th, 1991 to the End of the Century  

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Full Text Available In this last part of our attempt to present briefly the history of Croatian chemistry in the 20th century, the development of chemistry in the Republic of Croatia, established as an independent state on June 25th, 1991 is outlined. The last 10 years of the 20th century are characterized first by defense of the country by arms until 1995, and then until the end of century, and after the constructive building of the foundations of Croatia. In these turbulent times, scientists could not be just bystanders. Thus, some went to defend the country by arms and others (perhaps older kept informing colleagues all around the globe about our defense of the homeland. This was the reason why scientific research in Croatia showed very limited results. This article briefly describes research in chemistry at the Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, the Rugjer Boškovi? Institute, Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agronomy and Faculty of Forestry. This article logically follows our previous two articles on the history of Croatian chemistry in 20th century: N. Trinajsti?, S. Paušek-Baždar, Croatian Chemistry in the 20th Century. I. From the turn of the Century to May 8th , 1945 (Kem. Ind. 56 (2007 403–416 and N. Trinajsti?, M. Kaštelan-Macan, S. Paušek-Baždar, H. Van?ik, Croatian Chemistry in the 20th Century. II. From the Colapse of the Independent State of Croatia to the Establishmernt of the Republic of Croatia, (Kem. Ind. 58 (2009 315–336. It is also related to our article on the history of Croatian chemistry in 19th century: S. Paušek-Baždar, N. Trinajsti?, Croatian Chemistry in the 19th Century (Kem. Ind. 55 (2006 333–339 and our survey of the Croatian chemical journals: N. Trinajsti?, N. Raos, S. Paušek-Baždar, D. Škare, Croatian Chemistry in 20th Century. IV. Croatian Chemical Journals (Kem. Ind. 57 (2008 447–448.

Trinajsti?, N:

2012-11-01

146

Identity in Transition: The Case of Polish Karaites in the First Half of the 20th Century  

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Full Text Available The article discusses the efforts of Karaite community elite to form a modern collective identity of Polish Karaites in the first half of the 20th century. The aim of this paper is to discuss the reasons why the need to transform the collective identity appeared and reconstruct the means and ways it was done. The special attention is paid to the communication among Karaite leaders and their ideas of Karaite origin, religion and language, which were considered to be the core elements of Karaite self-perception.

Dovile Troskovaite

2013-12-01

147

Simulated antarctic precipitation and surface mass balance of the end of the 20th and 21st centuries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this work is to assess potential future Antarctic surface mass balance changes, the underlying mechanisms, and the impact of these changes on global sea level. To this aim, this paper presents simulations of the Antarctic climate for the end of the 20th and 21st centuries. The simulations were carried out with a stretched-grid atmospheric general circulation model, allowing for high horizontal resolution (60 km) over Antarctica. It is found that the simulated present-day surface ma...

Krinner, Gerhard; Magand, O.; Simmonds, I.; Genthon, C.; Dufresne, Jean-louis

2007-01-01

148

The ‘Rediscovery’ of Scripture and its Impact on the Romanian Christian Context at the Beginning of the 20th Century  

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Full Text Available Scripture has always played a crucial role in the renewal of the churches throughout the history of Christianity and this was seen particularly well during the Reformation. This paper offers another example of the enduring power of the Scripture to change lives and renew communities. It looks at the impact of the ‘rediscovery’ of the Bible on the Romanian Christian context at the beginning of the 20th century, by presenting the life and influence of three key Orthodox priests, Dumitru Cornilescu, Dumitru Popescu and Iosif Trifa. Particularly, it explores the foundation, establishment and the theology of the Lord’s Army – a unique renewal movement within the Orthodox Churches.

Corneliu Constantineanu

2011-05-01

149

[The conceptual revolutions about nature as imposed by 20th century physics].  

Science.gov (United States)

A catalogue is offered of the thirteen conceptual--and observational--revolutions which took place in twentieth century Physics, those which should be considered the most revelant for their significance in the scientific and philosophical thought about Nature as established along that century. The are organized in the three areas where they were originated: Relativity, Quantum Physics and Cosmology. Several of these conceptual revolutions appeared in Physics explicitly, while the rest only happened to arise in a latent way. The ones and the others are remarked in this contribution with philosophical expressions and through the world horizon, a perspective which opens in a general manner each revolution to the whole of the scientific and philosophical of the past century. PMID:12197206

González de Posada, D Francisco

2002-01-01

150

On the long term change in the geomagnetic activity during the 20th century  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The analysis of the aa index series presented in this paper clearly shows that during the last century (1900 to 2000) the number of quiet days (Aa<20 nT) drastically diminished from a mean annual value greater than 270 days per year at the end of the nineteenth century to a mean value of 160 quiet days per year one hundred years later. This decrease is mainly due to the decrease of the number of very quiet days (Aa<13 nT). We show that the so-evidenced decrease in the number of quiet da...

Ouattara, F.; Amory-mazaudier, C.; Menvielle, M.; Simon, P.; -p Legrand, J.

2009-01-01

151

Post-fire succession and 20th century reduction in fire frequency on xeric southern Appalachian sites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We document post-fire succession on xeric sites in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA and assess effects of 20th century reduction in fire frequency on vegetation structure and composition. Successional studies over 18 yr on permanent plots that had burned in 1976-1977 indicate that tree mortality and vegetation response varied with fuel load and fire season. In the first three years after fire, hardwood sprouts dominated tree regeneration. On sites where summer and autumn fires reduced litter depth to less than 1 cm, densities of shade-intolerant Pinus seedlings increased steadily over this period. 4 to 8 yr after fire, large numbers of newly established seedlings and sprouts had grown to 1 - 10 cm DBH. By year 18 growth of these saplings led to canopy closure on most sites. Herbaceous cover and richness peaked in the first decade after fire, then declined. On similar sites that had not burned in more than 50 yr, regeneration of shade-intolerant Pinus spp. and mean cover and richness of herbs were considerably lower than those observed on recently burned plots. Reconstructions of landscape conditions based on observed post-fire succession and 20th century changes in fire regime suggest that reductions in fire frequency circa 1940 led to substantial changes in forest structure and decreases in cover and richness of herbaceous species.

Harrod, J.C.; White, P.S. [Univ. of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC (United States). Dept. of Biology; Harmon, M.E. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. of Forest Science

2000-08-01

152

A review of the History of Spine Surgery in Greece until the Middle of the 20th Century  

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Full Text Available Spine Surgery began its evolution in the beginning of the 19th century in order to reach nowadays the point of being considered an important subspecialty of Neurosurgery and Orthopaedics. The purpose of this historical review is the search and evaluation of the progress in spine surgery until the middle of the 20th century. This review concerns the inauguration and evolution of this field in Greece. Special references are made to the first achievements of this field, to the pioneers physicians and surgeons (general surgeons, orthopaedic surgeons and neurosurgeons who inaugurated this subspecialty and to clinical and scientific work of that era. Eventually, the progress of medicine and technology who led to the first achievements of this subspecialty are shown and also the difficulties (both social and scientific that the pioneers of this field faced are demonstrated. In Greece, with small exceptions, the new techniques emerged with a certain delay.

Konstantinos Markatos

2014-05-01

153

[A pragmatic alliance. Jewisch-Lithuanian political cooperation at the beginning of the 20th century. Hrsg. von Vladas Sirutavi?ius, Darius Stali?nas] / Karsten Brüggemann  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Arvustus: A pragmatic alliance. Jewisch-Lithuanian political cooperation at the beginning of the 20th century. Hrsg. von Vladas Sirutavi?ius und Darius Stali?nas. Verlag CEU Press. Budapest und New York, 2011

Brüggemann, Karsten, 1965-

2013-01-01

154

A obra de Euclides da Cunha e os debates sobre mestiçagem no Brasil no início do século xx: Os sertões e a medicina- antropologia do Museu Nacional The work of Euclides da Cunha and debates on racial admixture in Brazil in the early 20th century: Os sertões and the field of medicine- anthropology at the Museu Nacional  

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Full Text Available Este trabalho aborda certas interfaces entre a obra de Euclides da Cunha, e Os sertões em particular, e a medicina-antropologia no Brasil no início do século XX. Aponta-se que à obra euclidiana podem ser vinculadas duas vertentes médico-antropológicas que construíram explicações divergentes acerca das conseqüências da composição racial brasileira, em especial quanto à viabilidade de uma nação mestiça. Uma primeira, cujo expoente foi Raimundo Nina Rodrigues, esteve alinhada com uma perspectiva mais próxima de um fatalismo racial. Uma outra, representada por Edgard Roquette-Pinto, ligado ao Museu Nacional, argumentava que os mestiços não seriam orgânica ou racialmente inviáveis. No texto é analisada sobretudo a interpretação que a medicina-antropologia do Museu Nacional realizou da obra euclidiana.The article addresses certain interfaces between Euclides da Cunha’s work - particularly Os sertões - and medicine-anthropology in Brazil in the early 20th century. Cunha’s work can be tied in with two lines of thought in the field of medicine-anthropology, each of which constructed its own view of the consequences of Brazil’s racial make-up, especially regarding the viability of a mestizo nation. One of these lines, supported by Raimundo Nina Rodrigues, among others, leaned more towards racial fatalism. The other, represented by Edgard Roquette-Pinto of the Museu Nacional, argued that mestizos were neither organically nor racially inviable. The text is concerned above all with the interpretation of Cunha’s work proposed by those in the field of medicine- anthropology at the Museu Nacional.

Ricardo Ventura Santos

1998-07-01

155

Franco-Serbian relations in the 19th and 20th centuries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper the authors deals with the evolution of the Franco-Serbian relations in European, regional and local contexts during the last two centuries. Two nations are characterized by material disproportion, geographic distance and cultural differences. Hence, the relations have been observed in their complexity and variations of intensity. Special attention is paid to versatile perceptions of the two nations, which have been influenced by the combination of political, ideological, econom...

Sretenovi? Stanislav

2009-01-01

156

Hope and rust : Reinterpreting the industrial place in the late 20th century  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Industrial society has changed thoroughly during the last half a century. In many Western cities and towns, new patterns of production and consumption entailed that centrally located industrial areas became redundant. The once lively workplace and urban core became silent and abandoned, gradually falling into decay. In recent decades, the former industrial built environment was reinterpreted and reused as apartments, offices, heritage sites, stages for artistic installations and destinations ...

Storm, Anna

2008-01-01

157

Evolution of National Nobel Prize Shares in the 20th Century  

CERN Multimedia

We analyze the evolution of cumulative national shares of Nobel Prizes since 1901, properly taking into account that most prizes were divided among several laureates. We rank by citizenship at the moment of the award, and by country of birth. Surprisingly, graphs of this type have not been published before, even though they powerfully illustrate the century's migration patterns (brain drains and gains) in the sciences and other fields.

Schmidhuber, Juergen

2010-01-01

158

Hans Bethe and Physics in/of the 20th Century  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

I will present some facets of Hans Bethe’s life to illustrate how I have used biography to narrate certain aspects of the history of twentieth century physics. I will focus on post World War II quantum field theory, on the relation between solid state/condensed matter physics and high energy physics, and make some observations regarding certain “top down” views in solid state physics in postmodernity.

Schweber, Silvan [Brandeis University

2012-12-12

159

Argentina, Brazil and the world in the face of the 20th century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Social Sciences | Language: English Abstract in english This paper analyses the international scene in the XX1st century by taking into account three major issues: first, the new world order; second, the relationship between technological advances and the humanist conception; third, the search for a solution for the increasing differences between affluen [...] t and marginal societies, and, within them, extremely rich and extremely poor sectors. In this context, the opportunities Argentinaand Brazilhave within Mercosur and the South American Community of Nations are also highlighted.

Helio, Jaguaribe; Andrea, Assenti del Rio.

160

Portrayal of 20th-century European totalitarian regimes in Spanish secondary education textbooks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper intends to give a first impression of how XX-century European totalitarian regimes have been seen and presented by analysing a selection of Spanish History textbooks used in secondary education (ESO). Nowadays, both in our country and in the rest of Europe, a study of this type of manuals demands a reference to the debates which, in the last few decades, have focused on the didactic rethinking of the teaching of History. And, in the case of Spain, this issue has b...

Naval, C.; Pavo?n-benito, J.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Estimation of the Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance during 20th and 21st centuries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Results from a regional climate simulation (1970–2006) over the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) reveals that more than 97% of the interannual variability of the modelled Surface Mass Balance (SMB) can be explained by the GrIS summer temperature anomaly and the GrIS annual precipitation anomaly. This multiple regression is then used to empirically estimate the GrIS SMB since 1900 from climatological time series. The projected SMB changes in the 21st century are investigated with the set of si...

Fettweis, X.; Hanna, E.; Galle?e, H.; Huybrechts, P.; Erpicum, M.

2008-01-01

162

20th century global warming favoured enhanced intensity of extreme torrential events - a proglacial sediment record in NW French Alps  

Science.gov (United States)

During the past few yeas, considerable climate changes have been observed at high elevation areas of the European Alps. Additionally, one of the main results of high resolution climate modelling is a trend towards both dryer summer conditions and enhanced risk of extreme floods. This should have particularly dramatic consequences in alpine areas. Indeed, the development of tourism during the 20th century in the Alps and the rise of population density resulted in an increasing potential risk from natural hazards. Among them, torrential floods are some of the most common and widespread ones. They cause both loss of human life and high damage to property and infrastructure and are particularly destructive in mountain areas. For example, in August 2005, an unusual meteorological situation resulted in a series of catastrophic floods in most regions of the European Alps and particularly in the catchment of the Vorz river, downstream of proglacial Lac Blanc (2170 m a.s.l., Belledonne range, NW French Alps). We studied a series of sediment cores from Lac Blanc, spanning the last ca. 250 years. Through a coupled high resolution sedimentological and geochemical approach we documented about 100 flood deposits and measured their thickness. The age of each deposit has been assessed by radiochemical dating and the recognition of historically-known events - major earthquakes and historical atmospheric lead deposition. Furthermore, a detailed study of regional and local historical archives was conducted allowing us to relate the recognised flood deposits to the ones reported by local population. We hence obtained a flood calendar from 1740 to 2005 with the respective intensity of each event assessed by the thickness of the associated deposit. The flood frequency shows an important and punctual increase at the early end of the Little Ice Age (1830 - 1860) as a response to the beginning warming period, which was emphasized by the synchronous local glacier retreat. On the other hand there is no major flood event during the following period (1860 - 1900) characterized by the retreat of the large alpine glaciers. This implies glacial activity modifies the climate-sediment transfer relationship in alpine areas. Our main result is the dramatic rise of flood deposits thickness over the last decades. Among the 100 flood-triggered layers deposited over the last 250 years, the two thickest ones occurred in 1987 and 2005 whereas the flood frequency is among the lowest. The 2005 deposit is two times thicker than any previously reported one. An enhanced intensity of recent extreme torrential events in the present-day context of global climate change seems likely.

Wilhelm, B.; Arnaud, F.; Legaz, A.; Allignol, F.; Enters, D.; Revillon, S.

2009-04-01

163

Estimation of the Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance during 20th and 21st centuries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Results from a regional climate simulation (1970–2006 over the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS reveals that more than 97% of the interannual variability of the modelled Surface Mass Balance (SMB can be explained by the GrIS summer temperature anomaly and the GrIS annual precipitation anomaly. This multiple regression is then used to empirically estimate the GrIS SMB since 1900 from climatological time series. The projected SMB changes in the 21st century are investigated with the set of simulations performed with atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs of the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC AR4. These estimates show that the high surface mass loss rates of recent years are not unprecedented in the GrIS history of the last hundred years. The minimum SMB rate seems to have occurred earlier in the 1930s. The AOGCMs project that the SMB rate of the 1930s would be common at the end of 2100. The temperature would be higher than in the 1930s but the increase of accumulation in the 21st century would partly offset the acceleration of surface melt due to the temperature increase. However, these assumptions are based on an empirical multiple regression only validated for recent/current climatic conditions, and the accuracy and time homogeneity of the data sets and AOGCM results used in these estimations constitute a large uncertainty.

X. Fettweis

2008-04-01

164

Low energy electron beam processing in Europe at the end of the 20th century  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Overview of low energy electron beam processing in Europe was presented. The presentation contained the following topics: the early installations, years of growth, stagnation, status 1999 and the future of this technology

1999-08-24

165

An evolution of drug development and clinical pharmacology during the 20th century.  

Science.gov (United States)

The current state of clinical pharmacology and drug development did not just happen. Clinical pharmacology and the drug development process were born, evolved, and have come to the fore during the past 100 years. The past century has been one of accelerating progress in science and medicine. The progress has not been a straight line but rather more like a sidewinder moving across the desert. Drug development has moved from small experiments with concoctions, extracts, and potions along with the manufacturing and promotion of the purported remedies to processes that exploited unknowing patients to a process that now requires concept generation, discovery, research, planning, and development with many checks and balances for the protection of human subjects. The factors that contributed to this progression from inappropriate use of potions, concoctions, and snake oil to the highly regulated drug development process of today is described in some detail. PMID:10975064

Heath, G; Colburn, W A

2000-09-01

166

Etnographic Characteristics of Serbian Orthodox Peasants at the Beginning of the 20th Century from Vrlica Region, North Dalmatia, Croatia  

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Full Text Available There is a very small number of Serbs in Dalmatia today. The wars which took place in this area influenced their emigration, mostly to Serbia. They brought along their customs and culture which are slowly being forgotten by their descendants under the influence of modern values. This paper should provide the reader with a glimpse of the most significant ethnological characteristics of Orthodox peasants from the area of Vrlika in North Dalmatia at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century which were passed on to their descendants. The greatest value of this paper lies in the fact that the major source of literature is oral tradition passed on by people born in the rough Dalmatian region

Rastislav Stojsavljevi?

2013-01-01

167

Connections: can the 20th century coronary heart disease epidemic reveal something about the 1918 influenza lethality?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This essay proposes that the ecologic association shown between the 20th century coronary heart disease epidemic and the 1918 influenza pandemic could shed light on the mechanism associated with the high lethality of the latter. It suggests that an autoimmune interference at the apoB-LDL interface c [...] ould explain both hypercholesterolemia and inflammation (through interference with the cellular metabolism of arachidonic acid). Autoimmune inflammation, then, would explain the 1950s-60s acute coronary events (coronary thrombosis upon influenza re-infection) and the respiratory failure seen among young adults in 1918. This hypothesis also argues that the lethality of the 1918 pandemic may have not depended so much on the 1918 virus as on an immune vulnerability to it, possibly resulting from an earlier priming of cohorts born around 1890 by the 1890 influenza pandemic virus.

Azambuja, M.I.

168

Using atmospheric CO2 data to assess a simplified carbon-climate simulation for the 20th century  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The CSIRO biosphere model has been coupled to an atmosphere model and a simulation has been performed for the 20th century. Both biosphere and atmosphere are forced with global CO2 concentration and the atmosphere is also forced with prescribed sea surface temperatures. The simulation follows the C4MIP Phase 1 protocol. We assess the model simulation using atmospheric CO2 data. Mauna Loa growth rate is well simulated from 1980 but overestimated before that time. The interannual variations in growth rate are reasonably reproduced. Seasonal cycles are underestimated in northern mid-latitudes and are out of phase in the southern hemisphere. The north-south gradient of annual mean CO2 is substantially overestimated due to a northern hemisphere net biosphere source and a southern tropical sink. Diurnal cycles at three northern hemisphere locations are larger than observed in many months, most likely due to larger respiration than observed

2006-11-01

169

Geologic and hydrologic hazards in glacierized basins in North America resulting from 19th and 20th century global warming  

Science.gov (United States)

Alpine glacier retreat resulting from global warming since the close of the Little Ice Age in the 19th and 20th centuries has increased the risk and incidence of some geologic and hydrologic hazards in mountainous alpine regions of North America. Abundant loose debris in recently deglaciated areas at the toe of alpine glaciers provides a ready source of sediment during rainstorms or outburst floods. This sediment can cause debris flows and sedimentation problems in downstream areas. Moraines built during the Little Ice Age can trap and store large volumes of water. These natural dams have no controlled outlets and can fail without warning. Many glacier-dammed lakes have grown in size, while ice dams have shrunk, resulting in greater risks of ice-dam failure. The retreat and thinning of glacier ice has left oversteepened, unstable valley walls and has led to increased incidence of rock and debris avalanches. ?? 1993 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

O'Connor, J. E.; Costa, J. E.

1993-01-01

170

The humanising power of medical history: responses to biomedicine in the 20th century United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most American historians of medicine today would be very hesitant about any claim that medical history humanises doctors, medical students or the larger health care enterprise. Yet, the idea that history can and ought to serve modern medicine as a humanising force has been a persistent refrain in American medicine. This essay explores the emergence of this idea from the end of the 19th century, precisely the moment when modern biomedicine became ascendant. At the same institutions where the new version of scientific medicine was most energetically embraced, some professional leaders warned that the allegiance to science driving the profession's technical and cultural success was endangering humanistic values fundamental to professionalism and the art of medicine. They saw in history a means for rehumanising modern medicine and countering the risk of cultural crisis. While some iteration of this vision of history was remarkably durable, the meanings attached to 'humanism' were both multiple and changing, and the role envisioned for history in a humanistic intervention was transformed. Starting in the 1960s as part of a larger cultural critique of the putative 'dehumanisation' of the medical establishment, some advocates promoted medical history as a tool to help fashion a new kind of humanist physician and to confront social inequities in the health care system. What has persisted across time is the way that the idea of history as a humanising force has almost always functioned as a discourse of deficiency-a response to perceived shortcomings of biomedicine, medical institutions and medical professionalism. PMID:21807650

Warner, John Harley

2011-12-01

171

Effects of the solar spectral irradiance changes during the first half of 20th century on chemistry and climate  

Science.gov (United States)

The attribution of climate and chemistry changes in the past requires understanding of the role of different natural forcing such as volcanic eruptions and solar irradiance. The first half of the 20th century is characterized by an increase in solar activity (and presumably solar irradi-ance) reaching the maximum in the year 1957. Therefore, to elucidate the contribution of the solar irradiance to the climate change we have carried out two 60-year long transient ensemble simulations with the chemistry-climate model SOCOL spanning the first half of 20th century, driven by the prescribed time evolution of the sea surface temperature, sea ice distribution, volcanic aerosols, greenhouse gases, ozone depleting substances, sources of CO and NOx, land use, and quasi-biennial oscillation. For the first run we have applied constant solar spectral irradiance, while the second run has been driven by time dependent solar spectral irradiance. The simulated time series of different atmospheric quantities have been analyzed to estimate the climate and chemistry response to the changes of solar spectral irradiance. The analyses showed statistically significant solar signal from the mesosphere down to the surface. The max-imum ozone response ( 4%) is found in the tropical middle stratosphere, while the temperature response maximizes in the tropical stratopause reaching 1.2K. The contribution of the solar spectral irradiance variability to the global mean surface temperature changes is rather small; however, the downward propagation of the solar signal leads to noticeable land surface temper-ature response over some geographical locations. Its magnitude can reach 0.6 K over Siberia, Scandinavia, Central USA and Canada. The cooling due to solar irradiance is observed over Northern Canada, China and Northern Africa.

Rozanov, Eugene; Dorf, Davos; Arfeuille, F.; Brünnimann, S.; Calisto, M.; Egorova, T.; Fischer, A.; Heckendorn, P.; Luo, B.-P.; Peter, T.; Rozanov, E.; Shapiro, A. V.; Schmutz, W.; Schraner, M.; Stenke, A.; Zubov, V.

172

TOPOGRAPHIC MAPPING SUPPORT IN THE SOUTH AFRICAN MILITARY DURING THE 20TH CENTURY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Maps provide a base for all intelligence operations and strategic and tactical decisions, supporting the planning and execution of all battlefield functions. The development of military mapping support in South Africa, related closely to the development of aerial photography, may be divided into five, sometimes overlapping, phases. The first of these phases spans the years from 1840 to 1930 and is characterised by the gradual recognition that aerial photographs could be used for mapping. Two major conflicts – the Anglo Boer War and the First World War – marked this development. The Second World War is the key event of the second phase (1930–1950, which witnessed a rapid expansion of aerial photo coverage. The third phase (1945–1960 saw the overemphasising of interpretation techniques rather than the analytical use of results, which was rectified during the fourth phase (1955–1962 when the focus shifted to the applied uses of air-photo interpretation. During the third and fourth phases the topographic mapping support ability of the South African military was expanded. The fifth phase (since 1960 commenced with the expansion of data gathering and analysis into portions of the electromagnetic spectrum beyond the small visible sector. During this period the protracted nature of the conflict on the northern border of Namibia (formerly South West Africa and the war in Angola focused attention on the South African military mapping system. The National Service system allowed for the expansion of mapping units and the thorough mapping of large areas adjoining our borders. Through all five phases, mapping in the South African military has advanced from hand-produced maps to the utilisation of complex equipment that satisfies the sophisticated mapping needs of a modern defence force.This paper presents a brief history of both mapping support and the mapping units that have served within the South African theatre during the twentieth century. In doing so, the operational importance of topographic maps is also highlighted.

Hennie Smit

2012-02-01

173

Family and Society in North-Western Transylvania (2nd Half of the 19th Century – Beginning of the 20th Century): General framework: concepts, methods and approaches  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the latter half of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, in north-western Transylvania there was a traditional rural society, except for some urban centres and their neighbouring areas (the urban character is also proved by the analysis of the marital behaviour). The village was a world of constraints and standards to which all individuals belonging to the group had to conform. Social deviances of any nature were considered with scepticism, while moral and religious perce...

Brie, Mircea

2008-01-01

174

Climateâ?induced response of commercially important flatfish species during the 20th century  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The consequence of elevated ocean temperatures on commercial fish stocks is addressed using time series of commercial landings (1906â??2004) and juvenile survey catch data (1904â??2006) collected around Denmark. We analyze (i) whether warmâ?water sole (Solea solea) has increased relative to Boreal plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) and (ii) whether two related warmâ?water species (turbot, Psetta maxima and brill, Scophthalmus rhombus) show similar responses to increasing temperature or, alternatively, whether turbot (which has a broader juvenile diet) has been favored. Since the early 1980s, both sole and turbot have constituted an increasing part of the commercial landings and survey catches, as compared with plaice and brill, respectively. These changes in species composition were linked to sea surface temperatures, Northern Hemisphere temperature anomalies (NHA) and the North Atlantic Oscillation. NHA was closely related and explained 43% of the observed variation in sole survey catches relative to the plaice catches and almost 38% of the observed variation in the sole landings relative to the plaice landings. For the less common species, turbot and brill, none of the global change indicators explained more than 15% of the variation, although all showed a positive relationship. Survey catch per unit effort increased significantly for both sole and turbot around the early 1980s, whereas catch per unit effort for plaice and brill remained constant. The results indicate that the abundance of warmâ?water species is likely to increase with increasing temperature but also that species with similar life histories might react differently according to degree of specialization.

Sparrevohn, Claus Reedtz; Lindegren, Martin

2013-01-01

175

Observational and model evidence of global emergence of permanent, unprecedented heat in the 20(th) and 21(st) centuries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Given the severe impacts of extreme heat on natural and human systems, we attempt to quantify the likelihood that rising greenhouse gas concentrations will result in a new, permanent heat regime in which the coolest warm-season of the 21(st) century is hotter than the hottest warm-season of the late 20(th) century. Our analyses of global climate model experiments and observational data reveal that many areas of the globe are likely to permanently move into such a climate space over the next four decades, should greenhouse gas concentrations continue to increase. In contrast to the common perception that high-latitude areas face the most accelerated response to global warming, our results demonstrate that in fact tropical areas exhibit the most immediate and robust emergence of unprecedented heat, with many tropical areas exhibiting a 50% likelihood of permanently moving into a novel seasonal heat regime in the next two decades. We also find that global climate models are able to capture the observed intensification of seasonal hot conditions, increasing confidence in the projection of imminent, permanent emergence of unprecedented heat. PMID:22707810

Diffenbaugh, Noah S; Scherer, Martin

2011-08-01

176

From Natural Science to Philosophical Cosmology. On Function and Transformation of Metaphysics in 20th and 21st Century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since the 19th century many philosophers have argued, that metaphysics will have no more function at all. But the concept of metaphysics has many aspects. It must not only be understood as a system, based on everlasting principles. In the following article it is used in the sense of a philosophical cosmology. The startingpoint are the sciences, which exclude by their method the observer in his subjectivity; their view of the world must remain incomplete. Philosophical cosmology therefore has the task to complete the scientific interpretation of reality by other perspectives and to connect them with one another. The unity of reality as well as that of human experience forbids a side by side of different “Sprachspiele”. A philosophical cosmology therefore develops an interpretation of reality which embraces the scientific view of the world as well as the observer in his subjectivity and those relations, which are determined by it. Already Leibniz has tried to integrate both perspectives; in the 20th century, under new conditions, especially Whitehead has developed a philosopical cosmology. For a modern concept of metaphysics it is characteristic, that it is not a system, but a permanent process, in which all relevant experiences of man in a certain epoch are synthesized.

Regine Kather

2004-06-01

177

Using the PDSI to Estimate Summer Stream Discharge in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem: Implications for 20th Century Riparian Habitat Variability  

Science.gov (United States)

Small streams at lower elevations in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) create riparian habitat in an otherwise dry environment. Riparian area can be expanded by beaver damming, which increases channel wetted area and local water tables, and allows fine-grained organic-rich sediment to accumulate. However, increases can be countered by severe drought. The loss of riparian area is potentially greatest in small basins dependent on snowpack for base flow, where prolonged severe drought may reduce base flow to zero. Discharge records are often lacking for basins ungauged stream reaches, stepwise multiple regression analyses were performed using measured stream flows and independent basin characteristics. Basin area and mean elevation are significant predictors of discharge (? < 0.05). The 1930s Dust Bowl drought was one of the most severe droughts in the past 300 years; from 1934-1935, average August discharge was reduced by 25-40% with respect to the anomalously wet early 20th century pluvial. Discharge estimates using reconstructed PDSI values for the 2- and 10-year MCA droughts (PDSI = -6 and -5, respectively) indicate that 60% of stream reaches where beaver were active in the late Holocene became ephemeral in these droughts. This analysis is supported by observations during the extreme drought of the 2000s, when ephemeral flow occurred along streams with known historical beaver activity in northern Yellowstone. Model predictions indicate that by 2030-2039 the GYE will endure persistent severe drought (mean annual PDSI = -4 to -6) (Dai, 2011), thus riparian area is likely to decrease in the coming decades. The early 20th century has been suggested to be an ideal reference for riparian habitat restoration despite anomalously wet conditions unlike current or likely future climate. Future efforts to restore riparian habitat by reducing elk browsing and increasing beaver damming will be hampered by reduced flows on small streams.

Persico, L.; Meyer, G. A.

2013-12-01

178

100 years of change: examining agricultural trends, habitat change and stakeholder perceptions through the 20th century  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The 20th century has witnessed substantial increases in the intensity of agricultural land management, much of which has been driven by policies to enhance food security and production. The knock-on effects in agriculturally dominated landscapes include habitat degradation and biodiversity loss. We examine long-term patterns of agricultural and habitat change at a regional scale, using the Peak District of northern England as a case study. As stakeholders are central to the implementation of successful land-use policy, we also assess their perceptions of historical changes. In the period 1900 to 2000, there was a fivefold rise in sheep density, along with higher cattle density. We found a reduction in the number of farms, evidence of a shift in land ownership patterns, and increased agricultural specialization, including the virtual disappearance of upland arable production. Despite previous studies showing a substantial loss in heather cover, we found that there had been no overall change in the proportion of land covered by dwarf shrub moor. Nonetheless, turnover rates were high, with only 55% of sampled sites maintaining dwarf shrub moor coverage between 1913 and 2000. Stakeholders identified many of the changes revealed by the historical data, such as increased sheep numbers, fewer farms and greater specialization. However, other land-use changes were not properly described. For instance, although there had been no overall change in the proportion of dwarf shrub moor and the size of the rural labour force had not fallen, stakeholders reported a decline in both. Spatial heterogeneity of the changes, shifting baselines and problems with historical data sources might account for some of these discrepancies. Synthesis and applications. A marked increase in sheep numbers, combined with general agricultural intensification, have been the dominant land-use processes in the Peak District during the 20th century. Stakeholders only correctly perceived some land-use changes. Policy and management objectives should therefore be based primarily on actual historical evidence. However, understanding stakeholder perceptions and how they differ from, or agree with, the available evidence will contribute to the successful uptake of land management policies and partly determine the costs of policy implementation.

