WorldWideScience

Sample records for early 20th century

  1. A Historical Perspective on Early 20th-Century Immigration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, Anne M.

    2008-01-01

    Social workers, educators, psychologists, sociologists, and other social planning professionals have been concerned about the children of immigrants for over a century. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, social policies and practices toward immigrant families were based on negative assumptions about immigrant culture that characterized…

  2. Norm of Exploitation of Miners in Siberia in the Late 19th – Early 20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliy P. Zinov'ev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the question of the distribution of added value in the mining industry in Siberia in the late 19th – early 20th centuries. Relying on the analysis of financial reports from Siberian goldmines and coalmines, the author reveals the correlation between the means spent on workforce and the means spent on income and the companies’ non-production expenses. The calculated norm of added value – the most precise reflection of the measure of wage labour exploitation – turned out to be higher for Siberian mine workers in the late 19th – early 20th centuries than for workers in the European Russia and demonstrated the tendency to further growth. The author believes it to be a consequence of the modernization of production and the exploitation of the richest and most easily accessible Siberian deposits.

  3. Ministers on the Lecture Circuit: Education, Entertainment and Religion in Early 20th Century America

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa Gonzalez

    2014-01-01

    In the early 20th century, some American ministers were eager participants in the Chautauqua and Lyceum lecture circuits that flourished across the Midwest and beyond. Ministers expressed their vocation in the public arena, and the Redpath Chautauqua collection shows how part of this public life was conducted. In their role as lecturers in multiple educational and civic venues, ministers functioned as experts on the Bible, as well as supporting American ideals that were loosely connected to P...

  4. From posters to displaying: poster communication in Osijek in the early 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Velagi?

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available There are many monographs, articles, chapters and exhibitions and their catalogues dedicated to Croatian posters from the early 20th century. Posters are evaluated as works of art, but received very little attention as an advertising medium. Their communication and advertising role in the specified time and place has not been investigated thoroughly. This paper does not investigate the relationship between the artistic and marketoriented aspects of posters, neither does it evaluate which and what type of posters deserve to be considered works of art. It focuses on how and where did people in the early 20th century used posters to inform themselves about new events and products. Posters are viewed only as a communicative and promotion medium, and the place where they were displayed as a sort of an information hub.The authors investigate the possibility of using two types of historical resources: city administration documents that regulated the displaying of posters and different pictures - like postcards, newspaper photos showing current events, posters and notice-boards or columns. The city of Osijek is selected as a case study for this approach. As the appropriation of posters is determined by their content, graphic design and place where they are displayed, the aim of the paper is to investigate the possible resources that can help us reconstruct the procedures and locations for poster displays. Following the methodology proposed by Robert Darnton, who listed five possible approaches to investigating different texts, and by Roger Chartier’s papers in which he stresses the importance of content appropriation, i.e. the subjectivity of readers, and not the de-contextualized content itself, the authors propose a step from posters to displaying them - or advertising - in public places in the city.Analyzing the above stated sources it can be established that there was a demand for the public advertising space in Osijek in the early 20th century. Advertising columns were covered in posters and served as ‘information centers’. It can be concluded that the efficiency of posters depended on their graphic design and the way they were displayed in the public space in the city, as most posters, especially the ones on cultural issues, did not rely as much on visual attractiveness or quick transfer of information, as they did on the continuity of the location where they were displayed. There was a huge demand for the advertising space, as the city administration had to draft statutes to regulate the displaying of posters. There were clients who rented the display rights for a certain time period. It can be concluded that there were many businesses and institutions that wanted or had to advertise their products, services or events, as well as the interested citizens who needed this information.The authors believe that the investigation of the communicative role of posters cannot rely only on the evaluation of the different aspects of posters themselves, but they had to be observed as communication media. The display or publishing mode also needs to be taken into consideration. Therefore, posters must be contextualized and analyzed in the public city space where they were displayed. Two historical resources that we used in this paper: city administration ordinances and visual records (postcards and photos, can be used as very useful to reconstruct the procedure and place for displaying posters. Key words : poster, poster displays, promotion, media, communication, Osijek, advertising columns, poster appropriation.

  5. The Development of Agriculture and Trade Relations in the Caucasus in the Early 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana E. Gvarliani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the development of agriculture and trade relations in the Caucasus in the early 20th century. This article utilizes the records of Georgian national archives, pre-revolutionary periodicals and monographic literature published in pre-revolutionary, soviet and Russian contemporary periods. The authors used the research methods such as principles of objectivity, historicism, systematic, comprehensive accounting of the economic indicators of agriculture development and trade in the Caucasus and the maximum possible neutrality of the researcher to interpret factual material. The authors come to the conclusion that the development of agriculture in the Caucasus after the revolutionary upheavals of 1905-1907 years in the subsequent period before the First World War entered into the stage of recovery. The reasons of this phenomenon became the discovery of significant quantities of oil, cement, manganese and other fields. The objects of the industry demanded also the additional food supply, this enabled the agriculture in the Caucasus to develop actively.

  6. Einstein and early 20th Century avant-garde art: points of contact?

    CERN Document Server

    Martini, José X

    2007-01-01

    Art history linked some early 20th Century avant-garde visual art movements to contemporary systems of ideas in mathematics and theoretical physics. One of the proposed connections is the one that might have existed between Cubism and Relativity, or more precisely, between Picasso and Einstein. The suggested links are similarity (in a weak version) or identity (in a strong version) in matters of space, time and simultaneity. It is possible, however, that these supposed links of Einstein and avant-garde art movements were more the product of the imagination of historians and critics, than the result of connections between painters and scientists. On the one hand, the visual arts (in contrast to music, as far as we now) were of no interest to Einstein, who, moreover, did not seem inclined or knowledgeable enough to appreciate advanced forms. On the other hand, Einstein's theories fell outside the artists' ken, let alone their understanding, although there are firm clues pointing to the fact that repercussions o...

  7. Representations of Technology in the "Technical Stories" for Children of Otto Witt, Early 20th Century Swedish Technology Educator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axell, Cecilia; Hallström, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    Children's fiction in school libraries have played and still play a role in mediating representations of technology and attitudes towards technology to schoolchildren. In early 20th century Sweden, elementary education, including textbooks and literature that were used in teaching, accounted for the main mediation of technological knowledge…

  8. Socialization into a Civilization: The Dewey-Kaplan Synthesis in American Jewish Schooling in the Early 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Benjamin M.

    2009-01-01

    This historical study focuses on how John Dewey's theory of education as socialization and Mordecai Kaplan's theory of Judaism as a civilization together served as an ideological base and pedagogical framework for the creation of "progressive," "reconstructed" American Jewish school programs in the early 20th century (1910s-1930s). In the main,…

  9. Barter Trade in North Western Siberia in the Late of 19th - Early 20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery V. Tsys

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the issue of barter trade in the North Western Siberia by the local peoples who used different fishing and hunting products such as fish and animal fur by way of cash equivalent up to the end of 19th century. Particularly, squirrel fur was a most popular hunting product used as money equivalent in trade in the 19th century. The author notes that due to the spread of the Russian population and development of railways in the second half of the 19th century the situation gradually changed. As a result, by the beginning of the 20th century natural barter was completely replaced by monetized trade with the use of bills and coins. The article describes a system of notes used by the local indigenous population to record the sums of money in trade, such as solar signs (hundreds, squares (tens, x-shaped crosses (units, vertical lines (hundredth parts of the main value. The article also indicates that during the Civil War and the transition to the NEP (New Economic Policy an abrupt rise in prices for fishing products occurred, with the following revival of barter, when squirrel fur and fish regained their roles as cost units and universal money equivalents.

  10. Roald Amundsen among the Magneticians: Polar Geophysics in the early 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, G. A.

    2013-12-01

    Roald Amundsen (1872-1928) is best known as a polar explorer, the first to lead a team to the South Pole in 1911. He did, however, have a serious interest in science, in particular, in geomagnetism. His expedition through the Northwest Passage above Canada in 1903 to 1906 and his Maud expedition through the Arctic ice in 1918 to 1925 included full complements of magnetic instrumentation. He and his magnetic researchers collaborated with the Carnegie Institution of Washington's Department of Terrestrial Magnetism and with the Prussian Geomagnetic Observatory in Potsdam for training, instruments, and research programs. Amundsen's expeditions provided magnetic and other geophysical data for important geographical regions, while gaining support for polar and geophysical research generally. His work is part of a broader 20th-century story that includes the International Polar Years and the International Geophysical Year.

  11. ANTHROPOLOGICAL PROBLEMS IN THE PHILOSOPHICAL WORKS OF RUSSIAN SPIRITUAL ACADEMIES’ TEACHERS OF THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Ershova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the analysis of philosophical and theological creativity of Russian theological academies’ teachers of the early 20th century. The aim of this study is to identify the impact of methodological foundations’ changes of philosophical-theological quest on the teachers of Russian theological academies and the educational process itself in theological schools. Methods. The author focuses on the content of training courses delivered in the theological academies in the first two decades of the 20th century; problem statement peculiarities; aspect and priority choice in the fundamental researches conducted by the teachers of these schools. The applied methods include the comparative method, analysis, synthesis, method of abstraction, other philosophical and scientific methods. Results. The author comes to the conclusion that the changes of methodological installations in scientific research representatives of spiritual and academic theism beginning of the 20th century can be compared with similar studies of the nineteenth century. It is mentioned that reorientation of a number of prominent representatives of spiritual and academic theism from scholastic methods, speculative psychology and metaphysics towards Patristics, asceticism and personal experiences allows us to propose this movement as West-European Philosophy searches of the same period. Thus, V. I. Nesmelov sees the basis of any religious teachings in the experience of human cognition. M. M. Tareev draws up his own moral theology reading course based on the personal experience living the Gospel Book. Archimandrite Sergious (Stragorodsky interprets the topic of finding salvation not against the background of the changes in God, but from the standpoint of the changes that occur in humanity. Bishop Theodore (Pozdeevsky, Archbishop Hilarion (Troitsky and Bishop Barnabas (Belyaev make known scholasticism as epistemological malice characterizing the specifics of theological knowledge necessary to base their intellectual efforts on the personal experience of the struggle against the passions; therefore, they see the new basis of theology in asceticism. Professor S. V. Troitsky considers marriage as the key problem for religion and philosophy of the early 20th century. Professor S. S. Glagolev sees the descent of a man as the crossing point of religion and science. The author mentions that despite some heterogeneity of the proposed concepts, there is an obvious General anthropological orientation that had an impact on the educational process changes in theological academies (seminaries. Scientific novelty. The author systemizes and sums up anthropologic views of the most recognizable ecclesiastical academics in the early 20th century. Representation and analysis of anthropologic problematics in philosophical and religious papers of the Russian ecclesiastical education stage of development signify essential agreement among Russian and Western sophists; they had been discussing the same problem – a human being. The author points out that their discussions were not absolutely the same, but it gives the reason to regard the anthropology of the early 20th century as modern Philosophy; and this difference allows academic anthropology to avoid classic and non-classic types of philosophy. Practical significance. The research outcomes can be used for further understanding development of the all European searching process of the early 20th century. Received by the author of the study findings provide its scientific innovation. The results of this study can be used in assessing the role of theological academies in European cultural processes and culture of the Russian society of the early 20th century; research findings can enrich the content of the lectures on the History of Philosophy, Russian History, European History, Cultural Studies and other Humanities (non-science disciplines.

  12. ANTHROPOLOGICAL PROBLEMS IN THE PHILOSOPHICAL WORKS OF RUSSIAN SPIRITUAL ACADEMIES’ TEACHERS OF THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Ershova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the analysis of philosophical and theological creativity of Russian theological academies’ teachers of the early 20th century. The aim of this study is to identify the impact of methodological foundations’ changes of philosophical-theological quest on the teachers of Russian theological academies and the educational process itself in theological schools. Methods. The author focuses on the content of training courses delivered in the theological academies in the first two decades of the 20th century; problem statement peculiarities; aspect and priority choice in the fundamental researches conducted by the teachers of these schools. The applied methods include the comparative method, analysis, synthesis, method of abstraction, other philosophical and scientific methods. Results. The author comes to the conclusion that the changes of methodological installations in scientific research representatives of spiritual and academic theism beginning of the 20th century can be compared with similar studies of the nineteenth century. It is mentioned that reorientation of a number of prominent representatives of spiritual and academic theism from scholastic methods, speculative psychology and metaphysics towards Patristics, asceticism and personal experiences allows us to propose this movement as West-European Philosophy searches of the same period. Thus, V. I. Nesmelov sees the basis of any religious teachings in the experience of human cognition. M. M. Tareev draws up his own moral theology reading course based on the personal experience living the Gospel Book. Archimandrite Sergious (Stragorodsky interprets the topic of finding salvation not against the background of the changes in God, but from the standpoint of the changes that occur in humanity. Bishop Theodore (Pozdeevsky, Archbishop Hilarion (Troitsky and Bishop Barnabas (Belyaev make known scholasticism as epistemological malice characterizing the specifics of theological knowledge necessary to base their intellectual efforts on the personal experience of the struggle against the passions; therefore, they see the new basis of theology in asceticism. Professor S. V. Troitsky considers marriage as the key problem for religion and philosophy of the early 20th century. Professor S. S. Glagolev sees the descent of a man as the crossing point of religion and science. The author mentions that despite some heterogeneity of the proposed concepts, there is an obvious General anthropological orientation that had an impact on the educational process changes in theological academies (seminaries. Scientific novelty. The author systemizes and sums up anthropologic views of the most recognizable ecclesiastical academics in the early 20th century. Representation and analysis of anthropologic problematics in philosophical and religious papers of the Russian ecclesiastical education stage of development signify essential agreement among Russian and Western sophists; they had been discussing the same problem – a human being. The author points out that their discussions were not absolutely the same, but it gives the reason to regard the anthropology of the early 20th century as modern Philosophy; and this difference allows academic anthropology to avoid classic and non-classic types of philosophy. Practical significance. The research outcomes can be used for further understanding development of the all European searching process of the early 20th century. Received by the author of the study findings provide its scientific innovation. The results of this study can be used in assessing the role of theological academies in European cultural processes and culture of the Russian society of the early 20th century; research findings can enrich the content of the lectures on the History of Philosophy, Russian History, European History, Cultural Studies and other Humanities (non-science disciplines.

  13. The Language, History and Nation in the Visions of Bessarabian Moldavian Intellectuals in the Early 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg A. Grom

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The articles of Bessarabian intellectuals from the Moldavian press of the early 20th century are published in Russian for the first time. The texts deal with the issues of language, history and national identity of Bessarabian Moldavians or Romanians, as they were treated by the authors. The publication may be useful for the comparative analysis of the national movements in the Russian Empire.

  14. Empire, religion and national identity: Scottish Christian imperialism in the 19th and early 20th centuries

    OpenAIRE

    Breitenbach, Esther

    2005-01-01

    This thesis examines the connection between participation in the British empire and constructions of Scottish national identity, through investigating the activities of civil society organisations in Scotland, in particular missionary societies and the Presbyterian churches in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Though empire is commonly thought to have had a significant impact on Scots' adoption of a British identity. The process of how representations of empire were transmitted and understoo...

  15. Representations of technology in the “Technical Stories” for children of Otto Witt, early 20th century Swedish technology educator

    OpenAIRE

    Axell, Cecilia; Hallström, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    Children's fiction in school libraries have played and still play a role in mediating representations of technology and attitudes towards technology to schoolchildren. In early 20th century Sweden, elementary education, including textbooks and literature that were used in teaching, accounted for the main mediation of technological knowledge to schoolchildren. An investigation of children's literature for schools is therefore important in order to understand what was considered worth knowing a...

  16. Age-specific measles mortality during the late 19th-early 20th centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, G D; Waller, M; Briem, H; Gottfredsson, M

    2015-12-01

    Measles mortality fell prior to the introduction of vaccines or antibiotics. By examining historical mortality reports we sought to determine how much measles mortality was due to epidemiological factors such as isolation from major population centres or increased age at time of infection. Age-specific records were available from Aberdeen; Scotland; New Zealand and the states of Australia at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th centuries. Despite the relative isolation of Australia, measles mortality was concentrated in very young children similar to Aberdeen. In the more isolated states of Tasmania, Western Australia and Queensland adults made up 14-15% of measles deaths as opposed to 8-9% in Victoria, South Australia and New South Wales. Mortality in Iceland and Faroe Islands during the 1846 measles epidemic was used as an example of islands isolated from respiratory pathogens. The transition from crisis mortality across all ages to deaths concentrated in young children occurred prior to the earliest age-specific mortality data collected. Factors in addition to adult age of infection and epidemiological isolation such as nutritional status and viral virulence may have contributed to measles mortality outcomes a century ago. PMID:25865777

  17. Russian folk costume in the works of historians of 19th - early 20th centuries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Syrjenko

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on historical studies of Russian folk costume in the works of the XIX - early XX centuries. The features marked the most significant issues in the works of the period. Reflects the author's approach to the study of people's everyday issues of culture, part of which is costume.

  18. The Lowland Rivers of The Netherlands - Geodiversity and Cultural Heritage on 19th and early 20th century Landscape Paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungerius, Pieter Dirk; van den Ancker, Hanneke; Moes, Constance

    2015-04-01

    One of the major Dutch landscapes is formed by lowland rivers. They divide the country in a southern and a northern part, both physically and culturally. We screened the freely available database of 19th and early 20th century paintings of Simonis & Buunk, www.simonis-buunk.com, looking for lowland river landscapes depicting geodiversity and cultural heritage relationships (See References for other landscapes). Emperor Napoleon declared The Netherlands as naturally belonging to his empire as its lands originated from muds originating in France and transported there by the big rivers. A description that may have given rise to the idea of the Netherlands as a delta, but from a geomorphological perspective The Netherlands consists of series of river plains of terrestrial origin, of which the north-western part are subsiding and invaded by the sea. Now, the rivers Meuse and Rhine (including its branches Waal and IJssel) meander through ever larger river plains before reaching the North Sea. They end in estuaries, something one would not expect of rivers with catchments discharging a large part of Western Europe. Apart from the geological subsidence, the estuaries might be due to human interference, the exploitation of peat and building of dikes since the 11th century, heavy storms and the strong tidal currents. Archaeological finds show Vikings and Romans already used the river Rhine system for trading and transporting goods. During the Roman Empire the Rhine was part of The Limes, the northern defence line of the empire. Romans already influenced the distribution of water over the different river branches. Since the middle of the 19th century groins and canalization drastically changed the character of the rivers. The 19th and early 20th century landscape paintings illustrate this change as well as changes in land use. Examples of geodiversity and cultural heritage relationships shown: - meanders and irregular banks disappear as river management increases, i.a. bends are straightened and the flow is regulated by groins; - large-stem orchards on the river banks are replaced by low-stem orchards; - big trees still grow on the river banks on the oldest paintings; - 19th century dikes align the river and are low compared to modern dikes; - transport of trade goods always has been an important river function; - the 19th century small-scale shipyards have disappeared from the banks; - ferry crossings remained a popular painting object, while bridges are seldom depicted - building bridges started in the mid-19th century; - commercial fishery on migrating salmon has disappeared since; - skating scenes indicate the rivers froze more often in this period. References Jungerius, van den Ancker & Wevers, 2012. The contribution of Dutch landscape painters to the conservation of geoheritage. Geology Today 28,3. Hanneke van den Ancker & Pieter Dirk Jungerius, 2012. Landscape paintings, a tool for research, planning and management of the coastal zone. EGU-SSS, Vienna. Hanneke van den Ancker & Pieter Dirk Jungerius, 2013. Geodiversity changes in Dutch peatlands illustrated by 19th and early 20th century landscape paintings. EGU-SSS, Vienna. Hanneke van den Ancker & Pieter Dirk Jungerius, 2014. Geodiversity-Biodiversity relationships in Dutch Sand Landscapes illustrated by 19th and early 20th century landscape paintings. EGU-SSS, Vienna.

  19. The controversial early brightening in the first half of 20th century: a contribution from pyrheliometer measurements in Madrid (Spain)

    CERN Document Server

    Antón, M; Aparicio, A J P

    2014-01-01

    A long-term decrease in downward surface solar radiation from the 1950s to the 1980s ("global dimming") followed by a multi-decadal increase up to the present ("brightening") have been detected in many regions worldwide. In addition, some researchers have suggested the existence of an "early brightening" period in the first half of 20th century. However, this latter phenomenon is an open issue due to the opposite results found in literature and the scarcity of solar radiation data during this period. This paper contributes to this relevant discussion analyzing, for the first time in Southern Europe, the atmospheric column transparency derived from pyrheliometer measurements in Madrid (Spain) for the period 1911-1928. This time series is one of the three longest dataset during the first quarter of the 20th century in Europe. The results showed the great effects of the Katmai eruption (June 1912, Alaska) on transparency values during 1912-1913 with maximum relative anomalies around 8%. Outside the period affect...

  20. Exploring glacial change - flying in the tailwind of the early 20th century Greenland explorers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjork, A. A.; Kjaer, K.; Kjeldsen, K. K.; Larsen, N. K.; Korsgaard, N. J.; Khan, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    In the early 1930s Greenlandic explorers and scientists began using airplanes as an effective mean of surveying and mapping the hitherto unknown and inaccessible lands. By replacing the dogsled and the drawing board with the seaplane and camera, huge areas could now be covered. Here in the 21st Century the photographs now serve as a snapshot of the state of the glaciers, and possess unique scientific value as they stand as the first testimony of hundreds of Greenlandic glaciers. In the summer of 2013, we flew in the paths of the early flights and captured the changes that occurred during the last 80 years. To revisit all the historic glaciers would be a near impossible, not to mention extremely expensive task, so we targeted the most important glaciers in terms of present mass loss as well as the most aesthetically appealing historical images. The result is a then-and-now comparison that vividly captures both the raw beauty of the land and the ongoing often dramatic glacial changes. As the historic flights covered nearly half the Greenlandic coast line, we capture both areas of massive retreat and areas of still stand and even advance. The Heinkel Seaplane is being prepared for a photo flight in southeast Greenland in 1933. Flying an open plane in 14.000 ft and -40 °C called for a special breed of pilots.

  1. Exploring glacial change - flying in the tailwind of the early 20th century Greenland explorers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjork, A. A.; Kjaer, K. H.

    In the early 1930s Greenlandic explorers and scientists began using airplanes as an effective mean of surveying and mapping the hitherto unknown and inaccessible lands. By replacing the dogsled and the drawing board with the seaplane and camera, huge areas could now be covered. Here in the 21st Century the photographs now serve as a snapshot of the state of the glaciers, and possess unique scientific value as they stand as the first testimony of hundreds of Greenlandic glaciers. In the summer of 2013, we flew in the paths of the early flights and captured the changes that occurred during the last 80 years. To revisit all the historic glaciers would be a near impossible, not to mention extremely expensive task, so we targeted the most important glaciers in terms of present mass loss as well as the most aesthetically appealing historical images. The result is a then-and-now comparison that vividly captures both the raw beauty of the land and the ongoing often dramatic glacial changes. As the historic flights covered nearly half the Greenlandic coast line, we capture both areas of massive retreat and areas of still stand and even advance.

  2. Stature in 19th and early 20th century Copenhagen. A comparative study based on skeletal remains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JØrkov, Marie Louise S

    2015-01-01

    Individual stature depends on multifactorial causes and is often used as a proxy for investigating the biological standard of living. While the majority of European studies on 19th and 20th century populations are based on conscript heights, stature derived from skeletal remains are scarce. For the first time in Denmark this study makes a comparison between skeletal stature and contemporary Danish conscript heights and investigates stature of males and females temporally and between socially distinct individuals and populations in 19th and early 20th century Copenhagen. A total of 357 individuals (181 males, 176 females) excavated at the Assistens cemetery in Copenhagen is analyzed. Two stature regression formulae (Trotter, 1970; Boldsen, 1990) are applied using femur measurements and evaluated compared to conscript heights. The results indicate that mean male stature using Boldsen follows a similar trend as the Danish conscript heights and that Trotter overestimate stature by ca. 6cm over Boldsen. At an inter population level statistically significant differences in male stature are observed between first and second half of the 19th century towards a slight stature decrease and larger variation while there are no significant changes observed in female stature. There are insignificant differences in stature between middle and high class individuals, but male stature differs statistically between cemeteries (p=0.000) representing middle/high class, paupers and navy employees, respectively. Female stature had no significant wealth gradient (p=0.516). This study provides new evidence of stature among males and females during the 19th century and suggests that males may have been more sensitive to changes in environmental living and nutrition than females.

  3. Exploring glacial change - flying in the tailwind of the early 20th century Greenland explorers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjork, A. A.; Kjaer, K. H.; Kjeldsen, K. K.; Larsen, N. K.; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Korsgaard, N. J.

    In the early 1930s Greenlandic explorers and scientists began using airplanes as an effective mean of surveying and mapping the hitherto unknown and inaccessible lands. By replacing the dogsled and the drawing board with the seaplane and camera, huge areas could now be covered. Here in the 21st...

  4. Conservation of 19th and early 20th century oil paintings - in situ studies using the environmental scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Most 19th and early 20th century oil paintings suffer from fading, discolouration, pitting, cracking swelling or the loss of material due to the embrittlement or the extreme friability of the paint layers. As a consequence of this deterioration, they require special care by experienced conservators to ensure their continued preservation. These aging processes are a consequence of (i) chemical interactions between pigments, oils and binders used by the artist and (ii) the action of air, water and ultra-violet irradiation on these materials. The influence of chemical interactions is pertinent for paintings of this era as the industrial revolution brought forth new colourful chemicals that were quickly adopted as pigments with varying success. The conservation of oil paintings requires an understanding of the individual structure of each work of art and what mechanisms underlie its deterioration. This generally involves the need for (i) correct identification of the pigments used by the artist, (ii) a detailed knowledge of the chemical interaction between these pigments, (iii) an understanding of the artist's method of mixing colours and laying paint on the canvas and (iv) a detailed knowledge of the role of the atmosphere, moisture and UV irradiation on painting deterioration. In addition to dealing with the deterioration that occurs within the painting, conservators spend a large portion of their time correcting earlier failed conservation attempts. Most oil paintings from this era are valuable from an artistic or historic perspective and only an extremely small sample may be excised from the work, hence microscopy is an indispensable technique in art preservation. Optical microscopy is the core analysis technique used, however, in recent years a limited number of conservators have begun to use Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) technology to examine paint layers to take advantage of the accurate and rapid identification of elements present in layers of paints it allows. X-ray diffraction (XRD) can be used to ascertain pigments based on their crystal structure but this technique is generally ruled out due to the relatively large sample required for accurate identification. In this project techniques have been developed to examine the chemical interaction of pigments in oil paintings using the ESEM. The ultimate aim is to investigate these aging and degradation processes in situ under accelerated conditions using the controlled gas phase and temperature capabilities of this instrument. The ESEM also allows direct observation of the effects of sudden and slow changes in the relative humidity as well as the exposure to UV radiation on paint layers under controlled conditions. Other complementary techniques have been used to both characterise the pigments and linseed oils used in this work and to examine the chemical interactions in constructed paint layers. XRD has been used to characterise the dry pigments used in 19th and early 20th century oil paintings and GC-MS was used to characterize a range of linseed oils. Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Thermogravimetry have been used to study the drying kinetics of all the linseed oils used in this work on their own and in combination with pigments to establish the optimum conditions for ESEM analysis. Paint layers have been constructed using similar materials and methods as were used by oil painters in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Dry inorganic pigments of the type used in that era were obtained from an art supplier and chemical suppliers. Each pigment was ground in three types of linseed oil using the traditional muller and glass plate. These were applied in layers to glass slides to avoid influence from ground media or canvas and allowed to dry in the air and in an oven. Pigments that were known to interact strongly were placed in paint layers in direct contact with one another to encourage chemical interaction between the various pigments. In this paper, the key results to date of the present study will be reported. In addition, the practi

  5. Mathematical logic in the 20th century

    CERN Document Server

    Sacks, Gerald E

    2003-01-01

    This invaluable book is a collection of 31 important both inideas and results papers published by mathematical logicians inthe 20th Century. The papers have been selected by Professor Gerald ESacks. Some of the authors are Gödel, Kleene, Tarski, A Robinson,Kreisel, Cohen, Morley, Shelah, Hrushovski and Woodin.

  6. Geological exploration of South Atlantic islands and its contributions to the continental drift debate of the early 20th century

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, Philip

    2015-01-01

    The geological character of the South Atlantic islands was only slowly established during the first half of the 20th century. That same period was marked by a generally dismissive view of continental drift but, as the continental nature of the islands became apparent, their ‘oceanic’ setting was utilised by both sides of the ‘drift’ debate to support their respective positions. So islands such as the Falklands archipelago and South Georgia were cited either as fragments detached from larger c...

  7. Stature in 19th and early 20th century Copenhagen. A comparative study based on skeletal remains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørkov, Marie Louise S

    2015-01-01

    Individual stature depends on multifactorial causes and is often used as a proxy for investigating the biological standard of living. While the majority of European studies on 19th and 20th century populations are based on conscript heights, stature derived from skeletal remains are scarce. For the first time in Denmark this study makes a comparison between skeletal stature and contemporary Danish conscript heights and investigates stature of males and females temporally and between socially dis...

  8. Affordances and Constraints in Social Studies Curriculum-Making: The Case of "Jewish Social Studies" in the Early 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Benjamin M.

    2009-01-01

    This document-based historical study explores the nature of the Jewish social studies curriculum in American Jewish schools in the early 20th century (c.1910-1940), a period of significant growth and reform in the modern American Jewish education enterprise. "Jewish social studies" refers to school programs in which Jewish history, Jewish…

  9. Historiography for Educational Leadership in Mathematics: Content Analysis of a 1904 K-8 Mathematics Series and the Early 20th Century Context of Its Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Math education is as important today as it was 100 years ago when the early 20th century was transforming from the old world into an era of factories, airplanes, atomic energy, and medical breakthroughs. Educational leaders of the era were wrestling with how long children should stay in school, meeting the diverse needs of an influx of immigrants,…

  10. Is susceptibility to chronic rheumatic heart disease determined in early infancy? An analysis of mortality in Britain during the 20th century

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, D.I.W.; Osmond, C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The reason why some individuals but not others are susceptible to rheumatic fever and chronic rheumatic heart disease is not understood. Because of the substantial evidence that poverty is an important determinant of the disease and must operate in early life, we have investigated the role of the early environment in an ecological study using 20th century mortality as an index of disease prevalence. Methods: We analysed 37,321 deaths from rheumatic heart disease in England and Wal...

  11. Fighting the 'microbe of sporting mania': Australian science and Antarctic exploration in the early 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Peder

    2004-09-01

    The 'Heroic Age' of Antarctic exploration, which occurred during the first 15 years of the 20th century, captured headlines around the world. Australia was no exception, especially as Australian scientists played important roles in several expeditions. Through participation in the British Antarctic Expedition of 1907-1909, two Australian scientists - T.W. Edgeworth David (1858-1934) and Douglas Mawson (1882-1958) - became genuine national heroes, mainly through being members of the first party to reach the South Magnetic Pole area. At a superficial level, the vehicle of Antarctic exploration placed science at the forefront of public awareness, fulfilling David's ambition for greater recognition of science and scientists, especially considering the high level of public interest in sport. However, although David and Mawson gave Antarctic exploration a scientific veneer, simply through their status as scientists, the public viewed them as heroes because they had endured great hardships and conquered a point on the map in the name of science and the Empire. PMID:15350762

  12. The Social-Economic Stratification of the Jewish Population of Ukrainian Governorates within the Russian Empire in the Late 19th-Early 20th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor O. Dotsenko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study looks into the history of the Jewish community in Ukrainian governorates within the Russian Empire in the 19th century. The article examines the social-economic state of the Jewish community in Ukrainian governorates in the 19th century and analyzes preconditions for the creation of national Jewish public organizations in the Russian Empire in the early 20th century. At the turn of the century, there formed a specific social structure of the Jewish population in Ukrainian governorates within the Russian Empire. Even a superficial analysis and comparison of the social structure of the Jewish and other ethnoses lets us draw a conclusion about the prevalence of representatives of the merchant, craftsman, and usurer social groups among the Jews of the region. The prevalence of Jews within the non-productive sphere led to interethnic conflicts with representatives of the Ukrainian and Polish ethnoses.

  13. The top ten California floods of the 20th century

    OpenAIRE

    Roos, Maurice

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize the biggest northern California floods of the 20th century. Flooding in California can occur from different causes. At least three types of floods occur: 1. Winter general floods, which cover a large area. 2. Spring and early summer snowmelt floods unique to the higher-elevation central and southern Sierra Nevada, which occur about once in 10 years on the average. 3. Local floods from strong thunderstorms, with intense rain over a ...

  14. Musical instrument technology of the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Paul

    2001-05-01

    This paper presents a brief history of the technical development of musical instruments during the 20th century. Starting with early electronic instruments (such as the Theremin-1917) invented prior to the organization of ASA, the history includes the development of electronic organs, synthesizers, and computer music. This paper provides an introduction to the session, giving a framework for the papers which follow in the session.

  15. Studies of the Orthodox canon law in the Baltic area in the second half of the 19th/early 20th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorskaya A.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the emergence of canon law as a science and academic discipline in the Baltic area in the second half of 19th/early 20th centuries. The author emphasizes the role of the Tartu University in the organizational development of ecclesiastical law in legal education system of the Russian Empire. The article describes the general religious situation in the Baltic area and explores the role of the personality of a scientist in the development of a research area.

  16. Writing the history of psychiatry in the 20th century

    OpenAIRE

    Hess, Volker; Majerus, Benoît

    2011-01-01

    As editors of the special issue, we try to summarize here the historiographic trends of the field. We argue that the field of research is accommodating the diversity of the institutional, social and political developments. But there is no narrative in sight which can explain the psychiatry of the 20th century, comparable to the authoritative coherence achieved for the 19th century. In contrast, the efforts to extend these narratives to the 20th century are largely missing the most impressive ...

  17. Preconditions and Reasons of Religions Educational and Missionary Activities of the Russian Orthodox Church in the Late 19th – Early 20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelena D. Mikhailova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to studying the reasons and preconditions for religions, educational and missionary activities of the Russian Orthodox Church in the late 19th – early 20th centuries. Basing on the archive records, the author shows that most important preconditions for enhancing religions – educational activities were the following: the destruction of traditional patriarchal life of the masses, which was based on religions values, the need to overcome “religions ignorance” of a significant part of Orthodox population, the rapid religions dissent in the Russian Empire. Analysis of reasons for their wide spread shows that it wasn’t the cause of foreign influence or any kind of social protest. Studying contemporary opinions as well as specific facts of provincial parish life led to the conclusion that there existed a wide complex of preconditions that influenced the growth of “protest” forms of religion.

  18. Investment Study on Christie’ Chinese 20th Century Art

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Linna; Zhao, Xichan

    2010-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the blooming market of Chinese 20th Century Art. The study object is one category of Christie’s Auction house, Chinese 20th Century Art, before 2009. Eight artists’ auction results are selected to the dataset for the research. We find that the previous researches based on the collection of Western arts cannot explain the whole situation of Chinese 20th Century Art. It has speculative character as an invest option in global art market. And some factors would affect the p...

  19. Early 20th Century Education in the United States: The Role of the Brothers of Holy Cross

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Philip C.

    2007-01-01

    The French Revolution bears an ironic responsibility for generating works of charity. To counteract the devastating social effects of that late 18th century uprising, numerous religious communities were founded in France, among them the Congregation of Holy Cross. The Congregation of Holy Cross, the founding religious community behind the…

  20. Armenians and 20th century genocide - Debates

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Immacolata Macioti

    2011-01-01

    During the 1800’s – before the well-known genocide, planned in the twentieth century – there were massacres and persecution on Armenian villages. It is important to underline that many Christian Armenians lived in Ottoman Empire. At the beginning of 1800’s they paid many taxes and felt themselves an important part of the Empire. Thus they would have liked to achieve more significant public roles, without losing their religion and cultural background. Howewer, the Turkish leaders and populatio...

  1. Analysis of Early 20th century Chromatic Modal Music with the use of the Generative Theory of Tonal Music - Pitch Space and Prolongational issues in selected modal idioms

    OpenAIRE

    Tsougras, Costas

    2009-01-01

    The Generative Theory of Tonal Music in its original form (Lerdahl & Jackendoff 1983) applied to music belonging to the Western tonal idiom only. However, during the last decade, theoretical and analytical research has been conducted on its application on diatonic or chromatic modal music. More specifically, Lerdahl addresses chromatic pitch spaces in chapters 6 & 7 of his "Tonal Pitch Space" (2001) and conducts analyses of late 19th century and 20th century music, while Temperley (The Cognit...

  2. The Making and Development of Economic Forms of the Industry of Turkestan Krai in the late 19th – Early 20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulebaev Turganzhan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The period of the late 20th and the early 21st centuries is characterized for many post-socialist countries by profound social/economic transformations. They are going through a tough transition from the implementation of market reform to the formation of a market economy oriented towards innovation development. The historical past of these countries attests that, in a sense, they have already been going through a similar process – back in the late 19th-early 20th centuries. The history of the industry of Turkestan Krai during that period is a vivid example of the process of the making and development of capitalist relations. This proves once again the relevance and timeliness of the study of the characteristics of the evolution of the region’s industry and determination of its prevalent forms. The author examines the initial forms of the region’s industry. Only the penetration of commodity production on the capitalist basis and the resettlement of peasants, the settling down of Kazakhs on the land, the development of old and emergence of new towns and villages, and the construction of railroads would lay the foundation for social division of labor. This spurred the development of old and emergence of new sectors in the industry of Turkestan Krai. During the period under examination, the prevalent form of industry was petty commodity capitalist production. But the transition from craft production and its workshop form to capitalist petty commodity production in Turkestan Krai was a long and not always straightforward process. The author investigates the issue of the making of the factory/plant form of industry. The emergence of particular factories and plants was a consequence of the wide development of Russian capitalism, a result of adopting Central Russia’s accumulated experience in the way of applying production techniques and technology in Turkestan Krai. Based on the author’s study of facts relating to industrial production in Turkestan Krai, the author comes to the conclusion that the region’s development is characterized by a top-bottom line, which stands for capitalist, and a bottom-top line, which denotes ante-capitalist relations.

  3. Russia’s Regional Governance at the Change of Epochs: Administrative Reform Drafts in the Late 19th-Early 20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Lyubichankovskiy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the long and complex process of Russia’s government working out draft reforms aimed at transforming the country’s regional governance system in the late 19th-early 20th centuries. Aware of the unsatisfactory state of affairs in the area of the organization and operation of the governorate administration, the supreme state authorities initiated the development of relevant reform, looking to not only engage representatives of the local bureaucratic elite in the process but take account of public opinion in respect of the principles of the set-up and activity of the regional administration. This article demonstrates that drafts developed during the late imperial period, which persistently sought to promote the idea of strengthening the governor’s authority and uniting the major governorate collegia into a single institution, fell short of being realized. This circumstance had a negative effect on the operation of the governor’s authority, which was clearly manifested in the extremely hard conditions of the February Revolution of 1917. The weakness of governorate rulers in combination with widespread “anti-governor” sentiment locally, expressed in the form of mass arrests of functionaries by the uprisen people, forced the Provisional Government to fully renounce the existing regional governance system by revoking the governor posts and handing authority over to the chairmen of the county councils.