Dallimer, Martin; Tinch, Dugald

2009-01-01

179

Enhanced 20th century heat transfer to the Arctic simulated in the context of climate variations over the last millennium  

Science.gov (United States)

Paleoceanographic reconstructions have revealed recent changes in oceanic heat transport into the Arctic that are unprecedented over the past 2000 to 3000 years [Spielhagen et al., 2011; Dylmer et al., 2013]. The 20th century increase in heat transport is related to intensified Atlantic Water advection and manifests itself in terms of changes in foraminiferal assemblages and geochemical tracers. Here we present results from an ensemble of three simulations covering the last millennium (850 - 2005 CE). The experiments were conducted in the framework of PMIP3/CMIP5 using the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model for paleo applications (MPI-ESM-P). The model features the same grids (ECHAM6: T63/L47, MPIOM:1.5°/L40) as the standard CMIP5 model (MPI-ESM-LR [Jungclaus et al., 2013]) but does not include dynamic vegetation. External forcings are applied following the PMIP3 protocol [Schmidt et al., 2011]. Combining forced simulations over pre-industrial times with those over the last 150 years enables us to put changes observed in the modern period in context with a period where only natural forcing agents were active. Additional long unperturbed control simulations serve to discriminate between forced and internally-generated variability. For the northward oceanic heat transports in the northern North Atlantic and in the Nordic Seas all simulations show pronounced multi-centennial variations and an unprecedented increase in the 20th century. The changes in heat transport can be traced back to changes in the gyre circulation in the subpolar North Atlantic with some local amplification. We investigate the reason for the changes in ocean circulation and atmospheric variability modes and discuss the implications for the role of ocean lateral transports for Arctic amplification of global climate change. Dylmer, C.V. et al. [2013], Northward advection of Atlantic water in the eastern Nordic Seas over the last 3000yr., Clim. Past., 9, 1505-1518. Jungclaus, J.H. et al. [2013], Characteristics of the ocean simulations in MPIOM, the ocean component of the MPI earth system model, J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., 5, 422-446. Schmidt, G.A. et al. [2011], Climate forcing reconstructions fort he use in PMIP simulations of the last millennium, Geosci. Model. Dev., 4, 33-45. Spielhagen, R.F., et al. [2011], Enhanced modern heat transfer to the Arctic by warm Atlantic Water. Science, 331, 450-453.

Jungclaus, J. H.; Zanchettin, D.; Chamarro, E. M.; Lohmann, K.

2013-12-01

180

Siglo XX. Cien años de miseria y esplendor / The 20th Century: 100 years of misfortune and splendor  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El siglo XX ha sido uno de los períodos de la Historia más intensos y Convulsivos que le ha tocado vivir a la humanidad. Siglo de paradojas y de contrastes, se inició con optimismo, fue testigo del apocalipsis de dos guerras mundiales y terminó con un progreso científico inimaginable que nos condujo [...] a una nueva civilización, que aún no podemos intuir. En él ocurrieron grandes acontecimientos que moldearon nuestro tiempo y proyectaron sus resultados hacia un futuro inmediato. Unos fueron providenciales para entender la vida del hombre, combatir las enfermedades y prolongar la vida y otros de innegable importancia social para la humanidad. Unos saberes se fundamentaron en otros. La filosofía se adentro en la matemática, como la ciencia en la filosofía, mientras la política y la economía ejercían tan decisivo influjo en nuestro modo de sentir y de vivir, que la cultura y la sociedad se conmovieron hasta sus cimientos. En esa centuria, se gestó además, la mayor revolución tecnológica de todos los tiempos, tan trascendental como inimaginable, que con el alunizaje pusieron al hombre en el camino hacia las estrellas y con ella se creó la sociedad de la información, cuyo máximo símbolo: internet, emergió como un nuevo demiurgo. Sin embargo ha sido el siglo XX hasta ahora, con todo su infortunio y esplendor, paradojas y contrastes, creación y destrucción, el más trascendental de toda la historia y lega al futuro un horizonte promisor en la búsqueda de un renovado significado de vida y un anhelo de convivencia pacífica para toda la humanidad. Abstract in english The 20th century has been one of the most intense and convulsive periods in the History of humanity. A century of paradoxes and contrasts, it began with optimism, it witnessed the apocalypse of two world wars, and finished with unimaginable scientific progress that gave us a new civilization that we [...] cannot yet grasp. In this century, significant events happened that shaped our time and projected their results toward an immediate future. Some of these were providential in understanding man 's life, fighting against illnesses and prolonging life, and others were of undeniable social importance for humanity. Some knowledge was based on the work of others. Philosophy was embedded in mathematics, as was science in philosophy, while politics and the economy exercised so decisive an influence in our way of feeling and living that culture and society were affected to the core. Within that century the biggest technological revolution of all the time was also created, as transcendent as it was unimaginable, which put mankind on the road to the stars with the moon landing and in the process created the information society whose signature symbol, the internet, emerged as a new demiurge. However, the 20th century, with all its misfortune and splendor, paradoxes and contrasts, creation and destruction, was the most transcendent in the whole of history and it bequeaths to the future a promising horizon in the search for a renovated meaning of life and a yearning for peaceful coexistence for the whole humanity.

Eliéxer, Urdaneta-Carruyo.

 
 
 
 
181

Portuguese science scholars visiting Europe in the Beginning of 20th Century Engaging in the plans of Junta de Educação Nacional [Portuguese Board of Education  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Portugal, since the end of the eighteen century, science professors at superior schools made scientific voyages through Europe. In 19th century, the country possessed two Polytechnic Schools, at Lisbon and Oporto, and one University in Coimbra, already centenary (1290). In the firsts decades of 20th century the Portuguese Governments tried to implement reforms at the superior education. In 1907 it ordered the establishment of grants to subsidize visits abroad, hoping to contribute to the d...

2011-01-01

182

La Historia del Derecho y la Historiografía jurídica alemana del siglo XX The History of Law and the German Juridical Historiography in the 20th Century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La escuela histórico-jurídica alemana del siglo XX ha contribuido de un modo significativo en la ampliación del objeto de estudio al incorporar en las investigaciones histórico-jurídicas temas específicos del Derecho público. Desde esta perspectiva la escuela histórica jurídica alemana es parte de la revolución científica del siglo XX.The German history-law school in the 20th century has contributed in a significant way to broaden the subject matter when it incorporated specific topics regarding Public Law in the historical-juridical research. From this perspective, the German history and law school is part of the scientific revolution of the 20th century.

Patricio Hernán Carvajal Aravena

2010-01-01

183

A brief history of the changing occupations and demographics of coleopterists from the 18th through the 20th century.  

Science.gov (United States)

Systematic entomology flourished as a branch of Natural History from the 1750s to the end of the nineteenth century. During this interval, the "era of Heroic Entomology," the majority of workers in the field were dedicated amateurs. This article traces the demographic and occupational shifts in entomology through this 150-year interval and into the early twentieth century. The survey is based on entomologists who studied beetles (Coleoptera), and who named sufficient numbers of species to have their own names abbreviated by subsequent taxonomists. In the eighteenth century, 27 entomologists achieved this level of prominence, of whom 37% were academics, 19% were doctors, 11% had private incomes, 19% were clergymen, and 8% were government officials. Many of those with private incomes were members of the European aristocracy, and all but one were European men. The nineteenth century list included 192 entomologists, of whom 17% were academics, 16% were museum curators, 2% were school teachers, 15% were doctors, 6% were military men, 7% were merchants, 2% were government entomologists, 6% had private incomes, 5% were clergymen, 5% were government officials, and 4% were lawyers. The demographics of entomology shifted dramatically in the nineteenth century. Whereas many of the noteworthy entomologists of the eighteenth century were German, Swedish, or French, in the nineteenth century, many more European countries are represented, and almost one-fifth of the noteworthy entomologists were from the United States. The nineteenth century list, like the eighteenth century list, contains no women. By the twentieth century, 63% of 178 noteworthy systematic entomologists were paid professionals, teaching entomology courses in universities, or studying insect taxonomy in museums and government-sponsored laboratories. Only one person on the twentieth century list had a private income, but women (ten individuals) were included on the list for the first time. PMID:23928824

Elias, Scott A

2014-01-01

184

Sediment accumulation in San Leandro Bay, Alameda County, California, during the 20th century - A preliminary report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Major changes made in the configuration of San Leandro Bay, Alameda County, California, during the 20th century have caused rapid sedimentation within parts of the Bay. Comparison of bathymetric surveys indicates that sedimentation in the vicinity of the San Leandro Bay channel averaged 0.7 cm/annum between 1856 and 1984. Lead-210 data collected at four shallow water sites east of the San Leandro Bay channel indicated that sedimentation rates have averaged between 0.06 and 0.28 cm/annum. Because bioturbation of bottom sediments cannot be discounted, better definition of this range in sedimentation rates would require measuring the activity of lead-210 on incoming sediments. In addition to sediment deposited in the vicinity of the San Leandro Bay channel and open, shallow areas to the east, 850,740 cu m of sediment was deposited between 1948 and 1983 in an area dredged at the mouth of San Leandro Creek. All available data indicate that between 1,213,000 and 1,364,000 cu m of sediment was deposited in San Leandro Bay between 1948 and 1983. Sediment yield data from an adjacent drainage basin, when combined with inventories of lead-210 and cesium-137, indicate that most of the sediment deposited in San Leandro Bay is coming from resuspension of bottom sediments or from erosion of marshes or shorelines of San Leandro or San Francisco Bay. 31 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

185

Key role of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation in 20th century drought and wet periods over the Great Plains  

Science.gov (United States)

The Great Plains of North America are susceptible to multi-year droughts, such as the 1930s ‘Dust Bowl’. The droughts have been linked to SST variability in the Pacific and Atlantic basins. This observationally rooted analysis shows the SST influence in multi-year droughts and wet episodes over the Great Plains to be significantly more extensive than previously indicated. The remarkable statistical reconstruction of the major hydroclimate episodes attests to the extent of the SST influence in nature, and facilitated evaluation of the basin contributions. We find the Atlantic SSTs to be especially influential in forcing multi-year droughts; often, more than the Pacific ones. The Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), in particular, contributed the most in two of the four reconstructed episodes (Dust Bowl Spring, 1980s fall wetness), accounting for almost half the precipitation signal in each case. The AMO influence on continental precipitation was provided circulation context from analysis of NOAA's 20th Century Atmospheric Reanalysis. A hypothesis for how the AMO atmospheric circulation anomalies are generated from AMO SSTs is proposed to advance discussion of the influence pathways of the mid-to-high latitude SST anomalies. Our analysis suggests that the La Nina-US Drought paradigm, operative on interannual time scales, has been conferred excessive relevance on decadal time scales in the recent literature.

Nigam, Sumant; Guan, Bin; Ruiz-Barradas, Alfredo

2011-08-01

186

Impacts of 20th century aerosol emissions on the South Asian monsoon in the CMIP5 models  

Science.gov (United States)

Comparison of single-forcing varieties of 20th century historical experiments in a subset of models from the Fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) reveals that South Asian summer monsoon rainfall increases towards the present day in GHG-only experiments with respect to pre-industrial levels, while it decreases in anthropogenic aerosol-only experiments. Comparison of these single-forcing runs with the all-forcings historical experiment suggests aerosol emissions have dominated South Asian monsoon rainfall trends in recent decades. By examining the 25 available all-forcings historical experiments, we show that models including aerosol indirect effects dominate this negative trend. Indeed, models including only the direct radiative effect of aerosol show an increase in monsoon rainfall, suggesting the dominance of increasing greenhouse gas emissions and planetary warming on monsoon rainfall in those models. The mechanism may be due to the indirect and direct effects acting in unison to suppress the monsoon, or to stronger local aerosol loading in the group of models containing indirect effects. The disparity between the two groups of models needs to be urgently investigated in the event that the suggested future decline in Asian anthropogenic aerosol emissions inherent to the representative concentration pathways (RCPs) used for future climate projection turns out to be optimistic.

Turner, Andrew; Guo, Liang; Highwood, Eleanor

2014-05-01

187

20th century trends and budget implications of chloroform and related tri-and dihalomethanes inferred from firn air  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Four trihalomethane (THM; CHCl3, CHBrCl2, CHBr2Cl and CHBr3 and two dihalomethane (DHM; CH2BrCl and CH2Br2 trace gases have been measured in air extracted from polar firn collected at the North Greenland Icecore Project (NGRIP site. CHCl3 was also measured in firn air from Devon Island (DI, Canada, Dronning Maud Land (DML, Antarctica and Dome Concordia (Dome C, Antarctica. All of these species are believed to be almost entirely of natural origin except for CHCl3 where anthropogenic sources have been reported to contribute ~10% to the global burden. A 2-D atmospheric model was run for CHCl3 using reported emission estimates to produce historical atmospheric trends at the firn sites, which were then input into a firn diffusion model to produce concentration depth profiles that were compared against the measurements. The anthropogenic emissions were modified in order to give the best model fit to the firn data at NGRIP, Dome C and DML. As a result, the contribution of CHCl3 from anthropogenic sources, mainly from pulp and paper manufacture, to the total chloroform budget appears to have been considerably underestimated and was likely to have been close to ~50% at the maximum in atmospheric CHCl3 concentrations around 1990, declining to ~29% at the beginning of the 21st century. We also show that the atmospheric burden of the brominated THM's in the Northern Hemisphere have increased over the 20th century while CH2Br2 has remained constant over time implying that it is entirely of natural origin.

D. R. Worton

2006-01-01

188

20th Century trends and budget implications of trihalomethanes and dihalomethanes inferred from North GRIP firn air  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Four trihalomethane (THM; CHCl3, CHBrCl2, CHBr2Cl and CHBr3 and two dihalomethane (DHM; CH2BrCl and CH2Br2 trace gases have been measured in air extracted from polar firn collected at the North Greenland Icecore Project (NGRIP site. CHCl3 was also measured in firn air from Devon Island (DI, Canada, Dronning Maud Land (DML, Antarctica and Dome Concordia (Dome C, Antarctica. All of these species are believed to be almost entirely of natural origin except for CHCl3 where anthropogenic sources have been reported to contribute ~10% to the global burden. A 2-D atmospheric model was run for CHCl3 using reported emission estimates to produce historical atmospheric trends at the three firn sites, which were then input into a firn diffusion model to produce concentration depth profiles that were compared against the measurements. The anthropogenic emissions were modified in order to give the best model fit to the firn data at NGRIP, Dome C and DML. As a result, the contribution of CHCl3 from anthropogenic sources, mainly from pulp and paper manufacture, to the total chloroform budget appears to have been considerably underestimated and was likely to have been close to ~40% at the maximum in atmospheric CHCl3 concentrations around 1990, declining to ~19% at the beginning of the 21st Century. We also show that the atmospheric burden of the brominated THM's in the northern hemisphere have increased over the 20th Century while CH2Br2 has remained constant over time implying that it is entirely of natural origin.

D. R. Worton

2006-01-01

189

Impacts of the EA and SCA patterns on the 20th century NAO-winter precipitation relationship in Europe  

Science.gov (United States)

Much of the 20th century multi-decadal variability in the NAO-winter precipitation relationship over the N. Atlantic / European sector can be ascribed to the combined effects of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and either the East Atlantic pattern (EA) or the Scandinavian pattern (SCA). The NAO, EA and SCA indices employed here are defined as the three leading vectors of the cross-correlation matrix calculated from monthly sea-level pressure anomalies for 138 complete winters from the 20CRv2 dataset (Compo et al., 2011). Winter precipitation data over Europe for the entire 20th century is derived from the high resolution CRU-TS3.1 climate dataset (Mitchell and Jones, 2005). Here we document for the first time, that different NAO/EA and NAO/SCA combinations systematically influence winter precipitation conditions in Europe as a consequence of NAO dipole migrations. We find that the zero-correlated line of the NAO-winter precipitation relationship migrates southwards when the EA is in the opposite phase to the NAO. This can be related to a south-westwards migration of the NAO dipole under these conditions, as shown by teleconnectivity maps. Similarly, a clockwise movement of the NAO-winter climate correlated areas occurs when the phase of the SCA is opposite to that of the NAO, reflecting a clockwise movement of the NAO dipole under these conditions. An important implication of these migrations is that they influence the spatial and temporal stationarity of climate-NAO relationships. As a result, the link between winter precipitation patterns and the NAO is not straightforward in some regions such as the southern UK, Ireland and France. For instance, much of the inter-annual variability in the N-S winter precipitation gradient in the UK, originally attributed to inter-annual and inter-decadal variability of the NAO, reflects the migration of the NAO dipole, linked to linear combinations of the NAO and the EA. Our results indicate that when the N-S winter precipitation gradient is accentuated by the occurrence of a positive EA during positive NAO winters, drier conditions than normal are found in the southern UK. This is consistent, for example, with the severe winter drought of 1976, when computed NAO and EA indices were both positive (0.97 and 1.87, respectively), illustrating the modulating effect of NAO/EA combinations on winter precipitation patterns in the southern UK. References: Compo GP et al. 2011. The Twentieth Century Reanalysis Project. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 137 (654), 1-28. Mitchell TD, Jones PD. 2005. An improved method for constructing a database of monthly climate observations and associated high-resolution grids. International Journal of Climatology, 25, 693-712.

Comas-Bru, Laia; McDermott, Frank

2013-04-01

190

The paradigms of Romanian language and literature curricula in the second half of the 19th century and the 20th century.  

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Full Text Available This article is the synthesis of research focused on the history of the Romanian mother tongue language and literature curricula of the second half of the 19th century and the 20th century1. The curricula I analysed comprise a history with complex syncopated rhythms, periods of re-constitution and recrystallisation alternating with periods of deconstruction and repression. The changes of rhythm are the result of the dialogue between the institutional policies of the Ministry of Education and the language, literature and education sciences. This dialogue was a positive and constructive one in the periods of socio-cultural and economic evolution of the country and absent or extremely tense during the communistperiod. The article presents a history of the curricular projects for the study of the Romanian mother tongue language and literature2 by middle and secondary school pupils.

Pamfil, A.

2007-10-01

191

Breiðamerkurjökull, SE - Iceland, its maximum extent in the late 19th century and volume loss estimation during the 20th century  

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Breiðamerkurjökull is one of the largest outlet glaciers of the Vatnajökull ice cap, SE-Iceland. This maritime temperate glacier has recessed dramatically since the end of the 19th century, which was the Little Ice Age maximum (LIAmax).We reconstruct a model of the geometry of the outlet during its highstand about 120 years ago. The reconstruction is derived from geomorphological in-field evidences of the glacier margins and supported by the 1904 topographical maps, published by the Danish General Staff, aerial photos and the Army Map Service (AMS) maps of 1945 and written historical documents. We estimate the volume loss since its 1890 Little Ice Age maximum (LIAmax). Area decrease of 115 km2 or 12 % is depicted. With a recent LiDAR based high resolution digital elevation model from 2010-2011 we revise the mid - 20th century AMS maps to constrain its accuracy and estimate the volume loss since 1945.

Gudmundsson, Snaevarr; Björnsson, Helgi

2014-05-01

192

Changes in Vascular Plant Biodiversity in the Netherlands in the 20th Century Explained by their Climatic and other Environmental Characteristics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the Netherlands nation-wide databases are available with about 10 million records of occurrences of vascular plant species in the 20th century on a scale of approximately 1 km{sup 2}. These data were analysed with a view to identifying relationships between changes in botanical biodiversity and climatic and other environmental factors. Prior to analysis the data were corrected for several major forms of survey bias. The records were broken down into three periods: 1902-1949, 1975-1984 and 1985-1999. Using multiple regression analysis, differences between successive periods were related to plant functional characteristics as explanatory variables. Between the periods 1902-1949 and 1975-1984 there were small but significant increases in the presence of both thermophilic ('warm') and psychrophilic ('cold') species. However, in the final decades of the 20th century there was a marked increase in thermophilic species only, coinciding with the marked increase in ambient temperature observed during this period, evidence at least of a rapid response of Dutch flora to climate change. Urbanisation was also examined as an alternative explanation for the increase in thermophilic plant species and was found to explain only 50% of the increased presence of such species in the final decades of the 20th century. Besides temperature-related effects, the most important change during the 20th century was a strong decline in oligotrophic and a marked increase in eutrophic plant species.

Tamis, W.L.M.; Van der Meijden, R.; Udo de Haes, H.A. [Nationaal Herbarium Nederland/Leiden University Branch, P.O. Box 9514, 2300, RA, Leiden (Netherlands); Van ' t Zelfde, M. [Institute of Environmental Sciences, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9518, 2300, RA, Leiden (Netherlands)

2005-09-01

193

Educating about Social Issues in the 20th and 21st Centuries: A Critical Annotated Bibliography. Research in Curriculum and Instruction. Volume 1  

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Educating About Social Issues in the 20th and 21st Centuries: A Critical Annotated Bibliography, is comprised of critical essays accompanied by annotated bibliographies on a host of programs, models, strategies and concerns vis-a-vis teaching and learning about social issues facing society. The primary goal of the book is to provide undergraduate…

Totten, Samuel, Ed.; Pedersen, Jon, Ed.

2012-01-01

194

Sediment accumulation in San Leandro Bay, Alameda County, California, during the 20th century : a preliminary report  

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Major changes made in the configuration of San Leandro Bay, Alameda County, California, during the 20th century have caused rapid sedimentation within parts of the Bay. Opening of the Oakland tidal channel and removal of 97% of the marshlands formerly surrounding the Bay have decreased tidal velocities and volumes. Marshland removal has decreased the tidal prism by about 25%. Comparison of bathymetric surveys indicates that sedimentation in the vicinity of the San Leandro Bay channel averaged 0.7 cm/annum between 1856 and 1984. Lead-210 data collected at four shallow water sites east of the San Leandro Bay channel indicated that sedimentation rates have averaged between 0.06 and 0.28 cm/annum. Because bioturbation of bottom sediments cannot be discounted, better definition of this range in sedimentation rates would required measuring the activity of lead-210 on incoming sediments. In addition to sediment deposited in the vicinity of the San Leandro Bay channel and open, shallow areas to the east, 850,740 cu m of sediment was deposited between 1948 and 1983 in an area dredged at the mouth of San Leandro Creek. All available data indicate that between 1 ,213,000 and 1,364,000 cu m of sediment was deposited in San Leandro Bay between 1948 and 1983. Sediment yield data from an adjacent drainage basin, when combined with inventories of lead-210 and cesium-137, indicate that most of the sediment deposited in San Leandro Bay is coming from resuspension of bottom sediments or from erosion of marshes or shorelines of San Leandro or San Francisco Bay. (Author 's abstract)

Nolan, K. M.; Fuller, C. C.

1986-01-01

195

Lessons learned and present day challenges of addressing 20th century radiation legacies of Russia and the United States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Decommissioning of nuclear submarines, disposal of highly enriched uranium and defense plutonium as well as processing of high-level wastes are among the most challenging issues of addressing radiation legacy of the 20th century. USA and Russia are the two primary countries that have to deal with the challenge and where most of the fissile materials to be processed are concentrated, nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste are stored, and multiple industrial sites and nuclear weapons production facilities are located. In the US, CH2M HILL is managing two of the most important nuclear projects being conducted by the US Department of Energy at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site and at the DOE Hanford Site (177 underground tanks at this site contain 60 percent of the United States' high-level radioactive wastes). Within the framework of the Russian Federal special program 'Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Materials Management, Utilization and Disposal for 1996-2005' works were carried out on the Karachai lake covering with soil, highly active radwaste vitrification and fractionation at the 'Mayak' combine. Currently there is a discussion of launching joint Russian-American initiatives including comparative studies of environmental and public health impacts from high-level waste vitrification and plutonium stabilization processes in Russia and high-level waste removal from tanks in the USA and of continuing comprehensive research with the RADSITE project (USA, European Union, Japan, China and India) using coordinated approaches in 2000-2003. This paper presents comparative studies, technical approaches, and regulatory strategies to address the challenges of managing and closing highly enriched uranium, plutonium, and high level waste sites. (author)

2002-04-01

196

Coral-based history of lead and lead isotopes of the surface Indian Ocean since the mid-20th century  

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Anthropogenic lead (Pb) from industrial activities has greatly altered the distribution of Pb in the present-day oceans, but no continuous temporal Pb evolution record is available for the Indian Ocean despite rapidly emerging industries around the region. Here, we present the coral-inferred annual history of Pb concentration and isotope ratios in the surface Indian Ocean since the mid-20th century (1945-2010). We analyzed Pb in corals from the Chagos Archipelago, western Sumatra and Strait of Singapore - which represent the central Indian Ocean via nearshore sites. Overall, coral Pb/Ca increased in the mid-1970s at all the sites. However, coral Pb isotope ratios evolve distinctively at each site, suggesting Pb contamination arises from different sources in each case. The major source of Pb in the Chagos coral appears to be India's Pb emission from leaded gasoline combustion and coal burning, whereas Pb in western Sumatra seems to be largely affected by Indonesia's gasoline Pb emission with additional Pb inputs from other sources. Pb in the Strait of Singapore has complex sources and its isotopic composition does not reflect Pb from leaded gasoline combustion. Higher 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb ratios found at this site may reflect the contribution of Pb from coals and ores from southern China, Indonesia, and Australia, and local Pb sources in the Strait of Singapore. It is also possible that the Pb isotope ratios of Singapore seawater were elevated through isotope exchange with natural fluvial particles considering its delta setting.

Lee, Jong-Mi; Boyle, Edward A.; Suci Nurhati, Intan; Pfeiffer, Miriam; Meltzner, Aron J.; Suwargadi, Bambang

2014-07-01

197

Comparison of 20th century and pre-industrial climate over South America in regional model simulations  

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Full Text Available In this study, we assess how the anthropogenically induced increase in greenhouse gas concentrations affects the climate of central and southern South America. We utilise two regional climate simulations for present day (PD and pre-industrial (PI times. These simulations are compared to historical reconstructions in order to investigate the driving processes responsible for climatic changes between the different periods. The regional climate model is validated against observations for both re-analysis data and GCM-driven regional simulations for the second half of the 20th century. Model biases are also taken into account for the interpretation of the model results. The added value of the regional simulation over global-scale modelling relates to a better representation of hydrological processes that are particularly evident in the proximity of the Andes Mountains.

Climatic differences between the simulated PD minus PI period agree qualitatively well with proxy-based temperature reconstructions, albeit the regional model overestimates the amplitude of the temperature increase. For precipitation the most important changes between the PD and PI simulation relate to a dipole pattern along the Andes Mountains with increased precipitation over the southern parts and reduced precipitation over the central parts. Here only a few regions show robust similarity with studies based on empirical evidence. However, from a dynamical point-of-view, atmospheric circulation changes related to an increase in high-latitude zonal wind speed simulated by the regional climate model are consistent with numerical modelling studies addressing changes in greenhouse gas concentrations.

Our results indicate that besides the direct effect of greenhouse gas changes, large-scale changes in atmospheric circulation and sea surface temperatures also exert an influence on temperature and precipitation changes in southern South America. These combined changes in turn affect the relationship between climate and atmospheric circulation between PD and PI times and should be considered for the statistical reconstruction of climate indices calibrated within present-day climate data.

S. Wagner

2012-10-01

198

Anthropic disturbances in the sedimentological characteristics of a Northern Patagonian lake: evidencing the impacts of the 20th century settlement  

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Traditionally Patagonia has been seen as a very pristine area, being an important reserve of wildlife and clean waters. Nonetheless it was dramatically affected by the first settlers at the beginning of the 20th century, that generated large fires for clearing the land originally covered by native forest. Those fires produced a dramatic impact left behind thousands of dead trees, increasing soil erosion, altering nutrient inputs in the aquatic ecosystems, which in turn affected the aquatic biota. However those impacts have been barely asses, then through the study of the sediment record of lake La Esponja (45°S) we want to evaluate the magnitude of the changes produced by the fires and to determine the resilience capacity of the lake. We analyzed magnetic susceptibility, organic content, charcoal, total phosphorous and a biological proxy (Chironomidae) in a sediment sequence of 60 cm long. Magnetic susceptibility shows a very variable behavior along the profile, being possible to identify a decreasing trend since the bottom, up to the most recent part of the record. An opposite behavior describes the organic content, showing a noticeable increase toward the surficial sediments. The number of charcoal particles -a direct indicator of fires occurrence, shows a peak of fires approximately at seven cm depth, diminishing toward the recent part. Total phosphorous also follow the trend recognized by charcoal, which allow inferring a probable trophic increase of the lake. This trend is partially recognized by chironomid assemblages through the increasing of some taxa typical of a higher nutrient status. Acknowledgements: Fondecyt projects 1120765 and 1120807.

Araneda, A.; Muñoz, V.; Valenzuela, B.; Alvarez, D.; Torrejon, F.; Pedreros, P.; Urrutia, R.

2013-12-01

199

Tropical Atlantic influence on Pacific variability and mean state in the 20th century in observations and CMIP5  

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This paper investigates the influence of the tropical Atlantic on the tropical Pacific interannual variability and mean state in the 20th century. It is demonstrated that observational datasets show a significant time-delayed impact of the tropical Atlantic on tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures, leading to an anticorrelation between the tropical Atlantic and the eastern Pacific if the Atlantic is leading by about 10 months. This result is robust across different sea surface temperature reconstructions. There is no robust correlation between the tropical Atlantic and the eastern Pacific when the Pacific is leading, although in recent decades a positive correlation between the two basins is more dominant. An analysis of the surface pressure response to the tropical Atlantic indicates an atmospheric bridge and a modification of the Walker Circulation as the likely trigger for the teleconnection, and this result is consistent with recent observational and modelling results for the recent decades. 16 out of the 45 analyzed World Climate Research Program's Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) models show lead-lag correlations broadly similar to the observed, whereas the majority of the models show either too strong correlations when the Pacific is leading or very weak correlations for all lags. The atmospheric bridge mechanism seems also valid in the selected CMIP5 models. In these models a stronger warming of the tropical Atlantic compared to the global mean is associated with a La Nina-like mean state change in the tropical Pacific. However, the ensemble mean of these models still shows a weakly El Nino-like trend, which is associated with a relatively weak Atlantic warming compared to the global mean and the observations

Kucharski, Fred; Syed, Faisal S.; Buran, Ahmad; Farah, Ikram; Gohar, Ali

2014-05-01

200

Snow cover and permafrost evolution in Siberia as simulated by the MGO regional climate model in the 20th and 21st centuries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An approach to ground thermodynamics description using a coupled system of atmospheric regional climate and ground heat transfer models is improved by accounting for the time varying snow density. The simulations are compared to available observational analyses, and the sensitivity of the ground thermal regime to variable snow density is analysed. Projected changes of the ground thermal regime in the 21st century relative to the late 20th century are shown and compared to earlier estimates.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Journey, tourism and recreation outside the city in the consciousness of inhabitants of Warsaw at the turn of the 19th and 20th century.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The thesis talks about the significance of the journeys, tourism and recreation outside the city in the consciousness of different groups of the Warsaw’s society during the last decade of the 19th century and at the beginning of the 20th century. At that time Warsaw was the scene of the dynamical demographical and civilization development. The density of inhabitants and difficulties of living conditions started to increase. All the social groups sought health and rest outside the city. Diff...

2013-01-01

202

National identity of the Serbs in the 19th century and at the beginning of the 20th century  

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Full Text Available An attempt to establish a specific form of global uniformity by the dominant world powers, even if it is to a certain degree flexible and economically acceptable, proved to be imprudent and controversial. Autochthonous development of specific nations in all its traditional, religious and historical entirety is inaccessible and very sensitive to the form of the dominant ideological concept. Even if multiculturalism, multinationalism and multiconfessionalism belong to civilization heritage, it turned out that their declarative respect and haughty globalization was a risky experiment. European Union, supporting the project "Structuring of Europe", intends to prove its multinational (as well as any other multi determination in the authentic interdisciplinary research work in the study of the past of each European nation. The idea of this project is based on the creative integrative link of the national identity of European nations and European super-national identity which stems from the mosaic of their existence. Attitude to the formation of national identity among the Serbs should be based on the research about the determination of national identity from the beginning of the formation of the Serbian state till today. During the 19th century and till the 1920s, I believe that one should - when determining the national identity among the Serbs - focus on the research about the role of education and culture in the national identification and on the attitude to the Yugoslav idea. The complexity of the problem also includes the specific interrelations between the idea of national identity and the standpoint of The Serbian Orthodox Church, as well as the enthusiasm of romanticism liberal ideas, party programmes, dominant elite and intelligentsia contemporary ideological influences and so on.

Markovi? Saša

2006-01-01

203

Between autonomy of music and the composer’s autonomy. Notes on modernisms and traditionalisms in Slovenian music of the 20th century  

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Full Text Available The aim of this article is to examine the relations between the old and the new in the context of 20th-century Slovenian music. The question about the old and the new is seen not only as a question of different facets of an age-old opposition, but also as a complex issue of the epistemological contextualization of those different facets. Centered on the main historiographical entries – the avant-garde, modernity, traditionalism, and post-modernity –, the outline of the 20th-century Slovenian musical culture endeavors to point out what is a common problem of the Western musical heritage from the past century: the problem of defining constituents of the old and the new within different epistemological contexts.

Stefanija Leon

2006-01-01

204

Extension of the SIM Hydrometeorological Reanalysis Over the Entire 20th Century by Combination of Observations and Statistical Downscaling  

Science.gov (United States)

The SAFRAN-ISBA-MODCOU (SIM) system is a combination of three different components: an atmospheric analysis system (SAFRAN) providing the atmospheric forcing for a land surface model (ISBA) that computes surface water and energy budgets and a hydrological model (MODCOU) that provides river flows and level of several aquifers. The variables generated by the SIM chain constitute the SIM reanalysis and the current version only covers the 1958-2012 period. However, long climate datasets are required for evaluation and verification of climate hindcasts/forecasts and to isolate the contribution of natural decadal variability from that of anthropogenic forcing to climate variations. The aim of this work is to extend of the fine-mesh SIM reanalysis to the entire 20th century, especially focusing on temperature and rainfall over France, but also soil wetness and river flows. This extension will first allow a detailed investigation of the influence of decadal variability on France at very fine spatial scales and will provide crucial information for climate model evaluation. Before 1958, the density of available observations from Météo-France necessary to force SAFRAN (rainfall, snow, wind, temperature, humidity, cloudiness) is much lower than today, and not sufficient to produce a correct SIM reanalysis. That's why is has been decided to use the available atmospheric observations over the past decades combined to a statistical downscaling algorithm to overcome the lack of observations. The DSCLIM software package implemented by the CERFACS and using a weather typing based statistical methodology will be used as statistical downscaling method to reconstruct the atmospheric variables necessary to force the ISBA-MODCOU hydrological component. The first stage of this work was to estimate and compare the bias and strengths of the two approaches in their ability to reconstruct the past decades. In this sense, SIM hydro-meteorological experiments were performed for some recent years, with a number of observations artificially reduced to a number similar to years 1910, 1930 and 1950. Concurrently, the same recent years have been downscaled by DSCLIM and used to force ISBA-MODCOU. Afterwards, some additional experiments with some modified parameters in the DSCLIM algorithm have been performed in order to adapt the methodology to the study case, and thus trying to improve its performances. Several configurations of the DSCLIM algorithm were applied to the entire century, using the NOAA20CR reanalysis as large-scale predictor. The reconstructed atmospheric variables are compared to the available observations over the entire century to estimate the ability of the statistical downscaling method to reproduce a correct interannual to multidecadal variability. Finally, a novel method is tested: available observations over past decades are introduced in the DSCLIM algorithm, in order to obtain a reconstructed dataset as realistic as possible.