  4. Manuscripts and Broadsheets. Narrative Genres and the Communication Circuit among Working-Class Youth in early 20th-Century Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsti Salmi-Niklander

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the hazy boundary between folklore and literature, orality and literacy is explored in relation to the individual and the community. How do people who belong to the first generation of active writers in their family and community express their own experiences through fictional narratives and the literary tradition? This question is explored in relation to the working-class youth in the small industrial community of Karkkila (Högforsin southern Finland. The most important research materials are the editions of hand-written newspapers written by these young people from 1914 to 1925.My theoretical background is derived from both folklore studies and book history. Inspired by the research of Robert Darnton, I have outlined the communication circuit of the working-class youth during the early 20th century, discussing the position of the manuscript tradition (hand-written newspapers, ballad books, minutes in relation to the printed texts(books, newspapers, broadsheets and the oral tradition. In my article I focus on the narratives of love in the manuscripts written by the working-class youth. How do they work with the ideas and narrative genres and themes adopted from the printed media and the oral tradition? I outline fictionalization of personal experiences and localization of fictional, printed texts as two basic narrative strategies utilized in these processes.

  5. Rational Number Theory in the 20th Century

    CERN Document Server

    Narkiewicz, Wladyslaw

    2012-01-01

    The last one hundred years have seen many important achievements in the classical part of number theory. After the proof of the Prime Number Theorem in 1896, a quick development of analytical tools led to the invention of various new methods, like Brun's sieve method and the circle method of Hardy, Littlewood and Ramanujan; developments in topics such as prime and additive number theory, and the solution of Fermat's problem. "Rational Number Theory in the 20th Century: From PNT to FLT" offers a short survey of 20th century developments in classical number theory, documenting between

  6. Cardiology's 10 Greatest Discoveries of the 20th Century

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, Nirav J.; Khan, Ijaz A.

    2002-01-01

    We present a brief summary of the 10 greatest cardiologic developments and discoveries of the 20th century. Described are electrocardiography; preventive cardiology and the Framingham Study; “lipid hypotheses” and atherosclerosis; coronary care units; echocardiography; thrombolytic therapy; cardiac catheterization and coronary angiography; open-heart surgery; automatic implantable cardiac defibrillators; and coronary angioplasty. These topics are the personal choices of the authors. (Tex Hear...

  7. Cinematic Strategies in the 20th Century Narratives and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    PRUDENTE, Teresa; SABATINI, FEDERICO

    2013-01-01

    The collection of essays, which will come out in 2010 (book proposal accepted and contract signed with the publisher), will explore the relation between cinema and literature in the 20th and 21st century. Through the wide yet organic exploration of the cinematic strategies employed by major authors such as Joyce, Woolf, Kafka, Bowen, up to Carver and Auster, the volume will provide stimulating reflection on how the impact of cinema has transformed the narrative forms in this last century

  8. Great solid state physicists of the 20th century

    CERN Document Server

    Aragó López, Carmen

    2003-01-01

    The 20th Century has been called the Century of Physics. It could be even more appropriate to call it the Century of Solid State Physics . All the technological developments which had changed the world by the end of the century had been based upon previous scientific developments in Solid State Physics. The Braggs, Debye, Bardeen, Landau were certainly at the forefront of all those revolutionary changes. Contents: The Braggs; Peter Debye; John Bardeen; Lev Davidovich Landau; The Relevance of Materials Science. Readership: Final-year undergraduates, graduate students, teachers, researchers work

  9. Geodiversity and biodiversity interactions in the sand landscapes of the Netherlands on 19th and early 20th century landscape paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungerius, Pieter; van den Ancker, Hanneke

    2014-05-01

    Sand landscapes occupy about half of the territory of the Netherlands. Apart from an insignificant amount of Tertiary deposits, these sands are of Pleistocene and Holocene age. They include Saalian push moraines, Weichselian cover sands and Holocene drift sands. To these geological landscapes, cultural variants should be added such as the essen, i.e. a landscape with plaggen soils, and reclaimed lands (e.g. former moors). Not included are the coastal sands, which we dealt with in an earlier EGU contribution (van den Ancker & Jungerius 2012). Nature and man created a wide variety of sceneries that inspired painters in the 19th and early 20th century (Jungerius et al. 2012). Painter communities on the sandy soils flourished in Oosterbeek/Wolfheze, Laren/Blaricum, Nijkerk, Nunspeet/Elspeet, Hattem and Heeze. Many of the landscape paintings are found in the database of Simonis en Buunk that can be freely consulted on line (http//www.simonis&buunk.com). For this presentation we selected specimens that show geodiversity-biodiversity relationships, some of which have changed since. Painters of push moraines were attracted by the rolling terrain, the dry valleys and occasionally the colourful podzol soil profiles. Popular themes in the cover sands were the undulating relief and heathlands with herds of sheep, sandy footpaths and country roads with erosion phenomena. The dynamics of erosion captivated the painters of Holocene drift sand scenery, as did the bare fields of cultivated lands. Their paintings show the rural areas that since the beginning of the 20th century lost their traditional charm in large-scale re-allotment schemes and artificial nature-building project, that changed geodiversity-biodiversity relationships. Changes in the sandy terrains that can be inferred from the paintings are on a landscape scale, the scale of the landform and vegetation type, and are illustrated by changes in colour, pattern, structure and texture. Examples are: · active drift sands with erosional phenomena, most vanished as a result of afforestation and eutrophic precipitation; · wetland heath habitats, that largely disappeared due to reclamation and regional lowering of the groundwater table; · grazing of herded sheep of local breed on geo-structured heathlands, that is recently re-introduced for nature mangement purposes; · smaller agricultural plots on undulating 'essen' with crops such as buckwheat and wheat, now replaced by level terrain and maize monocultures; · monumental old trees on the oldest landscape paintings, often on river banks, are notably absent on later paintings. References Jungerius P, van den Ancker H, Wevers N 2012. The contribution of Dutch landscape painters to the conservation of geoheritage. Geology Today 28,3. Hanneke van den Ancker & Pieter Dirk Jungerius, 2012. Landscape paintings, a tool for research, planning and management of the coastal zone. Presentation General Assembly European Geosciences Union EGU - SSS, Vienna.

  10. The Risorgimento in 20th century Italian political discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn; Forlenza, Rosario

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to understand both continuities and changes in the reference to the Risorgimento in 20th century political discourse. The narrative proceeds by analyzing historical “snapshots,” from the Liberal period to post-Cold War Italy, that allows us to spell out what has changed and...... what has remained constant in the memorization and actualization of the Risorgimento in the 20th century political discourse. We single out historical events, public rituals and public discourses unfolding in the context of symbolic years and anniversaries of the nation like 1911, 1932, and 1961 where...... the nexus between the Risorgimento past and the political present came to the fore with particular emphasis. In the contextual discussion of these memorization events, we discuss intellectual elaborations of Risorgimento memorization and indicate how such elaborations spread to wider layers of the...

  11. Nuclear tracks: A success story of the 20th century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starting with the observation of a few feeble trails of damage in a sheet of mica exposed to fission fragments some 40 years ago, the discipline based on their correct interpretation has emblazoned a resounding success story in the second half of the 20th century. The spectrum of information revealed by the technique extends from delineating the history of the cosmos over billions of years to observing exotic decays lasting from a minute to a fraction of a second. More, directly useful researches have included medical and biological uses as well as industrial applications. A topic of great current interest is the study of the environmental and health effects of the naturally occurring radon gas. These and other highlights of the track work over the past 40 odd years of the 20th century - with some tentative glimpses of things to come in the 21st - are presented and examined in this review paper

  12. The Top Ten Astronomical 'breakthroughs' of the 20th century

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, D. W.; de Grijs, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Astronomy was revolutionized in the 20th century. The electron was discovered in 1897 and this transformed spectroscopy and introduced plasma and magnetohydrodynamic physics and astro-chemistry. Einstein’s E = mc2, solved the problem of stellar energy generation and spawned the study of elemental nuclear synthesis. Large telescopes led to a boom in astronomical spectroscopic and photometric data collection, leading to such cornerstones as the Hertzprung-Russell diagram and the mass-luminosity...

  13. The semiconductor revolution in the 20th century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review is based on the plenary lecture presented by the author at the German–Russian Scientific Symposium 'Chemistry Shaping the Future' held in November, 2012, at the Central House of Scientists in Moscow. The review considers the background and milestones of the revolutionary development of semiconductor electronics in the 20th century, including the discovery of the transistor and semiconductor laser. The role of heterostructures and quantum size effects is highlighted. The significance of semiconductor solar energy converters for solving energy problems is discussed. The bibliography includes 32 references

  14. Modern Medicine Environment and Adaptation of Korean Trader for Medicinal Herbs From the Late 19th Century to the Early 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Jeongpil

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the late 18th century, the Korean traditional medicine trade witnessed a steady growth. There were lots of stores which sold Korean medicinal herbs in Seoul and every major towns had at least one or more stores in Korea, which led to a subsequent growth of people involved in the trade. However, Korean medicine merchants encountered a new environment with the influx of western medicines after the Opening of Ports and the execution of modern medicine policies. Such change of atmosphere led the merchants to seek new breakthroughs. Some of the merchants found the answer in producing and selling patent medicine. The people in the industry had little knowledge of western medicine, so that they had little choice but to combine their experience of Korean medicine with whatever information they had about western counterpart. Such resolution generated a new kind of medicine known as patent medicine. Patent medicine businessmen observed the new medicine policies of the Korean Empire. Some visionary ones even sought to eagerly utilize the trademark system to secure the selling route. The Japanese colonial government strengthened the medicine policies. It revised the legislature and mobilized administrative powers to manage and control the industry. However, such colonial policies in the 1910s implicated certain limits due to its lack of understanding of Korean medicine industry. Also, the colonial government showed poor efforts in introducing modern medicine facilities and systems, so that the ground was set for the patent medicine business to flourish. Patent medicine enjoyed a high turnover. So, the entrepreneurs endeavored to promote the sales in whatever means necessary. The most basic form of advertisement was through the newspaper. Indirect promotion through newspaper articles, issuing medicine flyers, free gift draw, reputation of an influential expert were widely used for its sales. Consequently, patent medicine industry in the 1910s saw a healthy prosperity. One example of such golden days was the case of Hwapyungdangyakbabg(one of the biggest patent medicine companies, which won a third place along with Kyungsungbangjik, which was the top Korean company at that time, in the advertisement design contest hosted by the classified department of Dong-a Daily in 1926. But actually, a few Japanese medicine merchants led the industry. So prosperity of Korean medicine merchant had its limits.

  15. The Risorgimento in 20th century Italian political discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, BjØrn; Forlenza, Rosario

    The aim of this paper is to understand both continuities and changes in the reference to the Risorgimento in 20th century political discourse. The narrative proceeds by analyzing historical “snapshots,” from the Liberal period to post-Cold War Italy, that allows us to spell out what has changed and what has remained constant in the memorization and actualization of the Risorgimento in the 20th century political discourse. We single out historical events, public rituals and public discourses unfolding in the context of symbolic years and anniversaries of the nation like 1911, 1932, and 1961 where the nexus between the Risorgimento past and the political present came to the fore with particular emphasis. In the contextual discussion of these memorization events, we discuss intellectual elaborations of Risorgimento memorization and indicate how such elaborations spread to wider layers of the populace. In the final section, we bring the analysis up to date by briefly discussing more current interpretations and evocations of the Risorgimento, with a focus on the highly symbolic Presidency of Carlo Azeglio Ciampi (1999-2006).

  16. 20th century trends in the Russian hydrologic cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L. C.

    2007-12-01

    Russia has the greatest northern land area, coastal shelves, terrestrial carbon stocks, and river outflows of any nation. Its rivers deliver enormous loads of freshwater, dissolved material, and nutrients to the Arctic Ocean. Carbon storage in Siberian peatlands is large, tightly coupled with hydrology, and depends crucially on whether wetter or drier soil conditions prevail. Therefore, it is plausible that shifts in precipitation, surface wetness, or river runoff could alter the carbon balance, oceanography, and ecoystems of the world's largest high-latitude land mass. Natural hydroclimatic variability, however, is notoriously high in Arctic environments. Therefore, correct identification of long-term anthropogenic trends requires statistical analysis of historical records and sampling over broad geographical areas. This talk provides an overview of the various late 20th century hydrologic trends observed in northern Russia. An overall +7 percent increase in river discharge to the Arctic Ocean now appears to have been driven substantially by increased precipitation. A primary mechanism underlying the discharge increase was enhanced groundwater flow, which rose in the late 20th century. To what extent this phenomenon simply reflects the precipitation increase or another process like improved infiltration through seasonally frozen ground is unknown; what is clear is that minimum river "low-flows" are rising across Russia. In contrast, there has been no broadly coherent increase in the magnitude of the annual spring flood, although some shifts towards earlier peak timing are evident. A dendrochronological reconstruction of annual river outflows suggests that the late 20th century discharge increase, while large, is not unprecedented over the past 200 years. Since no shutdowns in oceanic Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC) occurred during that time, this finding tempers concerns about any such shutdown in the immediate future. Permafrost thaw is causing Siberian lakes to grow and expand in continuous permafrost but to shrink and drain further south in marginal permafrost. Geochemical samples from West Siberia suggest that thawing permafrost will enhance river loads of total dissolved solids (TDS), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and nutrients (N, P). However, permafrost thaw cannot fully explain the rising river water levels. The interactions of permafrost and seasonally frozen ground with surface and groundwater systems, and their concomitant response to expected climate warming in the region, remain largely unknown.

  17. Globalization and educational inequality during the 18th to 20th centuries: Latin America in global comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Baten, Joerg; Mumme, Christina

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the inequality of numeracy and education by studying school years and numeracy of the rich and poor, as well as of tall and short individuals. To estimate numeracy, the age-heaping method is used for the 18th to early 20th centuries. Testing the hypothesis that globalization might have increased the inequality of education, we find evidence that 19th century globalization actually increased inequality in Latin America, but 20th century globalization had positive effects by...

  18. A Look at Aircraft Accident Analysis in the Early Days: Do Early 20th Century Accident Investigation Techniques Have Any Lessons for Today?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, C. M.; Johnson, C. W.

    2007-01-01

    In the early years of powered flight, the National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics in the United States produced three reports describing a method of analysis of aircraft accidents. The first report was published in 1928; the second, which was a revision of the first, was published in 1930; and the third, which was a revision and update of the second, was published in 1936. This paper describes the contents of these reports, and compares the method of analysis proposed therein to the methods used today.

  19. Dimming of the Mid-20th Century Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foukal, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Area changes of photospheric faculae associated with magnetic active regions are responsible for the bright contribution to variation in total solar irradiance (TSI). Yet, the 102-year white light (WL) facular record measured by the Royal Greenwich Observatory between 1874 and 1976 has been largely overlooked in past TSI reconstructions. We show that it may offer a better measure of the brightening than presently used chromospheric proxies or the sunspot number. These are, to varying degrees, based on magnetic structures that are dark at the photosphere even near the limb. The increased contribution of the dark component to these proxies at high activity leads to an overestimate of solar brightening around peaks of the large spot cycles 18 and 19. The WL facular areas measure only the bright contribution. Our reconstruction based on these facular areas indicates that TSI decreased by about 0.1% during these two cycles to a 20th century minimum, rather than brightening to some of the highest TSI levels in four centuries, as reported in previous reconstructions. This TSI decrease may have contributed more to climate cooling between the 1940s and 1960s than present modeling indicates. Our finding adds to previous evidence that such suppression of solar brightening by an increased area of dark flux tubes might explain why the Sun is anomalously quiet photometrically compared to other late-type stars. Our findings do not change the evidence against solar driving of climate warming since the 1970s.

  20. Facial nerve surgery in the 19th and early 20th centuries: The evolution from crossover anastomosis to direct nerve repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, S B; Jackler, R K

    1998-03-01

    The historical aspects of facial nerve (FN) anatomy and of Bell's palsy have long been favorite topics of otologic historians. Little attention has been paid, however, to the evolution of FN surgery, a subject with a remarkably rich and engaging history. In the early 13th century, Roland, an Italian surgeon, used a red hot iron to coapt severed nerve endings. In the 17th century, Ferrara, another Italian, sutured injured nerves with tortoise tendon dipped in hot red wine. It was not until the late 19th century that peripheral nerve suture became a subject of serious scientific study. Although it is ironic, the course of events suggests that the evolution of FN repair was greatly stimulated by the development of the modern mastoid operation. Whereas the simple mastoid operation practiced by Wilde (1853) and others carried little risk of FN injury, more adventuresome procedures such as radical mastoidectomy (Kessel, 1885) carried a much greater risk. The abundance of iatrogenic palsies during this era undoubtedly did much to motivate surgeons to seek a better means of restoring facial animation. Most surgeons would be surprised to learn that crossover anastomoses predated direct nerve repair by nearly half a century. In 1879, the German surgeon Drobnik performed the first facial-spinal accessory anastomosis. Over the next two decades, numerous articles were written (most notably by Sir Charles Balance and Harvey Cushing) on crossovers between the FN and cranial nerves IX, X, XI, and XII. Although a few tentative attempts at reapproximating severed FNs took place in the first two decades of this century, it was not until 1925 that an actual suture repair of an intratemporal injury was undertaken. This feat was first accomplished by the famous hand surgeon Sterling Bunnell and shortly thereafter by the otolaryngologist Robert Martin. The evolution of FN surgery in the days predating the operating microscope is a rich tapestry of colorful personalities and clashing egos, which saw promising advances relegated to obscurity and some previously obscure techniques become progressively more promising. PMID:9520063

  1. FRUIT GROWING IN ROMANIA IN THE 20TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G ROPAN

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, fruit growing has an old and rich tradition. During the 20th century, the Romanian fruit growing witnessed dramatic changes. The acreage grown with fruit trees was 340,100 ha in 1927, 184,200 ha in 1950, 428,400 ha in 1970 and 239,900 ha in 1999. Total fruit yield varied during this period of time between 401,100 tons in 1950 and 2,183,000 tons in 1993. In spite of the fact that in 1993 was produced the highest total fruit yield, the average fruit consumption/capita was only of 35.7 kg which is significantly lower than that considered optimal for adult people in temperate zones (62 kg/capita. The main reason of this situation is the poor varietal structure of fruits in which plum trees represented more than 40% of all the fruit trees grown. Another reason would be the low yields/ha registered in all species and cultivars of fruit trees grown in Romania in the last 30-40 years. With a very serious shrink of acreages grown with fruit trees in 1999, the average consumption/capita is expected to become totally unfavorable. There are not many solutions to this problems and one of them certainly means the significant increase of average yields in all fruit species grown in Romania, at least to the level of those achieved in industrial orchards of Western Europe.

  2. The Top Ten Astronomical 'breakthroughs' of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hughes, D. W.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Astronomy was revolutionized in the 20th century. The electron was discovered in 1897 and this transformed spectroscopy and introduced plasma and magnetohydrodynamic physics and astro-chemistry. Einstein’s E = mc2, solved the problem of stellar energy generation and spawned the study of elemental nuclear synthesis. Large telescopes led to a boom in astronomical spectroscopic and photometric data collection, leading to such cornerstones as the Hertzprung-Russell diagram and the mass-luminosity relationship, and to the realization that the Universe contained a multitude of galaxies and was expanding. Radio astronomy was introduced and the advent of the space age saw the astronomical wavelength range expand into the ultraviolet, X-ray and gamma-ray regions, as well as the infrared and millimetre. We also startedwandering around roaming the Solar System instead of merely glimpsing its members from the bottom of our warm, turbulent atmosphere. Astronomical “breakthroughs” abounded. We have asked astronomers to select their “top ten” and these are listed and discussed in this paper.

  3. Global physical water scarcity trajectories for the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummu, Matti; de Moel, Hans; Eisner, Stefanie; Flörke, Martina; Siebert, Stefan; Varis, Olli

    2014-05-01

    Food security and the overall wellbeing of human kind are threatened by overexploitation of our freshwater resources. Water scarcity is not only a threat to people, but also to many of the planet's key ecosystems. Due to increasing population pressure, changing water consumption behaviour, and climate change, the threat is projected to become even worse in the future. Water can be physically scarce in two ways: population-driven water shortage occurs in areas where a large population has to depend on a limited resources (indicated by m3/capita/yr), while demand-driven water stress is related to the excessive use of otherwise sufficient water resources (indicated by demand/supply ratio). Although many studies have increased our understanding of current water scarcity and how this may increase in the future, the understanding of trajectories with the past development of the water scarcity is less well understood. To date, studies of past water resources have focused on either water shortage or water stress. We aim to calculate global water scarcity, both water stress and water shortage, for the period 1900-2005. We can thus provide, for the first time, continuous regional trends and local analyses of trajectories of water scarcity for the entire 20th century. By including both dimensions of water scarcity, we can increase the understanding of reasons behind the scarcity. We found that in year 1900 13% of the population (i.e. 0.22 billion people) was living in areas that suffer some kind of water scarcity (0.2), while in year 2005 this percentage has increased to 57% (3.80 billion). Especially the population suffering from both high water stress (ratio >0.4) and high water shortage (stress and water shortage, to illustrate trajectories of how water scarcity develops for different regions. Insights into these trajectories can help to understand possible measures to alleviate water scarcity for different regions and support macro-scale analysis and planning to tackle with the future challenges in terms of water scarcity.

  4. Public projection and image of school camps in Menorca In the early 20th century. An approach through an analysis of the press and photographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Motilla Salas

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available For years, historians have been interested in the value of photographs as historical sources. They undoubtedly constitute an important historical testimony, yet this does not prevent their use from spark- ing controversy related to the methodological approach that should be applied to them. Using photographs as historical sources requires careful critical analysis and a rigorous methodology, which is not yet as estab- lished as those that have been used with other sources for centuries. Correctly interpreting photographs in- volves their contextualisation and comparison with other sources. In this article, we study what the representation or projections of school camps in Menorca at the turn of the past century wished to transmit to the public, on the basis of the images taken of them that have been preserved, supplemented by other testimony such as the daily and specialised press.

  5. Ionizing radiation in the 20th century and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation and radioactivity have been subjected to very different evaluations since their discovery in the late 19th century. This is due to their potential effects, which are beneficial in medical diagnosis and treatment as well as in technical applications, and cause damage at high doses. In the light of the early finding that high doses are harmful, some first concepts limiting the exposure to manmade radiation were elaborated in the twenties of the last century. They were based on effects detectable at an early stage, and were lowered step by step as far as dose limits were concerned. The question about possible genetic effects, which was still open in the fifties, and the definition of the linear dose - effect hypothesis, resulted in further decreases of limits. It is doubtful to what extent current levels can be justified and are able to protect the health and lives of people, given the limited financial resources available to protect the public. In connection with the debate about the peaceful uses of nuclear power and the necessary final storage of radioactive waste, possibly in repositories in deep underground geologic formations, attention should be drawn to two natural facts: Natural sources annually release 2 to 5 orders of magnitude more radioactive substances into the atmosphere than all manmade sources taken together. The cumulated activities released by all nuclear power plants worldwide today roughly correspond to the natural activities of approx. 3 km3 of terrestrial rock in some 500 years. Accordingly, the human contribution to the natural flow of radioactivity is rather minimal, especially as it can be controlled and limited. (orig.)

  6. The Loss of Balance between the Art and Science of Management: Observations on the British Experience of Education for Management in the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerriero Wilson, Robbie

    2015-01-01

    This essay considers the developments in education for management in 20th-century Britain. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, that is, the highpoint of the United Kingdom's economic success, management was considered more of an art than a science, and formal education specifically for management was limited. After the Second World…

  7. Cultura política e políticas para o ensino de história em Santa Catarina no início do século XX / Political culture and history teaching policies in early 20th-century Santa Catarina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cristiani Bereta da, Silva; Ernesta, Zamboni.

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta análises das relações estabelecidas entre a produção historiográfica e a produção de uma história de Santa Catarina para o uso escolar, no início do século XX. A cultura política republicana era construída e se legitimava como parte de um fenômeno que precisava formular respostas [...] à sociedade sobre variados problemas 'herdados do Império' que impediam o progresso do Brasil. No caso dos catarinenses, era preciso enfrentar o desafio de uma educação cívico-patriótica num território em que o sistema escolar, precário, ainda lidava com o problema da língua, posto que em muitas escolas falava-se alemão ou italiano, por exemplo. Estas questões são problematizadas por meio da análise da produção sobre a história de Santa Catarina pelo Instituto Histórico e Geográfico Catarinense (criado em 1896), de manuais didáticos que circularam nesse período, programas e relatórios de ensino. O objetivo é contribuir para o estudo das relações entre ensino de História e cultura política, buscando compreender como o ensino de História participou, naquele período, de projeções simbólicas sobre o futuro do Brasil, a partir de leituras compartilhadas de seu passado. Abstract in english This article analyzes the relations weaved between historiographic production and the production of a history of Santa Catarina for school use in the early 20th century. Republican political culture was constructed and legitimated as part of a phenomenon which needed to formulate answers for society [...] regarding several 'Empire-inherited' issues holding back progress in Brazilian. In the case of Santa Catarina, one of the issues faced was the challenge of patriotic education in a territory where the precarious school system also had to deal with the issue of language, since in several schools the language spoken was German or Italian. These issues are analyzed through the production of the history of Santa Catarina history, consisting of the didactic material published at that time, such as teaching programs and reports, by the Instituto Histórico e Geográfico Catarinense (created in 1896). The objective is to contribute to discussions about the relation between history teaching and political culture, in the sense of understanding the ways in which the teaching of history participated, in the early 20th century, in symbolic projections of the future of Brazil through shared readings of their past.

  8. LBA Regional Monthly Climatology for the 20th Century (New et al.)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is a subset of "Global Monthly Climatology for the 20th Century (New et al.)" (2000a). This subset characterizes mean monthly surface climate over the...

  9. LBA Regional Monthly Climatology for the 20th Century (New et al.)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set is a subset of "Global Monthly Climatology for the 20th Century (New et al.)" (2000a). This subset characterizes mean monthly surface...

  10. Cremation Movement in the Czech Lands in the 20th Century.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nešpor, Zden?k

    Münster : LIT, 2013 - (Venbrux, E.; Quartier, T.; Venhorst, C.; Mathijssen, B.), s. 119-140 ISBN 978-3-643-90067-8 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : Cremation * Czech lands – 20th century Subject RIV: AB - History

  11. High-Altitude Aggressions and Physiological Degeneration? The Biography of “Climate” as an Object of Scientific Inquiry in Colombia During the 19th and the Early 20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Pohl-Valero

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to show the role played by experimental physiology in the way of understanding the effects of high-altitude climates on the functioning of the human body and the possibilities of progress of the Colombian nation throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries. Content: the transformation of the concept of climate as an object of scientific inquiry is explored over the studied period. This is done by analyzing investigations on respiratory capacity, nutrition and metabolism, blood chemistry and heart function in people of the eastern range of the Colombian Andes. Conclusions: beyond an institutional or disciplinary history of physiology, this article shows that some practices of experimental physiology played a role in the process of represent­ing the Colombian nation, territory, and population. The inhabitants of the Andean highlands were understood not only in terms of race and innate abilities, but also in terms of social classes and organic transformations. The idea that there was a supposed process of “physiological de­generation”, decreasing the efficiency of high-altitude workers, was tried to compensate through a “rational diet”.

  12. Physics history. The physics in the 20th century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book proposes a synthesis of the physics evolution and of upsettings produced by the many discoveries in this century: Relativity theory, quantum mechanics, quantum statistics, thermodynamics, optics, electromagnetism, atomic physics, molecular physics, condensed matter physics, nuclear physics and high energy physics, information processing and computers. Many examples are illustrated

  13. The Metaphysical Structure of Education in the 20th Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchester, Ian

    1999-01-01

    Lists presuppositions or assumptions that have been fundamental to educational thought in this century. Explores the "metaphysics of education" through a historical comparison and contrast of Eastern and Western educational thought and development. Discusses universal schooling as necessary for economic success and industrialization in the…

  14. ???????????? ?? ??????? ??????? ? ????????????? ????? ?? 20 ??? : The theology of the Divine energies in 20th century Orthodox thought

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan

    2012-01-01

    The dissertation was part of an individual doctoral research program as an external scholar in the Faculty of Theology at Sofia University, Bulgaria. It suggests a comprehensive study of the concept of energy in Orthodox theology and physics. It consists of a historical, dogmatic and empirical component. The first chapter discusses the re-emergence of the distinction between Divine essence and energies in Orthodox theology by focusing on the sophiological controversy in the first half of 20th century with a specific emphasis on the theology of Fr. Georges Florovsky and Fr. Sergius Bulgakov. The analysis points out the role of Fr. G. Florovsky for the rediscovery of the teaching on the Divine essence and energies as one of his key theological contributions by focusing on some of his letters to Bulgakov that were written as early as 1925 and on his work Creature and creaturehood (1927). The analysis suggests that these early works have determined the main direction of Orthodox theological reflection in the 20thcentury. Chapter II of the dissertation focuses on a comparative analysis of the theological insights of three key Orthodox theologians: Metropolitan John Zizioulas (1931 ?), Fr. Dumitru Staniloae (1903 ? 1993) and Fr. John Romanides (1927?2001). Metropolitan John Zizioulas is a Greek theologian who is currently the main theological representative of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, New Rome. Fr. D. Staniloae is a Romanian theologian who provided one of the most comprehensive theological syntheses in the 20th century. Fr. Romanides is a Greek-born American theologian who returned to Greece and became one of the main drivers of the renewal of Greek Orthodox theology in the 20th century. These three theologians have significantly contributed to Orthodox theology in the 20th century and have addressed the teaching on the Divine energies in different ways. Fr. D. Staniloae and Fr. John Romanides included the teaching on the Divine energies as an integral part of their theological systems. Metr. John Zizioulas adopted a different approach trying to demonstrate that the teaching on the Divine energies is not essential in Orthodox theology. The dissertation suggests a comparative analysis of the three theologians to show that neglecting the teaching on the energies leads to a narrower understanding of both spiritual life and the Church. Chapter III provides a parallel study of the term energy in Orthodox theology and physics. Its intention is to build on existing works and established knowledge to provide a basis for the development of an interdisciplinary analytical framework in contribution to the ongoing contemporary dialogue between science and theology. The Chapter starts with a discussion of the methodological grounds for the parallel exploration of the concept of energy in Orthodox theology and physics by focusing on the ‘analogical isomorphism’ approach. Afterwards it provides a more detailed articulation of the ways the concept of energy is used in physics and Orthodox theology by concentrating on the history, content and major issues related to two debates, the first one, between two monks - Barlaam the Calabrian and St Gregory Palamas - in 14th century Byzantium, and, the second, between two great physicists - Niels Bohr and Albert Einstein - in the 20th century. The qualitative comparative analysis approach was found to be particularly fruitful. It builds on insights from Eastern Christian (Byzantine) theology, philosophy of science and philosophy of religion to suggest an analysis of the way of using language in theology and quantum mechanics. The Chapter concludes by summarizing the observations emerging from the analysis and a number of conclusions related to their potential value for the science-theology dialogue.

  15. Radiation legacy of the 20th century: Environmental restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of events in the twentieth century, mainly related to the development of nuclear energy, mankind has been forced to deal with the restoration of the environments which contain radioactive residues. The International Conference RADLEG-200 was particularly focused on the radioactive legacy of the countries of the former Soviet Union and eastern Europe. By means of reviews and case studies the conference assessed the overall situation with respect to the contaminated sites and sources of potential environmental contamination and evaluated the achievements of rehabilitation and remediation programmes as well as identifying future needs in this field. The Conference was attended by 266 participants from 16 countries and 6 international organizations with 49 papers presented orally and 64 presented as posters. This publication contains the 49 orally presented papers, each of them was indexed separately

  16. Investigation on the use of iron and steel for restoration purposes during 19th and 20th century

    OpenAIRE

    Hui-Yin Lee

    2008-01-01

    Since the earliest times, wrought iron cramps and dowels were used in the traditional masonry structures to secure stones which might be prone to movement or displacement. In the period between the late 19th century and the early 20th century, masonry-clad buildings are exploded to use. However, due to the porous nature of the mortar and the inconsistent fill around the steel members, the protective oxide film is lost over time, resulting in corrosion of the steel framing...

  17. Effects of Irrigation on Global Climate During the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puma, M. J.; Cook, B. I.

    2010-01-01

    Various studies have documented the effects of modern ]day irrigation on regional and global climate, but none, to date, have considered the time ]varying impact of steadily increasing irrigation rates on climate during the 20th century. We investigate the impacts of observed irrigation changes over this century with two ensemble simulations using an atmosphere general circulation model. Both ensembles are forced with transient climate forcings and observed sea surface temperatures from 1902 to 2000; one ensemble includes irrigation specified by a time ]varying data set of irrigation water withdrawals. Early in the century, irrigation is primarily localized over southern and eastern Asia, leading to significant cooling in boreal summer (June.August) over these regions. This cooling spreads and intensifies by century fs end, following the rapid expansion of irrigation over North America, Europe, and Asia. Irrigation also leads to boreal winter (December.February) warming over parts of North America and Asia in the latter part of the century, due to enhanced downward longwave fluxes from increased near ]surface humidity. Precipitation increases occur primarily downwind of the major irrigation areas, although precipitation in parts of India decreases due to a weaker summer monsoon. Irrigation begins to significantly reduce temperatures and temperature trends during boreal summer over the Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes and tropics beginning around 1950; significant increases in precipitation occur in these same latitude bands. These trends reveal the varying importance of irrigation ]climate interactions and suggest that future climate studies should account for irrigation, especially in regions with unsustainable irrigation resources.

  18. What was Glaucoma Called Before the 20th Century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leffler, Christopher T.; Schwartz, Stephen G.; Giliberti, Francesca M.; Young, Matthew T.; Bermudez, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma involves a characteristic optic neuropathy, often with elevated intraocular pressure. Before 1850, poor vision with a normal eye appearance, as occurs in primary open-angle glaucoma, was termed amaurosis, gutta serena, or black cataract. Few observers noted palpable hardness of the eye in amaurosis. On the other hand, angle-closure glaucoma can produce a green or gray pupil, and therefore was called, variously, glaucoma (derived from the Greek for glaucous, a nonspecific term connoting blue, green, or light gray) and viriditate oculi. Angle closure, with palpable hardness of the eye, mydriasis, and anterior prominence of the lens, was described in greater detail in the 18th and 19th centuries. The introduction of the ophthalmoscope in 1850 permitted the visualization of the excavated optic neuropathy in eyes with a normal or with a dilated greenish-gray pupil. Physicians developed a better appreciation of the role of intraocular pressure in both conditions, which became subsumed under the rubric “glaucoma”. PMID:26483611

  19. Soviet Planetary Missions in the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntress, Wesley T., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    One of the great losses of the past decade in space exploration has been the disappearance of the Soviet/Russian from the scene in robotic lunar and planetary exploration. Soviet robotic missions to the Moon and planets were cloaked in secrecy until the early 1980s, and only after the collapse of the USSR has reliable information become available on the full history of Soviet lunar and planetary exploration missions. The author has compiled information on all lunar and planetary missions launched by the Soviet Union from 1958 to 1996, successes and failures, with the assistance of V. I. Moroz of the Institute of Space Research and I. L. Shevalev of the Lavochkin Association in Moscow. This paper will present a tabular compilation of these missions that is shortly to be published in Kosmicheskie issledovaniya. The Soviet program to explore the Solar System was bolder, more innovative, and more tragic than any contemporaries in the West could have imagined.

  20. Developments of Anderson localization. Solid state physics of 20th and 21th centuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The developments of the theories and the experiments on Anderson localization are reviewed. It is argued that the developments reflect that of solid state physics as a whole. In 20th century there were big discoveries of which the theoretical explanations are given after a long time. In 21th century the most new phenomena were discovered according to the theoretical predictions. (author)

  1. #The #impact of Keynes on economics in the 20th century

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The Impact of Keynes on Economics in the 20th Century reconsiders the nature and significance of Keynes’s theories and economic policies. It provides important contrasting interpretations of Keynesian thought, and illustrates the diversity of Keynesianism in different European countries throughout the century.

  2. Ottoman Greek Education System and Greek Girls' Schools in Istanbul (19th and 20th Centuries)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daglar Macar, Oya

    2010-01-01

    Modernization efforts in education, which were initiated in the 19th century, can be seen as forerunners of the modernization attempts in the Republic period. In this article, Greek education system in the Ottoman Empire will be discussed and the effects and importance of the changes observed in Greek girls' education in 19th and 20th centuries on…

  3. Lucha antivenérea en Antioquia entre finales del siglo XIX e inicios del siglo XX: una cuestión moral Anti-venereal fight in Antioquia during the late 19th and early 20th centuries: a moral question.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Martínez Londoño

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo busca responder en qué sentido la lucha antivenérea en Antioquia a finales del siglo XIX y principios del XX, parte del dispositivo higienista, fue una lucha contra la inmoralidad. Para su construcción se realizó revisión bibliográfica de fuentes secundarias. El proyecto regional en su dimensión ética-cultural incluyó una apuesta modernizadora, a cargo de los médicos, ajustada a la moral puritana promovida por la Iglesia, para ello emprendieron una lucha antivenérea que consistió en ilustrar a las masas populares: se debía reservar la sexualidad a la familia y reprochar moralmente a la población donde aparecían dichas enfermedades. Así, el discurso médico-científico juzgó las prácticas de los sectores populares mientras los hombres de ciencia ingresaban al escenario social con poder por tener jerarquía moral. This article aims to define in what ways the anti-venereal fight in Antioquia, during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, which was part of the hygienic device, was really a fight against the immorality. In order to write it, secondary bibliographic sources were revised. In its ethical and cultural dimension, the regional project included a modernizing project. Doctors were in charge of this project which was adjusted to fit the puritan moral the Church promoted. They began a fight against sexual transmission diseases tah was bases upon illustration of communities: sexuality was to be reserved to family environments and populations where diseases appeared should be morally rejected. An so, medical scientific speech be judged low class populations` actions while men of science entered the social scenario with power from having moral hierarchy.