Minvielle, M.; Céron, J.; Page, C.

2013-12-01

205

A 20th-century reanalysis forced ocean model to recover North Atlantic climate variability from 1870-2007  

Science.gov (United States)

The MPI ocean model MPIOM is forced with the NOAA 20th-century reanalysis to examine North Atlantic climate variability for the period 1870-2007. Ocean model results are compared with a gridded observational data base (CLISAP) for the later period (1950-2007, NCEP-period hereafter) and selected reconstructions for the earlier period (1870-1949, preNCEP-period). During the NCEP-period the forced MPIOM provides coherent decadal variability of temperature and salinity in the North Atlantic compared with observations. The Labrador Sea water properties follow the observed shift during the 1960s and 1990s and reversal afterwards. Sea water properties within the sub-polar gyre also capture observed decadal variability. The modeled Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) at 26°N exhibits a time-mean maximum of ~17 Sv, which is within the current uncertainty range of the RAPID observations. During the first decades of the preNCEP-period sea water properties are substantially different compared to the NCEP-period. Salinity within the sub-polar gyre drops to -0.4PSU during from 1880-1910 and strongly increase afterwards. Similarly the AMOC strength is reduced to 12SV and increased to 17SV from the 1920s to the 1940s. This drop is found independent of the initialization of the forcing components suggesting responsible atmospheric forcing fields. Examination of the atmospheric forcing fields yields a weakened pressure gradient and respective geostrophic flow component over the northern European area during the preNCEP period. In association a weaker heat transport is found towards the Arctic area with considerable lower temperatures during the preNCEP period than for the NCEP period. Sea ice thickness and extent is largely increased within the preNCEP period throughout the Arctic and the Nordic Seas. Consequently more sea ice is transported along the Greenland current exporting large amount of fresh water into the Irminger and Labrador Sea. This fresh water release is considered to affect the mean state of AMOC and water properties in the sub-polar gyre.

Mueller, W.; Matei, D.; Bersch, M.; Jungclaus, J.; Lohmann, K.; Marotzke, J.

2012-04-01

206

Catolicismo y condición femenina: representaciones de género sobre la maternidad y la domesticidad en la prensa del suroeste bonaerense argentino a principios del siglo XX / Catholicism and the Female Condition: Gender Representations of Motherhood and Domesticity in the Southwest Argentinean Buenos Aires Press in the Early 20th Century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En el presente artículo se identifican y describen los significados atribuidos a la maternidad y a la domesticidad analizando las representaciones de género en el discurso de la prensa confesional que aparece en Bahía Blanca y circula por su zona de influencia en las tres primeras décadas del siglo [...] XX. Se sostiene que los(as) católicos(as) que escriben en la prensa comparten el concepto de diferencia sexual dominante y abordan el problema de la condición femenina centrándose en las nociones de domesticidad y maternidad, que aluden al papel de reproducción material y biológica de la sociedad en el marco de la división sexual del trabajo. Sin embargo, algunos de ellos las reformulan frente a las transformaciones de la época que impactan sobre la familia, como resultado de lo cual expresan ideas que, si bien no tienen en sí mismas la intención de subvertir las relaciones de género, avalan ciertas mutaciones de signo moderno. Abstract in english This paper identifies and describes the meanings ascribed to motherhood and domesticity by analyzing gender representations in the discourse of the confessional press that appears in Bahía Blanca and travels through its zone of influence during the first three decades of the 20th century. It is argu [...] ed that Catholic men and women who write in the press share the concept of dominant sexual difference and address the problem of the female condition by focusing on the notions of domesticity and motherhood, which refer to the role of the biological and material reproduction of society in the context of the sexual division of labor. However, some of them reformulate them in response to the epochal changes that have impacted the family, as a result of which they express ideas which, while not in themselves intended to subvert gender relations, endorse certain modern mutations.

Lucía, Bracamonte.

207

The Ambivalence of a Port-City. The Jews of Trieste from the 19th to the 20th Century  

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Full Text Available This article stems from a key question: was Habsburg Trieste truly a cosmopolitan and tolerant city? Building upon the interpretative category of "port Jews", established by David Sorkin and Lois C. Dubin, this study examines the social, economic and political behaviour of the Triestine Jews in the nineteenth- and early twentieth-centuries, and conducts a comparison with the other religious minorities present in the Adriatic port during this period: Greeks, Protestants, Serbians and Armenians. The picture which emerges allows for the proposition of a new interpretative model, that of the "port-merchant." The second part of the article focuses on the second half of the nineteenth-century, when the model of Trieste as a tolerant city was challenged by the nationalist fights between Italians and Slovenians, and by the political antisemitism. The city lost its capacity to include the 'Other', and was rapidly transformed into a genuine breeding-ground of Italian racism.

Tullia Catalan

2011-10-01

208

Stephen S. Wise and the Urban Frontier: American Jewish Life in New York and the Pacific Northwest at the Dawn of the 20th Century  

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Full Text Available The case of Stephen S. Wise provides a lens through which to examine American Jewry’s transformation at the dawn of the 20th century. Not only were New York City and Portland, Oregon – places Wise called home – two geographic poles of America’s urban frontier, they also highlight a spectrum of possibilities available to the New World’s fledgling Jewish community. Viewed in tandem, they illustrate American society’s raw, open, and pliable terrain as it emerged from a rural pre-industrial past. Moreover, by placing Wise in the context of the metropolitan growth that reshaped the Atlantic and Pacific frontiers in the late 19th century, we gain a better understanding of the relationship between the country’s dynamic environmental conditions and the phenomenon of Jewish immigrant absorption, acculturation, and Americanization.In withdrawing to the wilderness, Wise exposed himself to new possibilities for thinking about the place of Jews in American society and the future of American Judaism. He also honed the role of which he was to become a superlative exemplar – a 20th-century American rabbi at home in the worlds of religion and politics. Furthermore, his synthesis of liberal Judaism, American pluralism, Zionism, and Progressive-era notions of social justice anticipated the rise of a new American Jewish sensibility that would become normative in the 20th century.

Mark A. Raider

2011-10-01

209

Medicina, educação e psiquiatria para a infância: o Pavilhão-Escola Bourneville no início do século XX / Medicina, educación y psiquiatría para la infancia: el Pabellón Escuela Bourneville en el inicio del siglo XX / Médicine, éducation et psychiatrie de l'enfance: le Pavillon-École Bourneville au début du XXe siècle / Child medicine, education and psychiatry: the Bourneville Pavilion-School in the early 20th century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho analisa a criação do Pavilhão-Escola Bourneville do Hospício Nacional de Alienados no início do século XX, primeira instituição brasileira para a assistência a crianças anormais. Destaca o conhecimento então produzido sobre os diagnósticos relativos à infância e sobre o método médico-p [...] edagógico empregado no Pavilhão. Busca-se assim perceber as vias pelas quais a criança se constituiu em objeto da ciência psiquiátrica e das políticas públicas a ela relacionada naquele período. Abstract in spanish Este artículo tiene como objetivo analizar la creación del Pabellón Escuela Bourneville del Hospicio Nacional en el principio del siglo XX, primera institución brasileña para asistencia de los niños anormales. Se destaca el conocimiento producido sobre diagnósticos relativos a la infancia y el métod [...] o médico-pedagógico usado en el pabellón. Se busca con ello comprender las formas en las que el niño se constituyó en objeto de la ciencia psiquiátrica y de las políticas públicas en aquel período. Abstract in english This paper has the objective of analyzing the first Brazilian institution for working with abnormal children, the Bourneville Pavilion-School, at the National Asylum, which operated during the early 20th century. The knowledge at the time regarding diagnoses of children is summarized, together with [...] the medical-pedagogical methods applied at that institution. The manner in which children became the object of psychiatric science and public policies during that period is also treated.

Silva, Renata Prudencio da.

210

Transcendence of avant-garde negativity as a determinant of the social position of European music in the 20th century  

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Full Text Available Starting with Adorno’s negative dialectic and his consideration of musical material as the crucial theoretical notion that implies the negative dialectic core, we examine in this study the deconstructive potential of materialization of some musical antinomies of the 20th century. We follow this materialization from the aspect of transcendence of the antinomy considered as a certain musical ‘unit’ of negativity. This process is investigated here in reference to the concepts of musical material and the dual determination of music and musical-aesthetic experience, as well as to the musically concrete levels regarding musical substance and language of the avant-garde and post modernity, as representatives of a further possible antinomy: respectively, between the phenomenological and the hermeneutical. Functioning within all these levels individually, the process of transcendence brings about consequences which in our view can be considered as general criteria affecting the social position of European music of the 20th century.

Veselinovi?-Hofman Mirjana

2006-01-01

211

New Venture, Survival, Growth : Continuance, Termination and Growth of Business Firms and Business Populations in Sweden During the 20th Century  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This dissertation focuses on the formation, growth and discontinuance of business populations and firms in Sweden during the 20th century. It addresses some key issues in the domain of economic and social sciences, and in particular entrepreneurship and small business research: if and when firms grow, stagnate and decline, as well as how long firms survive and when they are likely to disband. Previous research has primarily analyzed these questions from a short time frame. Further, an individ...

Box, Marcus

2005-01-01

212

Votes Count but the Number of Seats Decides:A comparative historical case study of 20th century Danish, Swedish and Norwegian road policy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This dissertation about Danish, Swedish and Norwegian 20th century road policy is an attempt of elucidating some puzzles: Why did Norwegian authorities pursue a road policy contrary to most other West European industrialized countries? Why were highly noticeable congestion, accident and environmental problems within and near Norway’s major population clusters overlooked or ignored for decades? The theoretical and analytical framework is based on historical institutionalism supplemented with...

Boge, Knut

2006-01-01

213

The Competition of Identity Ideologies in a City of South-Eastern Baltic Sea Region: The Case-Study of Klaip?da in the 20th Century  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The dissertation deals with theoretical problem: it seeks to resolve the issues of what determines the competition of identity ideologies, what its manifestations are and what variations of demonstration of belonging and separateness of the population in a particular city of the South-Eastern Baltic Sea region can be created by this competition. The city of Klaip?da and the 20th century are taken as spatial and temporal boundaries of the study, thereby realising that the processes of the com...

Safronovas, Vasilijus

2012-01-01

214

Forming intelligentsia in Moravia and Silesia in the second half of the 19th and at the beginning of the 20th century  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

'The study reports on the conclusions of a fundamental research devoted to the formation of the intelligentsia (doctors, attorneys, lawyers, engineers, secondary school professors, teachers, state, municipal and company clerks) in Moravia and Silesia in the 2nd half of the 19th and at the beginning of the 20th century. The project was carried out in selected locations: Moravian Ostrava (a new administrative centre of an industrial region), Opava (regional capital city of Austrian Silesia), Ol...

Pokludova?, Andrea

2008-01-01

215

Trace elements in South America aerosol during 20th century inferred from a Nevado Illimani ice core, Eastern Bolivian Andes (6350 m asl)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A 137 m ice core drilled in 1999 from Eastern Bolivian Andes at the summit of Nevado Illimani (16º 37' S, 67º 46' W, 6350 m asl) was analyzed at high temporal resolution, allowing a characterization of trace elements in Andean aerosol trapped in the ice during the 20th century. The upper 50 m of the ice core were dated by multi-proxy analysis of stable isotopes (d18O and d2H), 137Cs and Ca+2

2003-01-01

216

Arguments and Debates Shaping Scientific Styles. The Case of the Czech Lands in the 19th and the Beginning of the 20th Century.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Disputes in Life Sciences in the 19th and 20th Centuries. München : Algorismus 52, 2005 - (Hoppe, B.), s. 43-62 ISBN 3-89241-022-4.[International Congress of History of Science /21./. Mexico City (MX), 01.07.2001-07.07.2001]Grant CEP: GA MŠk(CZ) LN00A041Klí?ová slova: history of Czech science - scientific polemics - Czech scientific communityKód oboru RIV: AB - D?jiny

Štrbá?ová, So?a; Janko, Jan

217

Height as an indicator of economic status in the polish territories under Russian rule at the turn of the 19th to 20th century.  

Science.gov (United States)

Summary Height is regarded as one of the indicators of environmental stress at population level, being an excellent barometer of standard of living. The aim of this study was to describe diversity in height among populations living in different regions of the Kingdom of Poland in terms of the economic factors in the second half of the 19th and early 20th century. This study examines the height of adult inhabitants from five guberniyas (provinces) of the Kingdom of Poland (?om?a, Warsaw, Radom, Kalisz and P?ock) collected in the years 1897-1914 (N=732 men, N=569 women). Differences in average height of male and female inhabitants across the five guberniyas were examined using ANOVA and the Fisher's LSD (Least Significant Difference) test of multiple comparisons. Statistically significant differences in the height between the guberniyas were observed. Diversity in the economic development in the studied guberniyas of the Kingdom of Poland translated into differences in the height of their inhabitants. Moreover, an increase in mean height over time was noted. PMID:24041152

Czapla, Zbigniew; Liczbi?ska, Gra?yna

2014-09-01

218

The demarcation between Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina in the Una region from the 17th to the 20th century according to original cartographic material  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article presents the latest scientific research results regarding the presentation of what are nowadays Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina territories on geographic maps from the 17th to the 20th century. The focus is set on twenty maps that point to the most important tendencies. Particular attention is paid to wars and international treaties which regulated the demarcation of Una watercourse up to its confluence to the Sava as a centuries-old border between the Habsburg and the Ottoman empires.

Mithad Kozli?i?

2011-06-01

219

???????????????????????????? (Bulldozing Pudian Street: Destruction or Renewal? Ambiguities in Big City Novels in Late 20th Century Chinese Literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is little doubt that the most cogent literary representation of the experience of modernity has been realised in big city fiction and cinematographic masterpieces such as Fritz Lang's Metropolis (1926. Despite the formal and aesthetic incompatability of early twentieth century (predominantly Western works of this literary genre and more recent ones, East and West, the underlying dialectic tension between progressive optimism and disorientation, existential up-rootedness, alienation and angst (Rilke's loss of soul as archetypal manifestation of mega-city reality and its social structure and organisation, constitutes a generic hallmark, regardless of time and place. Significantly, the relevance of this problem is reinforced, theoretically and practically, by the eminent scholar and architect Rem Koolhaas whose reflections have China as a principal reference point of the global "out-of-control process of modernisation". This paper focuses on the literary representation of the complexity and universality of the problem and the social implications of the blurred and ambiguous vision of urban reality with particular reference to contemporary Chinese literature.

Xia Li

2007-02-01

220

???????????????????????????? (Bulldozing Pudian Street: Destruction or Renewal? Ambiguities in Big City Novels in Late 20th Century Chinese Literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is little doubt that the most cogent literary representation of the experience of modernity has been realised in big city fiction and cinematographic masterpieces such as Fritz Lang's Metropolis (1926. Despite the formal and aesthetic incompatability of early twentieth century (predominantly Western works of this literary genre and more recent ones, East and West, the underlying dialectic tension between progressive optimism and disorientation, existential up-rootedness, alienation and angst (Rilke's loss of soul as archetypal manifestation of mega-city reality and its social structure and organisation, constitutes a generic hallmark, regardless of time and place. Significantly, the relevance of this problem is reinforced, theoretically and practically, by the eminent scholar and architect Rem Koolhaas whose reflections have China as a principal reference point of the global "out-of-control process of modernisation". This paper focuses on the literary representation of the complexity and universality of the problem and the social implications of the blurred and ambiguous vision of urban reality with particular reference to contemporary Chinese literature.

Xia Li

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

The 20th century retreat of ice caps in Iceland derived from airborne SAR : W-Vatnajökull and N-Myrdalsjökull  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We present observations of the long-term recession of surging outlets of Icelandic ice caps in response to 20th century climate. In August 1998, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data, covering the western part of Vatnajokull and the northern part of Myrdalsjokull in southern Iceland, were acquired with the Danish airborne EMISAR radar system. Polarimetric and interferometric SAR data reveal the margins of the present ice caps as well as a series of terminal moraines in the fore field. These moraines date back to the maximum Neoglacial extent at the end of the 19th century and the outermost allow reconstruction of the margin at that time. The data offer a unique opportunity to estimate the area decrease of these ice caps in the 20th century. The influence of the fluctuations of the surge type outlets, constituting most of W-Vatnajokull area and a good part of N-Myrdalsjokull area, is minimal, since they had all recently surged in 1998 as was presumably the case when the outermost moraines were formed. The major contributor to the area decrease is therefore climate changes in the 20th century even though the glacier retreat has been interrupted by short-lived surges. Moraines associated with most of the surges in W-Vatnajokull in the 20th century are observed in the SAR data including the most recent surges in the 1990s. Interestingly no push moraines were observed in front of the surge advance, but the moraines appear when the glaciers start retreating. We estimate that the collective decrease of the outlets of western Vatnajokull since maximum Neoglacial extent of each outlet, is log km(2) (6.7%) corresponding to an average retreat of 850 in over a 130 km long margin. In the same period the outlet Slettjokull, in N-Myrdalsjokull, has decreased by 33 km(2) (20%) corresponding to an average retreat of 1500 in over a 20 kin long margin. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Dall, Jørgen

2005-01-01

222

Infancia y salud mental pública en España: siglo XX y actualidad / Children and mental health in spain: 20th century and today  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este trabajo aborda una revisión histórica de la infancia en nuestro país en su vertiente educativa, social y sanitaria, profundizando en la historia y características particulares de la atención pública a la salud mental de nuestros menores. Como en cualquier reflexión histórica, en este trabajo su [...] byace una concepción teórica sobre el fenómeno estudiado, considerando que una asistencia digna al menor es fundamental para la prevención en la salud mental del adulto. Pese a los diferentes aspectos mejorables como el desigual desarrollo autonómico, la insuficiente dotación presupuestaria o la falta de implementación efectiva de los proyectos legales, se puede concluir que la situación de práctica desprotección del niño con trastorno mental a principios del siglo XX ha dado paso a una red asistencial que proporciona atención integral y gratuita a toda la población. Abstract in english This work deals with a historical review of children in our country in its educational, social and sanitary side, deeper into the history and characteristics of the public attention to the mental health of our children. As in any historical reflection in this work underlyes a theoretical conception [...] on the phenomenon under study, whereas a worthy assistance to minors is essential for prevention in mental health of the adult. Despite the different areas for improvement (unequal regional development, insufficient staffing budget, lack of effective implementation of law...), one can conclude that the situation of practical vulnerability of children with mental disorder in the early 20th century has given way to a health care network that gives a comprehensive and free care to the entire population.

Pilar, López Fraile; Sergio, Herrera López.

223

Lake surface area variations in the North-Eastern sector of Sagarmatha National Park (Nepal at the end of the 20th Century by comparison of historical maps  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of the present work was to investigate variations in the surface areas of lakes in the north-east sector of Sagarmatha National Park (Nepal at the end of the 20th century, through comparison of the Mount Everest maps based on a survey done in the early 1980s, and the official Map of Nepal based on a survey done at the beginning of the 1990s. The analysis of the changes occurring between the 1980s and the 1990s in the surface areas and distribution of lakes in the north-east sector of SNP reveals that lake areas substantially increased, by 15.4 (-5.5; +5.7% (median 12.5%, within hydrographic basins that included a certain amount of glacial cover. In fact, 96% of the lakes whose surface area increased are located in glacial basins. Conversely, the majority of the lakes without glacial cover in their catchment showed a reduction in surface area, and in many cases disappeared (83% of the lakes that disappeared were situated in basins without glaciers. This different behaviour of these two types of lakes, though observed over a short time span, would appear to be consistent with the consequences of temperature increases recorded from the beginning of 1980s on a global and local scale. The digital tool produced (Limnological Information System, LIS as part of this work is intended to provide a useful platform for extending the analysis to entire area of SNP, as well as for subsequent comparisons based on earlier maps or more recent satellite images.

Gabriele BRUCCOLERI

2008-08-01

224

FORESTS AND AGRICULTURE: AN OVERVIEW OF THE HISTORICAL LIMITS OF SUSTAINABILITY OF ARGENTINEAN FORESTS WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF 20TH CENTURY CAPITALIST EXPLOITATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available At the end of the 19th century, there were in Argentina 160 million hectares of natural forests, mountains and original jungles. In less than half a century, the country lost more than two—thirds of its aboriginal forests. Currently, the country has less than 33 million hectares of native forests. The exploitation of this extraordinary Argentinean forest wealth is the starting point of this historical analysis that intends to study, from an environmental history perspective, the evolution of forest exploitation in the 20th century and its relation to the expansion of the capitalist agricultural model. The main objective of the text is centered on the study of the deforestation process within the context of its participation in the market and the relation between said phenomenon and the agricultural frontier expansion, its artificial transformation, conflicts, specialization levels, rationality, interaction and the deterioration of forest resources.

Adrián Zarrilli

2008-08-01

225

Quantifying the role of fire in the Earth system - Part 2: Impact on the net carbon balance of global terrestrial ecosystems for the 20th century  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fire is the primary terrestrial ecosystem disturbance agent on a global scale. It affects carbon balance of global terrestrial ecosystems by emitting carbon to atmosphere directly and immediately from biomass burning (i.e., fire direct effect), and by changing net ecosystem productivity and land-use carbon loss in post-fire regions due to biomass burning and fire-induced vegetation mortality (i.e., fire indirect effect). Here, we provide the first quantitative assessment about the impact of fire on the net carbon balance of global terrestrial ecosystems for the 20th century, and investigate the roles of fire direct and indirect effects. This study is done by quantifying the difference between the 20th century fire-on and fire-off simulations with NCAR community land model CLM4.5 as the model platform. Results show that fire decreases net carbon gain of the global terrestrial ecosystems by 1.0 Pg C yr-1 average across the 20th century, as a results of fire direct effect (1.9 Pg C yr-1) partly offset by indirect effect (-0.9 Pg C yr-1). Fire generally decreases the average carbon gains of terrestrial ecosystems in post-fire regions, which are significant over tropical savannas and part of forests in North America and the east of Asia. The general decrease of carbon gains in post-fire regions is because fire direct and indirect effects have similar spatial patterns and the former (to decrease carbon gain) is generally stronger. Moreover, the effect of fire on net carbon balance significantly declines prior to ~1970 with trend of 8 Tg C yr-1 due to increasing fire indirect effect and increases afterward with trend of 18 Tg C yr-1 due to increasing fire direct effect.

Li, Fang; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Levis, Samuel

2014-03-07

226

20th Century Groundwater in the Northeast United States: A case study quantifying the impact of groundwater policies in New Jersey  

Science.gov (United States)

Groundwater is a vital resource throughout the Northeast corridor and is an important water source for domestic, industrial and irrigation purposes. During the 20th century, suburban groundwater withdrawals intensified with increasing population growth, the advent of rural electrification and sophisticated pumping technologies, thus, the need for effective groundwater management becomes increasingly important in the region. Data from the Unites States Geological Survey National Water-Use Information Program documents this concentrated use of groundwater in suburban areas, and is particularly prominent across the majority of New Jersey. Focusing on New Jersey as an area of significant groundwater use and increasing demand, this project investigates total groundwater withdrawals in conjunction with a policy-based framework, facilitating an awareness of groundwater impacts as informed through existing policy during the 20th century. The objectives of this study are to identify the relevant federal, statewide and municipal policies that evolved in the state of New Jersey during the 20th century, and examine the groundwater withdrawal trends for the state of New Jersey between 1950 - 2005. Preliminary results revealed that increased restrictions on groundwater policy between 1982 and 1997 had an observable affect on reducing total groundwater withdrawals. Multivariate regression analyses using indicator variables, i.e. mixed effects model, will be used to explore relationships between county specific withdrawals and significant policy that may have influenced groundwater usage. It is anticipated to observe a strong correlation between groundwater withdrawals and the effectiveness of the implemented groundwater policies. Future collaborative work will further investigate the effectiveness of policy as hydrologically evidenced by alterations in baseflow contribution to streamflow, and groundwater persistence.

Kanwar, P. S.; Arrigo, J. S.; Thomas, B.; Vogel, R. M.; Hoover, J. H.

2010-12-01

227

Natural stones and types of tombstones in National cemetery in Martin from half of the 19th to half of the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available About 500 tombstones from National cemetery in Martin were carried out. The cemetery represents section through sepulchral architecture in the 19th and 20th centuries and records history of natural stones use and tombstone evolution. From c. 1850, classicistic steles were produced from Gerecse marble and Banská Bystrica sandstone. Historicist steles of Silesian marble were imported from 1870s. End of 1880s years, variability of tombstone appearance began to grow. Outlined text, carved text fields, ornaments and new typefaces were emerged. In 90s years Carrara marble is imported. Real variousness of tombstone face is typical for first 20 years of the 20th century, when hard natural stones (Silesian granite, Swedish dolerite, and Norwegian larvikite are widely used. Besides them domestic Cenozoic conglomerates, Banská Bystrica sandstone and Bohemian Ho?ice sandstone were utilized. From 20s years to half of the century, variability of natural stones decreased at the expense of Swedish dolerite. Variety of tombstone shapes grew from decorated secession steles, through geometric functionalistic compositions, to simple tabular tombstones.

Daniel Pivko

2013-12-01

228

North-Atlantic Oscillation and regional-scale sea-surge variability in Gulf of Lions during the 20th century  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sea-surge variations recorded at three tide-gauge stations (Grau-de-la-Dent, Sète, and Port-Vendres) around the Gulf of Lions (Northwest Mediterranean Sea) are mostly locally forced by onshore winds blowing from 90° to 180° related to an atmospheric depression usually centered between the Bay of Biscay and the British Island, which is more prevalent during the negative phase of the North-Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). During the second half of the 20th century, the long-term increase of sea-s...

Ullmann, Albin; Moron, Vincent

2010-01-01

229

In memory of Professor Leonor Michaelis in Nagoya: great contributions to biochemistry in Japan in the first half of the 20th century.  

Science.gov (United States)

Leonor Michaelis spent the years of 1922-1926 as Professor of Biochemistry of the Aichi Medical College (now Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya University) in Nagoya, Japan. Michaelis succeeded in gathering many bright young biochemists from all over Japan into his laboratory, and made tremendous contributions to the promotion of biochemistry in Japan. Michaelis was invited to many places in Japan to present lectures over those years. Kunio Yagi, who was Professor of Biochemistry at Nagoya University in the second half of the 20th century, succeeded in crystallizing the "Michaelis" enzyme-substrate complex. Historically, Michelis has had an enormous impact on biochemistry in Japan. PMID:23628780

Nagatsu, Toshiharu Toshi

2013-09-01

230

Trace elements in South America aerosol during 20th century inferred from a Nevado Illimani ice core, Eastern Bolivian Andes (6350 m asl)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A 137 m ice core drilled in 1999 from Eastern Bolivian Andes at the summit of Nevado Illimani (16º 37' S, 67º 46' W, 6350 m asl) was analyzed at high temporal resolution, allowing a characterization of trace elements in Andean aerosol trapped in the ice during the 20th century. The upper 50 m of the ice core were dated by multi-proxy analysis of stable isotopes (d18O and d2H), 137Cs and Ca+2 content, electrical conductivity, and insoluble micropa...

2003-01-01

231

Tree-ring stable carbon isotope-based May-July temperature reconstruction over Nanwutai, China, for the past century and its record of 20th century warming  

Science.gov (United States)

Growth anomaly of trees in some regions was detected under current episode of rapid warming. This raises a dilemma for temperature reconstructions by using tree-ring width which is believed to be the most important proxy on inter-annual temperature reconstruction during the past millenniums. Here we employed the tree-ring ?13C to reconstruct temperature variations for exploring their potential on capturing signals of rapid warming, and to test how its difference with the tree-ring width based reconstruction. In this study the mean May-July temperature (TM-J) was reconstructed over the past century by tree-ring ?13C of Chinese pine trees growing in the Nanwutai region. The explained variance of the reconstruction was 43.3% (42.1% after adjusting the degrees of freedom). Compared to a ring-width temperature reconstruction (May-July) from the same site, the tree-ring ?13C-based temperature reconstruction offered two distinct advantages: 1) it captured a wider range of temperature variability, i.e., at least May-July, even over a longer part of the year, January-September; and 2) the reconstruction preserved more low-frequency climate information than that of ring width did. The 20th century warming was well represented in the Nanwutai tree-ring ?13C temperature reconstruction, which implied that stable carbon isotope of tree rings potentially represents temperature variations during historical episodes of rapid warming. A spatial correlation analysis showed that our temperature reconstruction represented climate variations over the entire Loess Plateau in north-central China. Significant positive correlations (p < 0.1) were found between the temperature reconstruction and ENSO, as well as SSTs in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. The reconstruction showed the periodicities of 22.78-, 4.16-, 3.45-3.97- and 2.04-2.83-year quasi-cycles at a 95% confidence level. Our results suggested that temperature variability in the Nanwutai region may be linked to Pacific and Indian Ocean SST variations and solar activity.

Liu, Yu; Wang, Yanchao; Li, Qiang; Song, Huiming; Linderhlom, Hans W.; Leavitt, Steven W.; Wang, Ruiyuan; An, Zhisheng

2014-06-01

232

Human teeth as historical biomonitors of environmental and dietary lead: some lessons from isotopic studies of 19th and 20th century archival material.  

Science.gov (United States)

The lead isotopic composition of various sections (crown, crown base, root) of teeth was determined in specimens collected from 19th century skulls preserved in museum collections and, upon extraction or exfoliation, from humans of known ages residing in Scotland in the 1990s. For most 20th century samples, calculation of accurate crown-complete or root-complete dates of tooth formation ranging from the 1920s to the 1990s enabled comparison of (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios for teeth sections (crown base root) with corresponding decadally averaged data for archival herbarium Sphagnum moss samples. This showed that the teeth sections had been significantly influenced by incorporation of non-contemporaneous (more recent) lead subsequent to the time of tooth formation, most probably via continuous uptake by dentine. This finding confirmed that separation of enamel from dentine is necessary for the potential of teeth sections as historical biomonitors of environmental (and dietary) lead exposure at the time of tooth formation to be realised. Nevertheless, the mean 19th century value of 1.172+/-0.007 for the (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratio in teeth was very similar to the corresponding mean value of 1.173+/-0.004 for 19th century archival moss, although relative contributions from environmental sources - whether direct, by inhalation/ingestion of dust contaminated by local lead smelting ((206)Pb/(207)Pb~1.17) and coal combustion ((206)Pb/(207)Pb~1.18) emissions, or indirect, through ingestion of similarly contaminated food - and drinking/cooking water contaminated by lead pipes of local origin, cannot readily be determined. In the 20th century, however, the much lower values of the (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratio (range 1.100-1.166, mean 1.126+/-0.013, median 1.124) for the teeth collected from various age groups in the 1990s reflect the significant influence of imported Australian lead of lower (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratio (~1.04) and released to the environment most notably through car-exhaust emissions arising from the use of alkyl lead additives ((206)Pb/(207)Pb~1.06-1.09) in petrol in the U.K. from ca. 1930 until the end of the 20th century. PMID:16752125

Farmer, J G; MacKenzie, A B; Moody, G H

2006-10-01

233

Development and Restoration of Sacral Objects in Vilnius at the End of the 19th and the Beginning of the 20th Century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available At the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century, due to the initiative of Russian government and Orthodox Church, several grand churches were built in Vilnius. The development and restoration of Catholic sacral objects were practically restricted until the end of Russian rule in 1915, but at the beginning of the 20th century, this restriction was slightly defused. The Catholic community of Vilnius seized this opportunity and began an action of sav-ing sacral objects. The churches of St. Ann and St. Michel and the interior of St. Peter and Paul’s church were restored. The development of new churches in Vilnius was enabled after revolution-ary events in 1905–1907 when tsarist authorities were forced to make some abatements for the people of the enslaved country. A small Catholic church in the actual Gerosios Vilties street and the church of St. Kasimir in Naujoji Vilnia were built, the construction of Blessed Virgin Mary church was started in Žv?rynas and a modern church of Holy Heart of Jesus was not completed. Article in Lithuanian

Henryka Ilgiewicz

2011-04-01

234

?Czech-Slovene? musicians?: On the question of national identity in Slovene music at the turn of the 19th to the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article, the author observes and discusses the questions of national identity in the context of Czech and Slovenian music at the turn of the 19th to the 20th century. The Italian and German influences dominating Slovenian music in the past began from the mid 19th century onward to be replaced by predominantly Czech elements as the consequence of the numerous Czech musical immigration in Slovenia. Many of Czech musicians were naturalized in Slovenia and can therefore be included among Slovenian musicians. Although they actively supported the building of a Slovenian national style, they did not feel the need for the repeated ?esthetic evaluation of traditional frames.