  4. Pilk ingliskeelse kirjanduse tõlgetele 18. sajandi lõpust 20. sajandi algusveerandini / A Look at Estonian Translations of English Literature from the late 18th Century to the Early 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista Mits

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to provide an overview of translations of English literature into Estonian between 1779 and 1917. There is an attempt to analyse the texts by describing them on the basis of, or in their departure from, a text or texts that chronologically and logically precede them. The discussion includes the nature of the transfer and the changes that have been made to the text, either because they existed in the source or mediating text or because of the expectations or requirements in the receptor, i.e. Estonian culture. The translated texts are seen in their historical-cultural context. For the analysis, a corpus of translated texts – religious, fiction, drama and non-fiction (published in a book form was compiled. The general orientation of Estonia until the 1880s was to the German cultural sphere. So the first translations of English literature were made via a mediating language, which was German. English Puritan writers were introduced by the Pietist missionaries with the aim of spreading their teachings in the second half of the 18th century. At about the same time the narrative element was introduced into stories with religious content. Some internationally popular stories, e.g. the Inkle and Yarico story, later robinsonades, stories of slavery and plant at ion life, as well as Amer ican Indian st or ies wer e also t r anslat ed fr om Ger man. However, until  1875  ver  y  few  translations  of  English  literature  into  E stonian were  published.  The  last quarter of the 19th century saw an explosion in literary production: there was a substantial increase  both  in  the  number  of  translations  of  English  literature  into  E stonian  as  well  as diversification of genres. This continued into the first decade of the 20th  centur y,  when  the sociopolitical situation in Estonia changed. In addition, books came to be translated directly from  English,  although  many  translations  of  English  literature  were  still  made  via  German and, to a lesser extent, via Russian, Swedish or Finnish. Thus, English literature often reached the Estonian audiences in a mediated form. The selection of authors and books, the structure of the texts and the overall meaning and tone of the texts often depended on the mediating text or culture. However, many changes were made by the translator: explanations of new words and phrases, pronunciations, references to the Estonian reader, etc. Here paratexts are quite important: the titles often explained the content or the purpose of the book and referred to the language from which the book was translated. In the prefaces, translators or publishers explained their aims or connected the book to discussions in society (e.g. the translator of Uncle Tom’s Cabin connected it to anabolitionist argument of slavery as a moral evil; on the other hand, the editor connected it to the Estonian fight for freedom; the translation of The Pathfinder was related to the polemics in the Estonian newspapers over migration. However, in very many cases it was difficult to positively identify the mediating or source language or text and to establish whether it was a translation of English literature.

  5. A brief history of 20th century dam construction and a look into the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Giesen, Nick

    2010-05-01

    In this presentation, an overview is given of global dam building activities in the 20th century. Political, economical and hydrological factors shaped the building of large dams. The development of the relations between these three factors and dam building over time is examined. One can argue whether or not history is simply "one damn thing after another" but the second half of the 20th century suggests that history is at least reflected by the construction of one dam after another. The financial crisis of the 1930's started the first construction wave of large hydropower dams in the United States. This wave continued into the Second World War. During the Cold War, the weapon race between the USA and USSR was accompanied by a parallel neck-and-neck race in dam construction. By the 1970's, dam construction in the USA tapered off, while that in the USSR continued until its political disintegration. In China, we see two spurts in dam development, the first one coinciding with the disastrous Great Leap Forward and the second with the liberalization of the Chinese economy after the fall of the Berlin Wall. Economic and political events thus shaped to an important extent decisions surrounding the construction of large dams. Clearly, there are some hydrological prerequisites for the construction of dams. The six largest dam building nations are USSR, Canada, USA, China, Brazil, and India, all large countries with ample water resources and mountain ranges. Australia has relatively little reservoir storage for the simple fact that most of this country is flat and dry. A few countries have relatively large amounts of reservoir storage. Especially Uganda (Owens Falls), Ghana (Akosombo), and Zimbabwe (Kariba) are examples of small countries where gorges in major rivers were "natural" places for large dams and reservoirs to be built early on. It seems that, deserts aside, the average potential storage capacity lies for most continents around 10 cm or about 50% of the total yearly continental runoff. Some of the least developed countries, such as Papua New Guinea, Congo DR, and Myanmar, still have large hydropower development potential. In most countries, however, dam construction seems to have reached its peak. For the presentation, use is made of GapMinder software (www.gapminder.org), which provides direct insight in the dynamic and multi-dimensonial aspects of 20th century dam construction.

  6. Towards a 20th Century History of Relationships between Theatre and Neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Sofia

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article considers some preliminary reflections in view of a 20th century theatre-and-neuroscience history. Up to now, the history of the 20th century theatre has been too fragmentary and irregular, missing out on the subterranean links which, either directly or indirectly, bound different experiences. The article aims to put in evidence the recurrent problems of these encounters. The hypothesis of the essay concerns the possibility of gathering and grouping a great part of the relationships between theatre and neuroscience around four trajectories: the physiology of action, the physiology of emotions, ethology, and studies on the spectator’s perception.

  7. Book of extremes why the 21st century isn’t like the 20th century

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Ted G

    2014-01-01

    What makes the 21st century different from the 20th century? This century is the century of extremes -- political, economic, social, and global black-swan events happening with increasing frequency and severity. Book of Extremes is a tour of the current reality as seen through the lens of complexity theory – the only theory capable of explaining why the Arab Spring happened and why it will happen again; why social networks in the virtual world behave like flashmobs in the physical world; why financial bubbles blow up in our faces and will grow and burst again; why the rich get richer and will continue to get richer regardless of governmental policies; why the future of economic wealth and national power lies in comparative advantage and global trade; why natural disasters will continue to get bigger and happen more frequently; and why the Internet – invented by the US -- is headed for a global monopoly controlled by a non-US corporation. It is also about the extreme innovations and heroic innovators yet t...

  8. Changing linkage between the tropical atmosphere and the southern annular mode during the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minobe, S.; Checkley, D. M.

    2012-12-01

    Global linkages of El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and other tropical variability including their decadal-multidecadal modulations are not adequately understood for the Southern Hemisphere, at least partly because of the data problem arising from sparse observation network in the hemisphere before the satellite era since 1979. In this presentation, we closely examine the relations between the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) and ENSO and other tropical atmospheric variations during the 20th century, using SAM record recently reconstructed from sea-level pressure (SLP) observations at long-term stations. In addition, we analyze several station data such as Tahiti and Darwin SLPs as well as multiple reanalysis datasets and observed gridded SLP datasets. It is revealed that the relation between the SAM and Southern Oscillation (SO) is not stationary but changes on multidecadal timescales. This relation is statistically significant as previously reported in the last few decades, but is insignificant in the early and middle of the 20th century. Reflecting the stronger SAM and SO relationship in recent decades, the SAM is more tightly related atmospheric conditions over the western Pacific and eastern Indian oceans than before. Also, it is found that different components of atmospheric variability other than the Southern Oscillation are more closely related to the SAM. These components have different spatial distributions between different seasons, but are characterized by strong correlations between zonally averaged SLPs and the SAM, indicating that these components are related with the global mass redistribution of the atmosphere. A lag correlation/regression analysis using daily data since 1979 shows that the SAM variability leads these components by a few days, suggesting that the SAM forces tropical SLPs. This indicates that the interaction between the tropical atmosphere and the SAM are two ways, combined with the fact that the SO forces the SAM via upper tropospheric atmospheric Rossby waves. Possible influences of the SAM related atmospheric components over the western Pacific and Indian Oceans will be discussed.

  9. Increasing cloud cover in the 20th century: review and new findings in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sanchez-Lorenzo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Visual observations of clouds have been performed since the establishment of meteorological observatories during the early instrumental period, and have become more systematic and reliable after the mid-19th century due to the establishment of the first national weather services. During the last decades a large number of studies have documented the trends of the total cloud cover (TCC and cloudy types; most of these studies are focused on the trends since the second half of the 20th century. Due to the lower reliability of former observations, and the fact that most of this data is not accessible in digital format, there is a lack of studies focusing on the trends of cloudiness since the mid-19th century. In the first part, this work attempts to review the previous studies analyzing TCC changes with information covering at least the first half of the 20th century. Then, the study analyses a database of cloudiness observations in Southern Europe (Spain since the second third of the 19th century. Specifically, monthly TCC series were reconstructed since 1866 by means of a so-called parameter of cloudiness, calculated from the number of cloudless and overcast days. This estimated TCC series show a high interannual and decadal correlation with the observed TCC series originally measured in oktas. After assessing the temporal homogeneity of the estimated TCC series, the mean annual and seasonal series for the whole of Spain and several subregions were calculated. The mean annual TCC shows a general tendency to increase from the beginning of the series until the 1960s; at this point, the trend becomes negative. The linear trend for the annual mean series, estimated over the 1866–2010 period, is a highly remarkable (and statistically significant increase of +0.44% per decade, which implies an overall increase of more than +6% during the analyzed period. These results are in line with the major part of the previous trends observed at many areas of the World, especially for the records before the 1950s, when a widespread increase of TCC can been considered as a common feature.

  10. The Devolution of 20th Century Presidential Campaign Rhetoric: A Call for "Rhetorical Service."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Robert L.

    Over the course of the 20th century, American Presidential campaign rhetoric has undergone various metamorphoses. Most of these changes can be traced to developments in technology and media. Furthermore, many of these changes have had the unfortunate effect of undermining a rational choice of the electorate, and thus threaten our democracy. Like…

  11. Cultivating Swedishness? Examples of Imagined Kinship during the First Half of the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomasson, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Different representations of "Swedishness," as expressions of altered kinds of imagined kinship in the Swedish educational system during the first half of the 20th century, are discussed. It is argued that even though the curriculum changed, from a more religious one focusing on fostering loyalty and moral commitment to "God, the…

  12. The 20th century retreat of ice caps in Iceland derived from airborne SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnússon, Eyjólfur; Björnsson, Helgi; Dall, Jørgen; Pálsson, Finnur

    the surges in W-Vatnajokull in the 20th century are observed in the SAR data including the most recent surges in the 1990s. Interestingly no push moraines were observed in front of the surge advance, but the moraines appear when the glaciers start retreating. We estimate that the collective decrease...

  13. Dancetime! 500 Years of Social Dance. Volume II: 20th Century. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teten, Carol

    This 50-minute VHS videotape is the second in a 2-volume series that presents 500 years of social dance, music, and fashion. It features dance and music of the 20th century, including; 1910s: animal dances, castle walk, apache, and tango; 1920s: black bottom and charleston; 1930s: marathon, movie musicals, big apple, and jitterbug; 1940s: rumba;…

  14. From Card Catalogues to WebPACs: Celebrating Cataloguing in the 20th Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Michael

    This paper provides an overview of cataloging in the 20th century. Highlights include: (1) issues in 1901, including the emerging cooperative cataloging system and the work of Charles Ammi Cutter; (2) the 1908 code, i.e., "Catalog Rules: Author and Title Entries," published in British and American editions; (3) the Vatican rules, a code of rules…

  15. The wings of Daedalus: The convergence of myth and technology in 20th century culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowitt, Mark E.; Kaplan, Michael S.

    1993-01-01

    In the second half of the 20th century, age-old human fantasies of leaving the Earth and touching the stars have been fulfilled by advances in space science and technology, whose roots are threaded through our history. Current advances are so explosive that the fundamental orientation of Western culture is being radically altered.

  16. Ten greatest discoveries of the 20th century in cardiovascular medicine

    OpenAIRE

    van der Wall, E.E.

    2004-01-01

    The Netherlands Society of Cardiology (NVVC) was founded 70 years ago on 28 April 1934. When looking back at the history of our Society on its 70th anniversary, it might be a nice opportunity to mention ten great discoveries in cardiology in the 20th century.

  17. From Generation to Generation: Oral Histories of Scientific Innovations from the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrossian, Mindy J.

    2010-01-01

    The 20th century saw some of the most important technological and scientific discoveries in the history of humankind. The space shuttle, the internet, and other modern advances changed society forever, and yet many students cannot imagine what life was like before these technologies existed. In the project described here, students take a firsthand…

  18. THE DISCOUNT RATE POLICY IN ROMANIA IN THE 20TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pociovalisteanu Diana

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the 20th century, economists have generally acknowledged the importance of the central bank discount rate as the reference interest rate in a country: by increasing the interest rate during economic booms that forego the busts, the Central Bank

  19. Transformations in understanding the health impacts of air pollutants in the 20th century

    OpenAIRE

    Brimblecombe P.

    2009-01-01

    The transformations of air pollution in the 20th century are well known. The century opened with urban atmospheres polluted by the combustion products of burning coal: smoke and sulfur dioxide. At the millennium these pollutants had almost vanished, replaced by the pollutants, both primary and secondary, a function of fossil-fuelled vehicles. However transitions in terms of health outcomes have been equally dramatic. Fine particulate matter causes notable cardiovascular problems such as incre...

  20. Drought assessment and trends analysis from 20th century to 21st century over China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X. L.; Ren, L. L.; Tong, R.; Liu, Y.; Cheng, X. R.; Jiang, S. H.; Yuan, F.

    2015-06-01

    Droughts are becoming the most expensive natural disasters in China and have exerted serious impacts on local economic development and ecological environment. The fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) provides a unique opportunity to assess scientific understanding of climate variability and change over a range of historical and future period. In this study, fine-resolution multimodel climate projections over China are developed based on 7 CMIP5 climate models under RCP8.5 emissions scenarios by means of Bilinear Interpolation and Bias Correction. The results of downscaled CMIP5 models are evaluated over China by comparing the model outputs with the England Reanalysis CRU3.1 from 1951 to 2000. Accordingly, the results from the output of downscaled models are used to calculate the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). Time series of SPI has been used to identify drought from 20th century to 21st century over China. The results show that, most areas of China are projected to become wetter as a consequence of increasing precipitation under RCP8.5 scenarios. Detailed examination shows that the SPI show a slightly increasing trend in the future period for the most parts of China, but drought in Southwest region of China will become the norm in the future RCP8.5 scenarios.

  1. A Revised Estimate of 20th Century Global Mean Sea Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, C.; Morrow, E.; Kopp, R. E., III; Mitrovica, J. X.

    2014-12-01

    One of the primary goals of paleo-sea level research is to assess the stability of ice sheets and glaciers in warming climates. In this context, the 20th century may be thought of as the most recent, recorded, and studied of all past episodes of warming. Over the past decade, a consensus has emerged in the literature that 20th century global mean sea level (GMSL), inferred from tide gauge records, rose at a mean rate of 1.6-1.9 mm/yr. This sea-level rise can be attributed to multiple sources, including thermal expansion of the oceans, ice sheet and glacier mass flux, and anthropogenic changes in land water storage. The Fifth Assessment Report of the IPCC summarized the estimated contributions of these sources over 1901-1990 and computed a total rate, using a bottom-up approach, of ~1.0 mm/yr, which falls significantly short of the rate inferred from tide gauge records. Using two independent probabilistic approaches that utilize models of glacial isostatic adjustment, ocean dynamics, and the sea-level fingerprints of rapid land-ice melt to analyze tide gauge records (Kalman smoothing and Gaussian process regression), we are able to close the 20th century sea-level budget and resolve the above enigma. Our revised estimate for the rate of GMSL rise during 1901-1990 is 1.1-1.3 mm/yr (90% credible interval). This value, which is ~20-30% less than previous estimates, suggests that the change in the GMSL rate from the 20th century to the last two decades (2.7 ± 0.4 mm/yr, consistent with past estimates) was greater than previous estimates. Moreover, since some forward projections of GMSL change into the next century are based in part on past estimates of GMSL change, our revised rate may impact projections of GMSL rise for the 21st century and beyond.

  2. How in the 20th century physicists, chemists and biologists answered the question: what is life?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most essential achievements in 20th century biology are analyzed and the question of how throughout the last century physicists, chemists and biologists answered the question 'What is life?' is considered. The most considerable scientific achievement of 20th century biology, and perhaps of all science, is considered by many to be the discovery by biologist J Watson and physicists F Crick and M Wilkins that resulted in establishing the DNA structure. The related work of well-known scientists of the USA and Europe, E Schroedinger, L Pauling, M Perutz, J Kendrew, and of the Russian scientists N K Koltsov, N V Timofeeff-Ressovsky, G A Gamow, A M Olovnikov, is analyzed. Presently, when the structure of DNA, the process of gene expression and even the genomes of human beings are already known, scientists realize that we still do not know many of the most important things. In our opinion, the 20th century studies of nucleic acids largely ignored the principle of the cyclic organisation of DNA. In this connection, we analyze the principle of cyclicity, which in its generality may well complement the concept of the atomic structure of matter. (from the history of physics)

  3. How in the 20th century physicists, chemists and biologists answered the question: what is life?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reutov, Valentin P [Institute for Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Schechter, A N [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

    2010-07-08

    The most essential achievements in 20th century biology are analyzed and the question of how throughout the last century physicists, chemists and biologists answered the question 'What is life?' is considered. The most considerable scientific achievement of 20th century biology, and perhaps of all science, is considered by many to be the discovery by biologist J Watson and physicists F Crick and M Wilkins that resulted in establishing the DNA structure. The related work of well-known scientists of the USA and Europe, E Schroedinger, L Pauling, M Perutz, J Kendrew, and of the Russian scientists N K Koltsov, N V Timofeeff-Ressovsky, G A Gamow, A M Olovnikov, is analyzed. Presently, when the structure of DNA, the process of gene expression and even the genomes of human beings are already known, scientists realize that we still do not know many of the most important things. In our opinion, the 20th century studies of nucleic acids largely ignored the principle of the cyclic organisation of DNA. In this connection, we analyze the principle of cyclicity, which in its generality may well complement the concept of the atomic structure of matter. (from the history of physics)

  4. Remarks regarding the Romanian writers and literary world at the beginning of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Speran?a Sofia MILANCOVICI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the cultural configuration at the beginning of the 20th century leads to theconclusion that the dominant tendency is that of changing. The two forces in dispute are thetraditionalism and the modernism.The Romanian literary world is characterised by impurity. The reason is the fact that manyartistic forms that were already anachronistic in Occident, in Romania didn’t express all theirpotential and, on the other hand, we can detect, at the very beginning of the 20th century, a newwave of confusion between the concepts of aesthetic, ethic and ethnic.This contradictory landscape is completed by the avant-garde movements, characterised byextreme denial of tradition, cancellation of all patterns and revolt accompanied by repulsionagainst human and cultural condition.

  5. The process of Danish nurses’ professionalization and patterns of thought in the 20th century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beedholm, Kirsten; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    changes in tasks and responsibilities for nurses or to the implementation of increasing amounts of knowledge and theories from other disciplines than medicine into the nurses' knowledge base. However, inspired by Foucault, we consider these historical changes to be the conditions of possibilities and not...... 1904 and 1996. The analysis was inspired by the work of Michel Foucault, in particular the concepts of rupture and rules of formation. First, we explain how the dominating role of the human body in nursing textbooks disappears in the mid-20th century. This transformation can of course be attributed to...... causes. The second part of the analysis shows that along with 'the disappearance of the body', a second discursive change appears: the role of doctors and medicine changes fundamentally from about mid-20th century. Finally, we argue that this discursive reorganization enabling new patterns of thought to...

  6. The process of Danish nurses’ professionalization and patterns of thought in the 20th century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beedholm, Kirsten; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    changes in tasks and responsibilities for nurses or to the implementation of increasing amounts of knowledge and theories from other disciplines than medicine into the nurses’ knowledge base. However, inspired by Foucault, we consider these historical changes to be the conditions of possibilities and not...... and 1996. The analysis was inspired by the work of Michel Foucault, in particular the concepts of rupture and rules of formation. First, we explain how the dominating role of the human body in nursing textbooks disappears in the mid-20th century. This transformation can of course be attributed to...... causes. The second part of the analysis shows that along with ‘the disappearance of the body’, a second discursive change appears: the role of doctors and medicine changes fundamentally from about mid-20th century. Finally, we argue that this discursive reorganization enabling new patterns of thought to...

  7. The Polish 20th Century Philosophers' Contribution to the Theory of Imperatives and Norms

    OpenAIRE

    Jadacki, Jacek

    2011-01-01

    Inquiries concerning the theory of imperatives and norms prosecuted in Poland in the 20th century covered practically the whole scope of this theory. In a uniform conceptual scheme, the paper shows main results of this research done mostly within the Lvov-Warsaw School tradition. It begins with presenting the Polish theoreticians’ approach to three correlated theoretical situations containing our preferences (opposed to impulses, decisions and tendencies), accepted values and imposed obligati...

  8. Offsetting effects of aerosols on Arctic and global climate in the late 20th century

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Q.; Bitz, C.; Doherty, S.

    2013-01-01

    We examine the impacts of atmospheric aerosols on Arctic and global climate using a series of 20th century transient simulations from Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4). We focus on the response of surface air temperature to the direct radiative forcing driven by changes in sulfate and black carbon (BC) concentrations from 1975 to 2005 and we also examine the response to sulfate, BC, and organic carbon aerosols varying at once. The direct forcing from sulfat...

  9. Give and Take: Political Competition, Participation and Public Finance in 20th Century Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Aidt, Toke S.; Eterovic, Dalibor

    2007-01-01

    Rational choice models predict that political competition and political participation have opposite effects on the size of government. We investigate these theories using data from a panel of 18 Latin American countries during the 20th century. Our research builds evidence for the prediction that reforms enhancing political competition tend to limit the size of government. Furthermore, we find that reforms which remove literacy requirements from franchise laws are associated with government e...

  10. Did 20th century physics have the means to reveal the nature of inertia and gravitation?

    OpenAIRE

    Petkov, Vesselin

    2000-01-01

    At the beginning of the 20th century the classical electron theory (or, perhaps more appropriately, the classical electromagnetic mass theory) - the first physical theory that dared ask the question of what inertia and mass were - was gaining momentum and there were hopes that physics would be finally able to explain their origin. It is argued in this paper that if that promising research path had not been inexplicably abandoned after the advent of relativity and quantum mec...

  11. Marxism's 'Communicative Crisis'? Mapping Debates over Leninist Print-Media Practices in the 20th Century

    OpenAIRE

    Herbert F. Pimlott

    2006-01-01

    Despite the scholarly neglect of Marxism’s ‘communicative crisis’, it was a topic of concern that was addressed, debated and negotiated over by party leaders, intellectuals and activists on a continuous basis throughout the 20th century. These concerns revolved around three areas: first, the primary means of print communication, the party paper; second, the specialization of production, particularly around the role of writers and journalists; and third, the search for a popular rhetoric and w...

  12. The 20th century retreat of ice caps in Iceland derived from airborne SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnússon, Eyjólfur; Björnsson, Helgi; Dall, Jørgen; Pálsson, Finnur

    2005-01-01

    We present observations of the long-term recession of surging outlets of Icelandic ice caps in response to 20th century climate. In August 1998, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data, covering the western part of Vatnajokull and the northern part of Myrdalsjokull in southern Iceland, were acquired with the Danish airborne EMISAR radar system. Polarimetric and interferometric SAR data reveal the margins of the present ice caps as well as a series of terminal moraines in the fore field. These morain...

  13. Intergenerational Educational Rank Mobility in 20th Century United States:Differences by Race and Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies of educational mobility in the United States report widespread persistence in the association between parental and offspring schooling over most of the 20th century. Despite this apparent persistency, many other studies report substantial improvements in the educational performance of historically disadvantaged groups. To reconcile these diverging trends, I propose examining educational mobility in terms of percentile ranks in the respective schooling distributions of pare...

  14. Innovations in management accounting at the turn of the 20th and 21st century

    OpenAIRE

    Wnuk-Pel, Tomasz

    2011-01-01

    Diffusion of innovative management accounting methods constitutes an incredibly interesting and a widely presented subject in literature all over the world. In the context of significance of innovative management accounting methods diffusion, the following objective of the article has been formulated – the article aims to analyze the concept of innovations in management accounting and analyze their significance and diffusion at the turn of the 20th and 21st century. In order to...

  15. Numerical Simulation of the Water Cycle Change Over the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Schubert, Siegfried D.

    2003-01-01

    We have used numerical models to test the impact of the change in Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration on the global circulation, particularly focusing on the hydrologic cycle, namely the global cycling of water and continental recycling of water. We have run four numerical simulations using mean annual SST from the early part of the 20th century (1900-1920) and the later part (1980-2000). In addition, we vary the CO2 concentrations for these periods as well. The duration of the simulations is 15 years, and the spatial resolution is 2 degrees. We use passive tracers to study the geographical sources of water. Surface evaporation from predetermined continental and oceanic regions provides the source of water for each passive tracer. In this way, we compute the percent of precipitation of each region over the globe. This can also be used to estimate precipitation recycling. In addition, we are using the passive tracers to independently compute the global cycling of water (compared to the traditional, Q/P calculation).

  16. The process of Danish nurses' professionalization and patterns of thought in the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beedholm, Kirsten; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2015-06-01

    In this article, we address how the professionalization process is reflected in the way Danish nursing textbooks present 'nursing' to new members of the profession during the 20th century. The discussion is based on a discourse analysis of seven Danish textbooks on basic nursing published between 1904 and 1996. The analysis was inspired by the work of Michel Foucault, in particular the concepts of rupture and rules of formation. First, we explain how the dominating role of the human body in nursing textbooks disappears in the mid-20th century. This transformation can of course be attributed to changes in tasks and responsibilities for nurses or to the implementation of increasing amounts of knowledge and theories from other disciplines than medicine into the nurses' knowledge base. However, inspired by Foucault, we consider these historical changes to be the conditions of possibilities and not causes. The second part of the analysis shows that along with 'the disappearance of the body', a second discursive change appears: the role of doctors and medicine changes fundamentally from about mid-20th century. Finally, we argue that this discursive reorganization enabling new patterns of thought to emerge was driven by a professional interest in describing nursing as an independent profession. PMID:25238323

  17. Un Médico Higienista Buscando Ordenar el Mundo Urbano Argentino de Comienzos del Siglo XX / A Hygienist Doctor Trying to Bring Some Order to the Early 20th Century Argentine Urban World

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Diego, Armus.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Aferrándose a las altas expectativas generadas por el discurso del progreso y las promesas de la ciencia, la higiene fue una suerte de gran consejera, de experta en el arte de observar, corregir, mejorar o tratar de cambiar radicalmente la salud del cuerpo social en su conjunto. En ese contexto lleg [...] ó incluso a imaginar ciudades alternativas o utópicas. Emilio Coni, probablemente el higienista argentino más destacado de fines del siglo XIX y comienzos del XX, imaginó una de esas ciudades. Las notas que siguen contextualizan su "Ciudad argentina ideal o del porvenir", cuyo texto original -publicado por primera vez el 3 de abril de 1919 en La Semana Médica- se reproduce. Abstract in english As part of the discourse of progress and the promises of science, hygiene as a discipline has been playing the role of a great advisor, a sort of expert in the art of observing, correcting, improving and trying to change the health of the social body and the modern nation. In that context hygiene ev [...] en imagined alternative or utopian cities. Emilio Coni, perhaps the most distinguished Argentine hygienist of the end of the 19th century and the beginnings of the 20th, imagined one of such cities. The following notes aim at contextualizing his "Argentine ideal city". The original version of Coni's text, published in La Semana Médica on April 3, 1919, is also included.

  18. Un médico higienista buscando ordenar el mundo urbano argentino de comienzos del siglo XX / A hygienist doctor trying to bring some order to the early 20th century argentine urban world

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Diego, Armus.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Aferrándose a las altas expectativas generadas por el discurso del progreso y las promesas de la ciencia, la higiene fue una suerte de gran consejera, de experta en el arte de observar, corregir, mejorar o tratar de cambiar radicalmente la salud del cuerpo social en su conjunto. En ese contexto lleg [...] ó incluso a imaginar ciudades alternativas o utópicas. Emilio Coni, probablemente el higienista argentino más destacado de fines del siglo XIX y comienzos del XX, imaginó una de esas ciudades. Las notas que siguen contextualizan su "Ciudad argentina ideal o del porvenir", cuyo texto original -publicado por primera vez el 3 de abril de 1919 en La Semana Médica- se reproduce. Abstract in english As part of the discourse of progress and the promises of science, hygiene as a discipline has been playing the role of a great advisor, a sort of expert in the art of observing, correcting, improving and trying to change the health of the social body and the modern nation. In that context hygiene ev [...] en imagined alternative or utopian cities. Emilio Coni, perhaps the most distinguished Argentine hygienist of the end of the 19th century and the beginnings of the 20th, imagined one of such cities. The following notes aim at contextualizing his "Argentine ideal city". The original version of Coni's text, published in La Semana Médica on April 3, 1919, is also included.

  19. Breve historia de la observación de aves en México en el siglo XX y principios del siglo XXI / A brief history of birdwatching in Mexico in the 20th and early 21st century

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Héctor, Gómez de Silva; Ernesto, Alvarado Reyes.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Un observador de aves es una persona que dedica tiempo a observar aves en el medio natural, principalmente con fines recreativos. La observación de aves en México ha aumentado significativamente en los últimos años; sin embargo, el contexto y el desarrollo histórico de la observación de aves en Méxi [...] co no han sido descritos. En este artículo, describimos brevemente la influencia del desarrollo inicial de la observación de aves en los Estados Unidos de América, los primeros observadores de aves que visitaron México, las circunstancias que inspiraron a los primeros observadores de aves mexicanos, y algunos adelantos recientes. Nuestros comentarios están enfocados al siglo XX, tratando con más detalle aspectos ocurridos antes de mediados de la década de los 1970s. Abstract in english A birdwatcher or birder is a person who spends time observing birds in the wild mainly for recreation. Birdwatching has increased significantly in Mexico in recent years, yet the context and history of birdwatching in Mexico have not been described. In this paper we briefly describe the influence of [...] the initial development of birdwatching in the United States, the first birdwatchers who visited Mexico, the circumstances that influenced the first Mexican birdwatchers to carry out this activity, and a few recent developments. Our comments focus on the 20th century, particularly on events prior to the mid-1970s.

  20. Canada's Dominion Astrophysical Observatory and the rise of 20th Century Astrophysics and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesser, James E.; Bohlender, David; Crabtree, Dennis

    2015-08-01

    Construction of Canada’s Dominion Astrophysical Observatory (DAO) commenced in 1914 with first light on 6 May 1918. Its varied, rich contributions to the astronomical heritage of the 20th century continue into the 21st century. The first major research observatory built with public funding on the West Coast of North America, it was Canada’s first ‘big science’ project. DAO welcomed scientists from around the world to use its 1.8m telescope designed by John Stanley Plaskett working in close collaboration with the Warner and Swasey Company of Cleveland, OH. Their original design was copied seven times around the globe, the last occasion being in the 1960s. From Day 1 the DAO welcomed the public for viewing and interaction with the small scientific staff whose early efforts would today be characterized as ‘Key Projects’. Those efforts included measuring the radial velocities of O and B stars that, interpreted through Oort’s ideas of differential rotation, determined the most reliable estimate of the size and mass of the Milky Way available until radio astronomical techniques emerged in the 1950s. The first organic molecule in interstellar space, CH, was discovered by a DAO astronomer. The first, very puzzling estimate of ~3K for the temperature of interstellar space was deduced from interstellar CN observations a year after interstellar CH and CN were discovered. DAO’s heritage of innovative instrumentation continues to the present day where expertise in optically efficient, mechanically stable spectrographs and adaptive optics are much in evidence at Mauna Kea’s CFHT, Gemini and Subaru observatories. In 2009 the DAO was designated a National Historic Site. This presentation will draw links between DAO, developments of Canadian astronomy and the emergence of Mauna Kea as an exceptional global astronomical reserve.

  1. Glaciers and climate in northern Sweden during the 19th and 20th century

    OpenAIRE

    Klingbjer, Per

    2004-01-01

    Our understanding of the climate of northern Sweden during the late Holocene is largely dependent on proxy-data series. These datasets remain spatially and temporally sparse and instrumental series are rare prior to the mid 19th century. Nevertheless, the glaciology and paleo-glaciology of the region has a strong potential significance for the exploration of climate change scenarios, past and future. The aim of this thesis is to investigate the 19th and 20th century climate in the northern Sw...

  2. “Quantos poetas perdidos para sempre, quanta rima destinada ao olvido da humanidade!”: Produção e circulação de poesias no Rio de Janeiro de fins do século XIX e início do século XX / “How Many Poets Lost Forever, How Many Rhymes Fated into Oblivion of Humanity!”: Production and Circulation of Poetry in Rio de Janeiro in the Late 19th Century and Early 20th Century

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Silvia Cristina Martins, Souza.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo elege como locus de observação a cidade do Rio de Janeiro de fins do século XIX e início do XX. Nele busca-se analisar a produção e circulação de algumas poesias compostas por pessoas com pouca ou nenhuma educação formal e os possíveis usos e funções que seus autores conferiram a seus po [...] emas. Abstract in english This article elects the city of Rio de Janeiro in the late 19th and early 20th centuries as locus of observation. It analyzes the production and circulation of poetries composed by people with little or any formal education. Also, it analyzes possible uses and functions that the authors gave to thei [...] r poetries.

  3. How unusual is the 20th century within the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khider, D.; Stott, L. D.; Saikku, R.; Partin, J. W.; Jackson, C. S.; Hammond, D. E.; Newton, A.; Thunell, R.

    2013-12-01

    Over the past 150 years, global temperatures have increased by 0.6°C. It has been suggested that this increase in temperature, especially since 1980, has been unprecedented over the past millennium. In order to put the current warming trend into context, various efforts are underway to reconstruct the longer pre-instrumental history of climate variability. Here, we present a sea surface temperature (SST) record of the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool (IPWP) for the Common Era by combining five high-resolution records of Globigerinoides ruber Mg/Ca from different locations within the Indonesian Seas. The much broader spatial coverage and enhanced temporal resolution of this composite record allows us to assess whether the observed 20th century warming and the rate of 20th century temperature change within IPWP have been unprecedented in the past two millennia. The novelty of this study is in our approach to uncertainty quantification, which entails Monte-Carlo simulations that simultaneously take into account both age model and proxy uncertainties. First, we used a Monte-Carlo process (n=10,000) to generate possible age models for each sedimentary record used in the composite. This Monte-Carlo approach takes into consideration the analytical uncertainty in the 14C and 210Pb measurements used for chronology, the uncertainty in the calibration curve and the reservoir age, and the subjective nature of the interpolation scheme. Second, we take into consideration two sources of error in the SST estimates: the analytical uncertainty for the Mg/Ca results, which was assumed to be normally distributed and independent from sample to sample, and the uncertainty in the calibration equation, which was assumed to be dependent (i.e. each Monte-Carlo record is converted using a solution of the calibration equation). To do so, we use a Bayesian approach to enumerate possible solutions of the calibration equation. Finally, we binned the resulting SSTs into 20-year, 50-year, and 100-year non-overlapping windows and averaged them over the 5 records. The result of this exercise is a SST probability distribution for each 20-year, 50-year, and 100-year time slice over the Common Era. The advantages of this method over the traditional linear propagation of error are: 1. The uncertainty in the age model is transformed into an uncertainty in SST through the binning process. 2. Each realization of the composite record preserves the dependence among the SST estimates introduced by the calibration. To assess the magnitude (and rate) of 20th century warming compared to the Common Era, we took the difference between the last 20th century bin and the SST in the bin of interest for each Monte Carlo trial. The probability of the 20th century being warmer was then assessed as the area under the curve greater than zero. Our results indicate that (1) there exists a few intervals over the past 2,000 years when SST within IPWP was likely (>66% probability) higher than the 20th century value but that (2) the rate of 20th century warming is likely (>66% probability) unprecedented over the past two millennia.

  4. Las asociaciones católicas para trabajadores y el ejercicio de la"ciudadanía política": Córdoba a principios del siglo XX / Catholic Workers Associations and"Political Citizenship": Córdoba in the early 20th Century

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gardenia, Vidal.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la participación de los afiliados para elegir sus autoridades en tres asociaciones católicas para trabajadores -Círculo de Obreros de Córdoba, Asociación Artesanos de San José y Sociedad Católica Popular Italiana- en las primeras décadas del siglo XX en Córdoba, Argentina. La r [...] econstrucción realizada permite indicar que, más allá del sistema electoral indirecto aplicado en los tres casos, existen diferencias notables que contribuyeron de modo diverso a la internalización del concepto y práctica de la"ciudadanía política", en forma complementaria a la aplicada por los partidos desde 1912. Desde una postura electoral muy restrictiva y principalmente dedicada al fomento de la ritualidad religiosa hasta otras que permitían que todos los socios tuvieran el derecho de elegir y ser elegidos, el ejercicio político a nivel asociativo tuvo variaciones notables. Del mismo modo, la mayor amplitud de debate en el interior de las asambleas generales de socios coincidió, como era de esperar, con las instituciones cuyo sistema de representación era menos restringido. Abstract in english This paper examines the participation of the members of three catholic workers association -Círculo de Obreros de Córdoba, Asociación Artesanos de San José and Sociedad Católica Popular Italiana- to choose their authorities in Córdoba, Argentina during the first decades of the 20th Century. The stud [...] y allows us to know that, besides, the indirect electoral system applied in the three cases, there are important differences which contributed in different ways to the appropriation of the concept and practice of political citizenship inaugurated in 1912. A diversity of electoral procedures can be found: from a very restricted political position more interested in religion and catholic rituals to one which granted all members the right to choose and be chosen. In the same way, the more "democratic" associations corresponded, as could be expected, to those where internal debate was more regular.

  5. Cultural value: from parlour songs to IPlayers: experiencing culture in the 20th & 21st century home

    OpenAIRE

    Cowman, Krista

    2015-01-01

    This workshop, held at the University of Lincoln on 22 and 23 May 2014, was concerned with exploring some of the ways in which culture has been experienced in the home from the early 20th century to the present day. It drew together a number of experts from a range of disciplines incluing history, sociology, media studies, musicology, linguistics and fan studies as well as practitioners to look in detail at specific examples of domestic cultural engagement. Topics ranged from music in a pre...

  6. [Famous doctors who stayed on the Croatian coast at the turn of the 20th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanisevi?, Petar; Lesin, Mladen; Plestina-Borjan, Ivna; Ivanisevi?, Milan

    2012-01-01

    At the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century many famous persons stayed on the Croatian coast mostly because of touristic and health reasons, than because of natural beauties, scientific or political reasons. Most often they came from Austro-Hungary, Germany or Russia but also from our homelands. Among them were also many famous doctors, some known worldwide. The most distinguished were the surgeon Theodor Billroth, the bacteriologist and a Nobel prize winner Robert Koch, the pathologist Rudolf Virchow, and the psychiatrist Sigmund Freud. They left a deep impression and a big benefit at the area they stayed in. PMID:22768686

  7. Changes in precipitation levels in Croatia from the mid 20th century to the present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Filip?i?

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the changes in precipitation levels in Croatia that can be observed since the mid 20th century. Based on the data from 22 weather stations, linear trends show very little oscillation for the period 1950–2010. In eastern Croatia, a slight increase was recorded, while a slight drop or stagnation was evident in other parts of the country. However, were such trends to continue, they could have long-term geographic consequences. In the analytical period, it is possible to determine cyclical changes in the annual levels of precipitation.

  8. Causes of mortality and development: Evidence from large health shocks in 20th century America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm Hansen, Casper

    the shocks influenced income per capita in different ways. While the shock to flu/pneumonia mortality has been conductive for development, the large reduction in the incidence of tuberculosis deaths has been a negative force in the development of US states over the second-half of 20th century. In...... addition, the decline in maternal mortality has a fragile, but positive relationship with income per capita. Because these specific health shocks affected mortality across the life cycle differently, the evidence here underscores the general tenet of regarding health as multifaceted....

  9. The Hebrew Print and the Jewish Society in North Transylvania in the 20th century

    OpenAIRE

    Radosav, Maria

    2010-01-01

    The article is a study research that attempts to reconstitute one facet of the Jewish cultural history, represented by the Jewish typographical activity in a geographic and historic context, i.e. North Transylvania at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries. The core of the study is represented by a detailed research of the typographical activity of Jacov Wieder’s printing house that he had set up in 1897 at Seini, a small locality in the county of Satu Mare. Wieder’s prin...

  10. Survival advantage of siblings and spouses of centenarians in 20th-century Quebec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Bourbeau

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Longevity runs in families, either through genetic or environmental influences. Using Quebec civil registration and historical Canadiancensuses, we compared the longevity of siblings and spouses of 806 centenarians to a group of controls, all born in Quebec at the turnof the 20th century. Our results show that siblings of centenarians, who share half of their genes and a common childhood environment,lived 3–4 years longer than their birth cohort. However, husbands and wives of centenarians lived 4 and 2.5 years longer than theircounterparts of the same sex, respectively, suggesting that longevity is also modulated by shared environment in adulthood.

  11. Advances in stability theory at the end of the 20th century

    CERN Document Server

    Martynyuk, AA

    2003-01-01

    This volume presents surveys and research papers on various aspects of modern stability theory, including discussions on modern applications of the theory, all contributed by experts in the field. The volume consists of four sections that explore the following directions in the development of stability theory: progress in stability theory by first approximation; contemporary developments in Lyapunov''s idea of the direct method; the stability of solutions to periodic differential systems; and selected applications. Advances in Stability Theory at the End of the 20th Century will interest postgraduates and researchers in engineering fields as well as those in mathematics.

  12. From waste to opportunity : ethanol in Sweden during the first half of the 20th century

    OpenAIRE

    Sundin, Bo

    2007-01-01

    At the beginning of the 20th century the pulp industry in Sweden faced major problems with waste. Pine and spruce contain at the best 40 % cellulose. The remainder was released into the air and water, causing major environmental problems. In 1909 two Swedish engineers patented a method to ferment sulphite lye into alcohol. Apart for consumption, the alcohol could be used as fuel. The rest of the lye, reduced of it’s saccariferous contents, was expected to become the basis of a new chemical in...

  13. PLOT REELED INTO AN EKPHRASIS IN BELLES LETTRES OF THE BEGINNING OF THE 20TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vasil’evna Astaschenko

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Plots reeled into the ekphrasis have always existed. In belles lettres of the beginning of the 20th century, the fight between the pagan and the Christian manifests in the opposition of scenic space and it creates a powerful «magnetic» field. This is a special type of mythologism in which the Christian imagery is on the positive side of the binary opposition with its respective system of ethical coordinates. In «polytheistic systems, the presentations of evil is static as of the essential and eternal beginning of the world», but in the orthodox Christianity, the devil is a ghost, lure, disembodied temptation and «with every day it approaches nonexistence» (from the «Moralia» of the 6th century by Gregory the Great. However, Gregory the Great also notes that the power of Satan is from God as all other powers, he just distorted his power with his God-given free will. Even at the level of worldly wisdom aphorisms there is a conventional belief that our shortcomings are the continuation of our merits, and therefore it is necessary to adhere to the golden mean. Accroding to A. Gracheva in the book «Dialogues of Janus: Belles lettres and classics in the Russian literature of the early twentieth century», at the beginning of the 19th century, the mythologism of the spontaneous and not experimental type (often encyclopaedic and «algebraic» like in the works of Joyce and Bely, is especially pronounced in the works of writers, who are close to mass literature with their democracy or «boudoir» and especially in the works of female writers. This is due both to existing archetypes of the collective unconscious (some of which are even atavistic and «migratory plots» which are characteristic of both folklore and popular culture. Despite the compelling erotic subject matter, belles lettres is not always frivolous and, on the contrary, it is edifying and full of moral questions, which are sometimes rhetorical: «What is a sin and what does the evil mean? I’m going through my memory, what interesting things I heard and read about love, about the rights of genders, flesh, and find different clever words. But that’s just words ... They do not illuminate my soul with the understanding «(from the story of Avgusta Damanskaya» One day», published in the seventh issue of the «Education» magazine for 1908. The collision of pagan and Christian ekfrastic worlds is central in the novellas of G. Chulkov, S. Auslender, A. Mar and other representatives of the Russian decadence and Silver Age, which can not be considered in the context of Western European culture (from Stesichorus to Proust, from Zeu-xis with Parras to von Stuck with Knopf, for all the modernists (as well as realists of the early twentieth century, in the words of Alexander Blok, were sick with «Europeanism». However, Roerich and Vrubel, who are perceived not only as art revelation, but also a supreme religious revelation, and sometimes as an obsession, a temptation of the era, have a strong influence on the world art (not to mention the Russian art.

  14. Banknote Typography with a Particular Reference to Croatia through the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilko Žiljak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is the research of transformation of formatting information on banknotes during the 20th century, which is the period of some of the greatest graphical innovations after Gutenberg’s invention of movable type printing. Computer graphics had taken over in the field of typography in the exact moment of hand engraving’s highest level of art in the creation of the font cut. About forty years ago, the era of etching used in copper etching and steel engraving in hand - made drawings had begun, along with the use of phototypesetting as the representative of digital technology. Quality of the written lines has introduced microtypography as a special method of rasterization in the background of banknotes. In Croatia, the above mentioned modifications are present through the works of our typographers, even though the multiplication of banknotes was done in foreign printing houses that had appropriately protected printing technology. The paper contributes to the scientific analysis of the technical aspect of banknote making on Croatia’s soil during the course of the 20th century, and this, with the methods of analysis and synthesis incorporated, gives a clear picture and transparency into the method of banknote making, both from a technological and development cycle - making aspect. Given the fact that not only the Croatian banknotes are examined, analysis contributes to comparative procedures of local scopes in the field of technological manufacture of other banknotes that belong to the same time period.

  15. The Podsused reading rooms and library in the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Berak

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present the history of the Podsused reading rooms and library in the 20th century, using the original archival material. The materials stored in the Croatian State Archives, original printed and hand-written Regulations of reading associations, minutes of general meetings, and documents of other associations describe the organizational and operational features of reading rooms. In addition, private documents and photos of the citizens of Podsused were also used to reconstruct the operation and influence of the Susedgrad reading room on the life in Podsused. They recorded rich cultural activities of the reading association and its role in the cultural and public life of Podsused. The first readership associations were established in Podsused under the influence of the readership movement in Croatia: The Susedgrad reading room (1913, which was renamed in 1923 to the Croatian Reading Room of Podsused and the Croatian Reading Room Croatia in Podsused, located in the factory canteen of the Portland Cement Works (1923. The today's Library and Reading Room for Children and Adults was opened in 1951 in Dom kulture in Podsused, and has been working ever since. The main contribution of the paper is the identification of core features of the development of librarianship in Podsused in the 20th century.

  16. The municipal continuum: Research on maritime water pollution in Helsinki in the 20th century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurila, S. K. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Social History; Laakkonen, S. J. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Social Policy

    2004-07-01

    In general, the history of environmental research is not known very well. Our study contributes to filling this gap by focusing on the history of the methods that were used during the 20th century to study the state of the urban sea area in Helsinki, Finland. From the beginning of the past century, the methodological basis of municipal water pollution studies in Helsinki was broad, involving the use of physical, chemical, hygienic and biological methods. Since 1904, municipal laboratories have overseen and conducted most physico-chemical and bacteriological studies of pollution of urban watercourses, and they have done regular annual sampling since 1947. In the 1920s and 1930s, the municipal laboratories cooperated with the University of Helsinki and, secondarily, with the Helsinki University of Technology in order to develop the skills and manpower that were required in order to conduct pollution studies. Statutory monitoring was initiated in the mid-1960s, and it continues today. (orig.)

  17. Atom pictures. Iconography of the atom in science and public of the 20th century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 20th century can be described as century of the atom. From the development of molecular models until nanotechnology, from Becquerel's discovery of the radioactivity until the reactor accident in Chernobyl was and remains the atom subject of the research as well as of the discussion in culture and politics. Thereby the concept and the imagination of the ''atom'' have been subjected to manifold changes, which were essentially generated by pictures. The volume summarizes famous as well as less famous pictures from laboratories, exhibitions, publications, and films. It gives both a contribution to the history of science and culture and a summarizing of different disciplinary approaches to the circulation of pictures between science and public

  18. „One-way ticket” Romanian Migration at the beginning of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Bocancea

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Unlike the new age of migration that we are experiencing now, the social mobility specific to the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century may be defined by the expression “one way ticket”; the immigrant, usually a man, used to leave his country of origin and settle for good in his host-country (he did not look for his happiness from state to state, as it happens now. The Romanian migration of that time was directed mainly towards the New World (particularly to the USA, and less to Canada. This paper is an attempt to sketch the image of Romanian emigration by taking into account the peculiarities determined by: emigration causes, geographical predominance, social composition, occupational options in the host-country, and the structure of Romanian immigrant communities.

  19. Organic petrology in the 19th, 20th, and 21st centuries: The Newcastle contribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murchison, Duncan [School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2005-04-12

    The paper describes the development of coal petrology, then organic petrology, over a period of approximately 175 years around and in Newcastle upon Tyne (England). From 1833 until 1950, the basis of study was essentially transmitted light microscopy. In this period, perhaps the supreme contribution was the work of Hutton, Lindley, and Witham, who demonstrated the vegetable nature of coal in 1833. A major Scottish legal case, the 'Boghead Controversy' of 1853, in which 'Newcastle' was much later to be involved, was not finally resolved until Blackburn and Temperly confirmed the true nature of the relationship between the modern alga Botryococcus and the algal coals some 80 years later. In the early part of the 20th century, works by Hickling on the 'coal belt' and Hickling and Marshall on the cell structures of vitrinites were important as was Raistrick's substantial contribution to the founding of the field of palynology through his microspore correlation studies on coal seams from the coalfields of northeast England and Lancashire.Large-scale organisational changes in the Department of Geology at Newcastle in the period 1950 to 1989 took place with the development of the Organic Geochemistry Unit (OGU) in which organic petrology was a major component. Organic petrology and organic geochemistry were major components. There was almost entire replacement of transmitted light microscopy by reflected light procedures as the principal means of studying crustal organic matter microscopically. Widespread collaboration with industry, particularly with oil companies, which, with the University and the Research Councils, provided invaluable support to the research group over many years. Considered here are the results of investigations across the expanding field of organic petrology, covering the development of equipment and relationships between maceral properties, the varied effects of carbonisation treatments, and the influence of igneous activity on crustal organic matter.There were further radical changes in the composition of the research group after the completion of the national Earth Science Review in 1989. The Institute of Fossil Fuels and Environmental Geochemistry (FFEGI) was formed with a further substantial increase of both staff and postgraduate students. Organic petrology as a component was much reduced, although reflected light studies continued on coals from the offshore coalfields of northeast England, and transmitted light studies, almost exclusively related to the study of organic facies, returned. The output of organic petrologists virtually ceased. Most effective research groups, however, shift their emphases with time. FFEGI occupied a substantial and successful international research niche within the environmental field, as well as being still heavily committed to petroleum geochemistry until 2003 when FFEGI was integrated within the new School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences.

  20. Brief Communication: Global glacier mass loss reconstructions during the 20th century are consistent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Marzeion

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Estimates of the contribution of glaciers to sea-level rise during the 20th century that were published in recent years are strongly divergent. Advances in data availability have allowed revisions of some of these published estimates. Here we show that outside of Antarctica, the global estimates of glacier mass loss obtained from glacier-length-based reconstructions and from a glacier model driven by gridded climate observations are now consistent with each other, and also with an estimate for the years 2003–2009 that is mostly based on remotely sensed data. This consistency is found throughout the entire common periods of the respective data sets. Inconsistencies of reconstructions and observations persist in estimates on regional scales.

  1. Atomic Pioneers Book 3 From the Late 19th to the Mid-20th Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiebert, Ray [University of Maryland; Hiebert, Roselyn

    1973-01-01

    This book tells the story of the atom by presenting a brief account of the lives and work of 24 atomic scientists who brought the world into the complex Age of the Atom by mid-20th century. The 24 are: Albert Einstein, James Franck, Max Born, Peter J.W. Debye, Niels Bohr, George von Hevesy, Henry G.J. Moseley, Gustav Hertz, Erwin Schrodinger, Otto Stern, James Chadwick, Arthur H. Compton, Louis Victor de Broglie, Harold C. Urey, John D. Cockcroft, Patrick M.S. Blackett, Isidor I. Rabi, Leo Szilard, Jean Frederic Joliot-Curie, Irene Joliot-Curie, Wolfgang Pauli, Ernest O. Lawrence, Enrico Fermi, and Robert J. Van de Graaff.

  2. Six calendar systems in the European history from 18^{th} to 20^{th} Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodossiou, Efstratios; Manimanis, Vassilios N.; Dimitrijevi?, Milan S.

    The following calendar systems, introduced in Europe from 18^{th} to 20^{th} century, which were in use for a shorter or longer period by a larger or smaller community, were reviewed and discussed: The French Revolutionary Calendar, the Theosebic calendar invented by Theophilos Kairis, the Revolutionary Calendar of the Soviet Union (or 'Bolshevik calendar'), the Fascist calendar in Italy and the calendar of the Metaxas dictatorship in Greece before World War II. Also the unique of them, which is still in use, the New Rectified Julian calendar of the Orthodox Church, adopted according to proposition of Milutin Milankovi? on the Congress of Orthodox Churches in 1923 in Constantinople, is presented and discussed. At the end, difficulties to introduce a new calendar are discussed as well.

  3. Did 20th century physics have the means to reveal the nature of inertia and gravitation?

    CERN Document Server

    Petkov, V B

    2000-01-01

    At the beginning of the 20th century the classical electron theory (or, perhaps more appropriately, the classical electromagnetic mass theory) - the first physical theory that dared ask the question of what inertia and mass were - was gaining momentum and there were hopes that physics would be finally able to explain their origin. It is argued in this paper that if that promising research path had not been inexplicably abandoned after the advent of relativity and quantum mechanics, the contemporary physics would have revealed not only the nature of inertia, mass, and gravitation, but most importantly would have outlined the ways of their manipulation. Another goal of the paper is to try to stimulate the search for the mechanism responsible for inertia and gravitation by outlining a research direction, which demonstrates that the classical electromagnetic mass theory in conjunction with the principle of equivalence offers such a mechanism.

  4. Corpus methods and their reflection in linguistic theories of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Krek

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the 20th century structuralism established itself as the central linguistic theory, in the first half mainly through its originator Ferdinand de Saussure, and in the second half with the figure of Noam Chomsky. The latter consistently refused to acknowledge analysis of extensive quantity of texts as a valuable method, and favoured linguistic intuition of a native speaker instead. In parallel with structuralism other trends in linguistics emerged which pointed to the inadequateness of the prevailing linguistic paradigm and to theoretical insights which were only possible after the systematic analysis of large quantities of texts. The paper discusses some of the dilemmas stemming from this dichotomy and places corpus linguistics in a broader linguistic context.

  5. Long-term non-linear predictability of ENSO events over the 20th century

    CERN Document Server

    Astudillo, H F; Borotto, F A

    2015-01-01

    We show that the monthly recorded history (1878-2013) of the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), a descriptor of the El Ni\\~no Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon, can be well described as a dynamic system that supports an average nonlinear predictability well beyond the spring barrier. The predictability is strongly linked to a detailed knowledge of the topology of the attractor obtained by embedding the SOI index in a wavelets base state space. Using the state orbits on the attractor we show that the information contained in the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) is sufficient to provide average nonlinear predictions for time periods of 2, 3 and 4 years in advance throughout the 20th century with an acceptable error. The simplicity of implementation and ease of use makes it suitable for studying non linear predictability in any area where observations are similar to those that describe the ENSO phenomenon.

  6. Lithuanian Science and Education in the 20th century: The Pecularities of Historical Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juozas Algimantas Krikštopaitis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the evolvement of Lithuanian science, education system and human growth. The paper submits for consideration the characteristic features of the reviewed historical material and its comparative analyses. The article mainly focuses on the facts and processes of the second half of the 20th century which acted as the determinants of contents in the development of Lithuania’s intellectual potential. The author also discusses the historical origins of the object under investigation, its social and political assumptions about the major events and the significance of scientific thinking and education to the foundation of the national state.The discussions of the analyzed results revealed that The Lithuanian Academy of Sciences as the centre of science nurtured and took care of scientists during the Soviet times. The Academy fostered those scientific fields that helped Lithuanian researchers with the capability of reaching meaningful results. Article in Lithuanian

  7. Medieval Warm Period, Little Ice Age and 20th century temperature variability from Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, T. M.; Dwyer, G.S.; Kamiya, T.; Schwede, S.; Willard, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    We present paleoclimate evidence for rapid (Ice Age (???1400-1900 AD) and the Medieval Warm Period (???800-1300 AD) possibly related to changes in the strength of North Atlantic thermohaline circulation (THC). Evidence is presented for a long period of sustained regional and North Atlantic-wide warmth with low-amplitude temperature variability between ???450 and 1000 AD. In addition to centennial-scale temperature shifts, the existence of numerous temperature maxima between 2200 and 250 years BP (average ???70 years) suggests that multi-decadal processes typical of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) are an inherent feature of late Holocene climate. However, late 19th and 20th century temperature extremes in Chesapeake Bay associated with NAO climate variability exceeded those of the prior 2000 years, including the interval 450-1000 AD, by 2-3??C, suggesting anomalous recent behavior of the climate system. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. ["W. Bölsche's precious book". Freud and German evolutionism in the beginning of the 20th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amouroux, Rémy

    2004-01-01

    Wilhelm Bölsche (1861-1939) is the author of a poetic history of the evolution of love entitled Das Liebesleben in der Natur (1898-1903). This work, inspired by the writings of biologist Ernst Haeckel, was greatly successful in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century. Freud kept a copy of the three volumes in his London library and cites the text in his lectures on an Introduction to psychoanalysis. Bölsche develops an Entwicklungsgeschichte (history of evolution) of the distinguishing sexuality of several types of love (oral, anal and urinary). In addition, he describes the "zoological reactionary" homosexual and ties this sexual behaviour to the history of the development of anal sexuality. This paper will address an excerpt on this topic from Bölsche's text that has been translated for the occasion. The task at hand is to prepare the ground for a study of German evolutionism, both popular and scientific, and its ties to psychoanalysis. PMID:15368944

  9. Brief Communication: Global reconstructions of glacier mass change during the 20th century are consistent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzeion, B.; Leclercq, P. W.; Cogley, J. G.; Jarosch, A. H.

    2015-12-01

    Recent estimates of the contribution of glaciers to sea-level rise during the 20th century are strongly divergent. Advances in data availability have allowed revisions of some of these published estimates. Here we show that outside of Antarctica, the global estimates of glacier mass change obtained from glacier-length-based reconstructions and from a glacier model driven by gridded climate observations are now consistent with each other, and also with an estimate for the years 2003-2009 that is mostly based on remotely sensed data. This consistency is found throughout the entire common periods of the respective data sets. Inconsistencies of reconstructions and observations persist in estimates on regional scales.

  10. High resolution sedimentary record of dinoflagellate cysts reflects decadal variability and 20th century warming in the Santa Barbara Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringué, Manuel; Pospelova, Vera; Field, David B.

    2014-12-01

    We present a continuous record of dinoflagellate cysts from a core of laminated sediments collected in the Santa Barbara Basin (SBB), off Southern California. The core spans the last ?260 years and is analysed at biennial (two-year) resolution. Variations in dinoflagellate cyst assemblages are compared with 20th century historical changes, and are used to examine changes in primary productivity and species composition, which are bound to the variability in upwelling and sea-surface temperature (SST) in the region. Cysts produced by heterotrophic dinoflagellates dominate the assemblages. In particular, Brigantedinium spp. (on average 64.2% of the assemblages) are commonly associated with high levels of primary productivity, typically observed under active upwelling conditions, when nutrient supply is higher. Other heterotrophic taxa such as cysts of Protoperidinium americanum, Protoperidinium fukuyoi, Protoperidinium minutum and Archaeperidinium saanichi, all Echinidinium species, Quinquecuspis concreta and Selenopemphix undulata are more abundant in the early part of the record (?1750s-1870s). These taxa are generally associated with high primary productivity and are observed predominantly during intervals marked by relatively variable conditions of SST, stratification and nutrient loading. The 20th century is marked by an increase in several species of autotrophic affinity, primarily Lingulodinium machaerophorum and Spiniferites ramosus. In recent surface sediments from the region, these species are more abundant in the Southern California Bight, and they are associated with conditions of relaxed upwelling in the SBB (typically observed during summer and fall), when SST is higher and nutrient supply is moderate. Their increasing concentrations since the early 20th century reflect warmer SST and possibly stronger stratification during the warmest season. Taken together, the changes in cyst assemblages provide further evidence that persistently warmer conditions in the SBB began affecting marine populations by the late 1920s. Decadal-scale variations in primary productivity are encoded in the heterotrophic dinoflagellate cyst record, with higher (lower) concentrations of heterotrophic taxa occurring during "cool" ("warm") phases of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) index. Wavelet analysis of heterotrophic taxa concentrations suggests a weaker influence of the PDO on biota of the region during the 19th century.

  11. 1900 ?zmir ve 1901 ?stanbul Salg?nlar? Ba?lam?nda Veban?n XX. Yüzy?l Ba?lar?nda Osmanl? ?mparatorlu?u’nda Devam Eden Etkisi///The Ongoing ?mpact Of The Most Dreadful Disease Of World History Plague In The Ottoman Empire In The Early 20th Century Within The Contexts Of 1900 Izmir And 1901 Istanbul Epidemics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesut AYAR

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of the 20th century plague had almost become a local, demographically ineffective and even an ordinary disease. However, even at such a late period, in the epidemics occured in any part of the ottoman territories, plague continued to cause economy based troubles similar to the ones in the previous centuries, due to the quarantines.

  12. Recepcion of Rousseau in formation initial of primary school teachers (Spain, 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Viñao, España.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda a imagem e idéias de e sobre Rousseau transmitidas na Espanha ao magistério primário durante o século 20, através dos manuais de História da Educação e outras fontes similares. Após analisar as fontes utilizadas e seus destinatários, se expõe a imagem e a idéia de Rousseau como pai da pedagogia moderna, predominante nos escritos pedagógicos da época para, em seguida, e a modo de contraste, examinar o lugar e o tratamento dado à Rousseau nos mencionados manuais. Esse exame se divide em duas épocas: a anterior à guerra civil e a posterior, com o fim de mostrar o predomínio, sobre tudo durante o franquismo, de uma visão católica, conservadora, moralizante e crítica do genebriano. Palavras-chave: Rousseau, manuais escolares, educação primária, formação do magistério primário, Espanha (século 20.   Recepcion of Rousseau in formation initial of primary school teachers (Spain, 20th century Abstract This article deals with Rousseau’s images and ideas present in the school books of History of Education, and other similar sources, used in the training of primary school teachers in Spain during the 20th century. After analyzing the sources used and their addresses, the predominance of Rousseau’s ideas and image as the father of modern pedagogy in the pedagogical literature of this period is explained. Immediately after, by way of contrast, Rousseau’s place and the way of considering him in the above mentioned school books are examined. The above analysis is divided into two periods, before and after the civil war, in order to show the predominance of the catholic-conservative moralizing and critical approach, particularly during francoism. Key-words: Rousseau, school books, primary education, teacher’s training, Spain (20th century.   La recepción de Rousseau en la formación inicial del magisterio primario (España, siglo 20 Resumen Este artículo versa sobre la imagen e ideas de y sobre Rousseau transmitidas en España al magisterio primario durante el siglo 20, a través de los manuales de Historia de la Educación y otras fuentes similares. Tras analizar las fuentes utilizadas y sus destinatarios, se expone la imagen e idea de Rousseau como padre de la pedagogía moderna, predominante en los escritos pedagógicos de la época, para seguidamente, y a modo de contraste, examinar el lugar y el tratamiento dados a Rousseau en los mencionados manuales. Dicho examen se divide en dos épocas: la anterior a la guerra civil y la posterior, con el fin de mostrar el predominio, sobre todo durante el franquismo, de una visión católico-conservadora, moralizante y crítica del ginebrino. Palabras-clave: Rousseau, manuales escolares, educación primaria, formación del magisterio primario, España (siglo 20.   La recepcion du rousseau et la formation initiale des enseignantes primaires (espagne, siècle 20eme Resumé Cet article porte sur les images et les idées de et sur Rousseau transmises aux instituteurs en Espagne au cours du 20eme siécle, à travers des manuels d’Histoire de l’Education et d’autres sources similaires. Après avoir analisée les sources utilisées et ses destinataires, on expose l’image et idée de Rousseu comme père de la pédagogie moderne predominant dans la littérature pedagogique de cette époque. Ensuite, on examine le lieu et le traitement donné à Rousseau dans les manuels susnommés. Cette étude est divisée dans deux étapes: l’antérieure et la postérieure a la guerre civile, afin de montré la prédominance, surtout pendant le franquisme, de l’approche catholique-conservatrice, moralisant et critique, sur le genevois. Mots-clé: Rousseau, manuels scolaires, enseignement primaire, formation des instituteurs, Espagne (20ème siècle. 

  13. Ice core evidence for a 20th century decline of sea ice in the Bellingshausen Sea, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abram, Nerilie J.; Thomas, Elizabeth R.; McConnell, Joseph R.; Mulvaney, Robert; Bracegirdle, Thomas J.; Sime, Louise C.; Aristarain, Alberto J.

    2010-12-01

    This study uses ice core methanesulphonic acid (MSA) records from the Antarctic Peninsula, where temperatures have been warming faster than anywhere else in the Southern Hemisphere, to reconstruct the 20th century history of sea ice change in the adjacent Bellingshausen Sea. Using satellite-derived sea ice and meteorological data, we show that ice core MSA records from this region are a reliable proxy for regional sea ice change, with years of increased winter sea ice extent recorded by increased ice core MSA concentrations. Our reconstruction suggests that the satellite-observed sea ice decline in the Bellingshausen Sea during recent decades is part of a long-term regional trend that has occurred throughout the 20th century. The long-term perspective on sea ice in the Bellingshausen Sea is consistent with evidence of 20th century warming on the Antarctic Peninsula and may reflect a progressive deepening of the Amundsen Sea Low due to increasing greenhouse gas concentrations and, more recently, stratospheric ozone depletion. As a first-order estimate, our MSA-based reconstruction suggests that sea ice in the Bellingshausen Sea has retreated southward by ˜0.7° during the 20th century. Comparison with other 20th century sea ice observations, reconstructions, and model simulations provides a coherent picture of Antarctic sea ice decline during the 20th century, although with regional-scale differences evident in the timing and magnitude of this sea ice decline. This longer-term perspective contrasts with the small overall increase in Antarctic sea ice that is observed in post-1979 satellite data.

  14. Reconciling past changes in Earth's rotation with 20th century global sea-level rise: Resolving Munk's enigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrovica, Jerry X; Hay, Carling C; Morrow, Eric; Kopp, Robert E; Dumberry, Mathieu; Stanley, Sabine

    2015-12-01

    In 2002, Munk defined an important enigma of 20th century global mean sea-level (GMSL) rise that has yet to be resolved. First, he listed three canonical observations related to Earth's rotation [(i) the slowing of Earth's rotation rate over the last three millennia inferred from ancient eclipse observations, and changes in the (ii) amplitude and (iii) orientation of Earth's rotation vector over the last century estimated from geodetic and astronomic measurements] and argued that they could all be fit by a model of ongoing glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) associated with the last ice age. Second, he demonstrated that prevailing estimates of the 20th century GMSL rise (~1.5 to 2.0 mm/year), after correction for the maximum signal from ocean thermal expansion, implied mass flux from ice sheets and glaciers at a level that would grossly misfit the residual GIA-corrected observations of Earth's rotation. We demonstrate that the combination of lower estimates of the 20th century GMSL rise (up to 1990) improved modeling of the GIA process and that the correction of the eclipse record for a signal due to angular momentum exchange between the fluid outer core and the mantle reconciles all three Earth rotation observations. This resolution adds confidence to recent estimates of individual contributions to 20th century sea-level change and to projections of GMSL rise to the end of the 21st century based on them. PMID:26824058

  15. Reorganization of the flood-prone atmospheric patterns at the onset of the 20th century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Bruno; Vogel, Hendrik; Anselmetti, Flavio

    2015-04-01

    Frequency and intensity of heavy rainfalls, triggering floods and causing human and large economic losses, are expected to increase in the context of the global warming, due to the larger water carrying capacity of warmer air masses. However, the relationship between such events and climatic changes remains still poorly understood. In particular, the stability of the flood-prone atmospheric circulations under future climate changes is a key question for projections of extreme precipitation. This study aims at exploring this issue using flood reconstructions from the NW Mediterranean domain. We compiled existing historical records from the Southern Massif Central and lake-sediment records from the Eastern Pyrenees and the Southern French Alps. We completed this West-East transect by studying new lake sequences in the SE French Alps and the Western Italian Alps. For both of the new lake sediment sequences (Lake Foréant, Queyras massif, France and Lago Inferiore di Laurès, Aosta valley, Italy), several short cores were retrieved to understand the sedimentary processes. In the laboratory, high-resolution pictures, bulk density, geochemistry and grain size were measured. Dating was undertaken by short-lived radionuclides (EAWAG, Zürich) and radiocarbon (University of Bern) measurements. Lago Inferiore sequence covers the last 250 years and Lake Foréant sequence the last millennium. 232 turbidites were identified; 11 of which seem to be related to mass movements, whereas the other 221 were triggered by flood events. The reconstructed flood regimes were then compared to local flood activity based on historical data. The good agreement between the datasets supports the quality and sensitivity of flood reconstructions. In the NW Mediterranean domain, floods and related heavy rainfalls are mostly triggered by autumn humid air masses coming from the Mediterranean Sea. In detail, distinct atmospheric pathways transport these air masses and trigger floods in the different studied regions. Comparing all the flood reconstructions over the last 250 years aims at tracking these atmospheric pathways and their possible changes over time. Strong similarities in flood frequency are observed from 1750 to 1900 for the western part (Cévennes, Southern French Alps), while no convincing correlation appears between the other records. Around 1900, a drastic change appears with strong similarities between records of the eastern part (Southern Alps, SE French Alps and NW Italian Alps). In particular, the flood frequency largely increased in the Cévennes during the first part of the 20th century, while this period is one of the most 'quiet' in all other records. Hence, these results suggest a reorganization of the flood-prone atmospheric patterns at the onset of the 20th century.

  16. Trends and extremes of drought indices throughout the 20th century in the Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Sousa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Average monthly precipitation, the original Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI and a recent adaptation to Europe, the Self Calibrated PDSI (scPDSI have been used here to analyse the spatial and temporal evolution of drought conditions in the Mediterranean during the 20th century. Monthly, seasonal and annual trends were computed for the period 1901–2000 and also for the first and second halves of this period. The statistical significance of trends was obtained with a modified version of the Mann-Kendall test that accounts for serial auto-correlation. The results show a clear trend towards drier conditions during the 20th century in most western and central Mediterranean regions, with the exceptions of northwestern Iberia and most of Turkey that reveal an increase of moisture availability. A Generalized Extreme Values (GEV analysis was applied to the maximum and minimum regional values of scPDSI, with results pointing towards a significant decline of absolute extreme values in central areas (Italy and Balkans and a less clear picture emerging in western (Iberia and eastern (Turkey realms.

    The inter-annual variability of the scPDSI index series is shown to be more realistic than the corresponding PDSI version, fitting better the drought episodes sequence and magnitude described in the literature for each sub-region. We assess the decadal and inter-annual variability of the scPDSI for each sub-domain and evaluate the role played by the major teleconnection patterns, and by several sea surface temperature (SST anomalies. The main driver of scPDSI in western and central Mediterranean areas is the winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO pattern that is also relevant during the following spring and summer seasons with anti-correlation values below −0.60. The second most important mode corresponds to the Scandinavian Pattern that is significantly associated to the scPDSI between winter and summer over central Mediterranean (correlation values around 0.50. Finally, the teleconnection and SST analysis has allowed us to calibrate a stepwise regression model, enabling the forecasting of summer drought conditions six months in advance. The final model obtained is capable of reproducing the observed scPDSI time series fairly well, with a correlation coefficient of 0.79 (0.77 after cross-validation and a significant gain over climatology (SSc=59%, while the corresponding result against persistence is more modest (SSp6=11%.

  17. Trends and extremes of drought indices throughout the 20th century in the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, P. M.; Trigo, R. M.; Aizpurua, P.; Nieto, R.; Gimeno, L.; Garcia-Herrera, R.

    2011-01-01

    Average monthly precipitation, the original Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and a recent adaptation to Europe, the Self Calibrated PDSI (scPDSI) have been used here to analyse the spatial and temporal evolution of drought conditions in the Mediterranean during the 20th century. Monthly, seasonal and annual trends were computed for the period 1901-2000 and also for the first and second halves of this period. The statistical significance of trends was obtained with a modified version of the Mann-Kendall test that accounts for serial auto-correlation. The results show a clear trend towards drier conditions during the 20th century in most western and central Mediterranean regions, with the exceptions of northwestern Iberia and most of Turkey that reveal an increase of moisture availability. A Generalized Extreme Values (GEV) analysis was applied to the maximum and minimum regional values of scPDSI, with results pointing towards a significant decline of absolute extreme values in central areas (Italy and Balkans) and a less clear picture emerging in western (Iberia) and eastern (Turkey) realms. The inter-annual variability of the scPDSI index series is shown to be more realistic than the corresponding PDSI version, fitting better the drought episodes sequence and magnitude described in the literature for each sub-region. We assess the decadal and inter-annual variability of the scPDSI for each sub-domain and evaluate the role played by the major teleconnection patterns, and by several sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies. The main driver of scPDSI in western and central Mediterranean areas is the winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) pattern that is also relevant during the following spring and summer seasons with anti-correlation values below -0.60. The second most important mode corresponds to the Scandinavian Pattern that is significantly associated to the scPDSI between winter and summer over central Mediterranean (correlation values around 0.50). Finally, the teleconnection and SST analysis has allowed us to calibrate a stepwise regression model, enabling the forecasting of summer drought conditions six months in advance. The final model obtained is capable of reproducing the observed scPDSI time series fairly well, with a correlation coefficient of 0.79 (0.77 after cross-validation) and a significant gain over climatology (SSc=59%), while the corresponding result against persistence is more modest (SSp6=11%).

  18. Santorini Volcano's 20th Century Eruptions: A Combined Petrogenetical, Volcanological, Sociological and Environmental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drymoni, Kyriaki; Magganas, Andreas; Pomonis, Panagiotis

    2014-05-01

    Santorini, the famous stratovolcano in the Aegean Sea, erupted three time periods during the 20th century (1925-1928, 1939-1941, 1950) and since then remains dormant. This study tried to combine and evaluate new and published volcanological, petrological, geochemical, environmental and sociological data of these three phases of Santorini's activity, which practically restricted to the caldera center on the Nea Kameni Islet. After field work on the formed dacite flows, pyroclastics and domes, representative rock samples and enclaves were collected and investigated for their texture, physical parameters, mineralogy and chemical composition by polarizing light microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDS), XRD, Raman spectroscopy and ICP-MS. The petrogenetic evaluation of the data obtained suggests slight but significant changes in the solid and aerial phases produced during the three explosion stages, which can be attributed to minor variations in the magmatic differentiation and magma chamber physicochemical conditions. These variations were also expressed by decrease of duration and intensity of the eruptions, as well as in their volume of ejecta and lava. Probably, the subsequent relatively long dormant period of the volcano is also related to this tension of decrease. The first compared results were collected from scientific literature, old photos as well as local and regional press and state documents from the different periods of volcanism, record the past hazard case scenarios and civil defense planning of the individual eruptions. As part of the disaster management a pilot survey, in which personal interviews with aged local islanders that were eye-witnesses of the events and elderly people or tourists that they indirectly experienced or have heard about them, was also conducted. This event-tracing, along with air pollution software models using volcanological data have shown the social impacts and the environmental consequences of the volcanic activities seem generally to follow the same way of reduction with time as above. Conclusively, this integrated comparison of the three successive per decade eruption periods within the 20th century, which had followed a long dormant period of about 60 years, provide worthy hazard and risk assessment for Santorini volcano future waking up.

  19. Reorganizing a 20th century cabinet of curiosities into a museum for the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel M. García Fernández

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the life of a university museum that was born in the 1980s and transformed in the 21st century. Over a period of 25 years Professor Reverte collected more than 3700 objects and set up an authentic cabinet of curiosities dedicated to the fields of anthropology and forensic science. Despite the diversity of its contents, the museum had a recognized scientific interest. It has now undergone changes in order to meet the requirements of new academic demands and public accessibility, but without losing reference to its origins.

  20. A 20th-century record of climatologically modulated sediment accumulation rates in a Canadian Fjord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, John N.; Schafer, Charles T.

    1987-05-01

    The geochronology of a gravity core collected from an anoxic, high sedimentation rate (>2.5 cm/yr) setting near the head of the Saguenay Fjord in Quebec has been established for the period 1900-1979 to a resolution of better than 1 yr using a constant flux 21Pb model. Interannual variations of the sedimentation rate of between 28 and 50% are caused by rapid inputs of coarse silt and fine sand during spring freshet events. A significant correlation between sand percentage and sediment accumulation rate reflects the increase in stream competence during the spring freshet; the sand percentage parameter can be used in conjunction with sediment size parameters to estimate temporal variations in river discharge intensity. Between 1914 and 1979 sediment accumulation rates were about 60% higher during the spring and summer compared to fall and winter seasons. Both the magnitude of the Saguenay River spring discharge and the quantity of precipitation stored as snow decrease through the 20th century suggesting that the freshet intensity was governed largely by natural rather than anthropogenic (e.g., dam construction) factors. A direct correlation between sand flux, peak river discharge, and a snow storage parameter provides a link between sediment texture and climate. Detailed analyses of the grain-size distributions for dated core intervals offer a method for the reconstruction of a proxy record of paleodischarge for the Saguenay River spring freshets.