Vajs Jernej

2007-01-01

235

The age gender structure of population of Goc and its foothill at the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The analysis of the age structure of population of Goc Mountain and its foothill is elaborated in the paper. Data in the paper refer to the second half of 20th century and to the beginning of the 21st century. There are many tasks of the paper. The first task is to represent and to compare the parameters of age structure of Goc and his foothill. The task of this paper is to present the parameters of the age structure of Goc Mountain and its foothill. Then, comparing them to identify and interpret trends in their movements. The paper shows the spatial distribution of the index of aging by cadastral municipalities. Factors that have influenced it are highlighted. Special attention is given to problems, which appear as a consequence of aging of population. Paper will contribute to enriching the knowledge about population and settlements of the Goc Mountain and the West Morava valley. .

Kova?evi? Tamara

2010-01-01

236

Income distribution dynamics in the Netherlands in the 20th century - Long run developments and cyclical properties  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper contributes to the evidence on the distribution of income in the Netherlands by constructing decile and quintile income shares for gross- and for disposable income covering almost the entire twentieth century. It suggests some interpretations of the general trends, while the cyclical properties of the Dutch income distribution are empirically investigated through time-series analysis.

2005-01-01

237

Trace elements in South America aerosol during 20th century inferred from a Nevado Illimani ice core, Eastern Bolivian Andes (6350 m asl  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 137 m ice core drilled in 1999 from Eastern Bolivian Andes at the summit of Nevado Illimani (16º 37' S, 67º 46' W, 6350 m asl was analyzed at high temporal resolution, allowing a characterization of trace elements in Andean aerosol trapped in the ice during the 20th century. The upper 50 m of the ice core were dated by multi-proxy analysis of stable isotopes (d18O and d2H, 137Cs and Ca+2 content, electrical conductivity, and insoluble microparticle content, together with reference historical horizons from atmospheric nuclear tests and known volcanic eruptions. This 50 m section corresponds to a record of environmental variations spanning about 80 years from 1919 to 1999. It was cut in 744 sub-samples under laminar flow in a clean bench, which were analyzed by Ion Chromatography for major ionic concentration, by a particle counter for insoluble aerosol content, and by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS for the concentration of 45 chemical species from Li to U. This paper focuses on results of trace element concentrations measured by ICP-MS. The high temporal resolution used in the analyses allowed classifying samples as belonging to dry or wet seasons. During wet season elemental concentrations are low and samples show high crustal enrichment factors. During dry seasons the situation is opposite, with high elemental concentrations and low crustal enrichments. For example, with salt lakes as main sources in the region, average Li concentration during the 20th century is 0.035 and 0.90 ng g-1 for wet and dry seasons, respectively. Illimani average seasonal concentration ranges cover the spectrum of elemental concentration measurements at another Andean ice core site (Sajama for most soil-related elements. Regional crustal dust load in the deposits was found to be overwhelming during dry season, obfuscating the contribution of biomass burning material. Marked temporal trends from the onset of 20th century to more recent years were identified for the concentrations of several trace species of anthropic origin, especially for Cu, As, Zn, Cd, Co, Ni and Cr. Among these elements, Cu shows average wet season crustal enrichment factors above 103, while the others range between 102 to about 5x102. P and K show moderate average wet season enrichment factors, suggesting an impact of natural biogenic emissions from the Amazon Basin. Pb has multiple anthropic sources in the region, from mining activities in the beginning of 20th century to automotive fuel after 1950s. From the large number of samples analyzed from Illimani, it was possible to derive an effective chemical characterization of the deposited background Andean soil dust aerosol during 20th century.

A. Correia

2003-01-01

238

Trace elements in South America aerosol during 20th century inferred from a Nevado Illimani ice core, Eastern Bolivian Andes (6350 m a.s.l.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 137 m ice core drilled in 1999 from Eastern Bolivian Andes at the summit of Nevado Illimani (16° 37' S, 67° 46' W, 6350 m a.s.l. was analyzed at high temporal resolution, allowing a characterization of trace elements in Andean aerosol trapped in the ice during the 20th century. The upper 50 m of the ice core were dated by multi-proxy analysis of stable isotopes (d18O and d2H, 137Cs and Ca+2 content, electrical conductivity, and insoluble microparticle content, together with reference historical horizons from atmospheric nuclear tests and known volcanic eruptions. This 50 m section corresponds to a record of environmental variations spanning about 80 years from 1919 to 1999. It was cut in 744 sub-samples under laminar flow in a clean bench, which were analyzed by Ion Chromatography for major ionic concentration, by a particle counter for insoluble aerosol content, and by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS for the concentration of 45 chemical species from Li to U. This paper focuses on results of trace element concentrations measured by ICP-MS. The high temporal resolution used in the analyses allowed classifying samples as belonging to dry or wet seasons. During wet season elemental concentrations are low and samples show high crustal enrichment factors. During dry seasons the situation is opposite, with high elemental concentrations and low crustal enrichments. For example, with salt lakes as main sources in the region, average Li concentration during the 20th century is 0.035 and 0.90 ng g?1 for wet and dry seasons, respectively. Illimani average seasonal concentration ranges cover the spectrum of elemental concentration measurements at another Andean ice core site (Sajama for most soil-related elements. Regional crustal dust load in the deposits was found to be overwhelming during dry season, obfuscating the contribution of biomass burning material. Marked temporal trends from the onset of 20th century to more recent years were identified for the concentrations of several trace species of anthropic origin, especially for Cu, As, Zn, Cd, Co, Ni and Cr. Among these elements, Cu shows average wet season crustal enrichment factors above 103, while the others range between 102 to about 5×102. P and K show moderate average wet season enrichment factors, suggesting an impact of natural biogenic emissions from the Amazon Basin. Pb has multiple anthropic sources in the region, from mining activities in the beginning of 20th century to automotive fuel after 1950's. From the large number of samples analyzed from Illimani, it was possible to derive an effective chemical characterization of the deposited background Andean soil dust aerosol during 20th century.

J.-D. Taupin

2003-05-01

239

Important theories of the 20th century. Relativity, cosmology, quantum mechanics and chaos theory. 3. corr. ed.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The past century changed the classical, scientific way of view enormously. The quantum theory broke with the imagination of continuity of all dynamical processes and gave space to completely new, nearly revolutionary approaches of thinking. Einstein's relativity theory put the absoluteness of time and space as well as the general validity of the Euclidean geometry in question. The absolute calculability, as it was formulated by Laplace, was by the influence of chaos theory proven as illusion. Computers made by the Mandelbrot set the presentation of new esthetic and never seen structures. Hilbert's century program of a complete formalization of mathematics failed because of the famous law of Goedel. It is the demand of this book to present all these theories and conclusions easily understandably and entertainingly.

2011-01-01

240

Aspects of Corporeality in the Literary Theory of the 20th Century: Roland Barthes and Algirdas Julius Greimas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This dissertation offers an analysis of the notion and meaning of the body and different kind of aspects of corporeality in French structuralist theories, more specifically, in the later works (dating from the ‘70s) by two immensely influential authors of the second half of the twentieth century, Roland Barthes (1915–1980) and Algirdas Julius Greimas (1917–1992), whose legacy had an profound impact on literary studies. Despite differences in the approach applied by Barthes and Greimas i...

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Japan: state and people in the twentieth century - papers presented at the STICERD 20th anniversary symposium in July 1998  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The four papers and comments in this volume deal with different aspects of the relationship between state and people in twentieth century Japan. Ben-Ami Shillony's paper is concerned with religious aspects of this relationship, in particular concerning the role of the emperor, while Barbara Molony is concerned with the position of women. Sheldon Garon's paper deals with the state's propaganda to promote saving, while Werner Pascha addresses the broader issue of the position of central governm...

Garon, Sheldon; Molony, Barbara; Pascha, Werner; Shillony, Ben-ami

1999-01-01

242

Fsiles de novela: paleontologa y literatura en la argentina de fines del siglo XIX y principios del siglo Fossils as fictional characters: Argentine paleontology and literature in the late 19th century and the beginnings of the 20th century  

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Full Text Available La literatura argentina de la segunda mitad del siglo XIX y comienzos del siglo XX refiri la presencia de mamferos fsiles cenozoicos en las pampas. Gliptodontes y megaterios devinieron en personajes de los textos de Eduardo Ladislao Holmberg, William Henry Hudson, Eduarda y Lucio Victorio Mansilla, Leopoldo Lugones, Geoffroy Franois Daireux, Horacio Quiroga, Hugo Wast, Ezequiel Martnez Estrada, Leopoldo Marechal y Manuel Mujica Lainez. Estos autores contextualizaron a los vertebrados fsiles en escenas humorsticas o realistas, como iconos de la grandeza de la Pampa y la nacin o parodia de estereotipos culturales locales.Argentine literature from the second half of the 19th century and the early 20th century referred to the presence of Cenozoic fossil mammals in the pampas. Glyptodons and megatheriums became characters in the texts of Eduardo Ladislao Holmberg, William Henry Hudson, Eduarda y Lucio Victorio Mansilla, Leopoldo Lugones, Geoffroy Franois Daireux, Horacio Quiroga, Hugo Wast, Ezequiel Martnez Estrada, Leopoldo Marechal and Manuel Mujica Lainez. These authors contextualize the fossil vertebrates in humoristic or realistic scenes, as icons of the greatness of the nation and the Pampa, or as a parody of local cultural stereotypes.

Eduardo G. Ottone

2011-09-01

243

Fsiles de novela: paleontologa y literatura en la argentina de fines del siglo XIX y principios del siglo / Fossils as fictional characters: Argentine paleontology and literature in the late 19th century and the beginnings of the 20th century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La literatura argentina de la segunda mitad del siglo XIX y comienzos del siglo XX refiri la presencia de mamferos fsiles cenozoicos en las pampas. Gliptodontes y megaterios devinieron en personajes de los textos de Eduardo Ladislao Holmberg, William Henry Hudson, Eduarda y Lucio Victorio Mansilla, [...] Leopoldo Lugones, Geoffroy Franois Daireux, Horacio Quiroga, Hugo Wast, Ezequiel Martnez Estrada, Leopoldo Marechal y Manuel Mujica Lainez. Estos autores contextualizaron a los vertebrados fsiles en escenas humorsticas o realistas, como iconos de la grandeza de la Pampa y la nacin o parodia de estereotipos culturales locales. Abstract in english Argentine literature from the second half of the 19th century and the early 20th century referred to the presence of Cenozoic fossil mammals in the pampas. Glyptodons and megatheriums became characters in the texts of Eduardo Ladislao Holmberg, William Henry Hudson, Eduarda y Lucio Victorio Mansilla [...] , Leopoldo Lugones, Geoffroy Franois Daireux, Horacio Quiroga, Hugo Wast, Ezequiel Martnez Estrada, Leopoldo Marechal and Manuel Mujica Lainez. These authors contextualize the fossil vertebrates in humoristic or realistic scenes, as icons of the greatness of the nation and the Pampa, or as a parody of local cultural stereotypes.

Ottone, Eduardo G..

244

Estimation of the Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance for the 20th and 21st centuries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Results from a regional climate simulation (1970–2006) over the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) reveals that more than 97% of the interannual variability of the modelled Surface Mass Balance (SMB) can be explained by the GrIS summer temperature anomaly and the GrIS annual precipitation anomaly. This multiple regression is then used to empirically estimate the GrIS SMB since 1900 from climatological time series. The projected SMB changes in the 21st century are investigated with the set of simula...

Fettweis, X.; Hanna, E.; Galle?e, H.; Huybrechts, P.; Erpicum, M.

2008-01-01

245

Underperformance in affluence: the remarkable relative decline in American heights in the second half of the 20th-century  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: We use the complete set of NHES and NHANES data collected between 1959 and 2004 in order to construct trends for the physical stature of the non-Hispanic white and black US adult population and compare them to those of Western- and Northern-Europeans. Method: Regression analysis is used to estimate the trend in US heights stratified by gender and ethnicity holding income and educational attainment constant. Results: US heights have stabilized at mid-century and a perio0d of stagnat...

2006-01-01

246

Structural change in a system of urban places: the 20th-century evolution of Hungary's urban settlement network.  

Science.gov (United States)

A review of urban change in Hungary in the twentieth century is presented. Both the traditional approach to studying urban change, involving changes in the percentage of those residing in urban areas, and the newly developed approach, focusing on regional aspects of urbanization, are used in the analysis. "In sharp contrast to most European countries Hungary is shown to evidence continued centralization of urban development, but the recent experience of Budapest and other indicators are said to portend future decentralization." (summary in FRE, GER) PMID:12267591

Zovanyi, G

1986-02-01

247

Simulations of 20th and 21st century Arctic cloud amount in the global climate models assessed in the IPCC AR4  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Simulations of late 20th and 21st century Arctic cloud amount from 20 global climate models (GCMs) in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 (CMIP3) dataset are synthesized and assessed. Under recent climatic conditions, GCMs realistically simulate the spatial distribution of Arctic clouds, the magnitude of cloudiness during the warmest seasons (summer-autumn), and the prevalence of low clouds as the predominant type. The greatest intermodel spread and most pronounced model error of excessive cloudiness coincides with the coldest seasons (winter-spring) and locations (perennial ice pack, Greenland, and the Canadian Archipelago). Under greenhouse forcing (SRES A1B emissions scenario) the Arctic is expected to become cloudier, especially during autumn and over sea ice, in tandem with cloud decreases in middle latitudes. Projected cloud changes for the late 21st century depend strongly on the simulated modern (late 20th century) annual cycle of Arctic cloud amount: GCMs that correctly simulate more clouds during summer than winter at present also tend to simulate more clouds in the future. The simulated Arctic cloud changes display a tripole structure aloft, with largest increases concentrated at low levels (below 700 hPa) and high levels (above 400 hPa) but little change in the middle troposphere. The changes in cloud radiative forcing suggest that the cloud changes are a positive feedback annually but negative during summer. Of potential explanations for the simulated Arctic cloud response, local evaporation is the leading candidate based on its high correlation with the cloud changes. The polar cloud changes are also significantly correlated with model resolution: GCMs with higher spatial resolution tend to produce larger future cloud increases. (orig.)

Vavrus, Steve [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Center for Climatic Research, Madison, WI (United States); Waliser, Duane [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, MS 183-501, Water and Carbon Cycles Group, Pasadena, CA (United States); Schweiger, Axel [University of Washington, Polar Science Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Francis, Jennifer [Rutgers University, J. J. Howard Marine Laboratory, Highlands, NJ (United States)

2009-12-15

248

São Paulo e a Ideologia Higienista entre os séculos XIX e XX: a utopia da civilidade Hygienism in Sao Paulo between 19th and 20th centuries: the civilizing utopia  

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Full Text Available No contexto da modernidade, situamos o período entre o final do Século XIX e início do XX, em São Paulo, mais precisamente nos primórdios da República, quando houve um processo de higiene e limpeza social, associado à pobreza e, ao mesmo tempo, a um desejo utópico de uma cidade limpa e saudável, como ideologia elitista.In this paper, we analyze, within the context of modernity, the period between the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century in São Paulo. More precisely, the early days of the Republic, when a process of hygiene and 'social cleansing' took place, which was associated with poverty, and, at the same time, with a utopian desire for a clean and healthy city as an ideology of elites.

Afonso Soares de Oliveira Sobrinho

2013-04-01

249

Estimation of the Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance for the 20th and 21st centuries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Results from a regional climate simulation (1970–2006 over the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS reveals that more than 97% of the interannual variability of the modelled Surface Mass Balance (SMB can be explained by the GrIS summer temperature anomaly and the GrIS annual precipitation anomaly. This multiple regression is then used to empirically estimate the GrIS SMB since 1900 from climatological time series. The projected SMB changes in the 21st century are investigated with the set of simulations performed with atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs of the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC AR4. These estimates show that the high surface mass loss rates of recent years are not unprecedented in the GrIS history of the last hundred years. The minimum SMB rate seems to have occurred earlier in the 1930s and corresponds to a zero SMB rate. The AOGCMs project that the SMB rate of the 1930s would be common at the end of 2100. The temperature would be higher than in the 1930s but the increase of accumulation in the 21st century would partly offset the acceleration of surface melt due to the temperature increase. However, these assumptions are based on an empirical multiple regression only validated for recent/current climatic conditions, and the accuracy and time homogeneity of the data sets and AOGCM results used in these estimations constitute a large uncertainty.

X. Fettweis

2008-09-01

250

[Dog slaughtering in Germany in the 19th and 20th centuries with special consideration of the Munich area].  

Science.gov (United States)

In the 19th century professional dog slaughter and also the public sale of dog flesh arose. These slaughter and the sale was mainly practised by horse butchers. In Germany dogs had been mostly slaughtered in Sachsen, Schlesien, Anhalt and Bayern. From 1905 to 1940 the meat of 235.144 dogs was inspected. But the true number of slaughtered dogs was certainly larger. Yet in the fifties dogs were professionally slaughtered. After 1960 the slaughter dropped. Sporadically dog flesh was used as human food until 1985. The annual number of slaughtered dogs depended on economic factors like wages, prices of meat, availability of meat and dog tax. Dogs had been also slaughtered to produce dog fat for remedy. Slaughter of dogs has been already discussed in the 19th century. After 1930 it was called for abolishing the inspection order for dogs or for the prohibition of dog slaughter. After four bills of the years 1954, 1963 and 1985 the slaughter of dogs to produce human food was finally prohibited in 1986. PMID:1463437

Geppert, P

1992-10-01

251

20th and 21st Century Climate Simulations and Projections in Central Africa by CMIP5 Climate Models  

Science.gov (United States)

Global and regional climate change assessments rely heavily on the Global Climate Model (GCM) outputs provided by the IPCC's Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP5). In this study, we evaluate the ability of 25 GCMs to simulate historical precipitation and near surface temperature fields in Central Africa, apply a quantile-mapping based bias correction to monthly climate fields, and develop three-hourly, daily, and monthly bias-corrected fields for the period 1948-2099. The dataset, at 1.0o latitude/longitude horizontal resolution, is constructed by combining a suite of global observation and reanalysis based monthly and three-hourly data, monthly GCM simulations for the twentieth century, and twenty-first century projections for the IPCC medium mitigation (RCP45) and high emission (RCP85) scenarios. The GCMs simulate historical temperature better than precipitation, but substantial spatial heterogeneity exists among models. Many models show limited skill in simulating the seasonal evolution of present day precipitation, but none of them reveal changes in the seasonality in the future at monthly scale. We present the comparison of historical model performance by individual GCMs as well as several combinations of multimodel ensemble averages. Our results do not reveal any improvement in model performance between high- and low-resolution GCMs during the historical period. But, the multimodel averages of better performing models show greater skills in reproducing the historical climate over randomly selected GCM averages in Central Africa. Our analyses also show that the choice of GCM and emission scenario will dominate the uncertainty in climate change projections. Although our analyses are done for the Central African region, the final dataset is available for global land areas, which will be useful for a variety of climate impact, assessment, and adaptation studies.

Aloysius, N. R.; Saiers, J. E.; Sheffield, J.

2013-12-01

252

The Scientificalization and Vulgarization of Marxism in the 20th Century: A Critical Analysis on K. Popper’s Critique of Marxism  

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Full Text Available Marxism was indeed vulgarized due to scientism in the 20th century, which even limits the development of Chinese social theories nowadays. This paper put forward the idea that it was serious misunderstanding to interpret Marx as prophet or inventor like empiricists who regard finding out eternal laws as the goal of science. In fact, Marx did not propose any so-called “natural laws of historical development”. He articulated that the only thing worth to do was to take note of what happened before his eyes and to become its mouthpiece. Thus, to understand science in the face of social practice, to analyze everything historically and never to thrust “eternal” laws in any era should be taken as the core of Marx’s new science, which is very important to China today.

Fan Chang

2013-10-01

253

Population trends in Vojvodina during the 20th and at the beginning of the 21st century  

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Full Text Available Demographic development belongs to the group of the primary social and developmental issues, and the demographic processes and tendencies in the population trends are included in the basic social processes which are expressed by the demographic (that is, synthetic social indicators. The process of the depopulation of Vojvodina is a result of the several-decades long decrease in birthrate, ageing of the population and mortality rate which is related to a series of historical, socioeconomic, cultural educational, specifically local, family, as well as psychological factors. Unfavourable demographic circumstances in Vojvodina started already in the 1920s, and became more pronounced after World War II, in 1989 resulting in the negative natural increase (-1%o, in the process of a more intensive decrease in the population which today, in the 21st century, acquires greater dimensions (-4,7%o in 2002, creating not only disturbances in the demographic, but also in the economic-social structures. Taking into account the far-developed process of demographic ageing of the population of Vojvodina and the accepted reproductive norms implying a low fertility (giving birth to a smaller number of children or only one child which does not ensure even the simple reproduction of the population, one cannot expect - in spite of the present immigrational processes (the inflow of refugees and the absolute increase in the population (between the previous two censuses - significantly more favourable population trends and a better prospective demographic picture of Vojvodina.

Golubovi? Petar

2006-01-01

254

A historical approach to scorpion studies with special reference to the 20 th and 21st centuries  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This work provides historical context about scorpion studies from the end of the 19 th century to the present day. The content is mainly addressed to non-zoologists, working in research fields that embrace scorpion biology, notably to those working with venoms and toxins. The historical aspects desc [...] ribed include academic professional scholars who worked on scorpion classification and general distribution patterns; and to a lesser extent, on studies of ecology and natural history. The aim is not to provide an exhaustive description of all scholars who in one way or another became involved with scorpions, but rather of those who greatly contributed during a given period to the research of these organisms. No critical analysis of the work of previous researchers is undertaken, but some comments are proposed to bring clarification on ‘who’s who’. Since a global consensus in relation to classification and/or distribution patterns has not been reached among modern experts, these different approaches are also presented without judgment. Consequently, distinct approaches remain open for discussion.

Lourenço, Wilson R.

2014-11-03

255

A historical approach to scorpion studies with special reference to the 20th and 21st centuries.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work provides historical context about scorpion studies from the end of the 19th century to the present day. The content is mainly addressed to non-zoologists, working in research fields that embrace scorpion biology, notably to those working with venoms and toxins. The historical aspects described include academic professional scholars who worked on scorpion classification and general distribution patterns; and to a lesser extent, on studies of ecology and natural history. The aim is not to provide an exhaustive description of all scholars who in one way or another became involved with scorpions, but rather of those who greatly contributed during a given period to the research of these organisms. No critical analysis of the work of previous researchers is undertaken, but some comments are proposed to bring clarification on 'who's who'. Since a global consensus in relation to classification and/or distribution patterns has not been reached among modern experts, these different approaches are also presented without judgment. Consequently, distinct approaches remain open for discussion. PMID:24618067

Lourenço, Wilson R

2014-01-01

256

Geochemical response of a closed-lake basin to 20th century recurring droughts/wet intervals in the subtropical Pampean Plains of South America  

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Full Text Available Laguna Mar Chiquita is a highly variable closed saline lake located in the Pampean Plains of central Argentina. Presently is the largest saline lake in South America (? 6,000 km2 and also one of the largest in the world. During the 20th century the hydrological balance of the region was characterized by contrasting scenarios. Well-defined wet or dry climatic phases had ruled the lake level fluctuations and the rivers discharge, mainly controlling the geochemical composition of sediments. Sediments accumulated during positive hydrological balances (i.e., high lake level are mainly composed of allogenic mineral due to higher riverine inputs into the lake. This fluvial-dominated lake phases are recorded as sediments enriched in Al2O3, SiO2, K2O, Fe2O3 and TiO2 and in trace elements such as Co, Cr, Cs, Rb, Sc, Hf, Ta, Th as well as rare earth elements (REE. Sediments accumulated during dry phases (i.e., low lake levels and high salinity are evaporite mineral-rich with elevated concentrations of CaO, MnO, MgO, and P2O5. High contents of As and U are probably due to a co-precitation during high evaporative phases. The calibration of the sediment chemical composition of Laguna Mar Chiquita to well-defined water-level fluctuations of the 20th century shows that elemental geochemistry can be a useful proxy to study former lake-water fluctuations. It may further provide a comparative model to evaluate past environmental conditions in other saline lacustrine basins.

Daniel ARIZTEGUI

2004-02-01

257

Reconstructing the population dynamics of sprat (Sprattus sprattus balticus) in the Baltic Sea in the 20th century  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Long time-series of population dynamics are increasingly needed in order to understand human impacts on marine ecosystems and support their sustainable management. In this study, the estimates of sprat (Sprattus sprattus balticus) biomass in the Baltic Sea were extended back from the beginning of ICES stock assessments in 1974 to the early 1900s. The analyses identified peaks in sprat spawner biomass in the beginning of the 1930s, 1960s, and 1970s at â?¼900 kt. Only a half of that biomass was estimated for the late 1930s, for the period from the late 1940s to the mid-1950s, and for the mid-1960s. For the 1900s, fisheries landings suggest a relatively high biomass, similar to the early 1930s. The exploitation rate of sprat was low until the development of pelagic fisheries in the 1960s. Spatially resolved analyses from the 1960s onwards demonstrate changes in the distribution of sprat biomass over time. The average body weight of sprat by age in the 1950s to 1970s was higher than at present, but lower than during the 1980s to 1990s. The results of this study facilitate new analyses of the effects of climate, predation, and anthropogenic drivers on sprat, and contribute to setting long-term management strategies for the Baltic Sea.

Eero, Margit

2012-01-01

258

Sexualidade e medicina: a revolução do século XX: the 20th-century sexual revolution / Sexuality and medicine  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O artigo discute a contribuição da medicina, segundo o controle normativo e tecnológico da sexualidade feminina e do processo reprodutivo (parto, aleitamento, contracepção e tratamento das infertilidades) para a construção, durante o século XX, de um novo modelo de reprodução (biológica e social), c [...] alcado em uma mudança radical das identidades e das relações e formas de união entre os sexos (desagregação de laços matrimoniais tradicionais, crescimento das uniões consensuais, monogamia serial, etc.). Este modelo se sustenta em uma separação radical entre sexualidade e reprodução correlata de um modelo único e horizontal de sexualidade (contrariamente ao modelo hierárquico dos dois sexos do século XIX), dirigida primordialmente para o prazer e progressivamente desvinculada dos laços sociais e afetos que lhes são correspondentes. Discute, além da contribuição da medicina (notadamente a partir dos efeitos da reprodução assistida) e da sexologia (universalização do imperativo do orgasmo), a contribuição da epidemiologia (por meio das pesquisas relacionadas à AIDS) para a transformação de uma normal moral sobre a sexualidade em uma norma abstrata e meramente estatística. Abstract in english This paper discusses the role of medicine, ranging from the normative and technological control of women's sexuality and reproductive process (childbirth, breastfeeding, contraception, and treatment of infertility) through the construction of a new (biological and social) reproductive model, based o [...] n a radical change of identities, relations, and forms of union between the sexes (a break with the traditional concept of marriage, growth of open unions, serial monogamy, etc.). This model is sustained by a radical distinction between sexuality and reproduction, related to a unique and horizontal model of sexuality (in opposition to the hierarchical 19th-century two-sexes model); the new model focuses mainly on pleasure and moves progressively away from social ties and affection. In addition to the contribution of medicine (notably through assisted reproduction) and sexology (universalization of the orgasm imperative), the paper also discusses the contribution of epidemiology (through AIDS-related research) to the transformation of a moral sexual norm into an abstract and merely statistical standard.

Maria Andréa, Loyola.

259

PUBLICATIONS OF MYKOLAS BIRZISKA IN VILNIUS PRESS AT THE BEGINNING OF THE 20TH CENTURY: FEATURES OF THE INTELLECTUAL BIOGRAPHY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mykolas Birziska (1882–1962 was a prominent Lithuanian scholar and politic, a signatory of the Act of Independence (1918, a member of Lithuanian Council (1917–1920, director of the first Lithuanian Gymnasium of Vytautas the Great in Vilnius (1915–1922, professor and rector of Kaunas and Vilnius universities. This articles deals with his early journalistic activities and editorship in the press in Vilnius before the outbreak of the First World War, and seeks to analyze the formation of his intellectual and political attitudes. In 1905, being a member of the Party of Lithuanian Social Democrats, Birziska began his journalistic career in socialist press. In 1906 heedited a party newspaper “Echo” in Polish language, where his specific interest in cooperation between different nationalities first became vivid. At the same time he began contributing to theliberal and antinationalist newspaper of the Polish krajovtsy movement “Gazeta Wileñska” (edited by Michal Römer, that argued for the political equality and tolerant cultural coexistence of allthe national groups in Lithuania. After the closure of “Gazeta Wileñska”, Birziska in 1907–1908 cooperated with another liberal daily in Russian language “Severo-Zapadnyj Golos”. Writing in threelanguages and simultaneously contributing to Lithuanian, Polish, and Russian press, Birziska exercised a specific role of a publicist as a mediator between different cultural groups in the multinational city. Professional analysis of the national conflicts, the principals of cultural tolerance and liberal antinationalist outlooks became the dominant features of his trilingual journalistic texts. Consequently, Birziska seeked to realize these intellectual attitudes working at the Lithuanian daily “Vilniaus zinios” in 1908 and especially editing the journal “Visuomene” (1910–1911 for the Lithuanian leftist intelligentsia. Birziska’s journalistic activities and his early intellectual biography carried features of specific cultural liberalism that was characteristic to the entire group of multinational intelligentsia in Vilnius before the First World War (Michal Römer, Tadeusz Wróblewski, Anton and Ivan Luckievich, Uriah Katzenelenbogen, and others.

Kvietkauskas, Mindaugas

2006-12-01

260

The challenge of antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus: lessons from hospital nurseries in the mid-20th century.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the late 1940s, epidemics of antibiotic-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus began to plague postpartum nurseries in hospitals across the United States. Exacerbated by overcrowding and nursing shortages, resistant S. aureus outbreaks posed a novel challenge to physicians and nurses heavily reliant on antibiotics as both prophylaxis and treatment. This paper explores the investigation of the reservoir, mode of transmission, and virulence of S. aureus during major hospital outbreaks and the subsequent implementation of novel infection control measures from the late 1940s through the early 1960s. The exploration of these measures reveals a shift in infection control policy as hospitals, faced with the failure of antibiotics to slow S. aureus outbreaks, implemented laboratory culture routines, modified nursery structure and layout, and altered nursing staff procedures to counter various forms of S. aureus transmission. Showcasing the need for widespread epidemiologic surveillance, ultimately manifesting itself in specialized "hospital epidemiology" training promoted in the 1970s, the challenges faced by hospital nurses in the 1950s prove highly relevant to the continued struggle with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and other resistant nosocomial infections. PMID:23766746

Shaffer, Robyn Kroop

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
261

Procesos de escolarización en los inicios del siglo XX: La instrucción rudimentaria en México / Schooling processes at the beginning of the 20th century: Rudimentary education in Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La escolarización de masas fue un asunto público que ocupó la atención de intelectuales, políticos y pedagogos en la transición del siglo XIX al XX. La obligatoriedad de la enseñanza representó un paso importante aunque insuficiente: más de 50 por ciento de la población en edad escolar seguía siendo [...] analfabeta y la oferta educativa se concentraba en las ciudades en un país donde 70 por ciento de la población vivía en el campo. En el proceso de construir la escolarización pública de masas se traza una curva de pensamiento que muestra replanteamientos en las concepciones sobre "el pueblo" y las formas de vincularlo con el desarrollo de la nación. El artículo enfoca la instrucción rudimentaria de principios del siglo XX y propone que esta experiencia de escolarización preparó para una "ruptura relativa" en la constelación de ideas sobre quién es el pueblo y cómo educarlo entre finales del XIX y la escuela rural que despunta en la posrevolución. Abstract in english The schooling of the masses has been a public affair that took up the attention of intellectuals, politicians and educators during the transition period between the 19th and the 20th Century. The introduction of compulsory education represented an important, although unsatisfactory step: more than 5 [...] 0 percent of the population in school age was still illiterate and the educational offer was greater in the towns in a country where 70 percent of the population lived in the country. This process of building up the public schooling of masses shows a thinking curve that makes necessary to rethink the conceptions about "the people" and the ways to connect it with the development of the nation. The article focuses on the rudimentary education of the beginnings of the 20th Century and proposes that this schooling experiment was the starting point for a "relative breaking-of" within the constellation of ideas about who is the people and how to educate it between the end of the 19th Century and the rural school that comes up affer the Mexican Revolution.

Josefina, Granja Castro.