  1. The great exodus of 1939 and other exiles of the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enric Pujol

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of being a historic constant and a characteristic phenomenon of the 20th century, the subject ‘exile’ is still little valued by contemporary historiography´. The civil war from 1936 to 1939 and the Francoist triumph provoked an exile without precedent in recent Catalonian history. This exile was decisive in the preservation of Catalan culture (persecuted by the Franco regime in Catalonia itself, as well as for the continuity of Catalan self-government, the ‘Generalitat of Catalonia’. It was also an extremely important platform for the democratic opposition to Francoism, although it lost its political weight around the nineteen sixties. At that time, though, new waves of exiles took place caused by the fight against the dictatorship, but they were in no way related to the scale of those from the civil war in the thirties. At the dictator’s death many people returned home, but the fragility of the democracy born from the political transition process brought new exiles. In order to know more in detail on such an important subject it is necessary to promote a culturally institutionalised process that makes possible its systematic study, and it is also necessary that the analysis of this phenomenon become a top priority aim of study for historiography and for all human sciences.

  2. Molecular evolution of Zika virus during its emergence in the 20(th) century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faye, Oumar; Freire, Caio C M; Iamarino, Atila; Faye, Ousmane; de Oliveira, Juliana Velasco C; Diallo, Mawlouth; Zanotto, Paolo M A; Sall, Amadou Alpha

    2014-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus first isolated in Uganda in 1947. Although entomological and virologic surveillance have reported ZIKV enzootic activity in diverse countries of Africa and Asia, few human cases were reported until 2007, when a Zika fever epidemic took place in Micronesia. In the context of West Africa, the WHO Collaborating Centre for Arboviruses and Hemorrhagic Fever at Institut Pasteur of Dakar (http://www.pasteur.fr/recherche/banques/CRORA/) reports the periodic circulation of ZIKV since 1968. Despite several reports on ZIKV, the genetic relationships among viral strains from West Africa remain poorly understood. To evaluate the viral spread and its molecular epidemiology, we investigated 37 ZIKV isolates collected from 1968 to 2002 in six localities in Senegal and Côte d'Ivoire. In addition, we included strains from six other countries. Our results suggested that these two countries in West Africa experienced at least two independent introductions of ZIKV during the 20(th) century, and that apparently these viral lineages were not restricted by mosquito vector species. Moreover, we present evidence that ZIKV has possibly undergone recombination in nature and that a loss of the N154 glycosylation site in the envelope protein was a possible adaptive response to the Aedes dalzieli vector. PMID:24421913

  3. Introduction: contexts and concepts of adaptability and plasticity in 20th-century plant science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranski, Marci; Peirson, B R Erick

    2015-04-01

    Nowhere is the problem of understanding the complex linkages between organisms and their environments more apparent than in the science of plants. Today, efforts by scientists to predict and manage the biological consequences of shifting global and regional climates depend on understanding how organisms respond morphologically, physiologically, and behaviorally to changes in their environments. Investigating organismal "adaptability" (or "plasticity") is rarely straightforward, prompting controversy and discourse among and between ecologists and agricultural scientists. Concepts like agro-climatic adaptation, phenotypic plasticity, and genotype-environment interaction (GxE) are key to those debates, and their complex histories have imbued them with assumptions and meanings that are consequential but often opaque. This special section explores the diverse ways in which organismal adaptability has been conceptualized and investigated in the second half of the 20th century, and the multifarious political, economic, environmental, and intellectual contexts in which those conceptions have emerged and evolved. The papers in this section bring together perspectives from the histories of agriculture, population ecology, evolutionary theory, and plant physiology, cutting across Asian, North American, and British contexts. As a whole, this section highlights not only the diversity of meanings of "adaptability" and "plasticity," but also the complex linkages between those meanings, the scientific practices and technologies in which they are embedded, and the ends toward which those practices and technologies are employed. PMID:25641218

  4. Decrease in water clarity of the southern and central North Sea during the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuzzo, Elisa; Stephens, David; Silva, Tiago; Barry, Jon; Forster, Rodney M

    2015-06-01

    Light in the marine environment is a key environmental variable coupling physics to marine biogeochemistry and ecology. Weak light penetration reduces light available for photosynthesis, changing energy fluxes through the marine food web. Based on published and unpublished data, this study shows that the central and southern North Sea has become significantly less clear over the second half of the 20th century. In particular, in the different regions and seasons investigated, the average Secchi depth pre-1950 decreased between 25% and 75% compared to the average Secchi depth post-1950. Consequently, in summer pre-1950, most (74%) of the sea floor in the permanently mixed area off East Anglia was within the photic zone. For the last 25+ years, changes in water clarity were more likely driven by an increase in the concentration of suspended sediments, rather than phytoplankton. We suggest that a combination of causes have contributed to this increase in suspended sediments such as changes in sea-bed communities and in weather patterns, decreased sink of sediments in estuaries, and increased coastal erosion. A predicted future increase in storminess (Beniston et al., 2007; Kovats et al., 2014) could enhance the concentration of suspended sediments in the water column and consequently lead to a further decrease in clarity, with potential impacts on phytoplankton production, CO2 fluxes, and fishery production. PMID:25640640

  5. Observed Abrupt Changes in Minimum and Maximum Temperatures in Jordan in the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad M.  samdi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines changes in annual and seasonal mean (minimum and maximum temperatures variations in Jordan during the 20th century. The analyses focus on the time series records at the Amman Airport Meteorological (AAM station. The occurrence of abrupt changes and trends were examined using cumulative sum charts (CUSUM and bootstrapping and the Mann-Kendall rank test. Statistically significant abrupt changes and trends have been detected. Major change points in the mean minimum (night-time and mean maximum (day-time temperatures occurred in 1957 and 1967, respectively. A minor change point in the annual mean maximum temperature also occurred in 1954, which is essential agreement with the detected change in minimum temperature. The analysis showed a significant warming trend after the years 1957 and 1967 for the minimum and maximum temperatures, respectively. The analysis of maximum temperatures shows a significant warming trend after the year 1967 for the summer season with a rate of temperature increase of 0.038°C/year. The analysis of minimum temperatures shows a significant warming trend after the year 1957 for all seasons. Temperature and rainfall data from other stations in the country have been considered and showed similar changes.

  6. Molecular Evolution of Zika Virus during Its Emergence in the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iamarino, Atila; Faye, Ousmane; de Oliveira, Juliana Velasco C.; Diallo, Mawlouth; Zanotto, Paolo M. A.; Sall, Amadou Alpha

    2014-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus first isolated in Uganda in 1947. Although entomological and virologic surveillance have reported ZIKV enzootic activity in diverse countries of Africa and Asia, few human cases were reported until 2007, when a Zika fever epidemic took place in Micronesia. In the context of West Africa, the WHO Collaborating Centre for Arboviruses and Hemorrhagic Fever at Institut Pasteur of Dakar (http://www.pasteur.fr/recherche/banques/CRORA/) reports the periodic circulation of ZIKV since 1968. Despite several reports on ZIKV, the genetic relationships among viral strains from West Africa remain poorly understood. To evaluate the viral spread and its molecular epidemiology, we investigated 37 ZIKV isolates collected from 1968 to 2002 in six localities in Senegal and Côte d'Ivoire. In addition, we included strains from six other countries. Our results suggested that these two countries in West Africa experienced at least two independent introductions of ZIKV during the 20th century, and that apparently these viral lineages were not restricted by mosquito vector species. Moreover, we present evidence that ZIKV has possibly undergone recombination in nature and that a loss of the N154 glycosylation site in the envelope protein was a possible adaptive response to the Aedes dalzieli vector. PMID:24421913

  7. Ochres and earths: Matrix and chromophores characterization of 19th and 20th century artist materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagner, Cristina; Sanches, Diogo; Pedroso, Joana; Melo, Maria João; Vilarigues, Márcia

    2013-02-01

    The present paper describes the main results obtained from the characterization of a wide range of natural and synthetic ochre samples used in Portugal from the 19th to the 20th century, including powder and oil painting samples. The powder ochre samples came from several commercial distributors and from the collection of Joaquim Rodrigo (1912-1997), a leading Portuguese artist, particularly active during the sixties and seventies. The micro-samples of oil painting tubes came from the Museu Nacional de Arte Contemporânea-Museu do Chiado (National Museum of Contemporary Art-Chiado Museum) in Lisbon and were used by Columbano Bordalo Pinheiro (1857-1929), one of the most prominent naturalist Portuguese painters. These tubes were produced by the main 19th century colourmen: Winsor & Newton, Morin et Janet, Maison Merlin, and Lefranc. The samples have been studied using ?-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (?-FTIR), Raman microscopy, ?-Energy Dispersive X-ray fluorescence (?-EDXRF), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The analyzed ochres were found to be a mixture of several components: iron oxides and hydroxides in matrixes with kaolinite, gypsum and chalk. The results obtained allowed to identify and characterize the ochres according to their matrix and chromophores. The main chromophores where identified by Raman microscopy as being hematite, goethite and magnetite. The infrared analysis of the ochre samples allowed to divide them into groups, according to the composition of the matrix. It was possible to separate ochres containing kaolinite matrix and/or sulfate matrix from ochres where only iron oxides and/or hydroxides were detected. ?-EDXRF and Raman were the best techniques to identify umber, since the presence of elements such as manganese is characteristic of these pigments. ?-EDXRF also revealed the presence of significant amounts of arsenic in all Sienna tube paints.

  8. An Epistemological Approach to French Syllabi on Human Origins during the 19th and 20th Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quessada, Marie-Pierre; Clement, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    This study focuses on how human origins were taught in the French Natural Sciences syllabuses of the 19th and 20th centuries. We evaluate the interval between the publication of scientific concepts and their emergence in syllabuses, i.e., didactic transposition delay (DTD), to determine how long it took for scientific findings pertaining to our…

  9. The Akashi Kaikyo Bridge and the Storebælt Bridge : The two greatest suspension bridges of the 20th century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Niels JØrgen

    1999-01-01

    With the completion of the Akashi Kaikyo Bridge and the Storebælt East Bridge the development of the suspension bridge technology in the 20th century has manifested itself in two impressive structures. With the present echnology may bridges of similar (and also more modest) dimensions will undoubtedly be built far into the next century. For bridges going beyond the spans of existing bridges it is, however, likely that new concepts will be developed.

  10. Global drought in the 20th and 21st centuries : analysis of retrospective simulations and future projections of soil moisture

    OpenAIRE

    Sheffield, J.

    2008-01-01

    We describe the analysis of global and regional drought over the second half of the 20th century from a retrospective model simulation of the terrestrial water cycle, and projected 21st century changes using multi-scenario data from multiple climate models. A global meteorological forcing dataset is developed for 1948-2000 to drive the retrospective simulation by combining observations with reanalysis. Biases in the reanalysis precipitation, temperature and radiation are corrected for systema...

  11. See no evil, hear no evil: the rise and fall of child sexual abuse in the 20th century

    OpenAIRE

    Steven J Collings

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the development of a medical perspective on child sexual abuse during the course of the 20th century and argues that such a perspective has not served the best interests of sexually abused children. An alternate social perspective is outlined, which would appear to have the potential to adequately address the needs of sexually abused children in the 21st century. The paper concludes by arguing that, despite its merits, the social perspective is likely to be of little value...

  12. Intergenerational Educational Rank Mobility in 20th Century United States : Differences by Race and Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    BACKGROUND: Studies of educational mobility in the United States report widespread persistence in the association between parental and offspring schooling over most of the 20th century. Despite this apparent persistency, many other studies report substantial improvements in the educational performance of historically disadvantaged groups. To reconcile these diverging trends, I propose examining educational mobility in terms of percentile ranks in the respective schooling distributions of parents and offspring. Using a novel estimator of educational rank, I compare patterns of mobility in the overall schooling distribution both over time and among population groups defined by race and gender.METHODS & DATA: To analyze educational rank mobility, I use quantile transition matrices known from studies on intergenerational income mobility. However, because schooling distributions are quite lumpy, particularly around 12 and 16 years of schooling, percentile ranks of interest may not always be defined among parents or offspring (e.g., the lower or upper quartile may not be given by the data). To deal with this issue, I use a cohort-adjustment that deflates the schooling distribution in proportion to average growth in schooling. The resulting within-cohort distribution of schooling is much smoother than the original distribution and, consequently, it has well-defined percentile ranks. Using about 30,000 parent-offspring pairs in the General Social Surveys, I study quartile-by-quartile matrices for individuals born 1903 through 1980.RESULTS: My analyses yield two key results. First, I find widespread equalization among groups in upward mobility: Among those born before Second World War, Whites are significantly more likely than are Blacks to be upwardly mobile out of the lower quartile of the schooling distribution (about 18 percentage points), but among those born after the War, the gap disappears. Second, I find widespread persistency among groups in downward mobility: Blacks are significantly more likely than are Whites to transition out of the upper quartile of the schooling distribution (about 18 percentage points), and this gap is virtually unchanged between cohorts born over the 20th century. Further analyses show that these differences in mobility with respect to the overall distribution of schooling cannot be explained by differences in the intergenerational transmission of schooling between Blacks and Whites, but rather by the fact that these groups regress to very different means.IMPLICATIONS: My study has at least two implications. First and most importantly, I can compare my estimates to corresponding estimates reported in studies of intergenerational income mobility. These studies show that for cohorts born after the War, Blacks have a much smaller probability of upward income mobility than do Whites. This would suggest that the equalization in upward educational mobility reported in my study has not brought about similar equalization in upward income mobility. Second, my study offers a generalized way to compare nonlinearities and group differences in educational mobility relevant to comparative research across countries.

  13. Climatic and meteorological effects of land use changes in Hungary during the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drüszler, Áron; Vig, Péter; Csirmaz, Kálmán.

    2010-05-01

    The final aim of the climate research is to create correct forecasts of the changing climate for the future. For this reason we have to identify the individual processes which can influence our climate. Knowing the different climate forcing processes and evaluating the effects of their changes can help to achieve this goal. Potential effects of land use changes on the surface albedo and the evapotranspiration are considerable. The land use changes were significant in Hungary in the 20th century according to the database of the Hungarian Central Statistical Office, and different historical maps. Climatic effects of these land cover changes are further evaluated using the MM5 non-hydrostatic dynamical model. The lower boundary conditions are generated for two selected time period, i.e. about 1900 and 2000. The dynamical model has been run with the same detailed meteorological conditions of selected days from 2006 and 2007, but with modified lower boundary conditions. The set of the 26 selected initial conditions represents the whole set of the macrosynoptic situations (Peczely, 1983) for Hungary. In this way, 2x26 forecasts are performed with 48 hours of integration in each case. The effects of land use change under the different weather situations are further weighted by the long-term (1961-1990) mean frequency of the corresponding macrosynoptic types, to assume the climatic effect by these stratified averages. According to the comparisons, climatic effects of the land use changes on the near-surface meteorological variables were not negligible during the surveyed 100 years. In nation-wide average, they caused +0.14 ± 0.5 K temperature rise and 0.17 ± 5 K increase in the dew point depression during the vegetation period, depending on the weather situation. In the selected vertically unstable cases, the land cover differences could significantly perturb the convective precipitation patterns and the area mean as well.

  14. Meteorological Effects of Land Cover Changes in Hungary during the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drüszler, Á.; Vig, P.; Csirmaz, K.

    2012-04-01

    Geological, paleontological and geomorphologic studies show that the Earth's climate has always been changing since it came into existence. The climate change itself is self-evident. Therefore the far more serious question is how much does mankind strengthen or weaken these changes beyond the natural fluctuation and changes of climate. The aim of the present study was to restore the historical land cover changes and to simulate the meteorological consequences of these changes. Two different land cover maps for Hungary were created in vector data format using GIS technology. The land cover map for 1900 was reconstructed based on statistical data and two different historical maps: the derived map of the 3rd Military Mapping Survey of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the Synoptic Forestry Map of the Kingdom of Hungary. The land cover map for 2000 was derived from the CORINE land cover database. Significant land cover changes were found in Hungary during the 20th century according to the examinations of these maps and statistical databases. The MM5 non-hydrostatic dynamic model was used to further evaluate the meteorological effects of these changes. The lower boundary conditions for this mesoscale model were generated for two selected time periods (for 1900 and 2000) based on the reconstructed maps. The dynamic model has been run with the same detailed meteorological conditions of selected days from 2006 and 2007, but with modified lower boundary conditions. The set of the 26 selected initial conditions represents the whole set of the macrosynoptic situations for Hungary. In this way, 2×26 "forecasts" were made with 48 hours of integration. The effects of land cover changes under different weather situations were further weighted by the long-term (1961-1990) mean frequency of the corresponding macrosynoptic types, to assume the climatic effects from these stratified averages. The detailed evaluation of the model results were made for three different meteorological variables (temperature, dew point and precipitation).

  15. Extreme precipitation in the Polish Carpathians in the 20th century in the context of last 500 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limanowka, Danuta; Cebulak, Elzbieta; Pyrc, Robert

    2010-05-01

    Extreme weather phenomena together with their exceptional course and intensity have always been dangerous for people. In the historical documents such phenomena were marked as basic disasters. First notes about weather phenomena were made in Polish lands in the 10th century. Most information concerns floods caused by intensive rains. Using the data base created within the Millennium project, extreme precipitation cases exceeding 100 mm were analysed. In each case, the intensive precipitation was followed by a summer flood in the Polish Carpathians in the Upper Vistula River basin. Data from the period of instrumental measurements in the 20th century were studied in detail by the analysis of the frequency of occurrence and the spatial and temporal distribution. The results were referred to last 500 years. The information obtained gives approximate image of extreme precipitation in the historical times in Polish lands. All available multi-proxy data were used. Newspapers' notes concerning described phenomena from 1848-1850 published in Kraków were used to complete and verify the quality of data from the early instrumental period and also to complete the data from the period of the Second World War.

  16. Global reconstructed daily storm surge levels from the 20th century reanalysis (1871-2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid, Alba; Camus, Paula; Castanedo, Sonia; Mendez, Fernando; Medina, Raul

    2015-04-01

    The study of global patterns of wind and pressure gradients, and more specifically, their effect on the sea level variation (storm surge), is a key issue in the understanding of recent climate changes. The local effect of storm surges on coastal areas (zones particularly vulnerable to climate variability and changes in sea level), is also of great interest in, for instance, flooding risk assessment. Studying the spatial and temporal variability of storm surges from observations is a difficult task to accomplish since observations are not homogeneous in time and scarce in space, and moreover, their temporal coverage is limited. The development of a global storm surge database (DAC, Dynamic Atmospheric Correction by Aviso, Carrère and Lyard, 2003) fulfils the lack of data in terms of spatial coverage, but not regarding time extent since it only includes last couple of decades (1992-2014). In this work, we propose the use of the 20CR ensemble (Compo et al., 2011) which spans from 1871 to 2010 to statistically reconstruct storm surge at a global scale and for a long period of time. Therefore, the temporal and spatial variability of storm surges can be fully studied and with much less effort than performing a dynamical downscaling. The statistical method chosen to carry out the reconstruction is based on multiple linear regression between an atmospheric predictor and the storm surge level at daily scale (Camus et al., 2014). The linear regression model is calibrated and validated using daily mean sea level pressure fields (and gradients) from the ERA-interim reanalysis and daily maxima surges from DAC. The obtained daily database of maximum daily surges has allowed us to estimate global trends at a centennial scale and analyse the effect of the changing climate on storm surges during the 20th century. Hence, this work improves the knowledge on historical storm-surge conditions and provides helpful information to the community concern on marine climate evolution and coastal impacts. Camus, P., Méndez, F.J., Losada, I.J., Menéndez, M., Espejo, A., Pérez, A., Rueda, A., Guanche, Y. (2014). A method for finding the optimal predictor indices for local wave climate conditions. Ocean Dynamics, 64 (7), 1025-1038, doi: 10.1007/s10236-014-0737-2. Carrère, L., Lyard, F. (2003). Modeling the barotropic response of the global ocean atmospheric wind and pressure forcing - comparisons with observations. Geophysical Research Letters, 30 (6), 1275. Compo, G. P., et al. (2011). The Twentieth century reanalysis project, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 137, 1-28, doi:10.1002/qj.776.

  17. Disastrous floods and landslides in Portugal in the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaresma, Ivânia; Zêzere, José Luis

    2010-05-01

    The record and analysis of statistical information on disaster occurrence, impacts and losses have been made worldwide in recent years. The development of natural disasters databases is crucial for risk management purposes, because it allows improving systems of indicators on disaster risk and vulnerability at national and sub-national scales. During the last century, Portugal was affected by several destructive natural disasters, namely of hydrologic (floods) and geomorphologic (landslides) origin. However, only recently risk prevention and management was assumed to be a national priority by the Portuguese Government. The basic information on past floods and landslides that occurred in Portugal is disperse and incomplete, and this is a shortcoming for the implementation of effective disaster mitigation measures, particularly when it is expectable an increase of frequency, magnitude, dimension and complexity of the hydro-geomorphologic phenomena resulting from climate change. In this work we present a preliminary assessment of hydro-geomorphologic disasters occurred in Portugal during the 20th century, based on the systematic survey of daily national newspapers. We included into a database those floods and landslides that produced, alternatively, dead people, injured people, missing people, evacuated and homeless. A total of 937 hydro-geomorphologic events were registered. In addition to physical and material damages, these events produced economic losses amounting to millions Euros. Our attention will focus on the geographic distribution and the temporal dimension of disastrous floods and landslides occurred in Portugal, and the temporal trends of hydro-geomorphologic disasters will be presented. The preliminary results shown that disastrous floods and landslides have been more frequent on the most populated regions of Portugal: the metropolitan areas of Lisbon and Oporto. In addition, data shows that disastrous hydrologic and geomorphologic phenomena were more frequent from 1940 to 1970, and there is no evidence of a clear increment in time both in the number of disastrous events and the number of associated death people. Finally, we assess the societal risk regarding landslides and floods in Portugal through the construction of F-N curves.

  18. AN ANALYSIS OF THE DIFFERENTIATION STRATEGIES OF RURAL FOUNDRIES IN THE BEGINNING OF THE 20TH CENTURY IN THE PROVINCE OF QUEBEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Baillargeon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The business model and strategic position of Quebec's rural foundries at the beginning of the 20th century is virtually unknown. Inferences have been made based on pictorial and oral data sources. This data reveals that successful rural foundries were, in essence, confined to producing and selling agricultural tools to local farmers on an as-needed basis, because large urban foundries were already mass-producing domestic and industrial objects. In contrast, use of detailed accounting records and advertising publications of three rural foundries over the 1900 to 1914 period provides a clearer picture of the production and of the clientele of those rural foundries. Analysis of these sources suggests that the strategic business model of rural foundries was much more elaborate than the existing literature posits. Rural owner-managers of the early 20th century were sophisticated strategists, marketers, and operators.

  19. The reversal of the relation between economic growth and health progress: Sweden in the 19th and 20th centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia Granados, José A; Ionides, Edward L

    2008-05-01

    Health progress, as measured by the decline in mortality rates and the increase in life expectancy, is usually conceived as related to economic growth, especially in the long run. In this investigation it is shown that economic growth is positively associated with health progress in Sweden throughout the 19th century. However, the relation becomes weaker as time passes and is completely reversed in the second half of the 20th century, when economic growth negatively affects health progress. The effect of the economy on health occurs mostly at lag 0 in the 19th century and is lagged up to 2 years in the 20th century. No evidence is found for economic effects on mortality at greater lags. These findings are shown to be robustly consistent across a variety of statistical procedures, including linear regression, spectral analysis, cross-correlation, and lag regression models. Models using inflation and unemployment as economic indicators reveal similar results. Evidence for reverse effects of health progress on economic growth is weak, and unobservable in the second half of the 20th century. PMID:18249452

  20. Final Scientific Report for "The Interhemispheric Pattern in 20th Century and Future Abrupt Change in Regional Tropical Rainfall"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, John C. H. [University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Wehner, Michael F. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-10-29

    This is the final scientific report for grant DOE-FG02-08ER64588, "The Interhemispheric Pattern in 20th Century and Future Abrupt Change in Regional Tropical Rainfall."The project investigates the role of the interhemispheric pattern in surface temperature – i.e. the contrast between the northern and southern temperature changes – in driving rapid changes to tropical rainfall changes over the 20th century and future climates. Previous observational and modeling studies have shown that the tropical rainband – the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) over marine regions, and the summer monsoonal rainfall over land – are sensitive to the interhemispheric thermal contrast; but that the link between the two has not been applied to interpreting long-term tropical rainfall changes over the 20th century and future.The specific goals of the project were to i) develop dynamical mechanisms to explain the link between the interhemispheric pattern to abrupt changes of West African and Asian monsoonal rainfall; ii) Undertake a formal detection and attribution study on the interhemispheric pattern in 20th century climate; and iii) assess the likelihood of changes to this pattern in the future. In line with these goals, our project has produced the following significant results: 1.We have developed a case that suggests that the well-known abrupt weakening of the West African monsoon in the late 1960s was part of a wider co-ordinated weakening of the West African and Asian monsoons, and driven from an abrupt cooling in the high latitude North Atlantic sea surface temperature at the same time. Our modeling work suggests that the high-latitude North Atlantic cooling is effective in driving monsoonal weakening, through driving a cooling of the Northern hemisphere that is amplified by positive radiative feedbacks. 2.We have shown that anthropogenic sulfate aerosols may have partially contributed to driving a progressively southward displacement of the Atlantic Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) over the course of the 20th century prior to the 1980s. This is based on our detection and attribution analysis of 20th century simulations done by international modeling groups as part of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 (CMIP3). We repeated the same analysis with the current CMIP5 multimodel simulations, with essentially similar results. 3.Future projections of the global interhemispheric thermal gradient suggest a pronounced trend that well exceeds the 20th century range of behavior. The major cause of this trend is due to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, acting in such a way as to warm the North more than the South. This result is based on our analysis of the CMIP3 and 5 simulations of future scenarios. The underlying suggestion is that tropical rainfall may concentrate more northwards in the future climate, though further research is required to more firmly establish that result.Taken together, our results shows the important role of the interhemispheric thermal gradient in determining tropical rainfall changes in the 20th century and future. Our analysis specifically highlights high-latitude North Atlantic sea surface temperature, and anthropogenic sulfate aerosols, as important drivers of the interhemispheric gradient over the 20th century; and anthropogenic greenhouse gases in the 21st. The PI has written a review paper in order to promote the awareness of the interhemispheric gradient amongst the climate science community.Our project was instrumental in developing the career of a postdoctoral scholar, as well as contributing to the research training of three Ph.D. candidates.

  1. Evaluation for sustainable agriculture water use from River, Reservoirs and Groundwater in the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, S.; Yamada, H.; Hanasaki, N.; Kanae, S.

    2011-12-01

    High water stress due to economic growth and climate change (ex. global warming) will be falling into 2 billion people to 4 billion people in the future. Agricultural water use accounting for about 70% of global water consumption might continue to increase due to production of foods and biofuels occurred by population growth in the future. In particular, water demand, food and biofuel production have an inextricable link. It is very important to evaluate these relationship for sustainable water use from past to the future. In this study, we focused on the objective to assess the impact of water withdrawal from various sources (stream flow, medium-sized reservoirs and nonrenewable nonlocal blue water) in the 20th century by considering irrigation area and climate change. Irrigation water withdrawal is the most important water use sector accounting for about 90% of total water withdrawal. First, we make the global spatial database of equipped irrigation area change and medium-sized reservoirs capacity. Then, water withdrawal from each sources for 50 years from 1950 to 2000 were simulated in global-scale at a resolution of 1.0 degree x 1.0 degree using an integrated global water resources model (hereafter, the H08 model). The H08 model can simulate both natural or anthropogenic water flow and anthropogenic water withdrawals. For comparison with our results, distribution of agricultural, industrial and domestic water withdrawals from 1950 to 2000 were estimated by distributing the country-based withdrawal data from AQUASTAT with irrigation area, urban population and total population, respectively. Groundwater withdrawal was then estimated by distributing the country-based withdrawal data based on statistical data from WRI, IGRAC and AQUASTAT with the total water withdrawal. As a result, agricultural water withdrawal change from nonrenewable nonlocal blue water during the past 50 years agreed well with the observed groundwater abstraction based on statistical data. In addition, many of the well-known hot spots of groundwater depletion (northeast Pakistan, northeast China, the Ogallala Aquifer, Iran and southeast Spain) appeared in spatial distribution of the change. In conclusion, this study was successful in simulations of global water withdrawals change from nonrenewable nonlocal blue water during the past 50 years using by the H08 model consisting of physical based hydrology. If irrigation areas continue to increasing, groundwater depletion might become more serious.

  2. Enhanced 20th century heat transfer to the Arctic simulated in the context of climate variations over the last millennium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Jungclaus

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Oceanic heat transport variations, carried by the northward flowing Atlantic Water, strongly influence Arctic sea-ice distribution, ocean–atmosphere exchanges, and pan-Arctic temperatures. Paleoceanographic reconstructions from marine sediments near Fram Strait have documented a dramatic increase in Atlantic Water temperatures over the 20th century, unprecedented in the last millennium. Here we present results from Earth system model simulations over the last millennium that reproduce and explain reconstructed integrated quantities such as pan-Arctic temperature evolution during the pre-industrial millennium as well as the exceptional Atlantic Water warming in Fram Strait in the 20th century. The associated increase in ocean heat transfer to the Arctic can be traced back to changes in the ocean circulation in the sub-polar North Atlantic. An interplay between a weakening overturning circulation and a strengthening sub-polar gyre as a consequence of 20th century global warming is identified as driving mechanism for the pronounced warming along the Atlantic Water path toward the Arctic. Simulations covering the late Holocene provide a reference frame that allows us to conclude that the changes during the last century are unprecedented in the last 1150 years and that they cannot be explained by internal variability or natural forcing alone.

  3. Agrarian Peasant Question as a Reflection of Ukrainian Parties Ideology at the Beginning of the 20th Century: Historiographic Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmytro Kudinov

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The keenness and acuity of the agrarian and peasant question, which should be conceived as conscious problem of land scarcity, legal status of peasant social stratum, of peasant agrarians and peasant labourers made political parties at the beginning of the 20th century to work out their visions of crisis situation overcoming in the countryside. The necessity to be armed with own opinion on this matter concerned both Russian and national parties in the Russian Empire. The author suggests reviewing agrarian concepts of various parties as the measure of their referring to either to left wing or liberal political parties. Such concept statement is investigated in frames of historiographic discourse with involvement of original documents, which permits to make sense of the stated issue. The participants of the historiographic dialogue are mostly represented by contemporary scientists, who study the agrarian components of Ukrainian parties platforms at the beginning of the 20th century.

  4. Business and politics in early 20th century Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Kimura, Masato; von Staden, Peter

    2002-01-01

    The paper by Masato Kimura seeks to clarify the contributions and limitations of Japanese business diplomacy by looking at the business mission to Britain and the US in 1921-22, and the Japanese Economic Mission to Europe and the United States of 1937. The paper argues that Japanese business diplomacy, while of significance particularly in building up international human networks, was insufficiently influential to prevent political and military conflict. Peter von Staden's paper focuses on th...

  5. Ice core evidence for a 20th century decline in sea ice in the Bellingshausen Sea, Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    Abram, Nerilie J.; Thomas, Elizabeth R; McConnell, Joseph R.; Mulvaney, Robert; Bracegirdle, Thomas J.; Sime, Louise C.; Aristarain, Alberto J.

    2010-01-01

    This study uses ice core methanesulphonic acid (MSA) records from the Antarctic Peninsula, where temperatures have been warming faster than anywhere else in the Southern Hemisphere, to reconstruct the 20th century history of sea ice change in the adjacent Bellingshausen Sea. Using satellite-derived sea ice and meteorological data, we show that ice core MSA records from this region are a reliable proxy for regional sea ice change, with years of increased winter sea ice extent recorded by incre...

  6. Lessons Learned and Present Day Challenges of Addressing 20th Century Radiation Legacies of Russia and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decommissioning of nuclear submarines, disposal of highly-enriched uranium and weapons-grade plutonium, and processing of high-level radioactive wastes represent the most challenging issues facing the cleanup of 20th century radiation legacy wastes and facilities. The US and Russia are the two primary countries dealing with these challenges, because most of the world's fissile inventory is being processed and stored at multiple industrial sites and nuclear weapons production facilities in these countries

  7. Are infant mortality rate declines exponential? The general pattern of 20th century infant mortality rate decline

    OpenAIRE

    Opuni Marjorie; Bishai David

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Time trends in infant mortality for the 20th century show a curvilinear pattern that most demographers have assumed to be approximately exponential. Virtually all cross-country comparisons and time series analyses of infant mortality have studied the logarithm of infant mortality to account for the curvilinear time trend. However, there is no evidence that the log transform is the best fit for infant mortality time trends. Methods We use maximum likelihood methods to deter...

  8. Racial attitudes of the mid 20th century Britain as reflected in "Ten Little Niggers" by Agatha Christie

    OpenAIRE

    Neffová, Lucie

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor thesis is to analyse racial attitudes of the mid 20th century Britain as they are reflected in the novel Ten Little Niggers by Agatha Christie. Firstly, the theoretical part deals with historical development of race and racism, particularly in Britain, and focuses on historical periods, which were crucial for evolving racial and ethnic attitudes such as slavery, colonization or immigration. Further, the field of cultural studies is introduced as an approach to an anal...

  9. Enhanced 20th century heat transfer to the Arctic simulated in the context of climate variations over the last millennium

    OpenAIRE

    J. H. Jungclaus; Lohmann, K.; Zanchettin, D.

    2014-01-01

    Oceanic heat transport variations, carried by the northward flowing Atlantic Water, strongly influence Arctic sea-ice distribution, ocean–atmosphere exchanges, and pan-Arctic temperatures. Paleoceanographic reconstructions from marine sediments near Fram Strait have documented a dramatic increase in Atlantic Water temperatures over the 20th century, unprecedented in the last millennium. Here we present results from Earth system model simulations over the last millenni...

  10. Continuity or not? : Family farming and agricultural transformation in 20th century Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Jörgensen, Hans

    2004-01-01

    This doctoral thesis explores the agrarian development in 20th Estonia and the role of family farming during three major agricultural transformations. It consists of four papers and an introductory chapter for which the common departure are the situation appearing in the Estonian farming landscape after the regained independence in 1991. The first three studies analyse comparative aspects on Estonia's interwar experiences with focus on land reform, agricultural co-operation, and agricultural ...

  11. See no evil, hear no evil: the rise and fall of child sexual abuse in the 20th century

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Steven J, Collings.

    Full Text Available This paper examines the development of a medical perspective on child sexual abuse during the course of the 20th century and argues that such a perspective has not served the best interests of sexually abused children. An alternate social perspective is outlined, which would appear to have the poten [...] tial to adequately address the needs of sexually abused children in the 21st century. The paper concludes by arguing that, despite its merits, the social perspective is likely to be of little value unless we can learn to more effectively see and hear the voices of child survivors.

  12. See no evil, hear no evil: the rise and fall of child sexual abuse in the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J Collings

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the development of a medical perspective on child sexual abuse during the course of the 20th century and argues that such a perspective has not served the best interests of sexually abused children. An alternate social perspective is outlined, which would appear to have the potential to adequately address the needs of sexually abused children in the 21st century. The paper concludes by arguing that, despite its merits, the social perspective is likely to be of little value unless we can learn to more effectively see and hear the voices of child survivors.

  13. A representação da deficiência em livros infantis: séculos XIX e XX / The representation of disability in children's literature: 19th and 20th centuries

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ann, Dowker.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo analisa a representação de personagens deficientes em livros britânicos e norte-americanos do século XIX ao início do século XXI. São analisados tanto os assim chamados clássicos infantis quanto livros fora de edição ou não tão disponíveis. Uma das conclusões é que a representação [...] de personagens deficientes geralmente é mais complexa e variada nos livros mais antigos. Além disso, segundo a visão de muitos autores do século XIX e início do século XX, é necessário aceitar infortúnios como uma forma de obediência a Deus, mas também porque, em última análise, eles são considerados um bem. Portanto, em muitos livros, a deficiência e sua cura, quando ocorre, estão associadas com o caráter. Abstract in english This article examines the treatment of disabled characters in British and North-American children's classics and in books that are out-of-print or less available to children from the 19th century to early 20th century. One of the main findings of this article is that the treatment of disabled charac [...] ters is often more complex and varied in the latter than in the former. Moreover, the prevailing view of many 19th century and some early 20th century authors was that one should submit to misfortunes, both as a form of obedience to God's will, and because these seeming misfortunes are ultimately intended for one's own good. Therefore, in many books, disability, where it occurs, and its cure are associated with character.

  14. PHOTOGRAPHY AND MODERNIZATION OF THE PRESS IN BRAZILIAN CAPITAL: The First Fifty Years of the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Louzada

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The process which created the conditions for the development of
    mass media press in Brazil was consolidated in the first half of the 20th Century with the emergence of newspaper companies based on an industrial form of production, the modernization of the writing style and design, plus the use of photography as a newsy element. There was a strong investment in technology in order to modernize the nation and photography, as a technical image par excellence, started to portray the acceleration of the passage of time that was accentuated by the 1890’s. In the beginning of the 20th century a new technological trend occurred mediated by the photographic apparatus and diffused through the newspaper and illustrated magazines pages that were multiplying in the nation’s capital, Rio de Janeiro1. The press used photography and a series of technological artifacts to acquire the status of a modern entity and multiply the number of readers, changing its forms of production and its auto-referential discourse, starting to be more and more the icon of modernity. The technologies capable of giving a wider dimension to the concept of time and space were decisive in shaping the new symbolic world which emerged since the turn of the century. The world got closer and more visible, the perception of the “other” changed gradually and temporality took on a new dimension. This article traces a panorama of the use of photography by the main newspapers published in the capital of Brazil in the first half of the 20th century, seeking in photography the reflection of the modernizing process that Brazilian society desired and underwent.

  15. Methodological disputes about interpretation of neum notation in the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peno Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Until the end of the twentieth century in Byzantine musicological science there were two diametrically opposite approaches to the interpretation of the Byzantine neum notation systems and post-Byzantine music heritage after the Fall of Constantinople. Western European scholars, ignoring the post-Byzantine Chant tradition and the last semeography reform from the early nineteenth century, looked at the problems of the musical past only from the perspective of the Middle Ages. Greek researchers have shared the belief that the condition of an adequate understanding of the mid-Byzantine notation, or the so-called old method, is the knowledge of analytical neum system and theory, the basics of which were set up by musicians from the end of the seventeenth and during the eighteenth century, and were finally shaped by Chrisantos, Gregory and Chourmouzios and officially accepted in the Greek church in 1814. The path to overcoming the issues relating to the development of neum notation, and finding an adequate manner of decoding it, led through the understanding of the phenomenon of "interpretation" and other tendencies that marked the post-Byzantine music practice. Two scientists -the Danish Jørgen Raasted, a follower of the Western European musicological methods established by founders of Monumenta Musicae Byzantinae, and Greek theologist and musicologist Gregory Stathes - are specifically responsible for the reconciliation of the different methodological approaches. After numerous and often heated debates, the Danish scientist eventually largely accepted the views of his Greek counterpart. Moreover, he himself insisted, at the musicological conferences organized during the 1980s, on reviewing the controversial issues: the existence of chromatic intervals in the psalmody of the Middle-Ages, the problem of syllabic and melismatic interpretations of stenographic neum records, and so on. Concerning the above mentioned issues, the contemporary trends in Byzantine musicology are presented in the conclusion of the paper. It is worth noting that the most influential scholars nowadays follow “a middle path”, the distinction between the once exclusive Western option and the no less “hard” Greek traditional option. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177004: Identiteti srpske muzike od lokalnih do globalnih okvira: tradicije, promene, izazovi

  16. Adriatic and Black Sea level in the 20th century and projection to the end of the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarascia, Luca; Lionello, Piero

    2015-04-01

    Adriatic and Black Sea are semi-enclosed basins characterized by densely populated coasts, industrial compounds and a rich cultural and historical heritage. It appears to be crucial, for the management and the protection of their coastlines, to understand how much they will be impacted by the global sea level (SL) rise, projected by the end of this century. The aim of this work is to develop a method that allows to estimate to which extent the SL of the two basins will depart from the mean global level. The future evolution of global sea level is not a meaningful indicator at this regional scale and past deviations, due to local factors of the Adriatic and Black Sea levels from the global one, have been observed. The Adriatic Sea is the basin of the Mediterranean Sea best covered by past SL observations. In fact, for the Adriatic Sea is possible to obtain, by statistical method based on PCA and Least square Method, a seamless and long time series (from 1900 to 2009) using records of 7 mareographic stations located along the Italian and Croatian coasts (from PSMSL database). Satellite data of SL are available for the whole Mediterranean from 1993 to 2012 and they show a very high correlation (rho > 0.9) with Adriatic time series based on mareographic records. The SL time series of the 20th century in the Black Sea is computed using data of 4 stations, which are available in the PSMSL (Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level) archive, located on the north-east coast. This time series shows a lower correlation (rho about 0.5) with satellite data than in the case of Adriatic Sea. Further it shows a higher interannual variability. All the time series are considered after the subtraction of the Inverse Barometer (IB) effect. A statistical approach, based on a multivariate linear regression model, is used to investigate the link between SL anomaly, computed as the difference between the regional SL and global SL, and three large scale climate variables (sea level pressure, air temperature and precipitation). The linear model at a monthly scale provides a good reconstruction of the past variability in the case of Adriatic sea, but presenting substantial differences in the reconstruction skill between cold and warm seasons. Reconstruction is substantially worse for Black Sea. Always the main factor reproducing the signal variability is represented by the mean sea level pressure. The model forced by predictors extracted from CMIP5 multi-model simulations, finally provides the projections of SL anomaly until 2100. This study is part of the activities of RISES-AM project (FP7-EU-603396).

  17. Croatian Chemistry in the 20th Century. III. From the Establishment of the Republic of Croatia on June 25th, 1991 to the End of the Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trinajsti?, N:

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this last part of our attempt to present briefly the history of Croatian chemistry in the 20th century, the development of chemistry in the Republic of Croatia, established as an independent state on June 25th, 1991 is outlined. The last 10 years of the 20th century are characterized first by defense of the country by arms until 1995, and then until the end of century, and after the constructive building of the foundations of Croatia. In these turbulent times, scientists could not be just bystanders. Thus, some went to defend the country by arms and others (perhaps older kept informing colleagues all around the globe about our defense of the homeland. This was the reason why scientific research in Croatia showed very limited results. This article briefly describes research in chemistry at the Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, the Rugjer Boškovi? Institute, Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agronomy and Faculty of Forestry. This article logically follows our previous two articles on the history of Croatian chemistry in 20th century: N. Trinajsti?, S. Paušek-Baždar, Croatian Chemistry in the 20th Century. I. From the turn of the Century to May 8th , 1945 (Kem. Ind. 56 (2007 403–416 and N. Trinajsti?, M. Kaštelan-Macan, S. Paušek-Baždar, H. Van?ik, Croatian Chemistry in the 20th Century. II. From the Colapse of the Independent State of Croatia to the Establishmernt of the Republic of Croatia, (Kem. Ind. 58 (2009 315–336. It is also related to our article on the history of Croatian chemistry in 19th century: S. Paušek-Baždar, N. Trinajsti?, Croatian Chemistry in the 19th Century (Kem. Ind. 55 (2006 333–339 and our survey of the Croatian chemical journals: N. Trinajsti?, N. Raos, S. Paušek-Baždar, D. Škare, Croatian Chemistry in 20th Century. IV. Croatian Chemical Journals (Kem. Ind. 57 (2008 447–448.

  18. North Atlantic 20th century multidecadal variability in coupled climate models: sea surface temperature and ocean overturning circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Medhaug

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Output from a total of 24 state-of-the-art Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models is analyzed. The models were integrated with observed forcing for the period 1850–2000 as part of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC Fourth Assessment Report. All models show enhanced variability at multi-decadal time scales in the North Atlantic sector similar to the observations, but with a large intermodel spread in amplitudes and frequencies for both the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO and the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC. The models, in general, are able to reproduce the observed geographical patterns of warm and cold episodes, but not the phasing such as the early warming (1930s–1950s and the following colder period (1960s–1980s. This indicates that the observed 20th century extreme in temperatures are due to primarily a fortuitous phasing of intrinsic climate variability and not dominated by external forcing. Most models show a realistic structure in the overturning circulation, where more than half of the available models have a mean overturning transport within the observed estimated range of 13–24 Sverdrup. Associated with a stronger than normal AMOC, the surface temperature is increased and the sea ice extent slightly reduced in the North Atlantic. Individual models show potential for decadal prediction based on the relationship between the AMO and AMOC, but the models strongly disagree both in phasing and strength of the covariability. This makes it difficult to identify common mechanisms and to assess the applicability for predictions.

  19. [The construction of a medical discipline and its challenges: Orthopedics in Switzerland during the 19th and 20th centuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaba, Mariama

    2015-07-01

    During the 19th century, numerous figures, with different qualifications, claimed to practice orthopedics: doctors, surgeons, inventors of equipment and instruments, and other empiricists. They performed certain types of techniques, massages, surgical operationsand/or fitted prostheses. The polysemous notion of orthopedics had created conflicts of interest that would reach their height at the end of the 19th century. The integration of orthopedics into the training at the university level enhanced its proximity to surgery, a discipline that has dominated the so-called modern medicine. During the 20th century, various medical branches defend the legitimacy of certain orthopedic practices, thereby threating to a degree the title itself of this specialization. By examining the challenges that have shaped the history of orthopedics in Switzerland, this article also seeks to shed light on the strategies that were implemented in adopting a medical and technical discipline within a transforming society. PMID:26111839

  20. Jeewanu, or the `particles of life’ The approach of Krishna Bahadur in 20th century origin of life research

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mathias Grote

    2011-09-01

    Starting in the 1960s, the Indian chemist Krishna Bahadur, from the University of Allahabad, published on organic and inorganic particles that he had synthesized and baptized `Jeewanu’, or `particle of life’. Bahadur conceived of the Jeewanu as a simple form of the living. These studies are presented in a historical perspective and positioned within mid-20th century research on the origin of life, notably the so-called `coacervate theory’ of the Soviet biochemist Aleksandr I Oparin. The concepts of life proposed by Bahadur, Oparin and others are discussed from a historical standpoint.

  1. PHOTOGRAPHY AND MODERNIZATION OF THE PRESS IN BRAZILIAN CAPITAL: The First Fifty Years of the 20th Century

    OpenAIRE

    Silvana Louzada

    2011-01-01

    The process which created the conditions for the development of
    mass media press in Brazil was consolidated in the first half of the 20th Century with the emergence of newspaper companies based on an industrial form of production, the modernization of the writing style and design, plus the use of photography as a newsy element. There was a strong investment in technology in order to modernize the nation and photography, as a technical image par excellence, started to portray the ac...

  2. Mapping the refugeeâ??s settlements in Thessaloniki during the first thirty years of the 20th Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savvaidis, P.

    2013-01-01

    During the Balkan wars and particularly after the national disaster of Asia Minor, Thessaloniki had to lodge many tenths of thousands of refugees. Then the town authorities created settlements for their hosting. These settlements were rapidly transformed to urban quarters of the town leading to an extension of the town to any direction, particularly to the NW and SE directions without any urban planning. These settlements and later on urban quarters were mapped in different Charts of the town during the 20th Century. The study of these maps is the subject of this paper.(in Greeks)

  3. [A pragmatic alliance. Jewisch-Lithuanian political cooperation at the beginning of the 20th century. Hrsg. von Vladas Sirutavi?ius, Darius Stali?nas] / Karsten Brüggemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brüggemann, Karsten, 1965-

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: A pragmatic alliance. Jewisch-Lithuanian political cooperation at the beginning of the 20th century. Hrsg. von Vladas Sirutavi?ius und Darius Stali?nas. Verlag CEU Press. Budapest und New York, 2011

  4. Changes in the geodiversity of Dutch peatlands inferred from 19th and 20th century landscape paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungerius, Pieter Dirk; van den Ancker, Hanneke; Wevers, Nina

    2013-04-01

    Geodiversity is the natural and cultural range of geological, geomorphological and soil features. We analysed the large database of 19th and early 20th century paintings of Simonis and Buunk (www.Simonis-Buunk.com) to track changes in the geodiversity of Dutch peatlands since pre-photographic times. Peat dominated in two of the eight main landscapes of the Netherlands: the Lowland peats in the Holocene west and the Highland peats in the sandy Pleistocene eastern parts. Painters were mainly attracted by the lowland peats. Since more than thousand years, peat plays a major role in Dutch military security, economy, ecology and cultural life. Natural variety and cultural use resulted in a geodiversity that is unique in Europe. There are more than 100 place names with 'veen' (= peat), and surnames with 'veen' are common. Proof of the exploitation of peat for salt and fuel exists from the Roman times onwards. In the 9th century, peatlands were drained and reclaimed for growing wheat. Already in the 11th century, it was necessary to build dikes to prevent flooding, to control waterlevels to avoid further oxidation, and to convert landuse to grassland. But subsidence continued, and in the 14th century windmills were needed to drain the lands and pump the water out. In the 16th century industrial peat exploitation fuelled the rise of industries and cities. All this draining and digging caused the peat surface to shrink. The few remaining living peats are conserved by nature organisations. Geodiversity and landscape paintings In the peat landscapes, popular painting motives were high water levels, the grasslands of the 'Green Heart', the winding streams and remaining lakes. The paintings of landscapes where peat had been removed, show watermanagement adaptations: wind mills, different water levels, canals made for the transport of fuel, bridges, tow paths and the 'plassen', i.e. the lakes left after peat exploitation. The droogmakerijen (reclaimed lakes), now 2 to 5 m below sealevel, were less inspiring. Examples of geodiversity changes illustrated by the landscape paintings • Peat extraction stopped • Land use changed e.g. the deforestation of the 'Bovenlanden' • Erosion by waves and boats caused the collapse of peat islands in the artificial lakes • Peat polders of the Green Heart were sacrificed for building projects • 90% of the original wind mills were replaced by electrical and motor pumps • Horse traction was replaced by motor vehicles, which made tow paths and high wooden bridges redundant. • Dam burst risk increased and skating scenes disappeared with climate change, References Jungerius, P.D., 2010. Sea level rise and the response of the Dutch people - Adaptive strategies based on geomorphologic principles give sustainable solutions. In: Martini I.P.& Chesworth, W.(eds.) Landscapes and Societies. Springer Verlag.

  5. SAFARI 2000 Monthly Climatology for the 20th Century (New et al.)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is a data set of mean monthly surface climate data over Southern Africa for nearly all of the twentieth century. The data set is gridded at 0.5-degree...

  6. SAFARI 2000 Monthly Climatology for the 20th Century (New et al.)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This is a data set of mean monthly surface climate data over Southern Africa for nearly all of the twentieth century. The data set is gridded at...

  7. French engineers and social thought, 18–20th centuries: An archeology of technocratic ideals.

    OpenAIRE

    Picon, Antoine

    2007-01-01

    During the second half of the twentieth century, at the time of the foundation of the Fifth Republic, French engineers endorsed enthusiastically technocratic ideals. Their attitude was not only the product of a specific context. It was rooted in a long tradition of connection between French engineering and social preoccupations. This connection emerged at the time of the creation of the first corps of State engineers in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Indeed, State engineers were fr...

  8. A multidisciplinary approach of the status of women in Europe in the 20th-21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina IONESCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The 20th century was marked by the feminine revolution and the change of status of women throughout the world. The following article wishes to approach from a multidisciplinary perspective the contrasting differences of the woman’s condition in two different “worlds” (Occidental and the Balkans given the access of women towards education, social attitude and the afferent politics for women. These indexes influence the rate of participation of women in the working field, thus, they play a crucial role in the personal development of them. The comparative analysis of the specialized literature points out the main characteristics of women from France and Germany (as defining parts of the Occidental Europe and Turkey and Bosnia (representative countries for the Balkans and the Islamic part of the continent throughout the 20th and the 21st century. Although there is a common set of features, it is the differences that draw attention regarding the unequal participation of women in the social, economical and political life.

  9. Effects of The NAO/ao Fluctuations Upon Precipitation Over Sardinia In The 20th Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delitala, A.

    The effects at regional scale of decadal fluctuation of the NAO/AO on the 20th cen- tury precipitation over Sardinia will be analyzed. Decadal variations of precipitation will initially be described, by use of the Standardized Anomaly Index (Katz &Glantz, 1986) based on two indicators: the cumulated precipitation (the classical approach) and the number of rainy days. A clear decreasing trend in the last two deacdes, statis- tically significant at the 1% level, will be highlighted. A short survey of connections with MSLP and 500hPA Geopotential Height fields will be used to give an overview of dependence of Sardinia (regional) precipitation on synoptic-scale and planetary scale features. In the following part, three different paradigms of the NAO/AO will be used: the classical two point obscillation, the PCA analysis of MSLP (Thompson &Wallace, 1998) and the centers of action approach (Machel et al., 1998). The results of the anal- ysis of the effects of NAO/AO (described in the former three ways) on precipitation will enable to discuss how such a teleconnection influences regional precipitation on this part of the Mediterranean. Statistical significance of each result will be provided during the presentation. Katz, R., Glantz, M., 1986. "Anatomy of a Rainfall Index". Mon. Wea. Rev., 114, 764-771. Mächel, M., Kapala, A., Flohn, H., 1998. "Behaviour of the Centers of Action above the Atlantic since 1881. Part I: Characteristics of seasonal and interannual Variability". Int. Jou. of Climatol., 18, 1-22. Thopson, D. W. J., Wallace, J. M., 1998. "The Arctic Oscillation signature in the wintertime geopotential height and temperature fields". Geoph. Res. Let., 25, 1297- 1300.

  10. L’effet de présence : entre image fixe et image animée, les représentations de la Passion (fin XIXe-début XXe siècle In search of presence: Representations of the Passion between the fixed and moving image (late 19th, early 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Saint-Martin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Les représentations de la Passion et de la Vie de Jésus ont figuré parmi les premiers titres des débuts du cinéma. A posteriori, la critique des films religieux, notamment dans les années soixante, a été sévère pour ces tentatives jugées plus commerciales que très inspirées. L’intérêt pour le cinéma des premiers temps s’est approfondi dans les dernières décennies et favorise une autre approche de ces productions des années 1895-1920. Restituer l’univers visuel dans lequel ces films ont pris naissance permet de préciser les modalités de représentation des sujets biblique, en lien avec l’historicisme et l’orientalisme. Outre les liens étroits avec la peinture et la photographie, ces premiers films retrouvent certains effets narratifs des jeux de la Passion ou des projections d’images fixes encore abondantes au tournant du XXe siècle. S’attacher à la conception de la figuration contribue à cerner le « désir de voir » et l’effet de présence christique qui se manifestent dans ces premières Passion filmées.Representations of the Passion and the Life of Jesus Christ were a popular topic in early cinema. Retrospective criticism, especially in the 1960’s, was judgmental towards the first religious films, insofar as they were regarded more as commercially driven reenactments than inspired works. Interest in early cinema deepened in recent decades, and has led to a different reading of productions from the period 1895-1920. By restoring the universe of visual references in which these films arose, we are able to relate representations of biblical subjects to movements in historicism and Orientalism. Beyond their close relationship with painting and photography, these early films also reproduced the narrative effects of Passion plays or projections of fixed images that were still widespread at the turn of the 20th century. A focus on figurative conception will help us reconnect with the "need to see" and the effect of christic presence that were manifest in the first filmed Passions.

  11. The Rise in Life Expectancy and Economic Growth in the 20th Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Casper Worm; lønstrup, Lars

    2015-01-01

    This research exploits conditional exogenous variation in mortality from the diffusion of modern medicine to study the effect of growth in life expectancy on the growth in GDP per capita. The empirical analysis establishes that countries that obtained higher growth rates of life expectancy due to...... this shock to mortality in the mid-twentieth century experienced lower growth rates of GDP per capita in the second half of the twentieth century. In addition, a negative relationship between initial level of life expectancy and the subsequent growth rate of GDP per capita is found....

  12. The Rise in Life Expectancy and Economic Growth in the 20th Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønstrup, Lars; Hansen, Casper Worm

    This research exploits conditional exogenous variation in mortality from the diffusion of modern medicine to study the effect of growth in life expectancy on the growth in GDP per capita. The empirical analysis establishes that countries that obtained higher growth rates of life expectancy due to...... this shock to mortality in the mid-twentieth century experienced lower growth rates of GDP per capita in the second half of the twentieth century. In addition, a negative relationship between initial level of life expectancy and the subsequent growth rate of GDP per capita is found....

  13. Nuclear science in the 20th century. Nuclear energy and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear fission and fusion can produce enormous energy. The applications of nuclear energy have been changing the world since its discovery in the beginning of the last century. We review the development of nuclear energy and its applications, particularly nuclear power application

  14. Evapotranspiration trends over the eastern United States during the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Ryan J.; Bounoua, Lahouari; Zhang, Ping; Wolfe, Robert E.; Huntington, Thomas G.; Imhoff, Marc L.; Thome, Kurtis; Noyce, Genevieve L.

    2015-01-01

    Most models evaluated by the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate change estimate projected increases in temperature and precipitation with rising atmospheric CO2 levels. Researchers have suggested that increases in CO2 and associated increases in temperature and precipitation may stimulate vegetation growth and increase evapotranspiration (ET), which acts as a cooling mechanism, and on a global scale, may slow the climate-warming trend. This hypothesis has been modeled under increased CO2 conditions with models of different vegetation-climate dynamics. The significance of this vegetation negative feedback, however, has varied between models. Here we conduct a century-scale observational analysis of the Eastern US water balance to determine historical evapotranspiration trends and whether vegetation greening has affected these trends. We show that precipitation has increased significantly over the twentieth century while runoff has not. We also show that ET has increased and vegetation growth is partially responsible.

  15. Morphologic changes in the Paraná River channel (Argentina) in the light of the climate variability during the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsler, Mario L.; Ramonell, Carlos G.; Toniolo, Horacio A.

    2005-09-01

    Recent studies regarding the climate variability in South America during the 20th century, revealed the existence of climate cycles that influenced the hydrologic conditions in the Paraná River basin, one of the largest in the continent. How that variability affected the channel morphology of this river in its middle reach is quantitatively analyzed in this paper. The link between climate, hydrology and channel morphology is obtained through the computation of effective discharge. This discharge implicitly synthesizes the point hydrologic and bed sediment transport changes in an alluvial stream during a relatively long period. The results were obtained studying, with increasing detail, two channel reaches 373 km and 25 km long, respectively. The analysis involved the processing of more than 180 bathymetric charts, satellite images and hydraulic and sedimentologic data recorded in the Paraná River since the very beginning of the 20th century. A rather detailed description of the treatment made with this information is given in the paper. It is shown that three periods of different effective discharges fairly well correlated with reported climatic fluctuations occurred during the last 100 years, i.e. two periods of high discharges (at the century beginning and from 1970 till present) and another of relatively low discharges between 1930 and 1970. Morphologic parameters of the main channel, such as mean width, thalweg sinuosity, braided index and aspect ratio, increased or decreased in correspondence with those variations. In transitional channels (between meandering and braided) like the Paraná River, careful study of the thalweg behavior is a key issue, if a proper approach to the dynamic of morphologic processes operating on the whole channel is intended. Finally, on the basis of theoretical (extreme hypotheses approach) and empirical results, it is suggested that the Paraná River main channel would not be adjusted to the present high values of effective discharge. Thus, larger erosion of banks (channel widening) and increases in the other cited morphologic characteristics will occur if those values persist.

  16. Evolution of National Nobel Prize Shares in the 20th Century

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidhuber, Juergen

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the evolution of cumulative national shares of Nobel Prizes since 1901, properly taking into account that most prizes were divided among several laureates. We rank by citizenship at the moment of the award, and by country of birth. Surprisingly, graphs of this type have not been published before, even though they powerfully illustrate the century's migration patterns (brain drains and gains) in the sciences and other fields.

  17. Worldwide inequality, living standards and its determinants during the 19th and 20th centuries

    OpenAIRE

    Blum, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis mainly anthropometric indicators are used to investigate several aspects of living standards and inequality in global and historical perspective. Chapter two uses anthropometric information as an indicator for human health and welfare in 156 countries spanning the period 1810-1989. The findings suggest that regional height levels around the world were fairly uniform throughout most of the 19th century, with two exceptions: above-average levels in Anglo-Saxon settlement regions ...

  18. Hope and rust : Reinterpreting the industrial place in the late 20th century

    OpenAIRE

    Storm, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Industrial society has changed thoroughly during the last half a century. In many Western cities and towns, new patterns of production and consumption entailed that centrally located industrial areas became redundant. The once lively workplace and urban core became silent and abandoned, gradually falling into decay. In recent decades, the former industrial built environment was reinterpreted and reused as apartments, offices, heritage sites, stages for artistic installations and destinations ...

  19. Portrayal of Jews in 19th and 20th Century British Novels

    OpenAIRE

    Fousková, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Since the time of Chaucer, British literature literally brimmed over with Jewish stereotypes. The image of a villainous Jew created in the Middle Ages and during the Elizabethan era represented a traditional pattern that was with slight modifications adopted by other authors of the following centuries. The main aim of this bachelor paper is to analyse Jewish stereotypes occuring in the three selected novels: Trilby by George du Maurier, Stamboul Train by Graham Greene and The Sins of the Fath...

  20. Local life and municipal services in Spain at the beginning of the 20th century

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez Romero-Balmas, Gregorio

    2005-01-01

    The interpretation that still prevails of the political and economic history of Spain at the beginning of the century, emphasizes the basically rural and backward character of a society that grew and was modernized very slowly. Even as late as 1932-1936, during the Second Republic in Spain, political backwardness, industrial underdevelopment and engrained agrarian conflict are common factors stressed by many authors and, in contrast, there was a lack of a solid alternative p...

  1. Indian Contributions to High Energy Physics in the 20th Century

    OpenAIRE

    Rajasekaran, G

    2006-01-01

    The inward bound path of discovery unravelling the mysteries of matter and the forces that hold it together has culminated at the end of the twentieth century in a theory of the Fundamental Forces of Nature based on Nonabelian Gauge Fields, called the Standard Model of High Energy Physics. In this article we trace the historical development of the ideas and the experimental discoveries on which this theory is based. We also mark significant Indian contributions wherever poss...

  2. Religious Poetry in Vernacular Syriac from Northern Iraq (17th-20th Centuries). An Anthology

    OpenAIRE

    Mengozzi, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    Introduction, translation, commentary and indexes. The present publication ideally continues the CSCO 589-590, in which 17th-century religious poems in Vernacular Syriac (i.e., Neo-Aramaic or Sureth) were published. It offers the reader a rich anthology and the most complete historical sketch of the dorektha genre, surveying published and unpublished works by Chaldean and Assyrian authors. Texts dating from 1607/08 to 1980 AD are critically edited and translated into English, with linguis...

  3. Bookseller’s Classification: Classification Examples and Criteria of Croatian Booksellers in Sales Catalogs and Book Lists from the Beginning of the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Topić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to conduct research on the topic of ways of bookstore (sales classification of Croatian bookstores from the beginning of the 20th century. By content analysis of the 17 sales lists/catalogs of books from Dubrovnik, Split, Zadar, Karlovac, Zagreb and Osijek, the classification structure has been reconstructed, and the criteria according to which the booksellers offerings have been classified in the early 20th century have been determined. Conducting of the analysis established the following criteria of the bookstore classification: topic/content, form/type of work, type of corpus, genre, language, purpose, publishing series, publisher, time of publication, (new edition, time of publication/purchase, customer's specific interests, number, letter and author. Order of enumeration within specific categories is mostly alphabetic, numeric or according to order of publication. Unlike the library classification and classification systems in general, the problematics of bookstore classification is not very present in the current existing sources. Research studies that focus on the history of bookselling, even if they reveal ways of classification of booksellers offers remain on a descriptive level without any deeper analysis of the criteria or possible reasons of such classification. Therefore, the contribution of the paper is a detailed analysis of a larger pattern of bookstore sales catalogs, and also an attempt of illuminating the criteria and reasons of creating a system of bookstore classification in the defined historical, spatial and time context.

  4. Has the Dutch Nobility Retained its Social Relevance during the 20th Century?

    OpenAIRE

    DRONKERS, Jaap

    2003-01-01

    In earlier studies we found that the Dutch nobility continues to have a strong advantage in achieving elite positions within Dutch society today, despite its very weak legal status since the late 19th century. The aim of this article is to explore some of the possible reasons why this ascriptive characteristic has remained important in a modern and bourgeois society such as the Netherlands. From the official lists of members of the Dutch nobility, we selected all 3,977 persons born in the 20t...

  5. Indian Contributions to High Energy Physics in the 20th Century

    CERN Document Server

    Rajasekaran, G

    2006-01-01

    The inward bound path of discovery unravelling the mysteries of matter and the forces that hold it together has culminated at the end of the twentieth century in a theory of the Fundamental Forces of Nature based on Nonabelian Gauge Fields, called the Standard Model of High Energy Physics. In this article we trace the historical development of the ideas and the experimental discoveries on which this theory is based. We also mark significant Indian contributions wherever possible. Finally we have a glimpse at future developments. An Appendix on more Indian contributions is added at the end.

  6. Low energy electron beam processing in Europe at the end of the 20th century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overview of low energy electron beam processing in Europe was presented. The presentation contained the following topics: the early installations, years of growth, stagnation, status 1999 and the future of this technology

  7. Estimation of the Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance during 20th and 21st centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Fettweis

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Results from a regional climate simulation (1970–2006 over the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS reveals that more than 97% of the interannual variability of the modelled Surface Mass Balance (SMB can be explained by the GrIS summer temperature anomaly and the GrIS annual precipitation anomaly. This multiple regression is then used to empirically estimate the GrIS SMB since 1900 from climatological time series. The projected SMB changes in the 21st century are investigated with the set of simulations performed with atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs of the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC AR4. These estimates show that the high surface mass loss rates of recent years are not unprecedented in the GrIS history of the last hundred years. The minimum SMB rate seems to have occurred earlier in the 1930s. The AOGCMs project that the SMB rate of the 1930s would be common at the end of 2100. The temperature would be higher than in the 1930s but the increase of accumulation in the 21st century would partly offset the acceleration of surface melt due to the temperature increase. However, these assumptions are based on an empirical multiple regression only validated for recent/current climatic conditions, and the accuracy and time homogeneity of the data sets and AOGCM results used in these estimations constitute a large uncertainty.

  8. Simulation of the 19th and 20th century climate with ECHAM5-HAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichet, A.; Schär, C.; Wild, M.; Folini, D.

    2009-04-01

    Climate simulations with an atmospheric general circulation model driven with natural and anthropogenic forcings have been carried out from 1870 to 2000. The atmospheric GCM ECHAM5 is interactively coupled to the atmospheric aerosol module HAM, while the SSTs are based on data from the Hadley Center dataset. Aerosol emissions are taken from the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), and include SO2 and black carbon from fossil fuel combustion as well as black carbon from biomass burning. Other forcings included in the simulations are changes in greenhouse gases, DMS, solar output and volcanic activities. Global simulations will give a general overview of the climate evolution since the mid-nineteenth century, and will allow the definition of limits to further regional simulations. Sensitivity experiments are carried out, in order to understand better the impact of the the different forcings on the climate since the mid-nineteenth century. Results are discussed with particular emphasis on the hydrological and radiation conditions under different forcings.

  9. Evaluation of Continental Precipitation in 20th-Century Climate Simulations: The Utility of Multi-Model Statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, T J; Gleckler, P J

    2005-11-01

    At the request of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), simulations of 20th-century climate have been performed recently with some 20 global coupled ocean-atmosphere models. In view of its central importance for biological and socio-economic systems, model-simulated continental precipitation is evaluated relative to three observational estimates at both global and regional scales. Many models are found to display systematic biases, deviating markedly from the observed spatial variability and amplitude/phase of the seasonal cycle. However, the point-wise ensemble mean of all the models usually shows better statistical agreement with the observations than does any single model. Deficiencies of current models that may be responsible for the simulated precipitation biases as well as possible reasons for the improved estimate afforded by the multi-model ensemble mean are discussed. Implications of these results for water-resource managers also are briefly addressed.

  10. Connections: can the 20th century coronary heart disease epidemic reveal something about the 1918 influenza lethality?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M.I, Azambuja.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay proposes that the ecologic association shown between the 20th century coronary heart disease epidemic and the 1918 influenza pandemic could shed light on the mechanism associated with the high lethality of the latter. It suggests that an autoimmune interference at the apoB-LDL interface c [...] ould explain both hypercholesterolemia and inflammation (through interference with the cellular metabolism of arachidonic acid). Autoimmune inflammation, then, would explain the 1950s-60s acute coronary events (coronary thrombosis upon influenza re-infection) and the respiratory failure seen among young adults in 1918. This hypothesis also argues that the lethality of the 1918 pandemic may have not depended so much on the 1918 virus as on an immune vulnerability to it, possibly resulting from an earlier priming of cohorts born around 1890 by the 1890 influenza pandemic virus.

  11. Geologic and hydrologic hazards in glacierized basins in North America resulting from 19th and 20th century global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, J. E.; Costa, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    Alpine glacier retreat resulting from global warming since the close of the Little Ice Age in the 19th and 20th centuries has increased the risk and incidence of some geologic and hydrologic hazards in mountainous alpine regions of North America. Abundant loose debris in recently deglaciated areas at the toe of alpine glaciers provides a ready source of sediment during rainstorms or outburst floods. This sediment can cause debris flows and sedimentation problems in downstream areas. Moraines built during the Little Ice Age can trap and store large volumes of water. These natural dams have no controlled outlets and can fail without warning. Many glacier-dammed lakes have grown in size, while ice dams have shrunk, resulting in greater risks of ice-dam failure. The retreat and thinning of glacier ice has left oversteepened, unstable valley walls and has led to increased incidence of rock and debris avalanches. ?? 1993 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  12. Evidence for 20th century climate warming and wetland drying in the North American Prairie Pothole Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, B.A.; Johnson, W. Carter; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.

    2013-01-01

    The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America is a globally important resource that provides abundant and valuable ecosystem goods and services in the form of biodiversity, groundwater recharge, water purification, flood attenuation, and water and forage for agriculture. Numerous studies have found these wetlands, which number in the millions, to be highly sensitive to climate variability. Here, we compare wetland conditions between two 30-year periods (1946–1975; 1976–2005) using a hindcast simulation approach to determine if recent climate warming in the region has already resulted in changes in wetland condition. Simulations using the WETLANDSCAPE model show that 20th century climate change may have been sufficient to have a significant impact on wetland cover cycling. Modeled wetlands in the PPR's western Canadian prairies show the most dramatic effects: a recent trend toward shorter hydroperiods and less dynamic vegetation cycles, which already may have reduced the productivity of hundreds of wetland-dependent species.

  13. Connections: can the 20th century coronary heart disease epidemic reveal something about the 1918 influenza lethality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I Azambuja

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay proposes that the ecologic association shown between the 20th century coronary heart disease epidemic and the 1918 influenza pandemic could shed light on the mechanism associated with the high lethality of the latter. It suggests that an autoimmune interference at the apoB-LDL interface could explain both hypercholesterolemia and inflammation (through interference with the cellular metabolism of arachidonic acid. Autoimmune inflammation, then, would explain the 1950s-60s acute coronary events (coronary thrombosis upon influenza re-infection and the respiratory failure seen among young adults in 1918. This hypothesis also argues that the lethality of the 1918 pandemic may have not depended so much on the 1918 virus as on an immune vulnerability to it, possibly resulting from an earlier priming of cohorts born around 1890 by the 1890 influenza pandemic virus.

  14. 2014 Beller Lectureship: Chinese Physicists Educated in the Great Britain during the First Half of the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiaodong

    2014-03-01

    More than 30 Chinese students went to Great Britain to study physics during the first half of the 20th century. They were concentrated in London University (13), Cambridge University (9), Edinburgh University (5) and Manchester University (3) and so on. All these students returned to China after finishing their study and most of them later became excellent physicists. They contributed to the development of physics in China. Based on newly discovered primary materials concerning these Chinese physicists, I examine their study in UK and subsequent accomplishments after their return to China. I will then analyze these British-trained Chinese physicists and compare them with those studying in Japan and America. I would argue that Chinese physicists educated in Britain have high degree of specialization as a whole and formed unique style. They made certain unique contributions to Chinese physics development.

  15. Precipitation changes in wet and dry seasons over the 20th century simulated by two versions of the FGOALS model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shuangmei; Zhou, Tianjun

    2015-06-01

    Seasonal precipitation changes over the globe during the 20th century simulated by two versions of the Flexible Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System (FGOALS) model are assessed. The two model versions differ in terms of their AGCM component, but the remaining parts of the system are almost identical. Both models reasonably reproduce the mean-state features of the timings of the wet and dry seasons and related precipitation amounts, with pattern correlation coefficients of 0.65-0.84 with observations. Globally averaged seasonal precipitation changes are analyzed. The results show that wet seasons get wetter and the annual range (precipitation difference between wet and dry seasons) increases during the 20th century in the two models, with positive trends covering most parts of the globe, which is consistent with observations. However, both models show a moistening dry season, which is opposite to observations. Analysis of the globally averaged moisture budget in the historical climate simulations of the two models shows little change in the horizontal moisture advection in both the wet and dry seasons. The globally averaged seasonal precipitation changes are mainly dominated by the changes in evaporation and vertical moisture advection. Evaporation and vertical moisture advection combine to make wet seasons wetter and enhance the annual range. In the dry season, the opposite change of evaporation and vertical moisture advection leads to an insignificant change in precipitation. Vertical moisture advection is the most important term that determines the changes in precipitation, wherein the thermodynamic component is dominant and the dynamic component tends to offset the effect of the thermodynamic component.

  16. Arctic Fresh Water Export and its Impact on Climate in the 20th and 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenigk, T.; Mikolajewicz, U.; Haak, H.; Jungclaus, J.

    2005-12-01

    Coupled IPCC experiments with the Max-Planck-Institute climate model ECHAM5/MPI-OM are used to analyse the changes in the fresh water export out of the Arctic. Furthermore, the impacts of these changes on climate are investigated. In the 20th century, 57 % of the simulated Arctic fresh water export (reference salinity is 34.8) into the North Atlantic Ocean takes place through Fram Strait, 32 % through the Canadian Archipelago and 11 % over the Barents Shelf. The variability is mainly governed by the ice export through Fram Strait and is highly affected by the atmospheric circulation. Large ice exports provoke a dramatic reduction in Labrador Sea surface salinity in the following years. Oceanic convection is decreased and ice cover is increased. As a consequence, the heat flux from ocean to atmosphere is below normal, which leads to significant negative temperature anomalies in the Labrador Sea. In the 21st century, our model results show a reduction of sea ice volume and an increase of precipitation and Arctic rivers runoff. Most of this additional fresh water is stored in the Arctic Ocean. The total Arctic fresh water export is only slightly changing until year 2100. However, a redistribution of the export occurs: The solid part becomes much smaller with time and plays no significant role anymore at the end of the 21st century. At the same time the fluid part increases. The export through the Canadian Archipelago rises by 0.025 Sverdrup, while the export over the Barents Shelf is reduced by 0.02 Sverdrup. The amount of fresh water exported through Fram Strait stays constant but the interannual variability is decreased by 25 %. The impact of the export through Fram Strait on Labrador Sea climate is thus strongly reduced. In contrast, the export through the Canadian Archipelago gains importance. The convection is reduced by about 40 % in the Greenland Sea and 60 % in the Labrador Sea. The reduction in the Labrador Sea can be explained by increased fresh water export through the Canadian Archipelago. In the Greenland Sea higher air and sea temperatures are the main reason for the decrease. In both regions the difference of precipitation and evaporation becomes larger and contributes to the decrease in convection. The meridional overturning circulation (MOC) at 30 degrees N declines from about 22 Sverdrup in the 20th century to 16 Sverdrup at the end of the 21st century. The reduction in the MOC leads to a much weaker warming in the northern North Atlantic in comparison to the surrounding areas.

  17. EL POSITIVISMO EN EL DERECHO PENAL CHILENO: ANÁLISIS SINCRÓNICO Y DIACRÓNICO DE UNA DOCTRINA DE PRINCIPIOS DEL SIGLO XX QUE SE MANTIENE VIGENTE / Positivism in chilean criminal law: A synchronic and diachronic analysis of an early 20th century doctrine still in use

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jean Pierre, Matus Acuña.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available El artículo describe, contra la opinión mayoritaria, cómo el positivismo penal se desarrolló en Chile desde principios del siglo XX, a partir de la influencia de Valentín Letelier y Raimundo del Río en la enseñanza universitaria. Da cuenta del impacto de las ideas positivistas en otros autores de la [...] época, en los proyectos de Código penal de Erazo-Fontecilla (1929) y Silva-Labatut (1938), y las leyes sobre Estados Antisociales (Nº 11.265) y Remisión Condicional de la Pena (Nº 7.821); sustentando la hipótesis, contraria a la opinión dominante, de que las tesis positivistas permanecen vigentes en nuestro ordenamiento punitivo y especialmente en la práctica procesal, al punto de que nuestro actual sistema de penas, incluyendo las salidas alternativas ("suspensión condicional del procedimiento"), las "sanciones" de la Ley de Responsabilidad Adolescente Nº 20.084 y las medidas de la Ley Nº 18.216 ("remisión condicional" y "libertad vigilada"), puede ser descrito en clave "positivista", al determinarse la duración y clase las medidas efectivamente a imponer principalmente por criterios relativos a la "peligrosidad" del imputado. Abstract in english Against the predominant opinion, this article describes how Criminal Positivism developed in Chile since the early 20th Century, starting from the influences of Valentín Letelier and Raimundo del Río in their university teachings. This work acknowledges the impact positivist ideas had on other conte [...] mporary authors, on the Erazo-Fontecilla (1929) and Silva-Labatut (1938) Criminal Code projects, on the Antisocial States Act (11.265) and on the Conditional Remission of Punishment Act (7.821); contrary to the dominant view, the author sustains the hypothesis that positivist theses remain effective in our criminal law system, especially in criminal procedural practices, to the extent that our actual punitive system, including alternative sentencing (conditional suspension of procedure), the "sanctions" contemplated in the Teenage Responsibility Law Number 20.084 and the measures of Law Number 18.216 (conditional remission and parole), can be described as positivist, because the length and type of effectively imposed measures are mostly determined on the basis of criteria regarding the accused’s dangerousness.