262

Reconstructing hydroclimatic variability of the Bermejo River (Subtropical Andes of Argentina-Bolivia) through Archival Documents - 17th to 20th centuries  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this paper is to use climatic history for contributing to the general objectives of the IAI -CRN II-047 Project. It will reconstruct, from archival documents, the hydroclimatic variability occurring in the high basin of the Bermejo River during the last centuries and its effects on the floods and swellings in the middle basin. The Río Bermejo in the Southern Andes, is a binational (Argentina-Bolivia) river that contributes the largest proportion of the sediment load to the La Plata basin. Its headwaters are in the Subtropical Andes, near Tarija, Bolivia (22?00'14"S, 64?57'38"W). The main headwater tributaries are the Río Grande de Tarija, in Bolivia and the Iruya and San Francisco Rivers in Argentina. When the river abandons the mountain and turns eastwards (Gran Chaco), it acquires the characteristics of typical lowland rivers, widens its course, and occupies a large, low sedimentary plain with vast floodland areas. Quite often during very high sediment discharge the main river avulses and changes its course, creating big alluvial plains that are occupied for many years. Administrative documents from the colonial and republican periods have provided useful information to reconstruct climate and hydrology of the region. Documents from the Archivo General de Indias in Seville, Archivo Nacional de Bolivia and Archivo General de la Nación (Argentina) have been used to identify extreme floods and swellings in the high and middle-basin of the Rio Bermejo from the 17th century to the first decades of the 20th century. Old maps of the region, reports from annals, chronicles, priests' and travelers' descriptions were also used. Diaries written by the military, explorers and government officials in charge of discovering and taking possession of the territory also provide important sources of information. The archival documents show abrupt hydrological changes in response to the climatic fluctuations in the headwaters region. These records document extensive periods of drought followed by periods of abundant precipitation that have led to changes in the river course, mainly during the 1870s. More than 20 distinct floods, low water periods and droughts have been identified between 1800 and 2000. The extent of floods and changes in the river course have been mapped most detailedly for the 19th century. There is historical evidence suggesting that flood events have increased in frequency and intensity during the last century. Finally, we have compared the results with other historical reconstructions of streamflow from the Andes region as the Sali-Dulce River (Tucuman) and the Mendoza River.

Del Rosario Prieto, M.; Cueto, C.

2009-09-01

263

Wavelet and scaling analysis of monthly precipitation extremes in Germany in the 20th century: Interannual to interdecadal oscillations and the North Atlantic Oscillation influence  

Science.gov (United States)

Monthly precipitation extremes from gauging stations across Germany were studied using continuous wavelet tools toward variance and frequency-time localization and detection of dominant oscillations. Apart from the high-frequency, 1 year oscillation, the monthly precipitation extremes show enhanced power at interannual (7-8 years) and/or interdecadal (11-14 years) low-frequency scales, in particular in the second part of the 20th century, providing evidence for some regional climatic changes over Germany. Applying detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), scaling properties of the precipitation time series through the computation of the Hurst parameter are determined. It is apparent that data with low-frequency components, regardless of whether significant or not, show higher Hurst parameter values, that is, some amount of persistence, than data without such components. Through analyses of the scale-averaged wavelet power and the cross-wavelet spectra, evidence for a teleconnective influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation on the precipitation pattern, primarily over the last 40 years, and with partly opposite effects in the northern and southern parts of Germany, is found. As such, the North Atlantic Oscillation phase of enhanced decadal variability was shown to be responsible for the low-frequency precipitation components.

Markovi?, D.; Koch, M.

2005-09-01

264

Loss of genetic diversity among ocelots in the United States during the 20th century linked to human induced population reductions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) in the United States currently exhibit low levels of genetic diversity. One hypothesis for this observation is that habitat fragmentation, resulting from human induced changes in the landscape during the 20(th) century, created island populations with highly reduced gene flow and increased genetic drift and inbreeding. In an effort to investigate this, we used a portion of the mitochondrial control region and 11 autosomal microsatellite loci to examine historical levels of genetic diversity and infer temporal changes in ocelot populations between 1853 and 2005. Levels of genetic diversity were higher in historical ocelot populations than in extant populations from Texas. The earliest documented loss of mitochondrial haplotype diversity occurred at Laguna Atascosa National Wildlife Refuge. The second extant population inhabiting private lands in Willacy County retained higher levels of genetic diversity through the 1990s, but subsequently lost diversity over the next decade. A similar pattern was observed for autosomal microsatellite loci. This supports the argument that low levels of genetic diversity in Texas are related to human induced population reductions and fragmentation, both of which threaten the remaining ocelots in the United States. At this time, the best means of mitigating the continued erosion of genetic variation are translocation of individuals either from larger populations in Mexico to Texas, or between the Texas populations. PMID:24586737

Janecka, Jan E; Tewes, Michael E; Laack, Linda; Caso, Arturo; Grassman, Lon I; Honeycutt, Rodney L

2014-01-01

265

Historical outline of the cancer in the speech of the Doctors of the atlantic coast. The first half of the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present article is result of an historical investigation of descriptive character whichfundamental aim is to show, since the review of the medical scientific publications at theend of the 20th century and the first half of the 20thcentury, the presence of the canceras a welfare and academic subject matter in the Facultad de Medicina of the Universidadde Cartagena in Colombia. Moreover, to identify to the teachers who contributed in thediffusion of the knowledge in those subject matters and at that time the creators of anschool in pathological anatomy. Rev.cienc.biomed. 2012; 3(2: 377-387RESUMEN:El presente artículo es resultado de una investigación histórica de carácter descriptivocuyo objetivo es mostrar, desde la revisión de las publicaciones científico médicas definales del siglo XIX y la primera mitad del siglo XX, la presencia del cáncer comotemática académica y asistencial en la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad deCartagena y la ciudad de Cartagena en Colombia. Además identificar a los docentesque contribuyeron en la difusión del conocimiento en esas temáticas y a la sazón loscreadores de la escuela de anatomía patológica. Rev.cienc.biomed. 2012;3(2:377-387

Sierra-Merlano Rita

2012-12-01

266

La parasitología y la entomología en la narrativa latinoamericana del siglo XX / Parasitology and entomology in the 20th century Latin American narrative  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english In the present reviev of twelve pieces produced by distinguished 20th century Latin American writers Jorge Luis Borges from Argentina, Jorge Amado and João Ubaldo Ribeiro from Brazil, José Donoso from Chile, Gabriel García Márquez from Colombia, Alejo Carpentier from Cuba, Miguel Angel Asturias from [...] Guatemala, Octavio Paz from Mexico, Mario Vargas Llosa from Perú, Horacio Quiroga and Mario Benedetti from Uruguay and Arturo Uslar-Pietri from Venezuela ­ paragraphs or parts of paragraphs in which parasitological or entomological situations of the most varied hues are referred to or described, have been extracted in a selective form. Sometimes in these descriptions appear, local or regional expressions, without ignoring colorful folkloric representations. For a easier interpretation these or part of these paragraph sentences have been arranged by thematic similarities. In a varied and kaleidoscopic vision, it will be possible to find protozooses (malaria, Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, amibiasis), helminthiases (ascariasis, hydatidosis, trichinosis, schistosomiasis, cysticercosis, onchocerciasis), parasitoses produced by arthropods (pediculosis, scabies, tungiasis, myiasis), passing progressivelly to hemaphagous arthropods (mosquitoes, gnats, horse flies, bedbugs, ticks), venomous arthropods (Latrodectus spiders, scorpions, wasps, bees), mechanical vectors (flies and cockroaches), culminating with a conjuction of bucolic arthropods (butterflies, crickets, grasshoppers cicadas, ants, centipedes, beetles, glowworms, dragonflies).

Hugo, Schenone.

267

La parasitología y la entomología en la narrativa latinoamericana del siglo XX Parasitology and entomology in the 20th century Latin American narrative  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present reviev of twelve pieces produced by distinguished 20th century Latin American writers Jorge Luis Borges from Argentina, Jorge Amado and João Ubaldo Ribeiro from Brazil, José Donoso from Chile, Gabriel García Márquez from Colombia, Alejo Carpentier from Cuba, Miguel Angel Asturias from Guatemala, Octavio Paz from Mexico, Mario Vargas Llosa from Perú, Horacio Quiroga and Mario Benedetti from Uruguay and Arturo Uslar-Pietri from Venezuela ­ paragraphs or parts of paragraphs in which parasitological or entomological situations of the most varied hues are referred to or described, have been extracted in a selective form. Sometimes in these descriptions appear, local or regional expressions, without ignoring colorful folkloric representations. For a easier interpretation these or part of these paragraph sentences have been arranged by thematic similarities. In a varied and kaleidoscopic vision, it will be possible to find protozooses (malaria, Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, amibiasis, helminthiases (ascariasis, hydatidosis, trichinosis, schistosomiasis, cysticercosis, onchocerciasis, parasitoses produced by arthropods (pediculosis, scabies, tungiasis, myiasis, passing progressivelly to hemaphagous arthropods (mosquitoes, gnats, horse flies, bedbugs, ticks, venomous arthropods (Latrodectus spiders, scorpions, wasps, bees, mechanical vectors (flies and cockroaches, culminating with a conjuction of bucolic arthropods (butterflies, crickets, grasshoppers cicadas, ants, centipedes, beetles, glowworms, dragonflies.

Hugo Schenone

2000-07-01

268

High-resolution modelling of the Antarctic surface mass balance, application for the 20th, 21st and 22nd centuries  

Science.gov (United States)

Although areas below 2000 m above sea level (a.s.l.) cover 40% of the Antarctic grounded ice-sheet, they represent about 75% of the surface mass balance (SMB) of the continent. Because the topography is complex in many of these regions, SMB modelling is highly dependent on resolution, and studying the impact of Antarctica on the future rise in sea level requires high resolution physical approaches. We have developed a new, low time consuming, physical downscaling model for high-resolution (15 km) long-term SMB projections. Here, we present results of our SMHiL (surface mass balance high-resolution downscaling) model, which was forced with the LMDZ4 atmospheric general circulation model to assess SMB variation in the 21st and the 22nd centuries under two different scenarios. The higher resolution of SMHiL reproduces the geographical patterns of SMB better and induces a significantly higher averaged SMB over the grounded ice-sheet for the end of the 20th century. Our comparison of more than 2700 quality-controlled field data showed that LMDZ4 and SMHiL fit the observed values equally well. Nevertheless, field data below 2000 m a.s.l. are too scarce to settle SMHiL efficiency. Measuring the SMB in these undocumented areas is a future scientific priority. Our results suggest that running LMDZ4 at a finer resolution may give a future increase in SMB in Antarctica between 15% to 30% higher than its standard resolution. Future changes in the Antarctic SMB at low elevations will result from the conflict between higher snow accumulation and runoff. For this reason, developing a downscaling model was crucial to represent processes in sufficient detail and correctly model the SMB in coastal areas.

Agosta, Cécile; Favier, Vincent; Krinner, Gerhard; Gallée, Hubert; Genthon, Christophe

2013-04-01

269

The relative contributions of radiative forcing and internal climate variability to the late 20th Century winter drying of the Mediterranean region  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The roles of anthropogenic climate change and internal climate variability in causing the Mediterranean region's late 20th Century extended winter drying trend are examined using 19 coupled models from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report. The observed drying was influenced by the robust positive trend in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) from the 1960s to the 1990s. Model simulations and observations are used to assess the probable relative roles of radiative forcing, and internal variability in explaining the circulation trend that drove much of the precipitation change. Using the multi-model ensemble we assess how well the models can produce multidecadal trends of realistic magnitude, and apply signal-to-noise maximizing EOF analysis to obtain a best estimate of the models' (mean) sea-level pressure (SLP) and precipitation responses to changes in radiative forcing. The observed SLP and Mediterranean precipitation fields are regressed onto the timeseries associated with the models' externally forced pattern and the implied linear trends in both fields between 1960 and 1999 are calculated. It is concluded that the radiatively forced trends are a small fraction of the total observed trends. Instead it is argued that the robust trends in the observed NAO and Mediterranean rainfall during this period were largely due to multidecadal internal variability with a small contribution from the external forcing. Differences between the observed and NAO-associated precipitation trends are consistent with those expected as a response to radiative forcing. The radiatively forced trends in circulation and precipitation are expected to strengthen in the current century and this study highlights the importance of their contribution to future precipitation changes in the region. (orig.)

Kelley, Colin; Ting, Mingfang; Seager, Richard; Kushnir, Yochanan [Columbia University' s Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Palisades, NY (United States)

2012-05-15

270

Emplacement of ideas. The development of geographical thought in Brazil in the early 20th century  

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Full Text Available This paper looks at the circulation of modern geographical ideas in Brazil. The focus is on the relationship between geographical source models and the target model of domestic modernization. Three corresponding "mechanisms" provided the translation from one to the other: gradualism, adaptation and essentialism.

Lia Osorio Machado

1998-06-01

271

Housing in late 19th and early 20th century Port Elizabeth.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

• Opsomming: Hierdie inleidende en verkennende artikel poog om 'n Bydrae te lewer tot 'n historiografies verwaarloosde sosiale probleem. Binne 'n redelik beperkte konseptualisering word die volgende aspekte kortliks bespreek: enkele demografiese tendense; 'n Statistiese oorsig van behuising; die transformasie van tradisionele Afrika woonstrukture; enkele voorbeelde van spesifieke omstandighede; enkele reaksies van die stadsraad. Hieruit is dit duidelik dat behu...

Appel, Andre?

1995-01-01

272

Hyperdisease in the late Pleistocene: validation of an early 20th century hypothesis  

Science.gov (United States)

The hypothesis of disease-related large mammal extinction has new support. A unique pathologic zone of resorption was first noticed in a Hiscock Mammut americanum metacarpal. The pathognomonic zone of resorption was present in fifty-nine (52%) of 113 skeletons with feet available for examination. Metacarpals and metatarsals were most commonly affected. Associated rib periosteal reaction is highly suggestive of tuberculosis and the foot lesions were identical to that documented in Bison as pathognomonic for tuberculosis. Recognizing that only a portion of animals infected by infectious tuberculosis develop bone involvement, the high frequency of the pathology in M. americanum suggests that tuberculosis was not simply endemic, but actually pandemic, a hyperdisease. Pandemic tuberculosis was one of several probable factors contributing to mastodon extinction.

Rothschild, Bruce M.; Laub, Richard

2006-11-01

273

Research on iodine deficiency and goiter in the 19th and early 20th centuries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In 1811, Courtois noted a violet vapor arising from burning seaweed ash and Gay-Lussac subsequently identified the vapor as iodine, a new element. The Swiss physician Coindet, in 1813, hypothesized the traditional treatment of goiter with seaweed was effective because of its iodine content and successfully treated goitrous patients with iodine. Two decades later, the French chemist Boussingault, working in the Andes Mountains, was the first to advocate prophylaxis with iodine-rich salt to pre...

Zimmermann, M. B.

2008-01-01

274

[Russland an der Ostsee : imperiale Strategien der Macht und kulturelle Wahrnehmungsmuster (16. bis 20. Jahrhundert) = Russia on the Baltic : imperial strategies of power and cultural patterns of perception (16th-20th centuries). Hrsg. von Kartsen Br  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Arvustus: Russland an der Ostsee : imperiale Strategien der Macht und kulturelle Wahrnehmungsmuster (16. bis 20. Jahrhundert) = Russia on the Baltic : imperial strategies of power and cultural patterns of perception (16th-20th centuries). (Quellen und Studien zur Baltischen Geschichte, 22). Hrsg. von Kartsen Brüggemann und Bradley Woodworth. Böhlau Verlag. Wien u.a. 2012.

Laur, Mati, 1955-

2013-01-01

275

Cambios demográficos y epidemiológicos en Colombia durante el siglo XX / Demographic and epidemiologic changes in Colombia during the 20th. century: facts and explanations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción. Las actividades de investigación, docencia, planificación y administración en salud requieren disponer de un panorama demográfico y epidemiológico actualizado, que dé cuenta de los cambios y tendencias. Objetivo. Describir los principales cambios demográfico-epidemiológicos de Colombia [...] en el siglo XX, así como las proyecciones a corto plazo. Materiales y métodos. Estudio descriptivo, longitudinal, con información secundaria. Resultados. La población pasará de 4'737.588 habitantes en 1905 a 53 millones en 2015. De una verdadera pirámide presente hasta 1951, la distribución de la población pasó a una figura deformada (entre 0 y 14 años no existe diferencia apreciable). Entre 1905 y 1938, la natalidad era de 43% y, a finales de 2005, será de 22%. La mortalidad pasó de 23% entre 1905 y 1912 a 6% entre 1985 y 1993, pero subirá a 8,3% en 2010. La mortalidad infantil también estaba reduciéndose en el decenio de 1930, pero su nivel todavía era muy alto, y apenas a comienzos del decenio de 1960 empezó a caer acentuadamente. En 1938, la población en cabeceras municipales era de 31% y en 2000 de 72%. La mortalidad por causas cambió significativamente después de 1950. Las enfermedades infecciosas-parasitarias y perinatales, principales causas de muerte hasta finales del decenio de 1960 a 1969, perdieron importancia frente a enfermedades degenerativas, accidentes y homicidios, que ahora predominan. Conclusión. Nuestra actual densidad de población es relativamente baja. Más importante que el cambio demográfico cuantitativo es su gran velocidad. El envejecimiento de la población trae serias implicaciones para el país. Las profundas modificaciones en la familia colombiana plantean retos en todos los campos sociales. Los cambios demográficos y epidemiológicos (estructura y nivel de morbimortalidad) requieren un análisis profundo, y no deben aceptarse sin reparo las explicaciones fáciles que con frecuencia se proponen desde enfoques económicos "desarrollistas". Abstract in english Introduction. Research, education, organization and administration activities in health need an updated panoramic view of demographic and epidemiologic changes and tendencies. Objectives. To describe the main changes in demography and epidemiology during the 20th century in Colombia and to comment o [...] n the causative models used by some authors. Materials and methods. A descriptive and longitudinal study. Second hand information from various sources was used. The final section of the review includes a discussion on the interpretation of data given by the original authors. Results. In 1905-2005, population increased from 4.737.588 inhabitants to 48.864,013. The age distribution of the population showed dramatic changes: the true pyramid, as seen in 1951, changed into a distorted figure (no apparent differences between 0 and 14 years of age). Both children and youngsters lost representation on age structure, while adult and older individuals gain representation. During 1905-1938, the birth rate was 43% and by the end of 2005 it will be 22%. Mortality dropped a 75%, falling from 23% in 1905-1912 to 6% in 1885-1993, but it rose a 33% after 1993, and will reach 8,3% in 2010. In 1938, the urban population was 31% and in 2002, 72%. Mortality discriminated by cause changed in a significant manner during the second half of the 20th century. Infectious-parasitic and perinatal diseases, the main cause of death by the end of the 1960-1969 decade, lost importance on behalf of degenerative diseases, accidents and homicides which are now the most frequent. Conclusions. Our present population density is relatively low. The demographic change has been profound but the velocity has been more important. The aging of population has serious implications for the country. These notable modifications in Colombian families raise challenges in all social fields. The demographic and epidemiological changes (structure and level of morbimortality) requi

Carmona-Fonseca, Jaime.

276

Lovro Stepišnik and the development of travelling librarianship in Slovenia at the turn of the 19th to the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: Travelling library service is a field of librarianship which has not been thoroughly explored yet either in Slovenia or abroad. The most interesting question is who the beginner was and how the idea of a travelling library service has been introduced to Slovenia.Methodology/approach: The analysis of primary and secondary resources served to represent the life and work of Lovro Stepišnik as well as a short introduction to the history of travelling librarianship in Slovenia at the turn of the 19th to the 20th century.Results: The findings show that the hypothesis on Lovro Stepišnik as the first travelling librarian in Slovenia could be confirmed. After establishing the library together with the Reading society in the year 1863, either Stepišnik or his assistant, delivered baskets of books to rural readers. At the same time, some initiatives on private travelling libraries based on American and European practices emerged. The aim of the first travelling libraries was to stimulate reading and literacy among rural population, especially in the areas without reading societies and on the borders with German speaking population,in order to stimulate national consciousness and the use of the Slovenian language.Research limitation: The research was limited to the selected primary resources of selected serial publication in the Slovenian language. Some difficulties due to the variety of terms and archaic expressions were identified.Originality/practical implications: The short study should stimulate the research in the development of travelling libraries in Slovenia.

Polona Vozel

2011-01-01

277

A reversão do hiato de gênero na educação brasileira no século XX Reversal of the gender gap in Brazilian education in the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A redução do hiato de gênero e o maior acesso das mulheres à educação são objetivos explícitos da IV Conferência da Mulher (1995, do Fórum Mundial de Educação (2000 e da Cúpula do Milênio (2000. As conferências internacionais promovidas pela Organização das Nações Unidas recomendam ações para eliminar as discriminações contra o sexo feminino em todos os campos de atividade, especialmente na educação. O hiato de gênero e o déficit educacional das mulheres sempre fizeram parte da realidade brasileira. Contudo, as mulheres conseguiram eliminar e reverter esse hiato ao longo do século XX. Este artigo tem como objetivo principal analisar quando se deu a reversão do hiato de gênero na educação no Brasil. Para isso, apresentaremos as informações educacionais dos censos demográficos de 1960 a 2000, segundo níveis de escolaridade, desagregadas por sexo e por coortes de nascimento. Essa metodologia nos permitirá acompanhar a evolução do hiato de gênero das coortes nascidas após 1890 até o ano 1995.The reduction of the gender gap and the improvement in female access to education were explicit objectives of the IV Conference on Women (1995, of the World Education Forum (2000 and of the Millennium Summit (2000. All International Conferences promoted by the United Nations Organization (UN recommend actions to eradicate discrimination against women in all fields of activity, especially education. The gender gap and the education deficit among women have always been part of the Brazilian reality. However, women have been able to eliminate and reverse this gap throughout the 20th century. The main purpose of this article is to analyze when the reversion of the gender gap in Brazilian education occurred. In order to do so, we will present information obtained from demographic censuses from 1960 to 2000, based on schooling levels disaggregated by gender and birth cohorts. This methodology will allow us to track the evolution of the gender gap in birth cohorts after 1890 until 1995.

Kaizô Iwakami Beltrão

2009-04-01

278

Nueva localidad en Chile para Menodora linoides Phil. (Oleaceae), especie considerada extinta en el siglo XX / New locality in Chile for Menodora Linoides Phil. (Oleaceae), species considered extint in the 20th century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in english An area in the Andes of the Valparaíso Region is indicated as a new locality for the species Menodora linoides Phil., an endemic and unique representative of the Oleaceae family in Chile. The plant described in 1863, was considered extinct in the 20th century, but has been collected twice in the pre [...] sent century

Muñoz-Schick, Mélica; Moreira-Muñoz, Andrés; León-Lobos, Pedro.

279

Surface and thickness variations of Brenva Glacier tongue (Mont Blanc, Italian Alps) in the second half of the 20th century by historical maps and aerial photogrammetry comparisons  

Science.gov (United States)

Aim of this contribution is the evaluation of volumetric and surface variations of Brenva Glacier (Mont Blanc, Italian Alps) during the second half of the 20th century, by GIS-based processing of maps and aerial photogrammetry technique. Brenva Glacier is a typical debris covered glacier, located in a valley on the S-E side of the Mont Blanc. The glacier covers a surface of 7 kmq and shows a length of 7,6 km at maximum. The glacier snout reaches 1415 m a.s.l., which is the lowest glacier terminus of the Italian Alps. To evaluate glacier variations different historical maps were used: 1) The 1959 Map, at the scale 1:5.000, by EIRA (Ente Italiano Rilievi Aerofotogrammetrici, Firenze), from terrestrial photogrammetric survey, published in the Bollettino del Comitato Glaciologico Italiano, 2, n. 19, 1971. 2) The 1971 Map, at the scale 1:5.000, from aerial photogrammetry (Alifoto, Torino) published in the Bollettino del Comitato Glaciologico Italiano, 2, n. 20, 1972. 3) The 1988 Map, at the scale 1:10.000, (Region Aosta Valley, Regional Technical Map) from 1983 aerial photogrammetric survey. 4) The 1999 Map, at the scale 1:10.000, (Region Aosta Valley, Regional Technical Map) from 1991 aerial photogrammetry survey. For the same purpose the following aereal photographs were used: 1) The 1975 image, CGR (Italian General Company aerial Surveys) flight RAVDA (Administrative Autonomous Region Aosta Valley), at the scale 1:17.000. 2) The 1991 image, CGR (Italian General Company aerial Surveys) flight RAVDA (Administrative Autonomous Region Aosta Valley), at the scale 1:17.000. Aerial imageries have been acquired over a long period from 1975 to 1991. The black and white images were scanned at suitable resolution if compared with the imagery scale and several models, representing the glacier tongue area, oriented using the inner and outer orientation parameters delivered with the images, were produced. The digital photogrammetric system, after orientation and matching, produces a digital surface model with a degree of accuracy varing among the glacier and the surrounding area. Comparison with available cartography may be performed if digital ortophoto is being generated from the photogrammetric processing in a well defined reference system. Accuracy in volumetric changes estimations is nevertheless of fundamental importance being derived from the comparison of different metodologies with related single accuracies. By using GIS sofware the maps and ortophotos were managed after digitalisation; Digital Elevation Models were produced and their comparison allowed: 1) to quantify surface and volume variations 2) to elaborate thematic maps about ice thickness and debris areal distribution variations 4) to elaborate topographic longitudinal and transverse profiles to underline glacier changes The preliminary results about volumetric and thickness variations obtained from maps are the following: a) 1959-1971: the glacier tongue increased in volume of about 15 millions mc of ice that correspond to an increase in thickness of about 20 m of ice with maximum values of about 40-50 m. b)1971-1983: the glacier tongue increased in volume of about 18 millions mc of ice that is to say a mean increase in thickness of a little more than 20 m of ice. In the same time the glacier advanced of about 200 m (Italian Glaciological Committee data), probably this advancing phase was related to the ablation reduction caused by the emispheric climate cooling occurred during the second half of the 20th century. It influenced the mass balance trend of a large number of glaciers in the North Emisphere between the 70s and the 80s of the 20 th century c)1983-1991: for this period a negative volumetric variation of about 8 millions mc of ice was calculated equal to a thickness decreasing of about 10 m of ice. The managing of orthopotos by GIS software to obtain DEMs is in progress and its results will confirm or add arguments to discuss them. The final results will allow to compare Brenva recent evolution to that of some other italian debris covered glaciers such as Mia

D Agata, C.; Zanutta, A.; Muzzu Martis, D.; Mancini, F.; Smiraglia, C.

2003-04-01

280

BOOKSELLER AS A CULTURAL AGENT: BOOK TRADE IN ESTONIA IN THE SECOND HALF OF THE 19TH AND AT THE BEGINNING OF THE 20TH CENTURY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article handles general developments and changes in book trade which took place in Estonia during the second half of the 19th century. The aim is to show the formation of bookshops trading with Estonian books and to analyse the activities of Estonian booksellers.The survey is based on the research literature and on the master thesis by Signe Jantson “Raamatukaubandus Eestis aastatel 1850–1917: raamatukauplused ja nende omanikud” (Book trade in Estonia 1850–1917: bookshops and their owners [9]. In this study great importance wasattached to the national and social origin of bookshop owners and their activities. Up to the middle of the 19th century the book production and dissemination in Estonia was in the hands of Baltic German entrepreneurs and depended on the political and economic developments not only in Russia but also in Germany. In the middle of the 19th century there were only 5 bookshops in Estonia located in bigger towns – Tallinn and Tartu. In 1870 the number of bookshops reached 13. The greater ascent can be noticed in the last decade of the period – 1870–1880 when 20 new bookshops were opened. In 1867 Heinrich Laakmann, a German origin publisher and the printing shop owner opened the first bookshop in Tartu to sell Estonian language books. The economic and political reforms as well as the national awakening movement favoured the engagement of Estonians in the sphere of book production and dissemination. Increasing publishing of Estonian language books enabled the development of trade. At the end of the national awakening period most of the bookshop owners were already of Estonian origin. Since 1870ies the number of Estonian bookshops started to grow and at the end of the 19th century they outnumbered German and Russian shops. In all over Europe book trade concentrated into the big cities (in the case of Estonia in Tallinn and Tartu, but bookshops were opened also in the rural area (small towns and villages. Altogether 263 bookshops were founded in the second half of the 19th and at the beginning of the 20th century and 283 persons became bookshop owners (at least for some years. These figures allow to conclude that book trade was a popular sphere of activity. The most intensive was foundation of bookshops during 1898–1904. Legally it was not difficult to get a permission to open a bookshop but only few shops (31% operated more than ten years; most often was that small shops operated up to five years. Trading with books did not guarantee sufficient income and the bookshop owners were often engaged in other spheres, mainly in book production and publishing. Majority of the Estonian origin bookshop owners derived from the peasant families and made up the first generation in book trade business. The newcomers had not enough education nor experience in the field. The most important achievement can be seen in the fact that bookshops were opened in all over Estonia that guaranteed dissemination of Estonian language books to all stratums of the society.

Jantson, Signe

2006-12-01

 
 
 
 
281

As influências da psicanálise na educação brasileira no início do século XX The influences of psychoanalysis on Brazilian education in the beginning of the 20th century  

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Full Text Available O presente artigo tem por objetivo discutir, a partir de um vértice histórico, a relação entre educação e psicanálise no Brasil. Partindo de um estudo qualitativo, fundamentado na análise bibliográfica relativa à produção psicanalítica dedicada à educação produzida no país nas primeiras décadas do século XX, são discutidas as contribuições da psicanálise na transformação das práticas educacionais. Os resultados indicam que a psicanálise esteve presente na educação de duas formas: inicialmente, pela divulgação de informações teóricas relativas aos conceitos psicanalíticos e às características do desenvolvimento emocional da criança, por intermédio de livros e cursos destinados a educadores, e, posteriormente, através da criação de uma prática de assistência ao escolar com problemas de aprendizagem ou comportamento, desenvolvida em clínicas de orientação infantil, que consistia na avaliação da criança e na orientação de pais e professores. Conclui-se que a psicanálise, enquanto fundamento teórico e prático, forneceu elementos que contribuíram para a sustentação dos pressupostos filosóficos da "Escola Nova", que surgiu, a partir da década de 1920, como alternativa ao ensino tradicional.The present article aims at discussing, from a historical point of view, the relationship between education and psychoanalysis in Brazil. Starting from a qualitative study, based on the bibliographical analysis relative to the psychoanalytic production dedicated to education produced in this country in the first decades of the 20th century, the contributions of psychoanalysis in the transformation of the educational practices are discussed. The results show that psychoanalysis was present in education in two ways: firstly by turning public the theoretical information related to psychoanalytic concepts and to the characteristics of child emotional development, through books and courses designed for educators and, afterwards, through the creation of an assistance practice to scholars with learning or behavior problems, developed in child orientation clinics, which consisted on child evaluation and parents and teachers orientation. We conclude that psychoanalysis, while a theoretical and practical fundament, supplied elements which contributed to the support of the philosophic presumptions of a new educational model that came up as from 1920 as an alternative to traditional teaching.

Jorge Luís Ferreira Abrão

2006-08-01

282

Tree-ring reconstruction of seasonal mean minimum temperature at Mt. Yaoshan, China, since 1873 and its relevance to 20th-century warming  

Science.gov (United States)

It is very important to comprehend the climate variations in the vast regions of Central Plains of China. Current knowledge about climate changes of the past few hundred years in this region is primarily based on historical documents, and lack of evidences from the natural archives. However, these documents had somewhat artificially effects caused by the recorders, and not sufficient to fully understand natural climatic changes. In this paper, based on a significant correlation between the tree-ring width of Chinese Pine and observed instrumental data in the Mt. Yaoshan, China, we formulated a transfer function to reconstruct the mean minimum temperature (MMinT) from the previous December to the current June (Tmin_DJ) for the period 1873-2011. The reconstruction explained 39.8% of the instrumental variance during the calibration period of 1958-2011. High Tmin_DJ intervals with values greater than the 139 year average occurred in 1932-1965 and 1976-2006. The intervals 1878-1894 and 1906-1931 experienced a Tmin_DJ lower than the 139 year average. The ten highest Tmin_DJ years occurred after the 1950s, especially after 1996. A distinct upward trend in the Tmin_DJ series beginning in the 1910s was apparent, and the highest value occurred around 2000. The 20th-century warming signal was captured well by the Yaoshan Tmin_DJ temperature reconstruction, indicating that the temperature rise in the sensitive Central Plains of China region reflected the global temperature change. The Tmin_DJ reconstruction also matched several other temperature series in China with similar warm-cold patterns. The distinct spatial correlation between both observed and reconstructed series and CRU TS3.10 grid data indicates that our results may represent Tmin_DJ changes on a larger scale. The spatial correlation with sea surface temperature (SST) indicated that observed and reconstructed Tmin_DJ temperatures in the Mt. Yaoshan are closely linked to the West Pacific, Indian and North Atlantic Oceans as well as El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO).

Liu, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Song, H.; Ma, Y.; Cai, Q.; Wang, Y.

2014-03-01

283

Paul Hamilton Wood (1907-1962: El máximo exponente de la cardiología clínica Británica del siglo XX Paul Hamilton Wood: The foremost British clinical cardiologist of the 20th century  

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Full Text Available In the United Kingdom, during the mid-20th century, Paul Wood appears as the new leader of European cardiology. He introduced rigorous bed-side diagnostic methods and the confirmation of these clinical findings by cardiac catheterization, in an effort to demonstrate the pathophysiological causes of cardiac disease. In his search for the correct diagnosis, his comments, which could be caustic, both impressed and offended many. He had a strong commanding personality and was intensely honest in his appreciations. His showmanship and diagnostic ability became renown. In 1950, the publishing of the first edition of his textbook "Diseases of the Heart and Circulation" brought him worldwide recognition. In this book, Wood introduces his personal fresh style of narrative and his physiologic approach to cardiology. His intense professional activity, teaching, lecturing and preparing the third edition of his book, plus the fact that he was a heavy smoker, must have been the factors that lead to a myocardial infarction and death at the early age of 54. As Paul Dudley White and Ignacio Chávez in America, Paul Wood in Europe will be remembered as the emblematic figure leading the transition of cardiology into the modern era.

Juan D Humphreys

2012-01-01

284

The place occupied by early measurement (20th minute) of the thyroid uptake of sup(99m)Tc pertechnetate in thyroid pathology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The place occupied by early measurement (20th minute) of the thyroid uptake of sup(99m)Tc pertechnetate is situated for different types of thyroid condition (hypo-, normo- and hyperthyroidism). The use of technetium is simple in practice because only the cervical and crural radioactivity measurements are required. Like all simplified methods it involves risks of errors but lends itself to systematic routine use. The practical advantages of this isotope, which in view of its short half-life appears with iodine 123 as the nearly ideal tracer for thyroid exploration at present are outlined. The thyroid gland can be studied both functionally and scintigraphically at the cost of minimum irradiation, which is a great advantage. The fact that a number of data may be obtained in less than an hour (including scintigraphy) is a particularly valuable asset. However the method has its limits. For example a diagnosis of hyper or hypothyroidism based on the technetium uptake at the 20th minute alone is out of the question. A zero uptake may be observed in the presence of Basedow's disease or conversely a high uptake in hypo- or euthyroid cases. Discrimination is satisfactory between hyper and euthyroid but not between eu- and hypothyroid subjects. Technological progress however promises a routine use of 123 I and 99mTc together, the two isotopes serving to explore two different phases of the thyroid metabolism

1977-01-01

285

How unusual was late 20th century El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO? Assessing evidence from tree-ring, coral, ice-core and documentary palaeoarchives, A.D. 1525-2002  

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Full Text Available Multiple proxy records (tree-ring, coral, ice and documentary were examined to isolate ENSO signals associated with both phases of the phenomenon for the period A.D. 1525-2002. To avoid making large-scale inferences from single proxy analysis, regional signals were aggregated into a network of high-resolution records, revealing large-scale trends in the frequency, magnitude and duration of pre-instrumental ENSO using novel applications of percentile analysis. Here we use the newly introduced coupled ocean-atmosphere ENSO index (CEI as a baseline for the calibration of proxy records. The reconstruction revealed 83 extreme or very strong ENSO episodes since A.D. 1525, expanding considerably on existing ENSO event chronologies. Significantly, excerpts of the most comprehensive list of La Niña events complied to date are presented, indicating peak activity during the 16th to mid 17th and 20th centuries. Although extreme events are seen throughout the 478-year reconstruction, 43% of the extreme ENSO events noted since A.D. 1525 occur during the 20th century, with an obvious bias towards enhanced El Niño conditions in recent decades. Of the total number of extreme event years reconstructed, 30% of all reconstructed ENSO event years occur post-1940 alone suggesting that recent ENSO variability appears anomalous in the context of the past five centuries.

J. L. Gergis

2006-01-01

286

Material Objects as Means of Portraying Female Characters' Personality in the 20th century : As Exemplified in the three Short Stories by J. D. Salinger, V. Woolf and F. Weldon  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The world we live in is full of material objects that serve as signs and thus are an important tool in literary texts. The purpose of the present essay is to illustrate how material objects are used to portray personalities of female characters, their inner world and attitudes, their ways of life and position in society. It is especially interesting in the context of the 20th century in the Western world, when the culture of consumption was gaining momentum and the role of a woman was gradual...

Zelenenkaya, Ekaterina

2013-01-01

287

Libertarian movement and self-management of knowledge in the Spain of the first third of the 20th century : «Questions and answers» section (1930-1937) of the journal Estudios  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Newspaper Q&A sections reflect and contribute to the social historical context in which they are published, and they may play roles as distinct as becoming a tool to sustain social arrangements or, conversely, being an instrument for social change. In a context of complex relations between experts and non-experts within the libertarian movement in Spain in the first third of the 20th century, the Q&A section («Preguntas y respuestas», 1930-1937) of the anarchist magazine Estudios (1928-1937...

Tabernero-holgado, Carlos

2013-01-01

288

A reconstruction of the Cape (South African) fur seal harvest 1653-1899 and a comparison with the 20th-century harvest  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The Cape fur seal was an abundant resource in southern Africa, when first discovered by itinerant sailing vessels in the late 16th century. Seals were slaughtered indiscriminately by the sailors for skins, meat and oil for three centuries from around 1600 to 1899. Government controls over the sealin [...] g industry were first introduced as late as 1893, by which time at least 23 seal colonies had become extinct and the seal population had been significantly reduced. This paper reconstructs the historical seal harvest from the time of arrival of the first settlers in 1652 up to 1899. These data are then compared with modern harvest data from 1900 to 2000, illustrating the marked increase in the harvest from about 1950, and the concomitant recovery of the seal population to a level of around 1.5-2 million animals.

David, Jeremy; van Sittert, Lance.

289

Generalized War and the National Security Doctrine. German Military Thought in Latin America during the last third of the 20th century  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper analyzes the concept of generalized war, which played a key role in the development of the National Security Doctrine –implemented in Latin America during the last third of the twentieth century–. The interpretation of generalized war by theorists of National Security Doctrine mixed different previous ideas: absolute war –from Von Clausewitz-, total war –from Ludendorff- and atomic war -from Cold War times-. The confusing nature of such concepts could have distorted the dev...

2012-01-01

290

20th-Century doubling in dust archived in an Antarctic Peninsula ice core parallels climate change and desertification in South America  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Crustal dust in the atmosphere impacts Earth's radiative forcing directly by modifying the radiation budget and affecting cloud nucleation and optical properties, and indirectly through ocean fertilization, which alters carbon sequestration. Increased dust in the atmosphere has been linked to decreased global air temperature in past ice core studies of glacial to interglacial transitions. We present a continuous ice core record of aluminum deposition during recent centuries in the northern An...

Mcconnell, Joseph R.; Aristarain, Alberto J.; Banta, J. Ryan; Edwards, P. Ross; Simo?es, Jefferson C.

2007-01-01

291

From equilibrium to equity. The survival of the commons in the Ebro Basin: Navarra from the 15th to the 20th centuries  

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Full Text Available This paper describes an historical case of management of common lands, and their survival and transformation through the great agrarian reforms of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The hypothesis is that the notion of community survived after the great rural changes caused by the emergence of capitalism and liberalism. However, the notion of community was very different after these great changes: the old community was based on the notion of equilibrium, whereas the new community is focused on equity.

José-Miguel Lana Berasain

2008-07-01

292

Trends of extramarital births in Serbia in the second half of the 20th and at the beginning of the 21st century in the wider European context  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper analyses the phenomenon of extramarital births in Serbia in the period of 1950-2008. Great changes that European countries have been undergoing in the last half-century related to fertility and family forms were also followed by an intense increase in the share of extramarital births. This is also true for Serbia (excluding Kosovo), where the share of extramarital births in total live births for the period of 1950-2008 increased almost 3 times (from 8.0% to 22.8%), and their number ...

Stankovi? Biljana; Penev Goran

2010-01-01

293

Teatro chileno y anarquismo (desde comienzos de siglo XX hasta el período dictatorial Chilean Theatre and Anarchism (from the beginning of 20th century to the dictatorship  

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Full Text Available Este estudio analiza la relación entre el pensamiento anarquista y el teatro en Chile desde comienzos de siglo hasta el período de la dictadura militar. Comienza con un recorte teórico del concepto de anarquismo dentro del marco histórico chileno, para posteriormente analizar, de manera cronológica, producciones teatrales específicas del período anteriormente citado.This study analyzes the relationship between anarchist thinking and theatre in Chile from the beginning of the century up to the time of the military dictatorship. It begins with a theoretical highlight of the concept of anarchism in Chilean history and later chronologically analyzes theater plays that are specific to the abovementioned period.

Sara Rojo

2008-12-01

294

Narrativas e imágenes del turismo en Petrópolis, Brasil, a principios del siglo XX / Narratives and Images of Tourism in Petrópolis, Brazil, At the beginning of the 20th Century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este trabajo es un análisis histórico de los inicios del turismo organizado en la ciudad de Petrópolis a través de los textos e imágenes publicadas a principios del siglo XX. El objetivo general del trabajo fue analizar a través de una perspectiva histórica la forma en que se originó la construcción [...] de la llamada "naturaleza turística" de Petrópolis, El objetivo específico, pretendió comprender e identificar las principales narrativas e imágenes que sustentan esa construcción cultural, destacando su origen entre los años 1900 y 1930. El estudio fue realizado a través de la bibliografía técnico-científica existente; y también se utilizó la investigación documental e iconográfica, que incluía narrativas e imágenes del turismo en Petrópolis en sus inicios. Se pretendió no sólo insertar a Petrópolis en una posible cronología histórica del turismo brasileño, sino también sensibilizar a los investigadores del área sobre la necesidad de invertir en estudios empíricos de naturaleza histórica en el campo del turismo en los diferentes municipios brasileños, así como en Brasil como un todo. Abstract in english This paper is an historical analysis of the early organized tourism in the city of Petrópolis through the narratives and images produced at the beginning of the 20th century. As a general objective, this paper intended to analyze how the construction of the so-called "tourist nature" of Petrópolis o [...] riginated, by means of a historical perspective. The specific objective was to understand and identify the main narratives and images which support this cultural construction, emphasizing its origins between 1900 and 1930. The study was developed with the resource of the existing technical and scientific literature as well as documentary and iconographic research which depicted narratives and images of tourism in Petrópolis at the outset of its organization. The aim of this work was not only to propose the insertion of Petrópolis in a possible chronology of Brazilian tourism, but also to provoke and sensitize researchers of the field to the need of investments in empirical researches of historical nature in the field of tourism in the different Brazilian cities, as well as in Brazil as a whole.

André Barcelos Damasceno, Daibert.

295

[On the history of obsessive compulsive disorders: their place in the nosological classifications up to the beginning of the 20th century].  

Science.gov (United States)

Influenced by French psychiatry, the first German works on obsessive-compulsive phenomena were published in the second half of the 19th century. First they were seen as one form of the unitary psychosis, later they became involved in the dispute about the concept of paranoia. The first German definition, proposed by Carl Westphal in 1877 and of crucial importance in the conceptual history of obsessive disorders as an illness (OCD) ever since, stood in this tradition. Still the adequate nosological classification of obsessive phenomena was still heavily disputed. As more and more varied forms of obsessive disorders were described, the highly unspecific concept of neurasthenia gained importance. Then degeneration theory was a widespread aetiological concept to integrate the large number of obsessive phenomena. Towards the end of the 19th century, when psychoanalysis emerged, psychological aspects started to interest psychiatrists and psychoanalytical suggestions like Sigmund Freud's concept of obsessional neurosis were discussed. However, none of these different nosological suggestions, nor any of the proposed definitions, found general approval. Above all the question to what extent affects were involved and whether certain phenomena were compulsive in nature or not remained the subject of (ongoing) controversy. This led to a variety of highly inconsistent aetiopathogenetic concepts being proposed. PMID:24307089

Oberbeck, A; Stengler, K; Steinberg, H

2013-12-01

296

Generalized War and the National Security Doctrine. German Military Thought in Latin America during the last third of the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper analyzes the concept of generalized war, which played a key role in the development of the National Security Doctrine –implemented in Latin America during the last third of the twentieth century–. The interpretation of generalized war by theorists of National Security Doctrine mixed different previous ideas: absolute war –from Von Clausewitz-, total war –from Ludendorff- and atomic war -from Cold War times-. The confusing nature of such concepts could have distorted the development of the very concept of generalised war. And it is likely that the influence of two relevant German authors -Von Clausewitz and Ludendorff- in building the concept this study focuses on was more important than what can be thought at first sight. The theoretical misconceptions, along with the excessive enthusiasm that war generated among classical theorists and the forced interpretation of political and social realities, gave way to a justification of the excesses of the National Security regimes.

Pedro Rivas-Nieto

2012-12-01

297

[Health promotion from the 20th to the 21th century. The Valais Ligue for fighting tuberculosis--a visionary model started in 1951].  

Science.gov (United States)

At the beginning of the twentieth century, tuberculosis was really a plague. Many people had been mobilised to successfully fight against this infectious disease. Valais, a Swiss alpine canton developped then an original concept of health promotion by involving all the health partners including a specialised hospital under the auspices of the local Health Departement. Such a model named then Ligue pulmonaire contre la tuberculose, celebrates his 60th anniversary. Its present name is Valais Health Promotion, i.e., a proactive health network very unique in Switzerland. It assumes many tasks of public health in clinical as well as in preventive medicine. These two components strongly facilitate the insertion of this organisation into the reality of this population to fulfil many challenging tasks with efficacy. PMID:22016938

Tschopp, Jean-Marie; Moix, Jean-Bernard; Dupuis, Georges

2011-09-21

298

Ghosts of Solitude: Guido Gozzano reader of Petrarch. An episode of the 20th-century reception of Rvf 35  

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Full Text Available The essay offers a comparative analysis of Guido Gozzano’s poem “Un’altra risorta,” from the collection I colloqui (1911, and the Petrarchan sonnet “Solo e pensoso” (Rvf 35, of which Gozzano gives a modern and partially ironic rewriting. Sonnet 35, together with a constellation of elements drawn from other poems from the Canzoniere concerning the theme of love surviving the loss of beauty and the passing of time, gives to the modern poet the thematic and lexical frame to describe his condition of sceptical, disillusioned lover. Gozzano’s poetry represents in this sense a significant episode of twentieth-century Petrarchism and the critical and problematic relationship of contemporary poetry with the language of literary tradition

Alessandra Mantovani

2011-02-01

299

Assessing the relationship between extensive use of organochlorine pesticides and cooling trend during the mid-20th century in the southeastern United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

In contrast to global warming, temperatures in the southeastern United States have exhibited a decreasing trend of up to 1-2 degrees C over the last century. We investigated the relationship between this cooling trend and the extensive use of organochlorine pesticides--particularly dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) and toxaphene--in the southeastern U.S. from the mid-1940s through the 1970s. Based on annual use and soil residue estimates, it is shown that enthalpies associated with the endothermic evaporation of pesticides from soil resulted in surface temperature decreases of up to -0.2 degrees C. This is the first study to show the inverse correlation between surface air temperature and pesticide use. These findings highlight the potential contribution of the extensive use of organochlorine pesticides to changes in the surface air temperature, especially in regions of intensive agriculture and pesticide use. PMID:18044490

Ma, Jianmin; Li, Yi-Fan; Harner, Tom; Cao, Zuohao

2007-11-01

300

The Pronunciation of Hebrew in the Western Sephardic Settlements (16th-20th Centuries. Second Part: The Pronunciation of the Consonant ‘Ayin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to ascertain when the Italian Jewish communities and the Western Portuguese “Nations” adopted the nasal-guttural pronunciation of the ‘ayin, variously represented as gn, ng, ngh, hg. In 16th century Ferrara and Venice, the phonetic value of this consonant was zero or close to zero. Only at the very end of the 16th century, some authors in Italy graphically represented it as ng. In the same period, an Amsterdam author introduced new graphemes and expressed the ‘ayin as gh or hg, while a Hamburg scholar published a grammar-book where he gave the name of this consonant as Hgain. The new graphemes were not adopted by the majority of authors, who continued to represent it by a simple h, or left it without notation. Both in Italy and in Northern Europe, the h > gn shift was rather discontinuous.Estudio de la adopción de la pronunciación naso-gutural de la consonante ‘ayin y de su variada representación gráfica entre los judíos de Italia y de las «Naciones» judías hispano-portuguesas. Durante el siglo XVI, el valor fonético de esa consonante era o tendía a cero. A fines de ese siglo y a comienzos del XVII, algunos autores en Italia la representan como ng. Un autor coetáneo en Amsterdam introduce nuevos grafemas, tales como gh o hg, mientras que otro autor de Hamburgo publicaba una gramática en la que denomina Hgain esta consonante. Los nuevos grafemas no fueron adoptados por la mayoría de autores que continuaron representando dicha consonante por una h. Tanto en Italia como en el norte de Europa el cambio h > gn fue discontinuo.

di Leone Leoni, Aron

2008-06-01

 
 
 
 
301

A noção de modelo na virada do século XIX para o século XX / The notion of model at the turn of the 20th century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo descreve o modo pelo qual a noção de modelo começou a ingressar na ciência, em particular na física, no final do século XIX. Este é talvez o primeiro domínio científico a fazer uso explícito e consciente dessa noção, para o qual o uso de modelos significou o abandono de toda e qualquer t [...] entativa de representar fielmente os fenômenos naturais. Em questão, estava a representação dos fenômenos elétricos e magnéticos por meio de analogias. Abstract in english This article describes the way in which the idea of model began to be discussed in science, in particular in physics, towards the end of the 19th century. Physics is perhaps the first scientific domain that explicitly and consciously made use of models in a way that was understood to involve abandon [...] ing any attempt faithfully to represent natural phenomena. The representation of electromagnetic phenomena by means of analogies was in question.

Tatiana, Roque; Antonio Augusto Passos, Videira.

302

One of the great conundrums of the 20th century science - ionizing radiation: Radiation processing and applications in the Czech Lands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article deals with the following topics: Milestones in the early history of radiation and radiation sources (1895-1954); Radiation effects - early observations and further development; Scope of radiation processing; Radiation processing in the Czech Lands (i.e. Bohemia + Moravia = the Czech part of Czechoslovakia or Austria-Hungary till 1918) (radiation sterilization of medical items; radiation processing of cable insulations; radiation preservation of objects of art and historical monuments; radiation modification of semiconductors; radiation synthesis of organic compounds; food irradiation; application of ionizing radiation in agriculture and gardening; radiation regeneration of water wells; radiation degradation of chlorinated biphenyls; radiation coloration of glass for decorative purposes; some other applications; and problems associated with practical radiation processing). An overview of 60Co gamma irradiators and electron accelerators installed at Czech institutions is presented in the tabular form. (P.A.)

2007-01-01

303

A few questions concerning exterior migrations of Yugoslav population during the second half of the 20th century: A time for reconsideration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The territory of the former Yugoslavia (within all of its structures and forms during the second half of the 20? century - from FPRY, SFRY, FRY, to Serbia and Montenegro was the subject of more or less intensive external and internal migrations. The first larger wave of emigration occurred immediately after the end of World War II, mostly due to the political events in the country that concerned ideological orientation of national-liberation war winners. In most cases, the furthest destinations of these emigrants were overseas countries. The remoteness of the new "homelands", among other reasons, made these relocations permanent. In the beginning of 1960's a new wave of mass immigrations occurred due to the "liberation" of Yugoslavia's economy and politics, and the need of labor force in the countries of Western Europe. These were the economic, so-called labor-migrations that were supposed to have a temporary character. During the period of 1964-1973, Yugoslav citizens living in Western European countries numbered approximately one million and one hundred thousand, out of which two-fifths were Serbs. In the mid 1970's, a migration trend seemed to slightly decline, only to increase again in the 1980's, and especially during the 1990's, however with the new socio-economic-political background and different characteristics than the preceding ones. It could be argued though, that these new migrations of Yugoslav citizens sum up all the characteristics of the preceding ones, being, at the same time, very dramatic in nature considering that the migrations were most of the time the only available option for emigrants. In general, these migrations are characterized by relocation of whole families, absence of a long-term plan considering the future (duration of stay, return to the home country, money investment in the home country, and relatively high although diverse educational level. Actually, based on comparison between censuses in 1981 and 1991, it is evident that in 1991 more people with a high school diploma gymnasium, higher and academic education have left the country than in 1981. The available data from 2001 census consist only of a relative number of Yugoslav citizens living abroad, around 400,000, but this number does not include citizens from Kosovo and Metohija, or Montenegro. Only when the final census data come out, will it be possible to analyze and compare migrations from 1991 -2001, although considering census gathering and its limitations, it is clear that many trends will remain hidden.

Pavi?evi? Aleksandra B.

2004-01-01

304

AGS 20th anniversary celebration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On May 22, 1980, a symposium was held at Brookhaven to celebrate the 20th birthday of the AGS, to recall its beginnings, and to review major discoveries that have been made with its beams. The talks at the symposium are recorded in this volume

1980-01-01

305

Estrategias de acceso y conservación de la tierra entre los ranqueles (Colonia Emilio Mitre, La Pampa, primera mitad del siglo XX) / Land access and conservation strategies among ranqueles (Colonia Emilio Mitre, La Pampa, first half of 20th century)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish A partir de fines del siglo XIX la población indígena de Pampa, Patagonia y Chaco (Argentina) fue incorporada en forma subordinada a la economía política capitalista, a través de una serie de prácticas genocidas y destribalizadoras que han sido exhaustivamente analizadas. No obstante, las circunstan [...] cias de su incorporación y las estrategias que los actores indígenas ensayaron no fueron aún abordadas de manera sistemática. Este artículo se focaliza en la población ranquel del Territorio Nacional de La Pampa para estudiar las formas de acceso y usos de la tierra, la evolución de sus asentamientos y sus estrategias de reproducción durante la primera mitad del siglo XX. Abstract in english By the late 19th century, indigenous populations in Argentina's regions of Pampa, Patagonia and Chaco were subordinately incorporated into capitalist economy, through a series of genocidal and destribalization policies that have been thoroughly examined in previous studies. However, the circumstance [...] s of their integration and the strategies that indigenous actors displayed have not been systematically analyzed yet. This paper is focused on ranquel population in Territorio Nacional de La Pampa to study land use and access ways, as well as the development of such settlings and their reproduction strategies during the first half of the 20th century.

Claudia, Salomón Tarquini.

306

Negócio à moda antiga: tropas de comércio em Diamantina nos meados do século XX / Older forms of business: troops of trade in Diamantina in the middle of the 20th Century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo analisa uma variedade de aspectos relacionados à atuação das tropas de comércio nas Minas Gerais ao longo dos séculos XIX e XX. Agente central da economia mineira por largo tempo, ressalta-se o conjunto de narrativas dos viajantes estrangeiros sobre o fenômeno do tropeirismo oitocentista [...] , o que ajuda a compreender certos sentidos sociais e culturais implicados no objeto em tela. A partir das memórias de antigos almocreves do Alto Jequitinhonha, procura-se demonstrar, também a notável longevidade alcançada pelas tropas de comércio na região de Diamantina, fenômeno que persistiu até os anos 1950. Abstract in english The authors analyze a variety of issues relative to the activities of trading caravans in the State of Minas Gerais over the 19th and 20th centuries. These caravans were a main attribute of this State's economy for a long time. A collection of foreign travelers' stories about the phenomenon of the n [...] ineteenth century drover is also highlighted, which helps in understanding certain social and cultural meanings concerning it. Through the memoirs of the old muleskinners from Alto Jequitinhonha, the authors also seek to demonstrate their remarkable longevity in Diamantina, a phenomenon that persisted until the 1950s.

Lopes, Marcos Antônio; Martins, Marcos Lobato.

307

Mortalidad materna en las primeras décadas del siglo xx / Maternal Mortality during the early decades of 20th century  

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Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: describir la mortalidad materna ocurrida entre 1910 y 1949. Métodos: investigación descriptiva y documental. Resultados: en las cuatro primeras décadas estudiadas de 1910 a 1949, la mortalidad materna en Cuba mostró un descenso de 51,0 %, desde tasas de 493,4 por 100 000 nacidos vivos en l [...] a década 1910-1919 a tasas de 242,2 en la década de 1940-1949, en una época en la que no existían los antibióticos ni los bancos de sangre, ni tampoco se había generalizado la atención prenatal. Estas cifras no deben considerarse demasiado elevadas en aquellos años en un país subdesarrollado. El notable descenso de una década a otra, es testimonio de la lucha contra sus principales causas, llevada a cabo por profesores y discípulos, por el desarrollo obtenido por las mujeres, las facilidades del transporte, la disponibilidad de médicos, enfermeras y comadronas y el alcance obtenido por los medios masivos de comunicación como la radio y la prensa escrita. Se muestran los descensos obtenidos en las principales causas de muerte como la infección puerperal, las muertes por hemorragia y las debidas a eclampsia convulsiva y preclampsia. Conclusiones: el comportamiento de las cifras analizadas no es una simple coincidencia con la aplicación en Cuba de los nuevos cambios en la medicina en general, y en la atención materna en particular, sino también la influencia que tuvo en la salud el desarrollo económico y social de la nación. Abstract in english Objective: to describe cases of maternal deaths between 1910 and 1949. Methods: descriptive and documentary research. Results: in the first four decades surveyed from 1910 to 1949, maternal mortality in Cuba showed a decrease of 51.0 % from rates of 493.4 per 100 000 live births from 1910 to 1919 at [...] a rate of 242.2 during 1940-1949, at a time when there were no antibiotics or blood banks, nor was widespread prenatal care. These figures should not be considered as too high in those years in an underdeveloped country. The sharp decline during these decades is an evidence of the fight against the main causes, conducted by teachers and pupils, by the work achieved by women, the availability of doctors, nurses, midwives and means of transportation, and the extended scope of mass media such as radio and print media. The declines in the leading causes of death as puerperal infection, bleeding and deaths due to preeclampsia and convulsive eclampsia are shown in the study. Conclusions: the behavior of the data examined is not a mere coincidence with the implementation of the new changes in medical general practice in general in Cuba, and particularly maternal care, but also influence it had on the health and social-economic development of the whole nation.

Ubaldo, Farnot; Norma Eneida, Rios.

308

Mortalidad materna en las primeras décadas del siglo xx / Maternal Mortality during the early decades of 20th century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: describir la mortalidad materna ocurrida entre 1910 y 1949. Métodos: investigación descriptiva y documental. Resultados: en las cuatro primeras décadas estudiadas de 1910 a 1949, la mortalidad materna en Cuba mostró un descenso de 51,0 %, desde tasas de 493,4 por 100 000 nacidos vivos en l [...] a década 1910-1919 a tasas de 242,2 en la década de 1940-1949, en una época en la que no existían los antibióticos ni los bancos de sangre, ni tampoco se había generalizado la atención prenatal. Estas cifras no deben considerarse demasiado elevadas en aquellos años en un país subdesarrollado. El notable descenso de una década a otra, es testimonio de la lucha contra sus principales causas, llevada a cabo por profesores y discípulos, por el desarrollo obtenido por las mujeres, las facilidades del transporte, la disponibilidad de médicos, enfermeras y comadronas y el alcance obtenido por los medios masivos de comunicación como la radio y la prensa escrita. Se muestran los descensos obtenidos en las principales causas de muerte como la infección puerperal, las muertes por hemorragia y las debidas a eclampsia convulsiva y preclampsia. Conclusiones: el comportamiento de las cifras analizadas no es una simple coincidencia con la aplicación en Cuba de los nuevos cambios en la medicina en general, y en la atención materna en particular, sino también la influencia que tuvo en la salud el desarrollo económico y social de la nación. Abstract in english Objective: to describe cases of maternal deaths between 1910 and 1949. Methods: descriptive and documentary research. Results: in the first four decades surveyed from 1910 to 1949, maternal mortality in Cuba showed a decrease of 51.0 % from rates of 493.4 per 100 000 live births from 1910 to 1919 at [...] a rate of 242.2 during 1940-1949, at a time when there were no antibiotics or blood banks, nor was widespread prenatal care. These figures should not be considered as too high in those years in an underdeveloped country. The sharp decline during these decades is an evidence of the fight against the main causes, conducted by teachers and pupils, by the work achieved by women, the availability of doctors, nurses, midwives and means of transportation, and the extended scope of mass media such as radio and print media. The declines in the leading causes of death as puerperal infection, bleeding and deaths due to preeclampsia and convulsive eclampsia are shown in the study. Conclusions: the behavior of the data examined is not a mere coincidence with the implementation of the new changes in medical general practice in general in Cuba, and particularly maternal care, but also influence it had on the health and social-economic development of the whole nation.

Ubaldo, Farnot; Norma Eneida, Rios.

309

The transformation of the Swedish political party system in the late 20th/early 21st century  

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Full Text Available This article studies the process of transformation of the Swedish political party system in the 1980s. The study aims to develop a typology of the Swedish political party system before and after the transformation processes commenced. The article identifies the key prerequisites for such transformation: the crisis of social democracy and an increase in the nationalist attitudes in the society caused by the negative repercussions of the system of integration of migrants into the society based on the multiculturalism principles. The interethnic tension manifested itself in the wide support for the Swedish Democrats Party in the 2010 parliamentary election. From a political party system dominated by social democrats, the Swedish political party system turned into one with two leading parties – the centre-left Swedish Social Democratic Labour Party and the centre-right Moderate Party. The Swedish Democrats position themselves as an alternative to the two party blocs headed by the dominating parties (the Alliance and the Red-Green. The study employs an interdisciplinary approach in the framework of science synthesis. Its results can be of practical significance for politicians, social activists, and academicians.

Ryabichenko Arkady

2013-01-01

310

Armenians and 20th century genocide - Debates  

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Full Text Available Somalia has been one of the UN member countries who lingers from the presence of terrorist groups in its territory, that exert tremendous influence in the daily life of its society and economy. Al Shabaab is well known in the horn of Africa, particularly in Somalia, for its terrorist training and strong affiliation with other terrorist groups in Nigeria and Al-Qaeda. The Harakat Shabaab Al Mujahidin, also known as Al-Shabaab. has completely controlled the central and southern part of Somalia including some of its important sea ports, which are vital for the country’s economy. Although Ethiopian and Somali military forces attempted to rout the group in a two week war between December 2006 and January 2007, Al Shabaab, with its 14,500 militants, still continues to maintain control over strategic locations, not only in Somalia, but also throughout the horn of Africa. The paper delves into the recent events and attacks either undertaken or influenced by Al-Shabaab, including a snap shot of its threat to humanitarian aid personnel as well as the Africa Union troops who are desperately trying to lower the intensity of conflict along the Somalia Kenya border area and Al-Shabaab’s actions to secure financial resources.

Maria Immacolata Macioti

2011-01-01

311

Armenians and 20th century genocide - Debates  

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Somalia has been one of the UN member countries who lingers from the presence of terrorist groups in its territory, that exert tremendous influence in the daily life of its society and economy. Al Shabaab is well known in the horn of Africa, particularly in Somalia, for its terrorist training and strong affiliation with other terrorist groups in Nigeria and Al-Qaeda. The Harakat Shabaab Al Mujahidin, also known as Al-Shabaab. has completely controlled the central and southern part of Somalia ...

Maria Immacolata Macioti

2011-01-01

312

French school of neurology in the 19 th and first half of the 20th century, and its influence in Brazil / Escola francesa de neurologia no seculo 19 e primeira metade do seculo 20, e sua influencia no Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese  A medicina francesa é de extrema importância para o nascimento da medicina moderna e a neurologia do século 19. Foram colocadas em prática diversas inovações, como exame à beira do leito, uso de estetoscópio, técnicas de palpação, ausculta e exame do paciente, além da observação dos desfechos da do [...] ença e ênfase à correlação anátomo-clinica. A medicina francesa ofereceu capacitação profissional e incentivo para a fase inicial da neurologia e psiquiatria brasileiras. Voltando da França, muitos médicos brasileiros implementaram o que tinham aprendido, principalmente em Paris. Os mais importantes discípulos das escolas francesas de neurologia no Brasil no século 19 e metade do 20 incluem nomes como Antonio Austregesilo, Aloysio de Castro, Enjolras Vampré e Deolindo Couto, fundadores das principais escolas brasileiras neurológicas, influenciados diretamente por Dejerine, Pierre Marie, Guillain and Babinski. Abstract in english French medicine was of the utmost importance for the birth of modern medicine and neurology in the 19 th century. Innovative approaches, such as examination at the bedside, the use of the stethoscope, techniques of auscultation, palpation, and close patient examination, besides emphasis on anatomica [...] l-clinical correlation and observation of the outcome of the disease, were put into practice. French medicine offered professional training and incentives for the beginnings of Brazilian neurology and psychiatry. Returning from France, many Brazilian physicians implemented what they had learned, mainly in Paris. The most important pupils of the French neurology schools in Brazil during the 19 th century and first half of the 20 th century include names like Antonio Austregesilo, Aloysio de Castro, Enjolras Vampré, and Deolindo Couto, founders of the leading Brazilian neurological schools, directly influenced by Dejerine, Pierre Marie, Guillain and Babinski.

Marleide da Mota, Gomes; Jose Luiz de Sa, Cavalcanti; Eliasz, Engelhardt.

313

Time Series Analysis of Monthly Precipitation and River Flow Extremes in Germany in the 20th Century: Evidence of Different Variability Scales as an Indicator of Recent Regional Climatic Changes  

Science.gov (United States)

We report on an extensive study of time series analysis of monthly precipitation extremes and river stream flows from numerous gauging stations across Germany in the 20th century. A multitude of spectral and time-scale analysis methods that include a.o. the continuous wavelet tool, principal component (EOF), SSA, and other classical techniqes (R/S,WTMM, DFA) for the estimation of the Hurst coefficient H, as an indicator of possible persistence. The wavelet analysis reveals, beyond the typical annual cycle, dominant oscillations in both precipitation and river flow at the interannual (7-8 yr.) and/or interdecadal (11-14 yr.) low frequency scales, in particular in the second part of the 20th century, providing evidence for some recent regional climatic changes over Germany. The scaling properties of the time series are determined through the computation of the Hurst parameter. It turns out that the presence of the named dominant periods in the signals may bias the estimated H significantly, depending on the method used, especially when the signal-to-noise ratio and/or the data length are small. Surprisingly, for the case under study the somewhat "outdated" R/S-method appears to fare best. In any case, the estimated H for the precipitation series at the various stations across Germany fluctuate around H=0.5, i.e. do not show a clear picture of systematic persistence. However, data with low frequency components show higher H values, i.e., some amount of persistence, than data without such components, where possible negative autocorrelations and H < 0.5, i.e. anti-persistence, are suspected. As for the river flow, good estimates for H can be obtained after application of an SSA-filter. In any case, as expected, the estimated H are much higher than 0.5, indicating strong persistence of the stream flow. As for the origins of the named interannual (7-8 yr.) and/or interdecadal (11-14 yr.) low frequency scales, using cross-wavelet spectral analysis, we find evidence for a teleconnective influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation on the precipitation and streamflow pattern, primarily, over the last 40 years, and with partly opposite effects in the northern and southern parts of Germany. As such the NAO phase of enhanced decadal variability could be made responsible for the low frequency precipitation components.