  18. EL POSITIVISMO EN EL DERECHO PENAL CHILENO: ANÁLISIS SINCRÓNICO Y DIACRÓNICO DE UNA DOCTRINA DE PRINCIPIOS DEL SIGLO XX QUE SE MANTIENE VIGENTE Positivism in chilean criminal law: A synchronic and diachronic analysis of an early 20th century doctrine still in use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Pierre Matus Acuña

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available El artículo describe, contra la opinión mayoritaria, cómo el positivismo penal se desarrolló en Chile desde principios del siglo XX, a partir de la influencia de Valentín Letelier y Raimundo del Río en la enseñanza universitaria. Da cuenta del impacto de las ideas positivistas en otros autores de la época, en los proyectos de Código penal de Erazo-Fontecilla (1929 y Silva-Labatut (1938, y las leyes sobre Estados Antisociales (Nº 11.265 y Remisión Condicional de la Pena (Nº 7.821; sustentando la hipótesis, contraria a la opinión dominante, de que las tesis positivistas permanecen vigentes en nuestro ordenamiento punitivo y especialmente en la práctica procesal, al punto de que nuestro actual sistema de penas, incluyendo las salidas alternativas ("suspensión condicional del procedimiento", las "sanciones" de la Ley de Responsabilidad Adolescente Nº 20.084 y las medidas de la Ley Nº 18.216 ("remisión condicional" y "libertad vigilada", puede ser descrito en clave "positivista", al determinarse la duración y clase las medidas efectivamente a imponer principalmente por criterios relativos a la "peligrosidad" del imputado.Against the predominant opinion, this article describes how Criminal Positivism developed in Chile since the early 20th Century, starting from the influences of Valentín Letelier and Raimundo del Río in their university teachings. This work acknowledges the impact positivist ideas had on other contemporary authors, on the Erazo-Fontecilla (1929 and Silva-Labatut (1938 Criminal Code projects, on the Antisocial States Act (11.265 and on the Conditional Remission of Punishment Act (7.821; contrary to the dominant view, the author sustains the hypothesis that positivist theses remain effective in our criminal law system, especially in criminal procedural practices, to the extent that our actual punitive system, including alternative sentencing (conditional suspension of procedure, the "sanctions" contemplated in the Teenage Responsibility Law Number 20.084 and the measures of Law Number 18.216 (conditional remission and parole, can be described as positivist, because the length and type of effectively imposed measures are mostly determined on the basis of criteria regarding the accused’s dangerousness.

  19. Aspects in the religious life of Romanians from the Balkan Peninsula – the end of the 19th century – the beginning of of the 20th century. Archive Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Berciu-Dr?ghicescu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents on the basis of the archive documents aspects related to the religious life of Romanians from the Balkan Peninsula between the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. It also presents the position which the Patriarchy in Constantinople had during all this period of time concerning the actions of Romanians. These were not successful but the situation changed after the issue of the imperial resolution of 1905 which ensured the use of the Romanian language and of the A-romanian dialect in church.

  20. Changes of mean relative sea level around Canada in the 20th and 21st centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guoqi; Ma, Zhimin; Chen, Nancy; Thomson, Rick; Slangen, Aimee

    2015-04-01

    Trends in regional mean sea levels can be substantially different from the global mean trend. Here, we first use tide-gauge data and satellite altimetry measurements to examine trends in the mean relative sea level (MRSL) for the coasts of Canada in the past century. We then combine model output and satellite observations to provide sea level projections in the 21st century. The MRSL trend based on historical tide-gauge data shows large regional variations, from 3 mm/yr (above the global mean MRSL rise rate 0f 1.7 mm/yr) along the southeast Atlantic coast, close to or below the global mean along the Pacific coast and Arctic, to -9 mm/yr in the northeast centred near Hudson Bay. This significant spatial contrast can largely be attributed to the vertical land motion. The combination of altimeter-measured sea level change with Global Positioning System (GPS) data can approximately account for tide-gauge measurements at most stations over 1993-2011. When the GPS data are used the projected MRSL change between 1980-1999 and 2090-2099 under a medium high climate change emission scenario (A2) ranges from -50 cm in the northeast to 75 cm in the southeast. Along the Beaufort Sea, the MRSL rise is up to 70 cm. The MRSL change in the Pacific coast varies from -15 to 50 cm. The ocean steric and dynamical effect contributes to the MRSL rise along the Canadian coasts, and is dominant in the southeast. The land-ice (glaciers and ice sheets) melt contributes 10-20 cm to the MRSL rise, except in the northeast. The effect of the vertical land uplift is large in the northeast centered near Hudson Bay, significantly reducing the MRSL rise. The land-ice melt also causes the MRSL to fall in the northeast. The projected MRSL change under a high emission scenario (RCP 8.5) has a spatial pattern similar overall to that under A2, with a slightly bigger rise of 7 cm on average and some notable differences at specific sites.

  1. Ibn Khaldun and Some Classic Views in 20th Century Linguistics

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah Yaqub Samarah

    2011-01-01

    The Muqaddimah of Ibn Khaldun or the Prolegomena (in Greek), is a book written by the Arab North African’s Ibn Khaldun who records an early view of universal history. We need to point out that some modern thinkers view it as the first work dealing with the: philosophy of history, or the social sciences of sociology, demography, historiography or cultural history, and economics. We need to add that the Muqaddimah also deals with Islamic theology, political theory and the natural sciences...

  2. The danish vocational education and training system in the 19th and 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida JUUL

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the development of Vocational Education and Training (VET in Denmark. It traces the characteristics of the Danish VET system of today back to the late 19th century. It was during this period that the control of the guilds over apprentices was replaced by a free market model and later by legislative regulations. Parallel to this development, the masters began to engage in the liberal education of their apprentices. Later, this involvement was institutionalized by giving the social partners a central role, alongside the Ministry of Education, in the management of the VET system. With the introduction of new VET legislation in 1956, the dual system was introduced, combining workplace training with practical and theoretical school-based training. Although workplace training today comprises 2/3 of vocational education and training, the introduction of daytime school-based training signaled the beginning of a process in which the VET system became more and more integrated in the general educational policy of the country. The article illustrates how this has forced the VET system to adapt to changing political strategies in ways which do not necessarily reflect problems inherent to the VET system itself. The strategy of education for all is considered as an example.

  3. Formation of the political tradition in Slovakia at the end of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marmazova O. I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of Slovak political tradition formation during the establishment of an independent state is discussed in the article. Special attention is paid to the authoritarian tendencies, which developed after the breakup of Czechoslovakia, atypical for Central and Eastern Europe character of political transformation and the establishment of the entire state power system are analyzed. A brief historical background of the evolution of “the Slovak question” and its influence on the development of the state is given. Authors highlight features of the social structure of Slovakia, emphasizing the special mentality, greatly influenced on the formation of the political system of the state in historical perspective. It is also noted, that formation of political tradition in Slovakia at the end of the twentieth century was marked by constant struggle between coalition and the opposition, which led to increased political instability in 1995-1997, which contributed to the emergence of the political tendencies, called “Slovak way of transformation”. This had an impact on the integration processes in the state, which in 1994 declared its desire to join the European Union. The authors conclude that as long as the disparate political forces were unable to find a compromise and to determine priority in order to improve life of society rather than their personal ambitions, the Slovak political life was in a state of stagnation.

  4. 20th-century glacier recession and regional hydroclimatic changes in northwestern Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiokas, Mariano H.; Villalba, Ricardo; Luckman, Brian H.; Lascano, Marcelo E.; Delgado, Silvia; Stepanek, Petr

    2008-01-01

    This paper documents the occurrence of significant glacier and hydroclimatic changes in northwestern Patagonia during the past century. Drastic, widespread glacier recession is documented by repeat photography of some of the earliest glacier images from southern South America. Linear trends in regionally-averaged annual and seasonal temperature and precipitation records indicate significant warming and decreasing precipitation over the 1912-2002 interval. A climatic index is developed, based on winter precipitation and summer temperature records, that mimics glacier mass balance relationships and shows a strong negative trend which agrees with the drastic glacier recession shown by the photographic comparisons. Short positive periods of this climatic index broadly correspond with known evidence of glacier advances in the region. Regionally-averaged mean annual streamflow records east of the mountains were used in an independent verification check of the climatic series used in this study. This regional runoff record shows a strong negative trend, remarkable similarities with the climatic index, and highly significant positive (negative) correlations with the regional precipitation (temperature) series. This highlights the existence of a strong, regionally coherent hydroclimatic signal across this region and supports the utility of these records as environmental indicators for northwestern Patagonia between ca. 38° and 45°S. Given the significant socio-economic importance of rivers and glaciers in this area, further research is needed to evaluate the full range of natural hydroclimate variability and improve understanding of potential impacts of the future warmer and drier climates projected for this region.

  5. Transition of wind power utilization technology in the 20th century; 20 seiki ni okeru furyoku riyo gijutsu no hensen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushiyama, I. [Ashikaga Inst. of Tech., Tochigi (Japan)

    2000-04-01

    Windmills are one of the oldest prime movers and have been used for more than 700 years in Europe. The transition from low speed windmills for grain grinding and water pumping to high speed wind turbines for electric power generation had occurred at the end of 19{sup th} century. This paper, at first, reviews the windmill technologies and the researchers before 20th century. Then describes the back ground of how the wind power generator has existed and how the four pioneers developed their wind power generator. The historical developments of windmills to wind turbines in this century are studied focusing mainly on Danish activities. Then, the effort of the development of large wind turbine such as Smith-Putnum's first MW machine in U.S.A. and other mammoth machine concept are introduced. The new concept machines such as Savonius and Darrieus wind turbines in 1920s to 1930s are also explained. Finally, the novel technologies of wind turbine covering larger machines, variable speed generators, special wing sections for wind turbines, theoretical analysis method of wind turbine performance, offshore wind turbines, and wind turbine control technologies are stated. (author)

  6. TOPOGRAPHIC MAPPING SUPPORT IN THE SOUTH AFRICAN MILITARY DURING THE 20TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hennie Smit

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Maps provide a base for all intelligence operations and strategic and tactical decisions, supporting the planning and execution of all battlefield functions. The development of military mapping support in South Africa, related closely to the development of aerial photography, may be divided into five, sometimes overlapping, phases. The first of these phases spans the years from 1840 to 1930 and is characterised by the gradual recognition that aerial photographs could be used for mapping. Two major conflicts – the Anglo Boer War and the First World War – marked this development. The Second World War is the key event of the second phase (1930–1950, which witnessed a rapid expansion of aerial photo coverage. The third phase (1945–1960 saw the overemphasising of interpretation techniques rather than the analytical use of results, which was rectified during the fourth phase (1955–1962 when the focus shifted to the applied uses of air-photo interpretation. During the third and fourth phases the topographic mapping support ability of the South African military was expanded. The fifth phase (since 1960 commenced with the expansion of data gathering and analysis into portions of the electromagnetic spectrum beyond the small visible sector. During this period the protracted nature of the conflict on the northern border of Namibia (formerly South West Africa and the war in Angola focused attention on the South African military mapping system. The National Service system allowed for the expansion of mapping units and the thorough mapping of large areas adjoining our borders. Through all five phases, mapping in the South African military has advanced from hand-produced maps to the utilisation of complex equipment that satisfies the sophisticated mapping needs of a modern defence force.This paper presents a brief history of both mapping support and the mapping units that have served within the South African theatre during the twentieth century. In doing so, the operational importance of topographic maps is also highlighted.

  7. Development of the Structure of Lithuanian Gardens and Parks from the 16th to the 20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albinas Mocevi?ius

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The historical development of Lithuanian parks cannot be separated from the historical evolution of our cities and towns and formation of their urbanistic structure. The beginnings of creating garden art in Lithuania, the same as in West Europe, are mentioned in medieval castles and monasteries. A strong influence on the developement of the history of Renaissance gardens was exerted by new models of garden theory, which were formed and formulated by famous European architects, artists, scientists, philosophers. The traditions of antique art were revived, new scientific inventions had an influence on garden art. During the 17th–18th centuries a lot of residences and manors were built, and they played an important role in the urbanisation of the country. In the 17th–18th centuries the tendencies in the Italian art of garden parks in West Europe were taken over by French baroque. In the junction of the 18th and 19th centuries the planning of cities and towns and urbanistic development in the territories of Lithuania and East Europe took place due to bizarre and geometralised influence of the baroque epoch. In the 19th century scenery parks were created next to mansions in Lithuanian towns by famous scenery specialists of that time from West Europe. In the junction of 19th and 20th centuries important geopolitical processes in Lithuania and Europe took place not only in the urbanisation of cities, but also in the planning of parks and their art tendencies. Due to the growth of cities, their urbanised territories and strengthening of social attitude towards a surrounding environment, the boundaries of park art spread into the public areas of cities. At the end of the paper there is a scheme which summarises the development and influence of park structure on city development and formation .Article in Lithuanian

  8. Climate?induced response of commercially important flatfish species during the 20th century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparrevohn, Claus Reedtz; Lindegren, Martin; Mackenzie, Brian R.

    2013-01-01

    The consequence of elevated ocean temperatures on commercial fish stocks is addressed using time series of commercial landings (1906–2004) and juvenile survey catch data (1904–2006) collected around Denmark. We analyze (i) whether warm?water sole (Solea solea) has increased relative to Boreal...... plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) and (ii) whether two related warm?water species (turbot, Psetta maxima and brill, Scophthalmus rhombus) show similar responses to increasing temperature or, alternatively, whether turbot (which has a broader juvenile diet) has been favored. Since the early 1980s, both sole...... of warm?water species is likely to increase with increasing temperature but also that species with similar life histories might react differently according to degree of specialization....

  9. Climate?induced response of commercially important flatfish species during the 20th century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparrevohn, Claus Reedtz; Lindegren, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The consequence of elevated ocean temperatures on commercial fish stocks is addressed using time series of commercial landings (1906–2004) and juvenile survey catch data (1904–2006) collected around Denmark. We analyze (i) whether warm?water sole (Solea solea) has increased relative to Boreal plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) and (ii) whether two related warm?water species (turbot, Psetta maxima and brill, Scophthalmus rhombus) show similar responses to increasing temperature or, alternatively, whether turbot (which has a broader juvenile diet) has been favored. Since the early 1980s, both sole and turbot have constituted an increasing part of the commercial landings and survey catches, as compared with plaice and brill, respectively. These changes in species composition were linked to sea surface temperatures, Northern Hemisphere temperature anomalies (NHA) and the North Atlantic Oscillation. NHA was closely related and explained 43% of the observed variation in sole survey catches relative to the plaice catches and almost 38% of the observed variation in the sole landings relative to the plaice landings. For the less common species, turbot and brill, none of the global change indicators explained more than 15% of the variation, although all showed a positive relationship. Survey catch per unit effort increased significantly for both sole and turbot around the early 1980s, whereas catch per unit effort for plaice and brill remained constant. The results indicate that the abundance of warm?water species is likely to increase with increasing temperature but also that species with similar life histories might react differently according to degree of specialization.

  10. Evaluating 20th century warming trends with modern Porites corals from the western Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, M.; Zinke, J.; Dullo, W.-C.; Cahyarini, S. Y.

    2009-04-01

    Recent studies suggest that instrumental records of sea surface temperature (SST) are unreliable prior to 1965 due to changes in the measurement procedures. Thompson et al. (2008) identified an artificial cool bias of up to 0.3Ë? C in global mean SSTs between 1945 and the mid-1960s. Geochemical parameters in skeletons of massive corals can be used to infer past changes in climate on seasonal to centennial time scales. The Sr/Ca ratio of coral aragonite is a widely used tool for deriving high-resolution proxy records of past sea surface temperatures. Application of the Sr/Ca paleothermometer relies on the assumption that coral Sr/Ca varies predictably with temperature and that seawater Sr/Ca is invariant on millennial timescales due to the long residence time of Sr and Ca in the ocean. In contrast, the oxygen isotope ratios (^18O) of coral aragonite vary in response to temperature and changes in the ^18O of seawater, the latter depending on the freshwater balance. Thus, coral ^18O may be used as a record of past sea surface temperatures only at sites were ^18O seawater variations are negligible. SST in the western tropical Indian Ocean closely follows global mean temperature trends (Funk et al., 2008). Here we present a set of Porites coral Sr/Ca and/or oxygen isotope records from the tropical Indian Ocean covering the past 120-336 years (Seychelles, Chagos Archipelago). We computed a composite sea surface temperature record for the Western Indian Ocean using ^18O (Seychelles) and Sr/Ca (Chagos). This record clearly follows instrumental SST trends in the Western tropical Indian Ocean, except in the 1945-1965 interval, were instrumental SST data show a pronounced cooling not evident in the coral proxy index (the linear correlation coefficient between the coral index and instrumental SST is r=0.86 if we omit the most problematic time period from 1945 to 1960). However, the coral index follows the global land surface air temperature trend, which is free of systematic biases due to changes in the measurement technique. We therefore conclude that the cooling of the tropical Indian Ocean indicated by instrumental SST is an artifact that may result from changes in the SST measurement techniques, as suggested by Thompson et al., 2008). Our results will have important implications for the investigation of large-scale teleconnections in the oceans (for example, the apparent shift in the Indian Ocean SSTs around 1945 has been related to a regime change in the North Pacific Ocean). Thompson et al. (2008): A large discontinuity in the mid-twentieth century in observed global-mean surface temperature, Nature, 453: 646-649, DOI:10.1038/nature06982. Funk, C. et al. (2008): Warming of the Indian Ocean threatens eastern and southern African food security but could be mitigated by agricultural development, PNAS, 105: 11081-11086, DOI: 10.1073_pnas.0708196105.

  11. Surgical pathology in the 20th century at the Mount Sinai Hospital, New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Stephen A

    2008-08-01

    How did the education of surgical pathology, and pathology in general, differ at Mount Sinai? Passing the examination of the American Board of Pathology was never the focus of the department. Learning criteria or quoting references was de-emphasized, but mastery of macroscopic pathology was required, supported in both word and action by two brilliant surgical pathologists, Otani and Kaneko, and by two extraordinary medical pathologists, Klemperer and Popper. Meticulous microscopy emphasized pattern rather than reliance on lists of discrete features. Otani developed a regular "problem case" meeting for a community of pathologists, made up of alumni and other interested pathologists, as well as active department members. These monthly sessions provided the highest level of "continuing medical education." Otani and Kaneko unequivocally believed in learning from cases, and Mount Sinai residents were fortunate both in the one-to-one teaching and in the wealth of material, in all systems, that came to surgical pathology. Outstanding pathologists who came from Mount Sinai settled throughout the country and provided the highest level of diagnoses, but, with the exception of Bernard Wagner, Emanuel Rubin, Fiorenzo Paronetto, Richard Horowitz, Michael Gerber, Marc Rosenblum, Bruce Wenig, Jaishree Jagirdar, Swan Thung, Cesar Moran, Hideko Kamino, Philip LeBoit, Alberto Marchevsky, and others, there were relatively few academic leaders. Otani and Kaneko did not have national reputations. Klemperer, although world renowned, was relatively unassuming, and his disciples numbered almost as many nonpathologists as pathologists. Popper did establish a major center for liver pathology, with students coming from around the world, but did not particularly promote general surgical pathology. Can the Mount Sinai approach still be applied? The decline in the numbers of autopsies performed, the demands for rapid turnaround time, the de-emphasis of gross pathology as newer technologies (eg, immunohistochemistry, cytogenetics, molecular pathology) gain place, the increasing tendency to select investigators, including basic scientists, as teaching department chairs and the financial constraints requiring increasing use of nonphysician workers all speak to the relegation of the Otani-Kaneko era to history. Is this a loss to Pathology? It is certainly a style of practice that has been lost. However, there is no reason to bemoan the state of Pathology in the beginning years of the 21st century. Pathology practice is outstanding at many medical centers throughout the world, including at Mount Sinai under the very able and creative leadership of Alan Schiller, who has presided over great enhancements of the department in both anatomic and clinical pathology, including significant advances in the study of diseases by molecular methods. Surgical Pathology at Mount Sinai has been led by James Strauchen, a renowned hematopathologist recruited by Schiller's predecessor, Jerome Kleinerman, and is currently directed by Ira Bleiweiss, a student of Kaneko. Other techniques and technologies have, to a degree, compensated for some of the changes since the Otani-Kaneko years and it is almost certain that advances in molecular pathology will allow for increasing sophistication in establishing diagnoses, and likely even grading and staging, probably even on blood, rather than tissue, samples. The science of Pathology will advance, as the art declines. Those who learned at Mount Sinai during the Otani-Kaneko years will, however, very likely tell you that they were privileged to have learned Pathology there and, especially, to have learned a distinct philosophy of Pathology under the guidance of caring, thoughtful, and especially gifted pathologists. PMID:19007103

  12. Rakhmaninov’s creative work influence on national music cultures in 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skurko E. R.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article dwells on the problem of Rakhmaninov’s art, style and poetics influence on the process of formation and development of national music cultures, national composer schools and some individual author’s styles of the former USSR. Three evolution stages of all national music cultures are determined: “preprofessional”, “professional” and the stage of “new music”. Two work concepts are introduced: a Rakhmaninov’s musical and style canon as an individual system including characteristic properties of the composer’s style and poetics, and a national musical and style canon as a system of musical and expressive language principles typical for every musical culture and possessive of the national character. The signs representing the Rakhmaninov’s style are revealed and considered on the piano concerto genre. These two spheres outlined are disclosed in folklore and neofolklore conditions as the main evolution directions of the national musical thinking. The main principles of the Rakhmaninov’s and national canons interaction are singled out: adaptation corresponding to the early development stages of national music cultures (forlklore stage and assimilation (by G. Golovinsky characteristic for “new music” (neofollore stage. The problems are considered on the example of piano concertos by Z. Ismagilov, A. Khatchaturyan, A. Eshpay, R. Gazizov and some others.

  13. The distribution of an illustrated timeline wall chart and teacher's guide of 20th century physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Brian

    2000-12-26

    The American Physical Society's part of its centennial celebration in March of 1999 decided to develop a timeline wall chart on the history of 20th century physics. This resulted in eleven consecutive posters, which when mounted side by side, create a 23-foot mural. The timeline exhibits and describes the millstones of physics in images and words. The timeline functions as a chronology, a work of art, a permanent open textbook, and a gigantic photo album covering a hundred years in the life of the community of physicists and the existence of the American Physical Society. Each of the eleven posters begins with a brief essay that places a major scientific achievement of the decade in its historical context. Large portraits of the essays' subjects include youthful photographs of Marie Curie, Albert Einstein, and Richard Feynman among others, to help put a face on science. Below the essays, a total of over 130 individual discoveries and inventions, explained in dated text boxes with accompanying images, form the backbone of the timeline. For ease of comprehension, this wealth of material is organized into five color-coded story lines the stretch horizontally across the hundred years of the 20th century. The five story lines are: Cosmic Scale, relate the story of astrophysics and cosmology; Human Scale, refers to the physics of the more familiar distances from the global to the microscopic; Atomic Scale, focuses on the submicroscopic world of atoms, nuclei and quarks; Living World, chronicles the interaction of physics with biology and medicine; Technology, traces the applications of physic to everyday living. Woven into the bottom border of the timeline are period images of significant works of art, architecture, and technological artifacts such as telephones, automobiles, aircraft, computers, and appliances. The last poster, covering the years since 1995, differs from the others. Its essay concerns the prospect for physics into the next century, and is illustrated with pictures of promising award winning high school students who, it is hoped, will be the leading researchers of physics in the decades ahead. Appropriately the last entries in the timeline are not achievements but open questions to be answered in the future.

  14. Changing climatic and anthropogenic influences on the Bermejo wetland, through archival documents - Mendoza, Argentina, 16th-20th centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, M. R.; Rojas, F.

    2011-11-01

    The wrong management of watering in the highest zones of the Mendoza northern oasis, the topography of the terrain and the deficient drainage, together with neotectonics phenomena, but mostly a dramatic and progressive increase of the Rio Mendoza flow volume originated the expansion of the wetlands area at the NE of the city of Mendoza at the turn of the 18th century, while in previous centuries it had retracted to a minimum. The area grew until reaching the dimension of large wetlands in the lowest oasis zones, resulting from a larger runoff and soil saturation by the rise of the phreatic layers. This situation remained throughout the 19th century, affecting the extension and use of the available land for human activity. The purpose of this study was to research this process that culminated in 1930 with the partial desiccation of the area. We have given particular importance to the influence of the climatic fluctuations in the Cordillera de los Andes and to the consequent variations of the Rio Mendoza flow volume in this process. For the analysis we used snowfall series at the cordillera and flow volume of the Rio Mendoza, built by Prieto (2009) with documental data. We analyzed which were the mediate and immediate consequences of the growth and later desiccation of the wetlands over the environment and its present repercussion on the ecosystem (salinization, poor soil drainage, soil alkalinization, sedimentation). In addition, we have also worked over georeferenced historic charts that partially reflect the behavior of the Cienaga del Bermejo during the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. This behavior characterized by "growth pulses" and retraction moments is reflected in the analyzed charts, where those moments of major growth coincide with cycles of bigger snowstorms and larger flow volume in the Rio Mendoza.

  15. Geopolitical perspectives in Spain: from the Iberismo of the 19th century to the Hispanoamericanismo of the 20th

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Rodríguez-Esteban

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The changes which took place in the balance of power in Europe in the last thirty years of the 19th century, together with the process of colonial expansion and partition, led Spanish geographers to see the need to combine the territorial projects and interests of Spain and Portugal with the aim of defending what remained of their colonial empires, coveted by English-speaking countries. This gave new life to a school of thought known as "Iberismo", which now extended to include France in the formula of a "triple alliance of the South" based on the common interests of Latin countries. The failure of both attempts at rapprochement gave rise to these ideas being transferred, by the beginning of the 20th century, to the Spanish-speaking countries of America. Iberismo was to become "Hispano-Americanismo", and the defence of strategic and material interests was to begin with a reaffirmation of the moral and spiritual qualities of peoples sharing common roots and a common language. Ideas and arguments along these lines were then developed on both sides of the Atlantic, crossing boundaries into other spheres of intellectual activity.

  16. Demographic amplification of climate change experienced by the contiguous United States population during the 20(th) century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Jason; Berteaux, Dominique; McGill, Brian J; Humphries, Murray M

    2012-01-01

    Better understanding of the changing relationship between human populations and climate is a global research priority. The 20(th) century in the contiguous United States offers a particularly well-documented example of human demographic expansion during a period of radical socioeconomic and environmental change. One would expect that as human society has been transformed by technology, we would become increasingly decoupled from climate and more dependent on social infrastructure. Here we use spatially-explicit models to evaluate climatic, socio-economic and biophysical correlates of demographic change in the contiguous United States between 1900 and 2000. Climate-correlated variation in population growth has caused the U.S. population to shift its realized climate niche from cool, seasonal climates to warm, aseasonal climates. As a result, the average annual temperature experienced by U.S. citizens between 1920 and 2000 has increased by more than 1.5°C and the temperature seasonality has decreased by 1.1°C during a century when climate change accounted for only a 0.24°C increase in average annual temperature and a 0.15°C decrease in temperature seasonality. Thus, despite advancing technology, climate-correlated demographics continue to be a major feature of contemporary U.S. society. Unfortunately, these demographic patterns are contributing to a substantial warming of the climate niche during a period of rapid environmental warming, making an already bad situation worse. PMID:23115624

  17. Defense Industry of the Russian Federation at the End of 20th-Beginning of the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonovich Aleksandr Nikolaevich

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the developed countries claiming for global leadership permanent military and industrial complexes were formed. These complexes produce high-tech products and play the key system-forming role in the economies of their states. Country’s position in world economy as well as its position at the weapons and military equipment market depends on the military and industrial complexes development. At the end of the 20th century, there had been great changes in the military and industrial complex of the Russian Federation. Drastic remission and demerger accompanied these changes unlike those in the Unites States and Western Europe. These processes were determined by inconsiderate defense conversion, reduction of expenses and the loss of weapons and military equipment production. At the beginning of the 21st century, Russian Federation government has changed its attitude towards the military and industrial complex. Main directions of surmounting the crisis were found through creation of military and industrial corporations, increase of state defense order in the favor of national Armed Forces. Development of state-owned corporations and significant increase in financial allocations for state defense order promoted the growth of military and industrial companies’ activity and rise in weapons and military equipment export. All above-listed processes of Russian military and industrial complexes predetermined the scientific and pragmatic interest for this research.

  18. Carbon profile of the managed forest sector in Canada in the 20th century: sink or source?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiaxin; Colombo, Stephen J; Ter-Mikaelian, Michael T; Heath, Linda S

    2014-08-19

    Canada contains 10% of global forests and has been one of the world's largest harvested wood products (HWP) producers. Therefore, Canada's managed forest sector, the managed forest area and HWP, has the potential to significantly increase or reduce atmospheric greenhouse gases. Using the most comprehensive carbon balance analysis to date, this study shows Canada's managed forest area and resulting HWP were a sink of 7510 and 849 teragrams carbon (TgC), respectively, in the period 1901-2010, exceeding Canada's fossil fuel-based emissions over this period (7333 TgC). If Canadian HWP were not produced and used for residential construction, and instead more energy intensive materials were used, there would have been an additional 790 TgC fossil fuel-based emissions. Because the forest carbon increases in the 20th century were mainly due to younger growing forests that resulted from disturbances in the 19th century, and future increases in forest carbon stocks appear uncertain, in coming decades most of the mitigation contribution from Canadian forests will likely accrue from wood substitution that reduces fossil fuel-based emissions and stores carbon, so long as those forests are managed sustainably. PMID:25075978

  19. Evolution of the decrease in mineral exergy throughout the 20th century. The case of copper in the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valero, Alicia; Valero, Antonio; Arauzo, Inmaculada [Center of Research for Energy Resources and Consumption, Maria de Luna, 3, 50 018 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2008-02-15

    A mineral deposit is a natural resource whose exergy can be calculated from a defined reference environment (RE). This RE can be compared to a thermodynamically dead planet, where all materials have reacted, dispersed and mixed. Like any substance, a mine is characterized by its quantity, chemical composition and concentration (ore grade). The mine's exergy measures the minimum (reversible) energy to extract and concentrate the materials from the RE to the conditions in the mine. And the mine's exergy replacement cost accounts for the actual exergy required to accomplish this, with available technologies. The exergy assessment of the natural resource wealth of the Earth defined from a RE is named as exergoecology. The aim of this paper is to prove the usefulness of these two indicators for assessing the degradation of mineral deposits over history. As an example, the exergy decrease of US copper mines due to copper extraction throughout the 20th century has been determined. The results indicate that the exergy decrease was 65.4 Mtoe, while the exergy replacement cost 889.9 Mtoe. During the past century, the US extracted the equivalent of 2.5 and 1.2 times of its current national exergy reserves and base reserve of copper, respectively. (author)

  20. Evolution of the decrease in mineral exergy throughout the 20th century. The case of copper in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mineral deposit is a natural resource whose exergy can be calculated from a defined reference environment (RE). This RE can be compared to a thermodynamically dead planet, where all materials have reacted, dispersed and mixed. Like any substance, a mine is characterized by its quantity, chemical composition and concentration (ore grade). The mine's exergy measures the minimum (reversible) energy to extract and concentrate the materials from the RE to the conditions in the mine. And the mine's exergy replacement cost accounts for the actual exergy required to accomplish this, with available technologies. The exergy assessment of the natural resource wealth of the Earth defined from a RE is named as exergoecology. The aim of this paper is to prove the usefulness of these two indicators for assessing the degradation of mineral deposits over history. As an example, the exergy decrease of US copper mines due to copper extraction throughout the 20th century has been determined. The results indicate that the exergy decrease was 65.4 Mtoe, while the exergy replacement cost 889.9 Mtoe. During the past century, the US extracted the equivalent of 2.5 and 1.2 times of its current national exergy reserves and base reserve of copper, respectively

  1. The Continuity and Discontinuity. The Question of Territorialism and Double Identity from the Perspective of 20th Century Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Sujecka

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Contuinity and Discontinuity. The Question of Territorialism and Double Identity from the Perspective of 20th Century MacedoniaThe sense of territorial identity gains force whenever political means of solving the Macedonian Question, a repugnant legacy of the Eastern issue, become scarce. This attitude is reflected in the articles published by the representatives of the Macedonian diaspora in journals of its different centres. Due to space constraints I decided to present only (and at least the views of Krste Misirkov, a very complex figure indeed, who in contemporary Macedonia belongs to the undisputable national pantheon. His opinions on the Macedonian Question were far from explicit and his statements delivered at different stages of his life do not fit into a cohesive whole as the national purists would want it. However, it is difficult to imagine a better mirror for “Macedonian matters” in the 20th century and a more comprehensive picture of the twisted paths that the Macedonian Slavs took to reach the concept of ‘Macedonian’ understood as an ethnos, not only in its territorial aspect.A bond with the territory has never disappeared from Macedonian self-perception. Only the constant presence of territorial identity explains the assimilation of the ancient heritage, which is in fact heritage of a territory, into the Macedonian national canon. It is further confirmed by the most recent Macedonian history textbooks for high school students where the ancient tradition is treated as a part of their own heritage. While the bond with the territory is still an integral part of the Macedonian elite’s consciousness, the question of double identity remains less obvious. In Misirkov’s time double identity, expressed through various ethnic configurations, on the one hand shaped Macedonian self-identity and on the other proved the distinctiveness of a ‘Macedonian’ at that time (i.e. in the first half of the 20th century from a ‘Serb’ in Serbia proper and a ‘Bulgarian’ in Bulgaria proper, thus creating favourable conditions for the emergence of separatist understanding of Macedonianness, allowing even non-Slavs to be Macedonians. Macedonianness began to be founded on Slavicness relatively late and this dependence was propagated quite naturally mainly by Slavophile circles (the circle of Nace Dimov and by the communists in the 1920’s and 1930’s. However, in the first half of the 20th century there still existed alternatives, such as, for instance, the above-described project of Krste Misirkov. The most evident connection between the term ‘Macedonian’ and Slavicness crystallised in Tito’s post-war Macedonia, de facto undermining the notion of double identity in the sense in which it had functioned in the first half of the 20th century.Ci?g?o?? i jej brak. Kwestia terytorializmu i podwójnej to?samo?ci z perspektywy macedo?skiejPoczucie to?samo?ci terytorialnej odzywa si? ze szczególn? si?? w sytuacjach, kiedy wyczerpuj? si? polityczne mo?liwo?ci rozwi?zania problemu macedo?skiego, jako niedobrego spadku po kwestii wschodniej. Potwierdzaj? to wypowiedzi przedstawicieli macedo?skiej diaspory publikowane na ?amach czasopism, wychodz?cych w ró?nych miejscach jej skupisk. Zdecydowa?am si? na przedstawienie jedynie (i a? pogl?dów Krste Misirkova, nale??cego w dzisiejszej Macedonii do niekwestionowanego panteonu narodowego, w istocie postaci wielce skomplikowanej. Jego pogl?dy w kwestii macedo?skiej by?y dalekie od jednoznaczno?ci, a wypowiedzi wyg?aszane na ró?nych etapach ?ycia nie uk?adaj? si? w ca?o??, jakiej chcieliby narodowi pury?ci, natomiast trudno sobie wyobrazi? lepsze zwierciad?o „spraw macedo?skich” w XX wieku i pe?niejszy obraz kr?tych dróg, jakimi macedo?scy S?owianie dochodzili do poj?cia „Macedo?czyk” rozumianego jako éthnie, a nie tylko terytorialnie.Wi?? z terytorium nigdy nie znikn??a z macedo?skiego my?lenia o sobie samych. Jedynie sta?? obecno?ci? to?samo?ci terytorialnej mo?na wyt?

  2. Migrations from the Gora region at the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?or?evi?-Crnobrnja Jadranka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I will analyze economic and political migration in the Gora region at the end of the 20th and in the first decade of the 21st century. It is my intent to consider and explain their cause and their intensity and scope. In short, I view the socioeconomic and political dimension of these migrations from an ethnological and anthropological point of view. The economic and political migrations from the Gora region at the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century represent the continuation of earlier migrations, albeit more intensive and larger in scope (whole families are migrating. There migrations can be viewed as the effects of political changes in Kosovo, as well as the socioeconomic crisis of the 1990’s. There are no fixed boundaries between these types of migrations, and the only truly stand out examples are the cases in which people migrated for safety reasons. A certain type of migration can be identified based on the terminology used by the interlocutors. I have encountered the terms “banishment” and “displacement” in the narrative discourse of my interlocutors. These terms are used to describe the migrations from Gora during the 1999 war, as well as immediately after. The differences between economic and political migrants can be gouged from other factors such as going to Gora during vacations and holidays as well as investing money into real-estate in the region. Individuals who emigrated from Gora because they feared for their and the loves of their families go to Gora rarely (to attend funerals for example and are not currently thinking of investing unlike those who had left Gora as economic migrants. There are no differences when it comes to where people migrate to for different reasons. Places of migration can, however, be indicative of the form of migration in the sense of whether people migrated to a foreign country or not. One can turn into the other due to the changing of state borders. Thus migrations from Gora to cities and towns in Serbia became international after Kosovo declared independence. In this context, migrations from Gora to Serbia can be defined twofold, both at the level of the individual and at the level of the community. This leads to the conclusion that, in the case of migrations which are the focus of this paper, one needs to be careful not only of their typology, but also their conceptualization as well as the positions from which a certain migration is conceptualized. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177027: Multietnicitet, multikulturalnost, migracije - savremeni procesi

  3. Taller - Healthier - more equal? The biological standard of living in Switzerland in the second half of the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kues, Arne Benjamin

    2010-03-01

    This paper analyzes the trends in physical stature and body mass of the Swiss population born between 1955 and 1985, based on data collected in the "Living in Switzerland Survey" (Swiss Household Panel) of 2004. Aside from the time trend, we investigate the impact of educational and marital status as well as spatial effects on height and BMI. The results corroborate previous studies: average height increased during the second half of the 20th century for both women and men, better educated individuals are tallest, divorced men are shorter than married men and urban populations enjoy a height advantage over rural ones. We also compare the level and the trend in height to other postindustrial populations to identify key causes of physical growth and conclude that the quality of the health care systems and equal access to it seem to have a greater impact than other redistributive aspects of the welfare state. The relatively low level of inequality in health led to average height in Switzerland that are similar to those obtained in the Scandinavian social-democratic welfare states. Other measures such as income inequality do not have a high explanatory power for the average stature of the Swiss population. PMID:19797002

  4. Sediment accumulation in San Leandro Bay, Alameda County, California, during the 20th century - A preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major changes made in the configuration of San Leandro Bay, Alameda County, California, during the 20th century have caused rapid sedimentation within parts of the Bay. Comparison of bathymetric surveys indicates that sedimentation in the vicinity of the San Leandro Bay channel averaged 0.7 cm/annum between 1856 and 1984. Lead-210 data collected at four shallow water sites east of the San Leandro Bay channel indicated that sedimentation rates have averaged between 0.06 and 0.28 cm/annum. Because bioturbation of bottom sediments cannot be discounted, better definition of this range in sedimentation rates would require measuring the activity of lead-210 on incoming sediments. In addition to sediment deposited in the vicinity of the San Leandro Bay channel and open, shallow areas to the east, 850,740 cu m of sediment was deposited between 1948 and 1983 in an area dredged at the mouth of San Leandro Creek. All available data indicate that between 1,213,000 and 1,364,000 cu m of sediment was deposited in San Leandro Bay between 1948 and 1983. Sediment yield data from an adjacent drainage basin, when combined with inventories of lead-210 and cesium-137, indicate that most of the sediment deposited in San Leandro Bay is coming from resuspension of bottom sediments or from erosion of marshes or shorelines of San Leandro or San Francisco Bay. 31 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  5. Floodplain lakes as an archive for the metal pollution in the River Elbe (Germany) during the 20th century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A floodplain sediment sequence (about 1900–1998) was analyzed on potentially harmful elements. • High sediment contamination by industry restricted to unstable metal binding forms. • After closure of industries (1990) the level of floodplain contamination perpetuates. • Antagonistic binding forms indicate a sensitive equilibrium in sediments. • Floodplain management requires the stabilization of the environmental equilibrium. - Abstract: The German Elbe River floodplains rank under the most polluted areas in Europe. A sudden concentration increase of potentially harmful elements (PHEs) is documented in sediment profiles of Elbe bayous. The increase is dated to the mid of the 20th century (137Cs) and indicates industrialization of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR) as the source of intense pollution. The collapse of the GDR and the industries in the 1990s is traced by a concentration decrease in young sediments. The contamination is restricted to an increase of unstable binding forms; the hydroxide binding form is predominant. The geogenic concentration portions are of normal level and remain stable throughout the profiles (0–2 m). The equilibrium of contradictory binding forms in the sediments makes it mandatory not to interfere with the thermodynamic conditions and to keep the Elbe floodplain as an undisturbed ecological system

  6. Predicting U.S. food demand in the 20th century: a new look at system dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorthy, Mukund; Cellier, Francois E.; LaFrance, Jeffrey T.