Markovic, D.; Koch, M.

2005-12-01

314

From a farm road to a public highway: The Dutch Reformed Church and its changing views regarding the city and urbanisation in the first half of the 20th century (1916-1947)  

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Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The big question which should be in every theologian's mind is: How did the Dutch Reformed Church's response to the rapid urbanisation of the Afrikaner people in the first half of the 20th century unfold and develop? This was a painful transition to the many Afrikaner volk. And in order to address t [...] his question, this article looks more closely at some of the popular booklets by Rev JR Albertyn from the 1940s, the Kerk en Stad report (1947), and the published papers and decisions of the Volkskongres of 1947. These texts give us a glimpse onto the (changing) views on the city and urbanisation within the Dutch Reformed Church, as well as within the broader Afrikaner society. This article will also highlight the possible theological convictions that played a role in an attempt to face the challenges arising from a new urban environment. This article will furthermore focus on the way in which the discourse, within the Dutch Reformed Church, which related the challenges posed by urbanisation to the so-called "race problem", was dealt with.

Robert, Vosloo.

315

Escuela Nueva y saber pedagógico en Colombia: apropiación, modernidad y métodos de enseñanza. Primera mitad del siglo XIX / New education and pedagogical knowledge in Colombia: appropriation, modernity and teaching methods. First half of the 20th Century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La Escuela Nueva es una propuesta de naturaleza pedagógica extendida en toda América Latina, y que tuvo una influencia variada en la educación en los diferentes países de América Latina. En Colombia, la Escuela Nueva significó la apertura hacia un proceso de apropiación de los saberes modernos. En e [...] ste sentido, el artículo desarrolla algunas reflexiones sobre esta tendencia pedagógica durante la primera mitad del siglo XX, para hacer visible desde una perspectiva histórica, las transformaciones en los métodos de enseñanza de las ciencias y los saberes en el saber pedagógico colombiano. Abstract in english New Education is a proposal of pedagogic nature throughout Latin America as a whole, which had a diverse influence on education in its different countries. In Colombia, New Education meant openness to the process of appropriation of modern knowledge. In this sense, the article develops some thoughts [...] on this pedagogical tendency during the first half of the 20th Century, in order to make visible, from a historical perspective, the transformations of science's teaching methods and of the existing wisdom on the Colombian pedagogy knowledge.

Rafael, Ríos Beltran.

316

Review of Erik Sidenvall, The Making of Manhood Among Swedish Missionaries in China and Mongolia, c.1890–c.1914 (Leiden: Brill, 2009 189 pp. and Yvonne Maria Werner (ed., Christian Masculinity: Men and Religion in Northern Europe in the 19th and 20th Centuries  

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Full Text Available Review of Erik Sidenvall, The Making of Manhood Among Swedish Missionaries in China and Mongolia, c.1890–c.1914 (Leiden: Brill, 2009 189 pp. and Yvonne Maria Werner (ed., Christian Masculinity: Men and Religion in Northern Europe in the 19th and 20th Centuries (Leuven: Leuven University Press, 2011 322 pp.

Joseph Gelfer

2012-01-01

317

APPROACH TO THE VILLAGE IN RUSSIAN AND TURKISH LITERATURE IN THE SECOND HALF OF THE 20TH CENTURY 20.YÜZYILIN ?K?NC? YARISINDA RUS EDEB?YATINDA VE TÜRK EDEB?YATINDA KÖYE YAKLA?IM  

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Full Text Available In world literature, some subjects are formed according to the society, culture and geographical factors. The village subjects in Turkish and Russian literature also based on these basics. ‘ Village literature’ which became very considerable in both countries for a period in the past occurred in the second half of the 20th century. It cannot be considered as a coincidence, it has been actually the result of the literacy interaction and socialism which became effective in most of the countries in the world in that period. It is approached with the socialist and realistic conception to the country life and country folk hereafter in spite of the fact that village and country folk have been illustrated in the works of both literature before. In this work, approaches to the country life in Russian and Turkish literature and also how their conceptions has been reflected on the literature will be evaluated. Dünya edebiyatlar?nda baz? konular toplumlara, kültürlere ve co?rafi faktörlere göre ?ekillenirler. Rus ve Türk edebiyat?ndaki köy konusu da bu temellere dayan?r. Her iki ülkede de bir döneme ad?n? yazd?ran “köy edebiyat?” 20. yüzy?l?n ikinci yar?s?na denk gelir. Bu durum bir tesadüf de?il o dönemde dünyan?n birçok ülkesinde etkili olan sosyalizmin ve edebi etkile?iminin bir sonucudur. Her iki edebiyat?n ürünlerinde daha önce köy ve köy insan? anlat?lm?? olmas?na ra?men köy ya?am? ve insan?na art?k sosyalist gerçekçilik dü?üncesi ile yakla??l?r. Bu çal??mada, iki edebiyat?n köye yakla??mlar? ve bu konudaki dü?üncelerinin edebiyata nas?l yans?t?ld??? de?erlendirilecektir.

Reyhan ÇEL?K

2009-12-01

318

Controle social, mundo do trabalho e as Conferências Nacionais de Saúde da virada do século XX Social Control, work world and the National Conferences of Health at the turn of the 20th century  

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Full Text Available A prática do controle social no campo da saúde do trabalhador vem enfrentando as barreiras impostas pela globalização e pela reestruturação d(no mundo do trabalho, seja pelo enfraquecimento dos sindicatos de trabalhadores, seja pela ausência de representantes das várias categorias de trabalhadores sem vínculo formal de trabalho, pertencentes ao expressivo mercado informal/precarizado. Na virada do século XX, as grandes Conferências Nacionais de Saúde foram marcadas por contextos políticos com diferenças significativas, o que favoreceu a falta de articulação entre as bases representativas, que se ocupavam principalmente com as demandas fragmentadas e interesses particularistas. Refletir sobre como se configura a legítima representação das classes de trabalhadores, sejam elas pertencentes ao mercado formal ou informal/precarizado, faz-se necessário diante das evidências de que o arranjo atual vem impedindo o aprofundamento dos assuntos específicos da saúde do trabalhador.The practice of social control in the field of the worker's health has been facing barriers imposed by the globalization and the restructuring in the work world, either because of the weakness of the workers' unions, or by the absence of representatives of the various workers categories without formal work bond, belonging to the expressive informal/precarious market. In the beginning of the 20th century, big National Conferences of Health were marked by political contexts with significant differences, favoring the lack of articulation among the representative bases that were engaged mainly in fragmented demands and particulars interests. To contemplate on as the legitimate representation of the workers' classes is configured, either belonging to the formal market, or informal/precarious, is necessary against the evidences that the current arrangement is impeding the deepening of the specific worker's health issues.

Francisco Antonio de Castro Lacaz

2009-12-01

319

Chinos y gamines: imágenes de los habitantes pobres de Bogotá en la primera mitad del siglo XX / The urchins and street boys: images of the poor inhabitants of Bogota in the first half of the 20th century  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En el artículo se tejen algunos indicios que permiten poner en escena las formas como los niños pobres o los hijos de los habitantes pobres de la ciudad de Bogotá fueron diferenciados de la infancia "normal", en la primera mitad del siglo XX. Acudiendo a discursos de especialistas, voces de reformis [...] tas educativos y periodistas se evidencia que la diferenciación fue producida mediante la estigmatización de los lugares sociales de los niños pobres, a través de la imagen de los chinos y los gamines. Imágenes que resultan paradigmáticas para desentrañar la deslegitimación de las estructuras familiares, de las trayectorias escolares y de los modos de habitar la ciudad de los niños y niñas de los sectores populares, dada la articulación, infundada y temeraria que se estableció entre la vida de los pobres y la delincuencia infantil. Abstract in english In this paper we present hints that allow us to reveal the ways poor children, or the children of poor inhabitants, from the city of Bogota were excluded from the "normal" childhood in the first half of the 20th century. Based on specialists' statements as well as opinions from educational reformers [...] and journalists it is clear that this exclusion was created due to the stigmatization of the social places belonging to the poor children through the image of the urchins and street boys.. Such images were a model that could reveal the illegitimacy of the family structures, of the school history and of the way children from the popular areas lived, given the articulation, mistaken and dangerous, that was established between the life of poor people and children delinquency.

Yeimy Cárdenas, Palermo.

320

Las diócesis del Valle del Cauca (Colombia) en el siglo XX: Hacia el fortalecimiento de la modernización / The Diocese of Valle del Cauca (Colombia) during 20th Century: Towards the Strengthening of Modernity  

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Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El presente artículo hace un recorrido histórico (consultando fundamentalmente los archivos diocesanos, en su mayoría inéditos), por la instauración de las principales diócesis creadas en el Departamento del Valle del Cauca (Colombia) durante el siglo XX: Cali, Palmira, Buenaventura, Cartago y Buga. [...] Se muestra como la Iglesia constituye un proyecto fundamental de modernización religiosa, que se denota ante todo en la extensión de su presencia en el territorio vallecaucano. Proceso que inicia con la desfragmentación del gran territorio de la arquidiócesis de Popayán, con lo cual cada diócesis creada logra impulsar sus propios procesos de generación de parroquias, centros educativos y de beneficencia, logrando con esto, construir la iglesia vallecaucana y fortalecer la religión católica tanto en los sectores rurales como en los espacios urbanos del departamento del Valle del Cauca. Cada nueva diócesis se inscribe además, en su propia coyuntura local de desarrollo y modernización económica y social. Abstract in english The present article, based on a research carried out on diocesan archives -mainly unpublished- describes the historical path followed during the creation of the most important dioceses in the Valle del Cauca region (Colombia) during the 20th century: Cali, Palmira, Buenaventura, Cartago and Buga. It [...] shows how the Church constituted a fundamental project of religious modernization as a result of its growing presence in the Valle del Cauca territory. The process begun with the fragmentation of the wide area occupied by the Archdiocese of Popayan, when each new diocese developed its own process in the establishment of new parishes, schools and charity institutions. These constitute the foundations of the Catholic Church and the construction and empowerment of religion, both in rural sectors and urban spaces along the Department. Nevertheless, each new parish in the Valle del Cauca was created according to local circumstances of economic development and social modernization.

Antonio José, Echeverry Pérez; Carolina, Abadía Quintero.

 
 
 
 
321

European Tips on Tourism development in the Caucasus in Early ?? Century  

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The article presents tips, recommendations, advice by the Europeans. Their consideration was important for further development of tourism in the Caucasus. Namely, for the development of the organization, established in early 20th century “Caucasus Tourism Promotion Committee" and its relation with the countries with well-developed tourism, such as: Austria, Hungary, Germany, France, Bosnia and Herzegovina and etc. Using archive sources, we can consider the issues, concerning foreign tou...

2013-01-01

322

Medios de transporte, accidentes de tránsito y legislación en Medellín (Colombia) durante las tres primeras décadas del siglo XX / Means of Transport, Traffic Accidents and Legislation in Medellín, Colombia, During the First Three Decades of the 20th Century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Automóviles, coches, camiones y trenes aparecieron en Medellín (Colombia) durante las primeras décadas del siglo XX, afectando las rutinas de los habitantes que tuvieron la necesidad de usarlos, transformando así las dinámicas de la ciudad. En este proceso, hombres y mujeres se vieron involucrados e [...] n circunstancias aciagas en las que estos aparatos fueron los medios a través de los cuales se cometían atropellamientos, que podían ser calificados como delitos, extendiendo así el marco de aplicación de las leyes y obligando, incluso, a generar estrategias legales para intentar llevar coherentemente estos litigios. El objeto central de este artículo es describir las formas como se presentaron los accidentes de tránsito en el contexto señalado y al mismo tiempo relacionar este tipo de hechos con la legislación existente en aquella época y la manera como era aplicada por las autoridades al momento de generar un veredicto sobre la culpabilidad por homicidio de un conductor. Para su elaboración se tuvieron en cuenta cinco sumarios por homicidio del Archivo Histórico Judicial de Medellín, información del Archivo Histórico de Medellín y de la Colección Patrimonio Documental de la Universidad de Antioquia, artículos de la prensa local, legislación y datos estadísticos de la época. Abstract in english Automobiles, cars, trucks and trains appeared in Medellín, Colombia, during the first decades of the 20th century, and affected the routines of the inhabitants who had the need to use them, thus transforming the dynamics of the city. In this process, men and women were involved in unfortunate circum [...] stances in which these machines were the means through which people were run over. Since this act was qualified as a committed crime, it was necessary to enforce the laws and even generate legal strategies for consistently attempt these disputes. The aim of this article is to describe the ways how traffic accidents occurred in the stated context, and at the same time, relate this kind of facts with the existing legislation in that time, and the way as it was applied by the authorities when generating a verdict on the guilt of murder of a driver. For its preparation five summaries were considered by murder of the Archivo Historico Judicial de Medellín, the information of the Archivo Histórico de Medellín, and the Collection Heritage Documentary of the Unviersidad de Antioquia, articles from the local press, legislation and statistical data of that time

Alzate Alzate, Juan David.

323

Ð?огословиеÑ?о на Ð?ожииÑ?е енеÑ?гии в Ð?Ñ?авославнаÑ?а мисÑ?л на 20 век : The theology of the Divine energies in 20th century Orthodox thought  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The dissertation was part of an individual doctoral research program as an external scholar in the Faculty of Theology at Sofia University, Bulgaria. It suggests a comprehensive study of the concept of energy in Orthodox theology and physics. It consists of a historical, dogmatic and empirical component. The first chapter discusses the re-emergence of the distinction between Divine essence and energies in Orthodox theology by focusing on the sophiological controversy in the first half of 20th century with a specific emphasis on the theology of Fr. Georges Florovsky and Fr. Sergius Bulgakov. The analysis points out the role of Fr. G. Florovsky for the rediscovery of the teaching on the Divine essence and energies as one of his key theological contributions by focusing on some of his letters to Bulgakov that were written as early as 1925 and on his work Creature and creaturehood (1927). The analysis suggests that these early works have determined the main direction of Orthodox theological reflection in the 20thcentury. Chapter II of the dissertation focuses on a comparative analysis of the theological insights of three key Orthodox theologians: Metropolitan John Zizioulas (1931 â?), Fr. Dumitru Staniloae (1903 â? 1993) and Fr. John Romanides (1927â?2001). Metropolitan John Zizioulas is a Greek theologian who is currently the main theological representative of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, New Rome. Fr. D. Staniloae is a Romanian theologian who provided one of the most comprehensive theological syntheses in the 20th century. Fr. Romanides is a Greek-born American theologian who returned to Greece and became one of the main drivers of the renewal of Greek Orthodox theology in the 20th century. These three theologians have significantly contributed to Orthodox theology in the 20th century and have addressed the teaching on the Divine energies in different ways. Fr. D. Staniloae and Fr. John Romanides included the teaching on the Divine energies as an integral part of their theological systems. Metr. John Zizioulas adopted a different approach trying to demonstrate that the teaching on the Divine energies is not essential in Orthodox theology. The dissertation suggests a comparative analysis of the three theologians to show that neglecting the teaching on the energies leads to a narrower understanding of both spiritual life and the Church. Chapter III provides a parallel study of the term energy in Orthodox theology and physics. Its intention is to build on existing works and established knowledge to provide a basis for the development of an interdisciplinary analytical framework in contribution to the ongoing contemporary dialogue between science and theology. The Chapter starts with a discussion of the methodological grounds for the parallel exploration of the concept of energy in Orthodox theology and physics by focusing on the â??analogical isomorphismâ?? approach. Afterwards it provides a more detailed articulation of the ways the concept of energy is used in physics and Orthodox theology by concentrating on the history, content and major issues related to two debates, the first one, between two monks - Barlaam the Calabrian and St Gregory Palamas - in 14th century Byzantium, and, the second, between two great physicists - Niels Bohr and Albert Einstein - in the 20th century. The qualitative comparative analysis approach was found to be particularly fruitful. It builds on insights from Eastern Christian (Byzantine) theology, philosophy of science and philosophy of religion to suggest an analysis of the way of using language in theology and quantum mechanics. The Chapter concludes by summarizing the observations emerging from the analysis and a number of conclusions related to their potential value for the science-theology dialogue.

Tanev, Stoyan

2012-01-01

324

European Tips on Tourism development in the Caucasus in Early ?? Century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article presents tips, recommendations, advice by the Europeans. Their consideration was important for further development of tourism in the Caucasus. Namely, for the development of the organization, established in early 20th century “Caucasus Tourism Promotion Committee" and its relation with the countries with well-developed tourism, such as: Austria, Hungary, Germany, France, Bosnia and Herzegovina and etc. Using archive sources, we can consider the issues, concerning foreign tourism experience, types of advertisement in XX century, means of information, transport, tourist accommodation, tourism infrastructure, etc

Tamar Tamarashvili

2013-01-01

325

Ilukirjanduse tõlked 20. sajandi esimese poole Eesti ja Soome raamatutoodangus (1900–1940 / Translations of Belles-Lettres in the Book Production of Estonia and Finland during the First Half of the 20th Century (1900–1940  

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Full Text Available The article presents statistical data on the publications of belles-lettres in Estonia in 1900–1940 – a period when the country developed into a modern European society and gained independence. The topic is treated in the context of book history, which uses publishing statistics to provide a broader context for individual case studies. The research on the quantity and share of translated literature in book production comes close to the statisticalsociological approach in translation history, characterised by Peeter Torop as one of the aspects of the study of translation culture. The statistical indicators have been elaborated on the basis of retrospective bibliographies and on the data, obtained from National Library of Estonia. The analysis includes the share of belles-lettres in book production, the balance of original works and translations, the changes in the quantity of translations during different decades and the share of source literatures. The Estonian statistics have been presented in comparison with corresponding data from Finland, which has been published in the collective monograph on Finnish translation history, issued in 2007. As the Finnish data is organized by decades, the same principle is used for statistics on Estonia. This approach corresponds generally to the political history of the two countries – both belonged to the Russian Empire during the first two decades of the 20th century and existed as independent states during the following two decades. Both nations had passed through the first stage in the development of literary culture, characterised by extensive publication of adaptations and free translations by the beginning of the century. Thus the share of original works started to increase and slightly exceeded the share  of  translations  in  E stonia  as  well  as  in  Finland.  The  selection  of  translated  works  in both countries was varied and their level was unstable. Despite the longstanding plans of developing translation culture in Finland, the choice of works was influenced by international acclaime and the activitiy of translators. The immaturity of Estonian publishing manifested itself, among other things, as inadeaquate paratexts of the translations. Due to the differences in historical development and cultural background, the structure of  source  literature s  of  translated  belle s-let tre s  in  the  two  countrie s  dif fered  in  many  ways – translating from the English language increased considerably in Finland, fending the traditional German and Scandinavian domination. The importance of translations of German literature, which maintained the leading role in Estonia, is a common feature of both countries. At the same time, the interest in Scandinavian literature only started to emerge in Estonia. The  translations  of  Rus sian  literature,  however,  were  much  more  numerous  in  E stonia  thanin Finland. In general, the period of 1900–1919 is characterised by a notable increase in the quantit y of translated belles-lettres as well as their uneveness. However, the growing number of translations provided greater diversity, introducing new authors, styles and trends.The existence of an independent Republic of Estonia (since 1918 opened utterly new perspectives for the development of national culture – for the first time it could be done without external control and using the Estonian language in all levels of administration and education. These circumstances fostered publishing, the demand for books was especially great during the first years after the War of Independence (1918–1920, later the declines and increases in book production were connected to the economic conditions. Belles-lettres formed about 20 per cent of the title production, which in turn was almost equally divided between original works and translations. In contrast to Estonia, the number of translations started to decrease in Finland in the 1930s due to economic and political factors, idealising conservative national values. Th

Aile Möldre

2012-06-01

326

A Comparative Study of Variation of the Pterion of Human Skulls from 13th and 20th Century Anatolia Un Estudio Comparativo de la Variación del Pterion en Cráneos Humanos de los Siglos 13 y 20 de Anatolia  

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Full Text Available The pterion is a commonly used anthropologic and neurosurgical landmark defined as the junction of the sphenoid, temporal, parietal and frontal bones. It is commonly classified into four types based on sutural pattern: sphenoparietal, in which the sphenoid and parietal bones are in direct contact; frontotemporal, in which the frontal and temporal bones are in direct contact; stellate, in which all four bones come into contact at a point; and epipteric, in which a small sutural bone is found between the parietal bone and the greater wing of the sphenoid bone. In the present study, 44 Anatolian skulls from two different eras, Byzantine (13th century and contemporary (20th century, were investigated for morphology and location of the pterion. Sphenoparietal was the most common form, comprising 87.5% and 89.2% in the Byzantine and contemporary groups, respectively. The frequencies of the epipteric type of pterion were 6.25% and 3.6% in the Byzantine and contemporary groups, respectively. Measurements of the location of the pterion were made by using stainless steel calipers and Scion Image software. There were no significant differences in digital and manual measurements between the right and left sides of the skulls in both groups. However, the distance from the pterion to the inion was significantly greater in the manual measurements compared to the digital measurements. Anatomical variations of the pterion, which are of interest to anthropologists, forensic pathologists and surgeons, deserve further investigation in other populations from different geographical areas.El pterion es un punto comúnmente usado como punto de referencia antropológico y neuroquirúrgico, correspondiendo a la unión de los huesos esfenoides, temporal, parietal y frontal. Generalmente es clasificado en 4 tipos basado en padrones suturales: esfenoparietal, en el cual los huesos esfenoides y parietal están directamente en contacto; frontotemporal, en el cual el frontal y el temporal se encuentran en contacto directo; estrellado, en el cual los cuatro huesos mencionados se contactan directamente en un punto y epiptérico, en el cual un pequeño hueso sutural se encuentra entre el hueso parietal y el ala mayor del esfenoides. En el presente estudio, investigamos la morfología y la localización del pterion en 44 cráneos Anatolian de diferentes épocas, Bizantina (Siglo XIII y contemporánea (Siglo XX. La forma más común que se encontró fue la Esfenoparietal, con un 87,5 % para los del grupo Bizantino y 89,2 % para los de la era contemporánea. La frecuencia del tipo epiptérico fue de 6,25 % y 3,6 %, respectivamente. Se realizaron medidas de la posición del pterion utilizando un caliper y un software de imágenes. No hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas en las mediciones manuales y digitales entre los lados derecho e izquierdo de los cráneos de ambos grupos. Sin embargo, la distancia desde el pterion al inion fue significativamente mayor en las medidas manuales comparadas con las digitales. Las variaciones anatómicas del pterion, las cuales son de interés para antropólogos, patólogos forenses y cirujanos, son un tema de investigación a desarrollar en otras poblaciones de diferentes áreas geográficas.

Ari Ilknur

2009-12-01

327

A Comparative Study of Variation of the Pterion of Human Skulls from 13th and 20th Century Anatolia / Un Estudio Comparativo de la Variación del Pterion en Cráneos Humanos de los Siglos 13 y 20 de Anatolia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish El pterion es un punto comúnmente usado como punto de referencia antropológico y neuroquirúrgico, correspondiendo a la unión de los huesos esfenoides, temporal, parietal y frontal. Generalmente es clasificado en 4 tipos basado en padrones suturales: esfenoparietal, en el cual los huesos esfenoides y [...] parietal están directamente en contacto; frontotemporal, en el cual el frontal y el temporal se encuentran en contacto directo; estrellado, en el cual los cuatro huesos mencionados se contactan directamente en un punto y epiptérico, en el cual un pequeño hueso sutural se encuentra entre el hueso parietal y el ala mayor del esfenoides. En el presente estudio, investigamos la morfología y la localización del pterion en 44 cráneos Anatolian de diferentes épocas, Bizantina (Siglo XIII) y contemporánea (Siglo XX). La forma más común que se encontró fue la Esfenoparietal, con un 87,5 % para los del grupo Bizantino y 89,2 % para los de la era contemporánea. La frecuencia del tipo epiptérico fue de 6,25 % y 3,6 %, respectivamente. Se realizaron medidas de la posición del pterion utilizando un caliper y un software de imágenes. No hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas en las mediciones manuales y digitales entre los lados derecho e izquierdo de los cráneos de ambos grupos. Sin embargo, la distancia desde el pterion al inion fue significativamente mayor en las medidas manuales comparadas con las digitales. Las variaciones anatómicas del pterion, las cuales son de interés para antropólogos, patólogos forenses y cirujanos, son un tema de investigación a desarrollar en otras poblaciones de diferentes áreas geográficas. Abstract in english The pterion is a commonly used anthropologic and neurosurgical landmark defined as the junction of the sphenoid, temporal, parietal and frontal bones. It is commonly classified into four types based on sutural pattern: sphenoparietal, in which the sphenoid and parietal bones are in direct contact; f [...] rontotemporal, in which the frontal and temporal bones are in direct contact; stellate, in which all four bones come into contact at a point; and epipteric, in which a small sutural bone is found between the parietal bone and the greater wing of the sphenoid bone. In the present study, 44 Anatolian skulls from two different eras, Byzantine (13th century) and contemporary (20th century), were investigated for morphology and location of the pterion. Sphenoparietal was the most common form, comprising 87.5% and 89.2% in the Byzantine and contemporary groups, respectively. The frequencies of the epipteric type of pterion were 6.25% and 3.6% in the Byzantine and contemporary groups, respectively. Measurements of the location of the pterion were made by using stainless steel calipers and Scion Image software. There were no significant differences in digital and manual measurements between the right and left sides of the skulls in both groups. However, the distance from the pterion to the inion was significantly greater in the manual measurements compared to the digital measurements. Anatomical variations of the pterion, which are of interest to anthropologists, forensic pathologists and surgeons, deserve further investigation in other populations from different geographical areas.

Ari, Ilknur; Kafa Ilker, Mustafa; Bakirci, Sinan.

328

Dietary reconstruction and reservoir correction of 14C dates on bones from pagan and early Christian graves in Iceland : Proceedings of the 20th International Radiocarbon Conference  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this study, ?13C and ?15N of bone samples from 83 skeletons (79 humans, 2 horses, and 2 dogs) excavated from pagan and early Christian graves from 21 localities in Iceland are used to reconstruct diet of the early settlers in Iceland and possible differences in diet depending on the distance between the excavation site and the seashore. We have radiocarbon dated 47 of these skeletons and used the carbon isotopic composition (?13C) to estimate and correct for the marine reservoir effect (the 14C difference between terrestrial and mixed marine organisms). The reservoir-corrected ages lie in the range of AD 780?1270 (68.2% probability). Reservoir age corrections were checked by comparing 14C dates of a horse (terrestrial diet), a dog (highly marine diet), and a human (mixed diet) from the same burial. The range in measured marine protein percentage in individual diet is from about 10% up to 55%, mostly depending on the geographical position (distance from the sea) of the excavation site. We had access to the skeleton (AAR-5908) of the Sk?lholt bishop P?ll J?nsson whose remains are enshrined at the Episcopal residence in Sk?lholt, southern Iceland. According to written sources, the bishop died in AD 1211. Using our dietary reconstruction, his bones were about 17% marine, which is within the range of human skeletons from the same area, and the reservoir-corrected calibrated 14C age of the skeleton is in accord with the historical date.

Sveinbjörnsdóttir, Árný E; Heinemeier, Jan

2010-01-01

329

A imprensa negra e o futebol em São Paulo no início do século XX The Black Press and the soccer in São Paulo in the beginning of the 20th century  

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Full Text Available Em São Paulo, na primeira metade do século XX, havia associações destinadas à promoção de atividades culturais e esportivas para os negros, que surgiram diante da necessidade de denunciar as práticas discriminatórias e promover a sociabilidade étnica através do atletismo, do boxe e, sobretudo, do futebol. Uma delas era a Imprensa Negra. Neste artigo, os autores buscaram compreender as estratégias da Imprensa Negra para noticiar a participação do negro no emergente campo do futebol. Utilizando a perspectiva teórica da História Cultural, se ocuparam dos conteúdos das matérias dos jornais da Imprensa Negra, disponíveis na Biblioteca Nacional na forma de microfilmes. O objetivo foi observar a continuidade e a regularidade do discurso, os pontos de afrontamento e de disputa simbólica em torno da negociação da construção identitária da "raça negra" no esporte e captar, através das mensagens emitidas por esses órgãos da imprensa, as estratégias de distinção utilizadas por esse grupo étnico/racial em torno da contestação das representações negativas ou construção de representações positivas sobre o negro no emergente campo do futebol. Concluíram que o sentimento de consciência racial, a necessidade de se integrar à nação e o desejo de ascensão social eram os motivos que mantinham unidos os negros através daquelas associações. A Imprensa Negra procurou construir uma representação identitária do negro que privilegiasse o capital futebolístico, sem se esquecer dos predicados morais como a disciplina, a higiene e a ordem. A estratégia de divulgação dos feitos de sucesso dos negros no campo esportivo promovia uma identidade positiva do negro no futebol, em conformidade com as demandas daquele contexto: uma nação higienizada e disciplinada na esteira do projeto nacional que via no futebol um meio de expressão positiva da brasilidade.In the first half of the 20th century, in São Paulo, there were associations dedicated to promote cultural and sport activities for the African American people. They emerged to denounce discriminatory practices and to promote ethnic sociability through athletics, boxing and, especially, soccer. One of them was the Black Press. In this article, the authors sought to understand the strategies of the Black Press to report the participation of black people in the emerging field of soccer. The contents of the Black Press, available in the National Library in the form of microfilms, were analyzed using the theoretical perspective of the Cultural History. The objective was to observe the continuity and regularity of the speech, the points of confrontation and symbolic dispute around the negotiation of the identity construction of "black" in the sport and identify, by means of the messages sent by those media outlets, the strategies of distinction used by the ethnic / racial group around the defense against negative representations or construction of positive representations of blacks in the emerging field of soccer. They concluded that the feeling of the racial consciousness, the need to integrate themselves with the nation and the desire for social mobility were the reasons that held the African Americans together through those associations. Thence, the "Black Press" tried to build a representation of black identity that emphasized the soccer resources, without forgetting moral matters as discipline, hygiene and order. The dissemination of the achievements of blacks in sports promoted a positive identity of black man in soccer, in accordance with the demands of that context: a sanitized and disciplined nation in accordance with the national project that understood soccer as a mean of positive expression of "Brazilianness".

Bruno Otávio de Lacerda Abrahão

2012-03-01

330

Paradigmas de control de la malaria en Guatemala, siglos XX y XXI, de la erradicación a la eliminación / Paradigms of the malarial control in Guatemala in the 20th and 21st centuries moving from eradication to elimination  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La malaria continúa siendo un problema de salud pública mundial. Durante los siglos XX y XXI el abordaje de esta enfermedad sufrió cambios paradigmáticos muy interesantes, pero principalmente estuvo influenciado por los descubrimientos relacionados con la segunda guerra mundial, la situación económi [...] ca mundial, el advenimiento de nuevas estrategias de control y el abordaje de la enfermedad por medio de la participación comunitaria y el sector de la salud. El propósito de este trabajo es presentar los cambios de paradigmas desde una óptica vertical o erradicación, a una horizontal o eliminación, y desde lo positivista cuantitativo a lo mixto, en el abordaje de la malaria en Guatemala. Se realiza una reseña histórica de la malaria y se discuten los aspectos bioéticos del uso del insecticida dicloro-difenil-tricloroetano a nivel mundial. En los países desarrollados fueron justificadas las intervenciones de erradicación con el rociamiento intradomiciliar del insecticida citado y completarlas con el diagnóstico y tratamiento de la malaria; la realidad en la mayoría de los países en vías de desarrollo, fue diferente, puesto que no pudieron mantener los programas de erradicación por problemas financieros, un ejemplo claro de iniquidad global. Guatemala en esta década trabaja en la fase de preeliminación-eliminación, con buenos resultados, lo que marca un cambio de paradigma e indica que las medidas contra la malaria deben ser horizontales y favorecer el trabajo intra e intersectorial. Abstract in english Malaria remains a world health problem. During the 20th and 21st centuries, the approach to this disease underwent very interesting paradigmatic changes, but they were influenced by breakthroughs derived from the Second World Wear, the international economic situations, the advent of new monitoring [...] strategies and the approach to the disease based on the community and the health sector involvement. The objective of this paper was to present changes in paradigms form a vertical perspective or eradication to a horizontal viewpoint or elimination, and from a quantitative positivist to a combined standpoint in addressing malaria in Guatemala. A historical account of malaria was made and the bioethical aspects of the use of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane worldwide were discussed. The eradicating interventions by using the insecticidal spraying of houses were backed up in the developed countries. This was supplemented with the diagnosis and treatment of malaria. However, the situation was different in most of the developing countries, since their financial restrictions did not make possible to keep the eradication programs, being a clear example of the global inequality. In the present decade, Guatemala is going through the pre-elimination-elimination phase and it works with good results, which is indicative of a change in paradigm and shows that actions against malaria should be horizontal in order to encourage the intrasectorial and the intersectorial work.

Juárez, Jaime.

331

Paradigmas de control de la malaria en Guatemala, siglos XX y XXI, de la erradicación a la eliminación / Paradigms of the malarial control in Guatemala in the 20th and 21st centuries moving from eradication to elimination  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La malaria continúa siendo un problema de salud pública mundial. Durante los siglos XX y XXI el abordaje de esta enfermedad sufrió cambios paradigmáticos muy interesantes, pero principalmente estuvo influenciado por los descubrimientos relacionados con la segunda guerra mundial, la situación económi [...] ca mundial, el advenimiento de nuevas estrategias de control y el abordaje de la enfermedad por medio de la participación comunitaria y el sector de la salud. El propósito de este trabajo es presentar los cambios de paradigmas desde una óptica vertical o erradicación, a una horizontal o eliminación, y desde lo positivista cuantitativo a lo mixto, en el abordaje de la malaria en Guatemala. Se realiza una reseña histórica de la malaria y se discuten los aspectos bioéticos del uso del insecticida dicloro-difenil-tricloroetano a nivel mundial. En los países desarrollados fueron justificadas las intervenciones de erradicación con el rociamiento intradomiciliar del insecticida citado y completarlas con el diagnóstico y tratamiento de la malaria; la realidad en la mayoría de los países en vías de desarrollo, fue diferente, puesto que no pudieron mantener los programas de erradicación por problemas financieros, un ejemplo claro de iniquidad global. Guatemala en esta década trabaja en la fase de preeliminación-eliminación, con buenos resultados, lo que marca un cambio de paradigma e indica que las medidas contra la malaria deben ser horizontales y favorecer el trabajo intra e intersectorial. Abstract in english Malaria remains a world health problem. During the 20th and 21st centuries, the approach to this disease underwent very interesting paradigmatic changes, but they were influenced by breakthroughs derived from the Second World Wear, the international economic situations, the advent of new monitoring [...] strategies and the approach to the disease based on the community and the health sector involvement. The objective of this paper was to present changes in paradigms form a vertical perspective or eradication to a horizontal viewpoint or elimination, and from a quantitative positivist to a combined standpoint in addressing malaria in Guatemala. A historical account of malaria was made and the bioethical aspects of the use of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane worldwide were discussed. The eradicating interventions by using the insecticidal spraying of houses were backed up in the developed countries. This was supplemented with the diagnosis and treatment of malaria. However, the situation was different in most of the developing countries, since their financial restrictions did not make possible to keep the eradication programs, being a clear example of the global inequality. In the present decade, Guatemala is going through the pre-elimination-elimination phase and it works with good results, which is indicative of a change in paradigm and shows that actions against malaria should be horizontal in order to encourage the intrasectorial and the intersectorial work.

Juárez, Jaime.

332

Demographic, residential, and socioeconomic effects on the distribution of 19th century African-American Body Mass Index values  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Little research exists on the body mass index values of late 19th and early 20th century African-Americans. Using a new BMI data set and robust statistics, this paper demonstrates that late 19th and early 20th century black BMI variation by age increased in their mid-30s but declined at older ages when worker physical productivity declined. Throughout the late 19th and early 20th centuries, black BMIs decreased across the distribution, indicating that the 20th century increase in black BMIs d...

Carson, Scott Alan

2011-01-01

333

The 20th International Reid Bioanalytical Forum.  

Science.gov (United States)

The 20th International Reid Bioanalytical Forum University of Surrey, Guildford, UK, 9-12 September 2013The 20th International Reid Bioanalytical Forum was attended by a little over 100 participants from pharma, contract research, instrument vendors and academia. The Forum was divided into six broad themes, which included collaborative partnerships between CROs and pharmaceutical companies, technology developments, problem solving, the bioanalytical toolbox, biomarker analysis and regulations in bioanalysis. PMID:24423590

Houghton, Richard

2014-01-01

334

The Role of the Nobility in the Development of Navigation on the Danube (XIX - early XX centuries  

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Full Text Available The questions of the place and role of the nobility of Bessarabia in the development of transport Infrastructure of the region in the late 19th - early 20th centuries is disscused. The activity of Prince Y. Gagarin - the first founder of shipping company on the Danube - Russian-Danube Shipping Company, which by 1886 evolved into a major joint-venture private limited transport in Bessarabia - Black Sea-Danube Shipping

Liliya Tsyganenko

2013-08-01

335

On the social background of the most prominent astronomers of the 20th century - a sociological analysis of the Source Book of Astronomy and Astrophysics. (German Title: Über die soziale Herkunft der bedeutenden Astronomen des 20. Jahrhunderts - Eine soziologische Analyse des Source Book of Astronomy and Astrophysics )  

Science.gov (United States)

The study investigates the social background of the most successful astronomers, astrophysicists and physicists of the 20th century. The basis for the assessment of their importance was made on grounds of their work in the "Source book of Astronomy and Astrophysics 1900-1975". The data collected presents the social situation of 202 protagonists at the time of the beginning of their career. It was gathered from relevant biographic dictionaries as well as from personal interviews. The social classification follows the "three-layers model" by Engel, Blackwell and Kellat. As a result it becomes apparent that most of the extraordinary astronomers have their roots in the upper middle class.

Herrmann, Dieter B.

2011-08-01

336

Porto 20th century urban centralities. Two study cases: Aliados administrative central plan (Barry Parker) and Boavista urban axis. Urban development between town planning and real-estate investment.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The urban development processes results from a mixture of town-planning coordination and a rea-estate private investment, strategies that are not always articulated. These two strategies have two different decision makers, one is based on institutional policy and another relies on individual initiative driven by financial interest and market pressure. Until the nineteenth century the supremacy of individual initiative was more expressive. The nineteenth century represents a profound change in...

Rui Tavares; Clara Vale

2012-01-01

337

Happy 20th Birthday, World Wide Web!  

CERN Multimedia

On 13 March CERN celebrated the 20th anniversary of the World Wide Web. Check out the video interview with Web creator Tim Berners-Lee and find out more about the both the history and future of the Web. To celebrate CERN also launched a brand new website, CERNland, for kids.

2009-01-01

338

Rudolf Bultmann: sy mees invloedryke bydrae in die 20ste eeu: 'Urchristentum', 'Jesus', 'Johannes'-kommentaar? / Rudolf Bultmann: his most influential contribution in the 20th century: 'Urchristentum', 'Jesus', 'Commentary on John's gospel'?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: Afrikaner Abstract in english This article pays tribute to Rudolf Bultmann as a scholar of faith who fulfilled the most influential role in the interpretation of Jesus and the New Testament during the twentieth century. In the article Bultmann's leading publications are discussed against the background of the question of which o [...] ne has been the most significant. Three important publications are identified, namely his book on the socio-cultural environment of the earliest followers of Jesus in first-century Semitic-Hellenistic world, his book on the historical Jesus, and his commentary on the Gospel of John. Various criteria are applied to value the significance of these three publications. They are Bultmann's understanding of what the scientific nature of the theological discourse principally would entail; how modern-day believers could adhere to an ancient mythological discourse; the way in which today a historical discourse could existentially been engaged with and why Jesus of Nazareth would be regarded as theologically significant. Both the depth of Bultmann's understanding of the substance of the theological discourse found in John's gospel and the quality of Bultmann's historical-critical analysis of John's gospel lead to the finding that this commentary should be considered to be not only the most significant for the twentieth century but beyond that time even into the current phase of biblical and theological interpretation.

Andries G., van Aarde.

339

Some Features of the Development of Lithuanian Sacral Architecture in 20th–21st Centuries Kai kurie Lietuvos sakralin?s architekt?ros raidos bruožai XX–XXI a.  

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Full Text Available The development of Lithuanian sacral architecture in the XX century has suffered from some heavy interruptions. During five decades of soviet occupation the spread of religious mind was inhibited. There were not built almost any churches in that period. That determined a lack of creative experience for architects in the last decade of XX century. The result of these circumstances was a complicated regeneration of sacral architecture traditions. The main purpose of this article is to review various features of Lithuanian sacral architecture development in the mentioned period and to illustrate some positive and negative samples .Article in LithuanianLietuvos sakralin?s architekt?ros raida XX a. vyko fragmentiškai, patirdama ilg? s?stingio period?. Okupacijos periodu d?l religin?s minties persekiojimo nauj? bažny?i? nebuvo statoma. Tai l?m? sunk? ir kartais chaotišk? sakralin?s architekt?ros atgimim? XX a. pabaigoje. Tod?l šio straipsnio tikslas yra aprašyti kai kuriuos Lietuvos sakralin?s architekt?ros bruožus min?tu laikotarpiu, pateikiant teigiamus ir neigiamus pavyzdžius, atskleisti skirting? architekt? ind?l? formuojant lietuviškos sakralin?s architekt?ros tradicijas.Straipsnis lietuvi? kalba

Linas Kr?gelis

2009-04-01

340

Manuscripts and Broadsheets. Narrative Genres and the Communication Circuit among Working-Class Youth in early 20th-Century Finland  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this article the hazy boundary between folklore and literature, orality and literacy is explored in relation to the individual and the community. How do people who belong to the first generation of active writers in their family and community express their own experiences through fictional narratives and the literary tradition? This question is explored in relation to the working-class youth in the small industrial community of Karkkila (Högfors)in southern Finland. The most important res...

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Health and socio-demographic conditions as determinants of marriage and social mobility: Male partner choice in Sardinia, late 19th-early 20th century  

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Full Text Available This paper makes use of data collected from military registers and marriage certificates for the population of Alghero, in Sardinia, for the period 1866-1925, with the aim of investigating the role played by physical characteristics and health in the possibility of social mobility through marriage. Our findings demonstrate that, whereas physical defects and ill health had little impact on the chances of marrying an illiterate woman, these factors did have a negative effect on the chances of marrying a woman who was literate. In a context in which intergenerational social mobility remained limited and the family had the final say on marriage arrangements, it is likely that only healthy individuals were selected for marriages regarded as strategic for the purposes of forming and strengthening family alliances, and/or improving the social position within the community.

Marco Breschi

2010-06-01

342

Interrogative and imperative modality in a literary text (The case of satirical writings of the 19th/early 20th century  

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Full Text Available The satirical works of N. V. Gogol, A. Averchenko, and I. Ilf and Ye. Petrov help consider the specific functional features of the microfield of interrogatively imperative modality in a literary text. The author establishes the structure-content correlation of the question and imperative within the given microfield and identifies the most regular means of expression of its specific meanings.

Probst N.

2013-01-01

343

The impact of the professionalization of physicians on social change in Germany during the late 19th and early 20th centuries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Der Autor untersucht die Auswirkungen der Professionalisierung der deutschen Ärzteschaft Ende des 19. und Anfang des 20. Jahrhundert auf den langfristigen sozialen Wandel. Ausgehend von einer starken Zersplitterung der Ärzteschaft in einzelne konkurrierende Untergruppen bis Beginn der achtziger Jahre entwickelte sich nach Maßgabe des Verfassers eine durch Professionalisierung geprägte, akademisch ausgebildete homogene Ärzteschaft durch den gemeinsamen Widerstand gegen das Anwachsen des E...

Spree, Reinhard

1980-01-01

344

Perceptions and problems of disease in the one-humped camel in southern Africa in the late 19th and early 20th centuries : historical review  

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Full Text Available The one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius was first introduced to German South West Africa (Namibia for military purposes in 1889. Introductions to the Cape of Good Hope (South Africa in 1897 and Rhodesia (Zimbabwe in 1903 were initially with a view to replacing oxen that died of rinderpest. Disease risks attendant on these introductions were recognised and to some extent guarded against. There were, however, relatively few problems. One camel was diagnosed as having foot-and-mouth disease. Mange in camels from India caused some concern as did trypanosomosis from Sudan. Trypanosomosis was introduced into both the Cape of Good Hope and Transvaal. Antibodies to some common livestock disease were found in later years.

R.T. Wilson

2012-05-01

345

Perceptions and problems of disease in the one-humped camel in southern Africa in the late 19th and early 20th centuries : historical review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius) was first introduced to German South West Africa (Namibia) for military purposes in 1889. Introductions to the Cape of Good Hope (South Africa) in 1897 and Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) in 1903 were initially with a view to replacing oxen that died of rinderpest. Disease risks attendant on these introductions were recognised and to some extent guarded against. There were, however, relatively few problems. One camel was diagnosed as having foot-and-mouth diseas...

Wilson, R. T.

2012-01-01

346

Lèxic i cultura popular: la creació lèxica dels colombaires valencians entre el segle XVIII i el XX [Popular vocabulary and culture: the lexical creation of Valencian pidgeon breeders from the 18th to the 20th century  

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Full Text Available This work examines the language of the Valencian sport of pidgeon breeding. To begin with more than 70 expressions or words are presented that were created within this past-time and are still in use, passed from the professional pidgeon language to colloquial language, especially in terms of a man’s seduction and love relationship towards a woman. In the second place, it concludes that the present sport dates back to the 18th century as the here edited and examined texts of Cavanilles and Carles Ros, their composition and sense of the used vocabulary and proverbs as well as their chronology show. In the third place, it points out that neither normative Catalan, Valencian nor Spanish dictionaries register a large part of this specific vocabulary. In the forth place, it becomes apparent that by studying the specific forms of an activity or topic within its surroundings, it is very easy to explain and find out about its origin and its motivation.

Casanova, Emili

2005-01-01

347

Violeta Parra: tensiones y transgresiones de una mujer popular de mediados del siglo XX Violeta Parra: Tensions and Transgressions in the Mid 20th Century of a Woman from the Popular World  

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Full Text Available La obra artística de Violeta Parra presenta, en diversos niveles, una compleja problematización de los esquemas sociales de la primera mitad del siglo XX. Este trabajo busca examinar los modos en los que esta folclorista transita por los esquemas de género que recaían sobre los hombres y mujeres de la época, dando lugar a una mirada crítica e irreverente en la que la tradición cultural y la innovación confluyen, tanto en lo que respecta al contenido de sus textos como en el plano expresivo de su musicalidad.Violeta Parra's artistic work presents on different levels the complex problem of unraveling the social schemes of the first half of the twentieth century. This article examines the ways in which this "folclorista" moved through the gender schemes corresponding to men and women of that epoch. This movement opened a space for a both critical and irreverent view in which cultural tradition and innovation converge, both regarding the contents other texts as well as the expression of their musicality.

Carla Pinochet Cobos

2010-06-01

348

Migraciones internas en España durante el siglo XX: un nuevo eje para el estudio de las desigualdades sociales en salud / Internal migration in Spain in the 20th century: a new focus for the study of social inequalities in health  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Catalunya y Euskadi recibieron durante el siglo XX importantes contingentes de inmigración del resto de España. El objetivo es analizar las desigualdades en salud según el lugar de nacimiento (población autóctona y nacida en otras comunidades autónomas). Métodos: Estudio transversal sobre [...] población no institucionalizada de 50 a 79 años de edad, con datos de las encuestas de salud de Catalunya 2006 (n=5.483) y de Euskadi 2007 (n=3.424). Se utilizaron modelos log-binomiales para calcular las razones de prevalencia (RP) de mala salud percibida según el lugar de nacimiento, estratificadas por sexo y clase social, y ajustadas sucesivamente por edad, clase social y nivel de estudios. Resultados Las personas procedentes de otras comunidades autónomas valoraban peor su salud que las autóctonas, tanto en Euskadi (RP ajustada por edad en hombres de 1,30, intervalo de confianza del 95% [IC95%] 1,11-1,54; y en mujeres RP de 1,42 e IC95% de 1,25-1,62) como en Catalunya (en hombres RP 1,41 e IC95% de 1,26-1,62; en mujeres RP de 1,25 e IC95% de 1,16-1,35). Las RP se redujeron, pero permanecieron significativas tras ajustar por clase social y nivel de estudios, y estratificando por clase social manual y no manual. Conclusiones: En ambas comunidades existen desigualdades en salud en detrimento de la población procedente del resto de España, que constituye alrededor de la mitad de la población en las cohortes de edad estudiadas. Futuros estudios deberían explorar la persistencia de estas desigualdades en otros indicadores de salud y su reproducción en las segundas generaciones, así como identificar puntos de entrada para políticas preventivas. Abstract in english Objective: Catalonia and the Basque Country received substantial immigration quotas from the rest of Spain during the twentieth century. This study aimed to analyze inequalities in health by birthplace (the population born in the same region or other autonomous regions) in these two geographical are [...] as. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in the non-institutionalized population aged 50 to 79 years, with data from the health surveys of Catalonia 2006 (n=5,483) and the Basque Country 2007 (n=3,424). We used log-binomial models to estimate the prevalence ratios (PR) of poor self-rated health by birthplace, stratified by sex and social class, and successively adjusted for age, social class and educational attainment. Results: Immigrants from other autonomous regions had poorer self-rated health than the native-born population, both in the Basque Country (age-adjusted PR in men 1.30, 95% CI 1.11-1.54; women 1.42, 95% CI 1.25-1.62,) and in Catalonia (PR in men 1.41, 95% CI 1.26-1.62; PR in women 1.25, 95% CI 1.16-1.35). PRs were reduced but remained significant after adjustment for social class and educational attainment and stratification by manual or non-manual social class. Conclusions: In both communities there are health inequalities that are detrimental to the immigrant population from the rest of Spain, which constitutes approximately half of the population in the studied age cohorts. Future studies should explore the persistence of these inequalities in other health indicators and their reproduction in second generations, and identify entry points for preventive policies.

Unai, Martín; Davide, Malmusi; Amaia, Bacigalupe; Santiago, Esnaola.

349

Migraciones internas en España durante el siglo XX: un nuevo eje para el estudio de las desigualdades sociales en salud / Internal migration in Spain in the 20th century: a new focus for the study of social inequalities in health  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Catalunya y Euskadi recibieron durante el siglo XX importantes contingentes de inmigración del resto de España. El objetivo es analizar las desigualdades en salud según el lugar de nacimiento (población autóctona y nacida en otras comunidades autónomas). Métodos: Estudio transversal sobre [...] población no institucionalizada de 50 a 79 años de edad, con datos de las encuestas de salud de Catalunya 2006 (n=5.483) y de Euskadi 2007 (n=3.424). Se utilizaron modelos log-binomiales para calcular las razones de prevalencia (RP) de mala salud percibida según el lugar de nacimiento, estratificadas por sexo y clase social, y ajustadas sucesivamente por edad, clase social y nivel de estudios. Resultados Las personas procedentes de otras comunidades autónomas valoraban peor su salud que las autóctonas, tanto en Euskadi (RP ajustada por edad en hombres de 1,30, intervalo de confianza del 95% [IC95%] 1,11-1,54; y en mujeres RP de 1,42 e IC95% de 1,25-1,62) como en Catalunya (en hombres RP 1,41 e IC95% de 1,26-1,62; en mujeres RP de 1,25 e IC95% de 1,16-1,35). Las RP se redujeron, pero permanecieron significativas tras ajustar por clase social y nivel de estudios, y estratificando por clase social manual y no manual. Conclusiones: En ambas comunidades existen desigualdades en salud en detrimento de la población procedente del resto de España, que constituye alrededor de la mitad de la población en las cohortes de edad estudiadas. Futuros estudios deberían explorar la persistencia de estas desigualdades en otros indicadores de salud y su reproducción en las segundas generaciones, así como identificar puntos de entrada para políticas preventivas. Abstract in english Objective: Catalonia and the Basque Country received substantial immigration quotas from the rest of Spain during the twentieth century. This study aimed to analyze inequalities in health by birthplace (the population born in the same region or other autonomous regions) in these two geographical are [...] as. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in the non-institutionalized population aged 50 to 79 years, with data from the health surveys of Catalonia 2006 (n=5,483) and the Basque Country 2007 (n=3,424). We used log-binomial models to estimate the prevalence ratios (PR) of poor self-rated health by birthplace, stratified by sex and social class, and successively adjusted for age, social class and educational attainment. Results: Immigrants from other autonomous regions had poorer self-rated health than the native-born population, both in the Basque Country (age-adjusted PR in men 1.30, 95% CI 1.11-1.54; women 1.42, 95% CI 1.25-1.62,) and in Catalonia (PR in men 1.41, 95% CI 1.26-1.62; PR in women 1.25, 95% CI 1.16-1.35). PRs were reduced but remained significant after adjustment for social class and educational attainment and stratification by manual or non-manual social class. Conclusions: In both communities there are health inequalities that are detrimental to the immigrant population from the rest of Spain, which constitutes approximately half of the population in the studied age cohorts. Future studies should explore the persistence of these inequalities in other health indicators and their reproduction in second generations, and identify entry points for preventive policies.

Unai, Martín; Davide, Malmusi; Amaia, Bacigalupe; Santiago, Esnaola.

350

Migraciones internas en España durante el siglo XX: un nuevo eje para el estudio de las desigualdades sociales en salud Internal migration in Spain in the 20th century: a new focus for the study of social inequalities in health  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivo: Catalunya y Euskadi recibieron durante el siglo XX importantes contingentes de inmigración del resto de España. El objetivo es analizar las desigualdades en salud según el lugar de nacimiento (población autóctona y nacida en otras comunidades autónomas. Métodos: Estudio transversal sobre población no institucionalizada de 50 a 79 años de edad, con datos de las encuestas de salud de Catalunya 2006 (n=5.483 y de Euskadi 2007 (n=3.424. Se utilizaron modelos log-binomiales para calcular las razones de prevalencia (RP de mala salud percibida según el lugar de nacimiento, estratificadas por sexo y clase social, y ajustadas sucesivamente por edad, clase social y nivel de estudios. Resultados Las personas procedentes de otras comunidades autónomas valoraban peor su salud que las autóctonas, tanto en Euskadi (RP ajustada por edad en hombres de 1,30, intervalo de confianza del 95% [IC95%] 1,11-1,54; y en mujeres RP de 1,42 e IC95% de 1,25-1,62 como en Catalunya (en hombres RP 1,41 e IC95% de 1,26-1,62; en mujeres RP de 1,25 e IC95% de 1,16-1,35. Las RP se redujeron, pero permanecieron significativas tras ajustar por clase social y nivel de estudios, y estratificando por clase social manual y no manual. Conclusiones: En ambas comunidades existen desigualdades en salud en detrimento de la población procedente del resto de España, que constituye alrededor de la mitad de la población en las cohortes de edad estudiadas. Futuros estudios deberían explorar la persistencia de estas desigualdades en otros indicadores de salud y su reproducción en las segundas generaciones, así como identificar puntos de entrada para políticas preventivas.Objective: Catalonia and the Basque Country received substantial immigration quotas from the rest of Spain during the twentieth century. This study aimed to analyze inequalities in health by birthplace (the population born in the same region or other autonomous regions in these two geographical areas. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in the non-institutionalized population aged 50 to 79 years, with data from the health surveys of Catalonia 2006 (n=5,483 and the Basque Country 2007 (n=3,424. We used log-binomial models to estimate the prevalence ratios (PR of poor self-rated health by birthplace, stratified by sex and social class, and successively adjusted for age, social class and educational attainment. Results: Immigrants from other autonomous regions had poorer self-rated health than the native-born population, both in the Basque Country (age-adjusted PR in men 1.30, 95% CI 1.11-1.54; women 1.42, 95% CI 1.25-1.62, and in Catalonia (PR in men 1.41, 95% CI 1.26-1.62; PR in women 1.25, 95% CI 1.16-1.35. PRs were reduced but remained significant after adjustment for social class and educational attainment and stratification by manual or non-manual social class. Conclusions: In both communities there are health inequalities that are detrimental to the immigrant population from the rest of Spain, which constitutes approximately half of the population in the studied age cohorts. Future studies should explore the persistence of these inequalities in other health indicators and their reproduction in second generations, and identify entry points for preventive policies.

Unai Martín

2012-02-01

351

Carlos Younger de la Peña (1920-1996): La urología madrileña en la segunda mitad del siglo XX / Carlos Younger de la Peña (1920-1996): Urology in Madrid during the second half of the 20th Century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Carlos Younger de la Peña (1920-1996) fue uno de los urólogos representativos en su época, tanto de la Urología en general como de la escuela madrileña en particular, durante los cuarenta años comprendidos entre 1945 a 1985. Su formación profesional estuvo vinculada al Servicio de Urología del Hospi [...] tal de la Princesa dirigido por el doctor Pedro Cifuentes Díaz y posteriormente por el doctor Luis Cifuentes Delatte. La importante influencia de la Urología francesa llevaría a Carlos Younger a completar sus estudios en los Servicios de Urología de los profesores J. Cibert (Lyon), Truc (Montpellier) y Couvelaire (París). A su regreso de Francia realizaría su Tesis Doctoral con el título de "Estudio experimental de la Ureterosigmoidostomía según la técnica de Coffey I" dirigida por el profesor J. García Orcoyen en 1957. Sus primeras publicaciones comienzan en 1946 finalizando con cerca de las cien, incluyendo las comunicaciones a los distintos Congresos y Reuniones de la Especialidad. Establecido en su Clínica particular de la madrileña calle de Ferraz alterna su práctica profesional entre los enfermos de la Seguridad Social y el Hospital Central de la Cruz Roja. Al final de su vida había recogido cerca de las 10.000 historias clínicas. Perteneció a distintas Sociedades científicas (entre ellas la Internacional de Nefrología ) y recibió diversos Premios como el de la Asociación de Cirujanos de la Infancia por su trabajo "Extrofia Vesical" y el de la Academia de Medicina de Valladolid por su estudio "Hipertensión Vasculorrenal". En 1961 efectuaría el segundo homotrasplante renal en España. Su interés profesional se centró preferentemente en la uro-oncología, la urología infantil, la urología ginecológica y la cirugía endoscópica. Dejaría numerosos discípulos con los mismos intereses. La vida profesional de Carlos Younger de la Peña, en el periodo analizado, es muy significativa de la evolución de la Urología y de los urólogos durante medio siglo. Abstract in english Carlos Younger de la Peña (1920-1996) was one of the representative urologists of his time, both in urology as a whole and particularly in urology in Madrid, during the 40 years between 1945 to 1985. His professional training was linked to the department of urology in the "La Princesa" Hospital chai [...] red by Dr. Pedro Cifuentes Díaz .rst and Luis Cifuentes Delatte posteriorly. The important in.uence of French urology led Carlos Younger to complete his studies in the departments of urology chaired by professors J. Cibert (Lyon),Truc (Montpellier) and Couvelaire (Paris). When he returned from France he completed his doctoral thesis with the title "Experimental study on the ureterosigmoidostomy type Coffey I" directed by Prof. J. Garcia Orcoyen in 1957. His first publications started in 1946 and he ended with almost 100, including communications to various speciality congresses and meetings. Established in his private clinic in the Ferraz Street in Madrid he alternated his professional practice between Social Security patients and the Red Cross Central Hospital. At the end of his life he had collected near to 10.000 patients’ clinical records. He was member of various scienti.c societies (among them the International Society Of Nephrology) and received various awards such as the one from the Pediatric Surgeons Association for his work on "bladder exstrophy "and the one from the Medical Academy of Valladolid for his study "Vascular renal hypertension". In 1961 he performed the second renal transplant in Spain. His professional interest was preferentially focused on uro-oncology, pediatric urology, gynecologic urology, and endoscopic surgery. He left many disciples with the same interests. The professional life of Carlos Younger de la Peña, in the period of time under analysis, is much significant as a reflex of the evolution of urology and urologists over half a century.

Julio Antonio, Virseda Rodríguez.

352

First Cirulating Beams (20th November 2009 onwards)  

CERN Multimedia

Following the "splash" events of 6th/7th November the time has come to circulate the proton beams all around the LHC. This started in the early evening (Geneva time) on Friday 20th November and by midnight the beam had been circulated in both directions around the ring. Within a couple of days beam lifetimes were up to several hours, both beams were circulating at the same time, beams had been ramped to higher energies and first collisions (at 900 GeV centre of mass) had taken place.

Collaboration, CMS

2009-01-01

353

Um mundo novo no Atlântico: marinheiros e ritos de passagem na linha do equador, séculos XV-XX / A new world in the Atlantic: sailors and rites of passage cross the Equator, from the 15th to the 20th centuries  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O artigo analisa o rito de passagem da travessia da linha do equador e suas transformações. No século XX, a persistência desse ritual deixa a impressão de que suas formas tenham sido sempre as mesmas. Todavia, ao acompanharmos as fontes desde o século XVI, podemos perceber sua origem, disseminação e [...] transformação na cultura marítima. Marinheiros e oficiais participaram da construção do ritual repleto de significados para a vida profissional dos homens embarcados como trabalhadores do mar. As fontes aqui utilizadas são basicamente narrativas de viagens no período assinalado. Abstract in english The article analyzes the rite of passage upon crossing the Equator line and its transformations. In the 20th century the persistence of this ritual gave the impression that its form had always been the same. However, looking at the sources from the 16th century, we can understand its origin, dissemi [...] nation, and transformation in maritime culture. Sailors and officers participated in the construction of ritual, full of significance for the professional life of men working at sea. The sources used here are basically travel narratives from the period in question.

Jaime, Rodrigues.

354

O comunismo histórico: idéia de revolução no século XX - doi: 10.4025/dialogos.v12i2e3.21 Historical communism: concept of revolution in the 20th century - doi: 10.4025/dialogos.v12i2e3.21 El comunismo histórico: idea de revolución en el siglo XX  

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Full Text Available O artigo analisa a experiência do “comunismo histórico” no mundo durante o século XX. São acompanhadas as várias fases dessa experiência (ascensão, declínio, recuperação e decadência e os múltiplos desafios e problemas enfrentados pelos comunistas neste século. A problemática eleitoral e o relacionamento com os socialistas são especialmente enfatizadas.The article analyzes the experience of “historical communism” in the world during the 20th century. The different stages of that experience (rise, fall, recovery and decline are monitored, as well as the multiple challenges and problems faced by communists in this century. The problem of elections and the relationship with socialists are particularly emphasized. Keywords: communism; revolution; socialismo.El artículo analiza la experiencia del “comunismo histórico” en el mundo durante el siglo XX. Para ello, son presentadas las distintas etapas de dicha experiencia (ascensión, declinación, recuperación y decadencia y los múltiples desafíos y problemas enfrentados por los comunistas durante este siglo enfatizando, en particular, la cuestión electoral y su relación con los socialistas. Palabras Clave: comunismo; revolución; socialismo.

Lincoln Secco

2010-05-01

355

A higienização da escola primária portuguesa no amanhecer do século 20 / The portuguese elementary school hygiene at the turn of the 20th century / La higienização de la escuela primaria portuguesa en el amanecer del siglo 20 / L'hygiène dans l' école primaire portugaise au début du 20e siècle  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente texto procura refletir sobre as preocupações higienizantes que, a partir dos finais do século 19, passaram a atuar no espaço escolar. De um modo mais específico, procurar-se-á acompanhar a transposição didática dos normativos legais ao território espacial das escolas primárias do Concelho [...] do Barreiro, num período temporal que se estende até aos anos de 1920. Abstract in spanish El presente texto pretende reflejar sobre las nuevas preocupaciones higienizantes que, a partir de los finales del siglo 19, actúan en el espacio escolar. De un modo más específico, se buscará acompañar la transposición didáctica de los normativos legais al territorio espacial de las escuelas primar [...] ias del municipio de Barreiro, en un período de tiempo que se extiende hasta los años 1920. Abstract in english This paper seeks to reflect on the new hygiene concerns that from the late 19th century, act in school. In particular, it will try to follow the didactic transposition of the legal norms to the elementary schools spatial territory from Barreiro, in a time period that extends until the twenties of th [...] e 20th century.

Rodrigues, Maria Manuela.

356

Islamic medical ethics in the 20th century.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

While the practice of Western medicine is known today to doctors of all ethnic and religious groups, its standards are subject to the availability of resources. The medical ethics guiding each doctor is influenced by his/her religious or cultural background or affiliation, and that is where diversity exists. Much has been written about Jewish and Christian medical ethics. Islamic medical ethics has never been discussed as an independent field of ethics, although several selected topics, espec...

Rispler-chaim, V.

1989-01-01

357

Choral singing in the 19th and 20th Centuries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since Josep Anselm Clavé created choral singing in Catalonia in 1850, it has become one element of identification of Catalan culture. When the “Orfeó Català” was set up in 1891 it generated an associative movement that was fundamental to the cultural life of the country thanks to the creation of the “Germanor dels Orfeons de Catalunya” (Brotherhood of Catalan Choral Societies, 1917. The Spanish Civil War put a temporary brake on this huge undertaking, but there was arecovery during the first decades of Franco’s regime, when it became not just a musical activity, but also an excuse to give a cultural cohesion to the country through the creation of federative bodies, encouraging gatherings and activities. As well as Clavé, there were other people of note, such as Lluís Millet, Joan Balcells, Antoni Pérez Moya, Enric Ribó, Oriol Martorell, Manuel Cabero, Pep Prats, Jordi Casas, Pep Vila or Pere Artís in the field of the study and spreading of the movement.

Xosé Aviñoa

2009-01-01

358

20th century intraseasonal Asian monsoon dynamics viewed from Isomap  

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Full Text Available The Asian summer monsoon is a high-dimensional and highly nonlinear phenomenon involving considerable moisture transport towards land from the ocean, and is critical for the whole region. We have used daily ECMWF reanalysis (ERA-40 sea-level pressure (SLP anomalies on the seasonal cycle, over the region 50–145° E, 20° S–35° N, to study the nonlinearity of the Asian monsoon using Isomap. We have focused on the two-dimensional embedding of the SLP anomalies for ease of interpretation. Unlike the unimodality obtained from tests performed in empirical orthogonal function space, the probability density function, within the two-dimensional Isomap space, turns out to be bimodal. But a clustering procedure applied to the SLP data reveals support for three clusters, which are identified using a three-component bivariate Gaussian mixture model. The mo