    1998-08-01

    The paper describes a new methodology for predicting the behavior of macroeconomic variables. The approach is based on System Dynamics and Fuzzy Inductive Reasoning. A four- layer pseudo-hierarchical model is proposed. The bottom layer makes predications about population dynamics, age distributions among the populace, as well as demographics. The second layer makes predications about the general state of the economy, including such variables as inflation and unemployment. The third layer makes predictions about the demand for certain goods or services, such as milk products, used cars, mobile telephones, or internet services. The fourth and top layer makes predictions about the supply of such goods and services, both in terms of their prices. Each layer can be influenced by control variables the values of which are only determined at higher levels. In this sense, the model is not strictly hierarchical. For example, the demand for goods at level three depends on the prices of these goods, which are only determined at level four. Yet, the prices are themselves influenced by the expected demand. The methodology is exemplified by means of a macroeconomic model that makes predictions about US food demand during the 20th century.

  7. 19th-20th century rainfall patterns reconstructed from sediment provenance in a Santa Barbara Basin box core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napier, T.; Hendy, I. L.; Schimmelmann, A.

    2013-12-01

    Rainfall patterns in Southern California directly affect the availability of water resources and induce hazards in this highly populated and water stressed region. Extreme weather consists of heavy rainfall events in winter associated with atmospheric rivers, and drought conditions when winter rains do not arrive. Water availability has a significant societal impact in Southern California. Here we reconstruct 19th-20th century precipitation history of river catchments draining into Santa Barbara Basin (SBB) through a combination of high-resolution elemental and mineralogical analyses. The deep center of the SBB features suboxic bottom waters and high sedimentation rates resulting in minimal bioturbation of annual sedimentation, which enables high-resolution paleoclimate research. Scanning XRF analysis at a 200 ?m resolution of box core SPR0901-04BC from SBB was used to determine annual changes in sediment composition. Samples at 1 cm resolution from the same box core were analyzed for a more extensive suite of elements by ICP-MS, while mineralogy in each sample was determined from whole rock and clay fraction (draining into SBB. Watershed sediment from the Santa Ynez Mountain streams and Ventura and Santa Clara River catchments derives mostly from Cenozoic sedimentary units, except the Santa Clara River catchment, which contains metamorphic and igneous units. As river runoff is responsible for a significant portion of the terrigenous input into SBB, and is primarily the result of precipitation events, characteristic mineralogy and elemental signatures are a direct recorder of catchment precipitation, and therefore storms and/or atmospheric rivers.

  8. Composition of `Marbrite Fauquez' 20th-century opalescent glass: results of historical study and laboratory analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekeyser, L.; Wouters, H. J. M.; Ligovich, G.; Verdonck, A.; De Clercq, H.

    Belgian Marbrite Fauquez opalescent glass is an innovative material developed at the take-off of the 20th century. S.A. Verreries de Fauquez produced this from 1922 onwards. Low maintenance requirements and appropriate properties in terms of hygienic aspects make these mass coloured glass plates popular as finishes for bathrooms, kitchens, hospitals, store fronts, decorative façade cladding,... Since production of Marbrite stopped in the 1960s, replacement of its applications in the framework of restoration procedures is almost impossible. Limited knowledge of the composition and production results in the lack of a proper conservation strategy. In order to improve the existing knowledge a historical research was conducted. Archive records including patents, literature, building specifications, plans, journals, advertisements, interviews with former directors of the glassworks, etc. were considered and evaluated. Onsite lifted samples of Marbrite glass were submitted to a laboratory investigation using optical and scanning electron microscopy. The results revealed crucial information about the original formula and components. This paper discusses the composition of Marbrite, a peculiar Belgian opalescent glass. This interdisciplinary research - a cooperation between the Vrije Universiteit Brussel and Royal Institute for Cultural Heritage - aims to improve the knowledge of Marbrite glass in order to develop repair and renovation techniques.

  9. Raman analysis of complex pigment mixtures in 20th century metal knight shields of the Order of the Elephant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauridsen, Clara Bratt; Sanyova, Jana; Simonsen, Kim Pilkjær

    2015-11-01

    The pigment composition of six painted metal knight shields of the Order of the Elephant dating from the second half of the 20th century belonging to the Danish royal collection were studied using Raman microscopy. By focusing a 785 nm laser with a 50× objective on particles in paint cross sections, it was possible to identify the following 20 compounds: hematite, goethite, chrome red/orange, chrome yellow, zinc chrome yellow, carbon black, toluidine red PR3, chlorinated para red PR4, dinitroaniline orange PO5, phthalocyanine blue PB15, indanthrone blue PB60, ultramarine, Prussian blue, lead white, anatase, rutile, calcium carbonate, barium sulphate, gypsum and dolomite. The components were frequently present in complex pigment mixtures. Additional information was obtained by elemental analysis with scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) to identify cobalt blue, zinc white and cadmium red, as well as to indicate the presence of zinc white in some pigment mixtures. The study allowed a comparison between the industrially applied preparation layers and the artistic paint layers applied by the heraldic painter. Differences in the choice of paint and pigment types were observed on the earliest knight shields, demonstrating a general delay of industrial materials into artist paints. PMID:26023056

  10. Time with or without death: Researching death in Serbian ethnology during the second half of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavi?evi? Aleksandra

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Topics of ethnological research, as well as scientific discourse in general often represent the mirror of social reality. This paper researches the ways in which dealing with death and current ethnological approaches in Serbian ethnology during the second half of the 20th century, reflect the Zeitgeist. The intensity and the quality of interests for this important anthropological theme varied during the researched period, wherefore it is possible to differentiate two types of works and authors: those who write about funeral rituals, and those who 'read' them. From 1980s until nowadays there are three subgroups of contributions to this theme that reflect critical moments of the contemporary Serbian history. The issues raised in this paper are the following: The way in which state/society regards death the way in which it structures death, the way in which it gives meaning to death, as well as the usage of death for political purpose and the constant effort of civilization to repress it into oblivion.

  11. 20th century trends and budget implications of chloroform and related tri-and dihalomethanes inferred from firn air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Worton

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Four trihalomethane (THM; CHCl3, CHBrCl2, CHBr2Cl and CHBr3 and two dihalomethane (DHM; CH2BrCl and CH2Br2 trace gases have been measured in air extracted from polar firn collected at the North Greenland Icecore Project (NGRIP site. CHCl3 was also measured in firn air from Devon Island (DI, Canada, Dronning Maud Land (DML, Antarctica and Dome Concordia (Dome C, Antarctica. All of these species are believed to be almost entirely of natural origin except for CHCl3 where anthropogenic sources have been reported to contribute ~10% to the global burden. A 2-D atmospheric model was run for CHCl3 using reported emission estimates to produce historical atmospheric trends at the firn sites, which were then input into a firn diffusion model to produce concentration depth profiles that were compared against the measurements. The anthropogenic emissions were modified in order to give the best model fit to the firn data at NGRIP, Dome C and DML. As a result, the contribution of CHCl3 from anthropogenic sources, mainly from pulp and paper manufacture, to the total chloroform budget appears to have been considerably underestimated and was likely to have been close to ~50% at the maximum in atmospheric CHCl3 concentrations around 1990, declining to ~29% at the beginning of the 21st century. We also show that the atmospheric burden of the brominated THM's in the Northern Hemisphere have increased over the 20th century while CH2Br2 has remained constant over time implying that it is entirely of natural origin.

  12. 20th Century trends and budget implications of trihalomethanes and dihalomethanes inferred from North GRIP firn air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Worton

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Four trihalomethane (THM; CHCl3, CHBrCl2, CHBr2Cl and CHBr3 and two dihalomethane (DHM; CH2BrCl and CH2Br2 trace gases have been measured in air extracted from polar firn collected at the North Greenland Icecore Project (NGRIP site. CHCl3 was also measured in firn air from Devon Island (DI, Canada, Dronning Maud Land (DML, Antarctica and Dome Concordia (Dome C, Antarctica. All of these species are believed to be almost entirely of natural origin except for CHCl3 where anthropogenic sources have been reported to contribute ~10% to the global burden. A 2-D atmospheric model was run for CHCl3 using reported emission estimates to produce historical atmospheric trends at the three firn sites, which were then input into a firn diffusion model to produce concentration depth profiles that were compared against the measurements. The anthropogenic emissions were modified in order to give the best model fit to the firn data at NGRIP, Dome C and DML. As a result, the contribution of CHCl3 from anthropogenic sources, mainly from pulp and paper manufacture, to the total chloroform budget appears to have been considerably underestimated and was likely to have been close to ~40% at the maximum in atmospheric CHCl3 concentrations around 1990, declining to ~19% at the beginning of the 21st Century. We also show that the atmospheric burden of the brominated THM's in the northern hemisphere have increased over the 20th Century while CH2Br2 has remained constant over time implying that it is entirely of natural origin.

  13. Long-term changes in nitrate conditions over the 20th century in two Midwestern Corn Belt streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Valerie; Stets, Edward G.; Crawford, Charlie

    2015-06-01

    Long-term changes in nitrate concentration and flux between the middle of the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st century were estimated for the Des Moines River and the Middle Illinois River, two Midwestern Corn Belt streams, using a novel weighted regression approach that is able to detect subtle changes in solute transport behavior over time. The results show that the largest changes in flow-normalized concentration and flux occurred between 1960 and 1980 in both streams, with smaller or negligible changes between 1980 and 2004. Contrasting patterns were observed between (1) nitrate export linked to non-point sources, explicitly runoff of synthetic fertilizer or other surface sources and (2) nitrate export presumably associated with point sources such as urban wastewater or confined livestock feeding facilities, with each of these modes of transport important under different domains of streamflow. Surface runoff was estimated to be consistently most important under high-flow conditions during the spring in both rivers. Nitrate export may also have been considerable in the Des Moines River even under some conditions during the winter when flows are generally lower, suggesting the influence of point sources during this time. Similar results were shown for the Middle Illinois River, which is subject to significant influence of wastewater from the Chicago area, where elevated nitrate concentrations were associated with at the lowest flows during the winter and fall. By modeling concentration directly, this study highlights the complex relationship between concentration and streamflow that has evolved in these two basins over the last 50 years. This approach provides insights about changing conditions that only become observable when stationarity in the relationship between concentration and streamflow is not assumed.

  14. Climate in the Late 20th and 21st Centuries over the Northern Eurasia: RCM and CMIP3 Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkolnik, I. M.; Govorkova, V. A.; Groisman, P. Y.

    2008-12-01

    The study is focused on future changes in climate extremes over the northern Eurasia. The changes in the extreme indices for the mid 21st century relative to the late 20th century have been inferred from CMIP3 daily temperature and precipitation output. It has been found that modeling temperature extremes are in reasonable agreement with reanalysis. Future projections for the extremes in Northern Eurasia are prone to large uncertainties arising primarily from intermodel differences. The uncertainties for «warm» extremes are larger than for «cold» extremes not only due to greater model-to-model differences but also due to slower warming of the former. In the warm season the models project drier climate conditions over some regions of the northern Eurasia, longer droughts, fewer number of wet days and increased heavy precipitation intensity. The AOGCM simulated changes in the extremes lack credibility due to low spatio-temporal resolution of current global models. There is a pressing need to further investigate the impact related aspects of regional climate changes over the northern Eurasia using sufficiently large ensembles of RCM simulations at 10-50 km resolution. Currently, the most dramatic warming in Eurasia is expected to occur in the regions for which a very limited number of single RCM simulations exists (e.g., central and eastern Russia). The MGO RCM has been developed at 50 and 25 km resolutions for three domains: Western Russia, Siberia, and Europe. The regional climate change simulation has been performed and analysis of daily temperature variability and fire danger conditions has been carried out.

  15. Natural movement of Belgrade population in the second half of the 20th century and beginning of the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tucovi? Olgica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the process of natural growth movements of the City of Belgrade in the second half of the 20th and beginning of the 21st centuries. The time level of the analysis was determined by the available data on vital statistics (1961-2005, while the spatial level was determined by the administrative distribution of the City into districts during the 2002 census. It has been established that the natural growth rates for the City of Belgrade were stable until the beginning of the 1980s, though with small oscillations. Then a decrease began until 1992, when the number of deaths exceeded the number of births, with a tendency of negative growth. From then on, the population of Belgrade increased in the last decade of the 20th and beginning of the 21st centuries, only due to the migration component. Although the increase of Belgrade population has never mainly depended on natural growth, it was concluded in the paper that the effects of the ceased natural replacement would yet be shown.

  16. Impacts of the EA and SCA patterns on the 20th century NAO-winter precipitation relationship in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comas-Bru, Laia; McDermott, Frank

    2013-04-01

    Much of the 20th century multi-decadal variability in the NAO-winter precipitation relationship over the N. Atlantic / European sector can be ascribed to the combined effects of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and either the East Atlantic pattern (EA) or the Scandinavian pattern (SCA). The NAO, EA and SCA indices employed here are defined as the three leading vectors of the cross-correlation matrix calculated from monthly sea-level pressure anomalies for 138 complete winters from the 20CRv2 dataset (Compo et al., 2011). Winter precipitation data over Europe for the entire 20th century is derived from the high resolution CRU-TS3.1 climate dataset (Mitchell and Jones, 2005). Here we document for the first time, that different NAO/EA and NAO/SCA combinations systematically influence winter precipitation conditions in Europe as a consequence of NAO dipole migrations. We find that the zero-correlated line of the NAO-winter precipitation relationship migrates southwards when the EA is in the opposite phase to the NAO. This can be related to a south-westwards migration of the NAO dipole under these conditions, as shown by teleconnectivity maps. Similarly, a clockwise movement of the NAO-winter climate correlated areas occurs when the phase of the SCA is opposite to that of the NAO, reflecting a clockwise movement of the NAO dipole under these conditions. An important implication of these migrations is that they influence the spatial and temporal stationarity of climate-NAO relationships. As a result, the link between winter precipitation patterns and the NAO is not straightforward in some regions such as the southern UK, Ireland and France. For instance, much of the inter-annual variability in the N-S winter precipitation gradient in the UK, originally attributed to inter-annual and inter-decadal variability of the NAO, reflects the migration of the NAO dipole, linked to linear combinations of the NAO and the EA. Our results indicate that when the N-S winter precipitation gradient is accentuated by the occurrence of a positive EA during positive NAO winters, drier conditions than normal are found in the southern UK. This is consistent, for example, with the severe winter drought of 1976, when computed NAO and EA indices were both positive (0.97 and 1.87, respectively), illustrating the modulating effect of NAO/EA combinations on winter precipitation patterns in the southern UK. References: Compo GP et al. 2011. The Twentieth Century Reanalysis Project. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 137 (654), 1-28. Mitchell TD, Jones PD. 2005. An improved method for constructing a database of monthly climate observations and associated high-resolution grids. International Journal of Climatology, 25, 693-712.

  17. Digitisation and Presentation of Historical Materials in a Virtual Exhibition ‘The Image of India in Bulgaria: from the late 19th to the late 20th Century’

    OpenAIRE

    Atanasova, Violina; Bogdanova, Galina

    2013-01-01

    The main contribution of this project is the study of collections of valuable documents related to the image of India in Bulgaria. Digital repositories of selected samples are constructed using modern information technologies. The results are presented in a virtual exhibition ‘The Image of India in Bulgaria: from the late 19th to the late 20th century’.

  18. Changes in Vascular Plant Biodiversity in the Netherlands in the 20th Century Explained by their Climatic and other Environmental Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamis, W.L.M.; Van der Meijden, R.; Udo de Haes, H.A. [Nationaal Herbarium Nederland/Leiden University Branch, P.O. Box 9514, 2300, RA, Leiden (Netherlands); Van ' t Zelfde, M. [Institute of Environmental Sciences, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9518, 2300, RA, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2005-09-01

    In the Netherlands nation-wide databases are available with about 10 million records of occurrences of vascular plant species in the 20th century on a scale of approximately 1 km{sup 2}. These data were analysed with a view to identifying relationships between changes in botanical biodiversity and climatic and other environmental factors. Prior to analysis the data were corrected for several major forms of survey bias. The records were broken down into three periods: 1902-1949, 1975-1984 and 1985-1999. Using multiple regression analysis, differences between successive periods were related to plant functional characteristics as explanatory variables. Between the periods 1902-1949 and 1975-1984 there were small but significant increases in the presence of both thermophilic ('warm') and psychrophilic ('cold') species. However, in the final decades of the 20th century there was a marked increase in thermophilic species only, coinciding with the marked increase in ambient temperature observed during this period, evidence at least of a rapid response of Dutch flora to climate change. Urbanisation was also examined as an alternative explanation for the increase in thermophilic plant species and was found to explain only 50% of the increased presence of such species in the final decades of the 20th century. Besides temperature-related effects, the most important change during the 20th century was a strong decline in oligotrophic and a marked increase in eutrophic plant species.

  19. The historical and ethnographic sources about everyday life of the Karelian peasant woman (the end of the 19th to the beginning of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litvin J. V.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article contains basic thematics groups of sources both published and archival from second half of the 19th to beginning of the 20th century. It allows analyse legal and sociocultural state of the karelian peasant woman in and out her family.

  20. History at the Mercy of Politicians and Ideologies: Germany, England, and the Netherlands in the 19th and 20th Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilschut, Arie H. J.

    2010-01-01

    The paper analyses and compares developments in history teaching in Germany, England, and the Netherlands in the 19th and 20th centuries. The development of history teaching in the three countries shows striking similarities. National politics have always used history education for purposes which did not necessarily tally with distanced critical…

  1. Snow cover and permafrost evolution in Siberia as simulated by the MGO regional climate model in the 20th and 21st centuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shkolnik, I M; Nadyozhina, E D; Pavlova, T V; Molkentin, E K; Semioshina, A A [Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory, 194021, 7, Karbyshev street, St Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2010-01-15

    An approach to ground thermodynamics description using a coupled system of atmospheric regional climate and ground heat transfer models is improved by accounting for the time varying snow density. The simulations are compared to available observational analyses, and the sensitivity of the ground thermal regime to variable snow density is analysed. Projected changes of the ground thermal regime in the 21st century relative to the late 20th century are shown and compared to earlier estimates.

  2. Snow cover and permafrost evolution in Siberia as simulated by the MGO regional climate model in the 20th and 21st centuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An approach to ground thermodynamics description using a coupled system of atmospheric regional climate and ground heat transfer models is improved by accounting for the time varying snow density. The simulations are compared to available observational analyses, and the sensitivity of the ground thermal regime to variable snow density is analysed. Projected changes of the ground thermal regime in the 21st century relative to the late 20th century are shown and compared to earlier estimates.

  3. Comparison of 20th century and pre-industrial climate over South America in regional model simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Wagner

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we assess how the anthropogenically induced increase in greenhouse gas concentrations affects the climate of central and southern South America. We utilise two regional climate simulations for present day (PD and pre-industrial (PI times. These simulations are compared to historical reconstructions in order to investigate the driving processes responsible for climatic changes between the different periods. The regional climate model is validated against observations for both re-analysis data and GCM-driven regional simulations for the second half of the 20th century. Model biases are also taken into account for the interpretation of the model results. The added value of the regional simulation over global-scale modelling relates to a better representation of hydrological processes that are particularly evident in the proximity of the Andes Mountains.

    Climatic differences between the simulated PD minus PI period agree qualitatively well with proxy-based temperature reconstructions, albeit the regional model overestimates the amplitude of the temperature increase. For precipitation the most important changes between the PD and PI simulation relate to a dipole pattern along the Andes Mountains with increased precipitation over the southern parts and reduced precipitation over the central parts. Here only a few regions show robust similarity with studies based on empirical evidence. However, from a dynamical point-of-view, atmospheric circulation changes related to an increase in high-latitude zonal wind speed simulated by the regional climate model are consistent with numerical modelling studies addressing changes in greenhouse gas concentrations.

    Our results indicate that besides the direct effect of greenhouse gas changes, large-scale changes in atmospheric circulation and sea surface temperatures also exert an influence on temperature and precipitation changes in southern South America. These combined changes in turn affect the relationship between climate and atmospheric circulation between PD and PI times and should be considered for the statistical reconstruction of climate indices calibrated within present-day climate data.

  4. Human Genome : A Gift of 20th Century and Challenge for 21st Century(Review paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.W. Pandit

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Completion of the human genome sequencing has stirred the whole scientific community in many ways. Apart from deciphering the biological meaning of sequence-language written in three billion letters, which may take a century, scientists are essentially confronted with many challenges. It will not only revolutionise the field of genetics in terms of knowing ourselves better but also help us tremendously in identifying genetic diseases and preventing them by predicting and finding cure for them. Integration of medicine and molecular biology is expected to lead to better health care systems by preventing people from becoming sick by following a suggested way of life based on individual genetic makeup. Recently developed technologies are helping scientists to analyse the genome at an unprecedented scale and understand the function of various genes, influence of environmental factors on them and their correlation with human behaviour. Availability of human genome sequence has raised several ethical and moral questions regarding the confidentiality of the sharing of genomic information as well as whether society is ready for this. Real challenge, after knowing functions of all the genes, would be to make use of this knowledge for the welfare of human beings with the aim to enhance the quality of human life.

  5. Catolicismo y condición femenina: representaciones de género sobre la maternidad y la domesticidad en la prensa del suroeste bonaerense argentino a principios del siglo XX / Catholicism and the Female Condition: Gender Representations of Motherhood and Domesticity in the Southwest Argentinean Buenos Aires Press in the Early 20th Century

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lucía, Bracamonte.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se identifican y describen los significados atribuidos a la maternidad y a la domesticidad analizando las representaciones de género en el discurso de la prensa confesional que aparece en Bahía Blanca y circula por su zona de influencia en las tres primeras décadas del siglo [...] XX. Se sostiene que los(as) católicos(as) que escriben en la prensa comparten el concepto de diferencia sexual dominante y abordan el problema de la condición femenina centrándose en las nociones de domesticidad y maternidad, que aluden al papel de reproducción material y biológica de la sociedad en el marco de la división sexual del trabajo. Sin embargo, algunos de ellos las reformulan frente a las transformaciones de la época que impactan sobre la familia, como resultado de lo cual expresan ideas que, si bien no tienen en sí mismas la intención de subvertir las relaciones de género, avalan ciertas mutaciones de signo moderno. Abstract in english This paper identifies and describes the meanings ascribed to motherhood and domesticity by analyzing gender representations in the discourse of the confessional press that appears in Bahía Blanca and travels through its zone of influence during the first three decades of the 20th century. It is argu [...] ed that Catholic men and women who write in the press share the concept of dominant sexual difference and address the problem of the female condition by focusing on the notions of domesticity and motherhood, which refer to the role of the biological and material reproduction of society in the context of the sexual division of labor. However, some of them reformulate them in response to the epochal changes that have impacted the family, as a result of which they express ideas which, while not in themselves intended to subvert gender relations, endorse certain modern mutations.

  6. Impacts of 20th century aerosol emissions on the South Asian monsoon in the CMIP5 models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Guo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Comparison of single-forcing varieties of 20th century historical experiments in a subset of models from the Fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5 reveals that South Asian summer monsoon rainfall increases towards the present day in Greenhouse Gas (GHG-only experiments with respect to pre-industrial levels, while it decreases in anthropogenic aerosol-only experiments. Comparison of these single-forcing experiments with the all-forcings historical experiment suggests aerosol emissions have dominated South Asian monsoon rainfall trends in recent decades, especially during the 1950s to 1970s. The variations in South Asian monsoon rainfall in these experiments follows approximately the time-evolution of inter-hemispheric temperature gradient over the same period, suggesting a contribution from the large-scale background state relating to the asymmetric distribution of aerosol emissions about the equator. By examining the twenty-five available all-forcings historical experiments, we show that models including aerosol indirect effects dominate the negative rainfall trend. Indeed, models including only the direct radiative effect of aerosol show an increase in monsoon rainfall, consistent with the dominance of increasing greenhouse gas emissions and planetary warming on monsoon rainfall in those models. For South Asia, reduced rainfall in the models with indirect effects is related to decreased evaporation at the land surface rather than from anomalies in horizontal moisture flux, suggesting the impact of indirect effects on local aerosol emissions. This is confirmed by examination of aerosol loading and cloud droplet number trends over the South Asia region. Thus while remote aerosols and their asymmetric distribution about the equator play a role in setting the inter-hemispheric temperature distribution on which the South Asian monsoon, as one of the global monsoons, operates, the addition of indirect aerosol effects acting on very local aerosol emissions also plays a role in declining monsoon rainfall. The disparity between the response of monsoon rainfall to increasing aerosol emissions in models containing direct aerosol effects only and those also containing indirect effects needs to be urgently investigated since the suggested future decline in Asian anthropogenic aerosol emissions inherent to the representative concentration pathways (RCPs used for future climate projection may turn out to be optimistic. In addition, both groups of models show declining rainfall over China, also relating to local aerosol mechanisms. We hypothesize that aerosol emissions over China are large enough, in the CMIP5 models, to cause declining monsoon rainfall even in the absence of indirect aerosol effects. The same is not true for India.

  7. Climatic changes between 20th century and pre-industrial times over South America in regional model simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Wagner

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Two simulations with a regional climate model are analyzed for climatic changes between the late 20th century and a pre-industrial period over central and southern South America. The model simulations have been forced with large-scale boundary data from the global simulation performed with a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model. The regional simulations have been carried out on a 0.44° × 0.44° grid (approx. 50 km × 50 km horizontal resolution. The differences in the external forcings are related to a changed greenhouse gas content of the atmosphere, being higher in the present-day simulation.

    For validation purposes the climate model is analyzed using a five year long simulation between 1993 and 1997 forced with re-analysis data. The climate model reproduces the main climatic features reasonably well, especially when comparing model output co-located with observational station data. However, the comparison between observed and simulated climate is hampered by the sparse meteorological station network in South America.

    The present-day simulation is compared with the pre-industrial simulation for atmospheric fields of near-surface temperatures, precipitation, sea level pressure and zonal wind. Higher temperatures in the present-day simulation are evident over entire South America, mostly pronounced over the southern region of the Andes Mountains and the Parana basin. During southern winter the higher temperatures prevail over the entire continent, with largest differences over the central Andes Mountains and the Amazonian basin.

    Precipitation differences show a more heterogeneous pattern, especially over tropical regions. This might be explained by changes in convective processes acting on small scales. During southern summer wetter conditions are evident over the Amazonian and Parana basin in the present-day simulation. Precipitation increases are evident over Patagonia together with decreases to the north along the western slope of the Andes Mountains. During southern winter also a dipole pattern along the Andes Mountains with wetter conditions over the southern parts and drier conditions over the central parts is evident. An interesting feature relates to precipitation changes with changing sign within a few 10th of kilometers along the southern parts of the Andes mountain chain. This pattern can be explained by changes in large-scale circulation related to latitudinal changes of the extratropical southern hemispheric westerlies.

  8. Impacts of 20th century aerosol emissions on the South Asian monsoon in the CMIP5 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, L.; Turner, A. G.; Highwood, E. J.

    2015-06-01

    Comparison of single-forcing varieties of 20th century historical experiments in a subset of models from the Fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) reveals that South Asian summer monsoon rainfall increases towards the present day in Greenhouse Gas (GHG)-only experiments with respect to pre-industrial levels, while it decreases in anthropogenic aerosol-only experiments. Comparison of these single-forcing experiments with the all-forcings historical experiment suggests aerosol emissions have dominated South Asian monsoon rainfall trends in recent decades, especially during the 1950s to 1970s. The variations in South Asian monsoon rainfall in these experiments follows approximately the time evolution of inter-hemispheric temperature gradient over the same period, suggesting a contribution from the large-scale background state relating to the asymmetric distribution of aerosol emissions about the equator. By examining the 24 available all-forcings historical experiments, we show that models including aerosol indirect effects dominate the negative rainfall trend. Indeed, models including only the direct radiative effect of aerosol show an increase in monsoon rainfall, consistent with the dominance of increasing greenhouse gas emissions and planetary warming on monsoon rainfall in those models. For South Asia, reduced rainfall in the models with indirect effects is related to decreased evaporation at the land surface rather than from anomalies in horizontal moisture flux, suggesting the impact of indirect effects on local aerosol emissions. This is confirmed by examination of aerosol loading and cloud droplet number trends over the South Asia region. Thus, while remote aerosols and their asymmetric distribution about the equator play a role in setting the inter-hemispheric temperature distribution on which the South Asian monsoon, as one of the global monsoons, operates, the addition of indirect aerosol effects acting on very local aerosol emissions also plays a role in declining monsoon rainfall. The disparity between the response of monsoon rainfall to increasing aerosol emissions in models containing direct aerosol effects only and those also containing indirect effects needs to be urgently investigated since the suggested future decline in Asian anthropogenic aerosol emissions inherent to the representative concentration pathways (RCPs) used for future climate projection may turn out to be optimistic. In addition, both groups of models show declining rainfall over China, also relating to local aerosol mechanisms. We hypothesize that aerosol emissions over China are large enough, in the CMIP5 models, to cause declining monsoon rainfall even in the absence of indirect aerosol effects. The same is not true for India.

  9. Medicina, educação e psiquiatria para a infância: o Pavilhão-Escola Bourneville no início do século XX / Médicine, éducation et psychiatrie de l'enfance: le Pavillon-École Bourneville au début du XXe siècle / Child medicine, education and psychiatry: the Bourneville Pavilion-School in the early 20th century / Medicina, educación y psiquiatría para la infancia: el Pabellón Escuela Bourneville en el inicio del siglo XX

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Renata Prudencio da, Silva.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho analisa a criação do Pavilhão-Escola Bourneville do Hospício Nacional de Alienados no início do século XX, primeira instituição brasileira para a assistência a crianças anormais. Destaca o conhecimento então produzido sobre os diagnósticos relativos à infância e sobre o método médico-p [...] edagógico empregado no Pavilhão. Busca-se assim perceber as vias pelas quais a criança se constituiu em objeto da ciência psiquiátrica e das políticas públicas a ela relacionada naquele período. Abstract in spanish Este artículo tiene como objetivo analizar la creación del Pabellón Escuela Bourneville del Hospicio Nacional en el principio del siglo XX, primera institución brasileña para asistencia de los niños anormales. Se destaca el conocimiento producido sobre diagnósticos relativos a la infancia y el métod [...] o médico-pedagógico usado en el pabellón. Se busca con ello comprender las formas en las que el niño se constituyó en objeto de la ciencia psiquiátrica y de las políticas públicas en aquel período. Abstract in english This paper has the objective of analyzing the first Brazilian institution for working with abnormal children, the Bourneville Pavilion-School, at the National Asylum, which operated during the early 20th century. The knowledge at the time regarding diagnoses of children is summarized, together with [...] the medical-pedagogical methods applied at that institution. The manner in which children became the object of psychiatric science and public policies during that period is also treated.

  10. Enhanced 20th-century heat transfer to the Arctic simulated in the context of climate variations over the last millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungclaus, J. H.; Lohmann, K.; Zanchettin, D.

    2014-12-01

    Oceanic heat transport variations, carried by the northward-flowing Atlantic Water, strongly influence Arctic sea-ice distribution, ocean-atmosphere exchanges, and pan-Arctic temperatures. Palaeoceanographic reconstructions from marine sediments near Fram Strait have documented a dramatic increase in Atlantic Water temperatures over the 20th century, unprecedented in the last millennium. Here we present results from Earth system model simulations that reproduce and explain the reconstructed exceptional Atlantic Water warming in Fram Strait in the 20th century in the context of natural variability during the last millennium. The associated increase in ocean heat transfer to the Arctic can be traced back to changes in the ocean circulation in the subpolar North Atlantic. An interplay between a weakening overturning circulation and a strengthening subpolar gyre as a consequence of 20th-century global warming is identified as the driving mechanism for the pronounced warming along the Atlantic Water path toward the Arctic. Simulations covering the late Holocene provide a reference frame that allows us to conclude that the changes during the last century are unprecedented in the last 1150 years and that they cannot be explained by internal variability or natural forcing alone.

  11. Rural School Consolidation in Early Twentieth Century Iowa: Lessons for the Early Twenty-First Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, David R.

    Rural school consolidation in Iowa in the early 20th century was not simply an attempt at educational reform, but was also an attempt to transform the rural social geography of the region. Since consolidation of corporate power had resulted in economic progress in the cities, it was thought that re-centering rural life around country towns could…

  12. Votes Count but the Number of Seats Decides:A comparative historical case study of 20th century Danish, Swedish and Norwegian road policy

    OpenAIRE

    Boge, Knut

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation about Danish, Swedish and Norwegian 20th century road policy is an attempt of elucidating some puzzles: Why did Norwegian authorities pursue a road policy contrary to most other West European industrialized countries? Why were highly noticeable congestion, accident and environmental problems within and near Norway’s major population clusters overlooked or ignored for decades? The theoretical and analytical framework is based on historical institutionalism supplemented with t...

  13. The Concerns Underlying Sex Education for Young People in France During the First Half of the 20th Century: Morality, demography and public health

    OpenAIRE

    Virginie De Luca Barrusse

    2011-01-01

    During the first half of the 20th century, the issue of sex education for young people was the topic of virulent debate. Increasing proposals for sex education in schools, along with lectures and information leaflets, were quickly opposed by Catholic circles, which did not reject sex education in principle but sought to control its form and content. Yet no matter which form or content was chosen, sex education remained underpinned by considerations about the future of the population and the s...

  14. La parasitología y la entomología en la narrativa latinoamericana del siglo XX Parasitology and entomology in the 20th century Latin American narrative

    OpenAIRE

    Hugo Schenone

    2000-01-01

    In the present reviev of twelve pieces produced by distinguished 20th century Latin American writers Jorge Luis Borges from Argentina, Jorge Amado and João Ubaldo Ribeiro from Brazil, José Donoso from Chile, Gabriel García Márquez from Colombia, Alejo Carpentier from Cuba, Miguel Angel Asturias from Guatemala, Octavio Paz from Mexico, Mario Vargas Llosa from Perú, Horacio Quiroga and Mario Benedetti from Uruguay and Arturo Uslar-Pietri from Venezuela ­ paragraphs or parts of paragraphs in...

  15. Polemics in natural sciences shaping local scientific styles in the Czech Lands at the turn of the 19th and 20th Centuries.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štrbá?ová, So?a; Janko, Jan

    Mexico City : Sociedad Mexicana de Historia de la Ciencia y la Tecnologia, 2001. s. 234. [International Congress of History of Science, Symposium S3, Controversies and Disputes in Physical and Chemical Biology in the 19th and 20th Centuries /21./. 08.07.2001-14.07.2001, Mexico City] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A041 Keywords : history * biology Subject RIV: AB - History

  16. Multi-decadal modulations in the Aleutian-Icelandic Low seesaw and the axial symmetry of the Arctic Oscillation signature, as revealed in the 20th century reanalysis

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Ning; Nakamura, Hisashi

    2014-01-01

    Seesaw relationship in intensity between the surface Aleutian and Icelandic Lows (AIS) is a manifestation of atmospheric teleconnection that bridges the interannual variability over the Pacific and Atlantic in particular winter months. Analysis of the 20th Century Reanalysis data reveals that the strength and timing of AIS have undergone multi-decadal modulations in conjunction with those in structure of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) signature, extracted in the leading mode of interannual sea-l...

  17. Trends in adult stature of peoples who inhabited the modern Portuguese territory from the Mesolithic to the late 20th century

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso, H. F. V.; Gomes, J. E. A.

    2008-01-01

    This study documents long-term changes in stature from the Mesolithic to the late 20th century in the territory of modern Portugal. Data utilised originated from published sources and from a sample of the Lisbon identified skeletal collection, where long bone lengths were collected. Mean long bone lengths were obtained from 20 population samples and compiled into nine periods. Pooled long bone lengths for each period were then converted to stature estimates. Results show three major trends: (...

  18. Enhanced 20th-century heat transfer to the Arctic simulated in the context of climate variations over the last millennium

    OpenAIRE

    J. H. Jungclaus; Lohmann, K.; Zanchettin, D.

    2014-01-01

    Oceanic heat transport variations, carried by the northward-flowing Atlantic Water, strongly influence Arctic sea-ice distribution, ocean–atmosphere exchanges, and pan-Arctic temperatures. Palaeoceanographic reconstructions from marine sediments near Fram Strait have documented a dramatic increase in Atlantic Water temperatures over the 20th century, unprecedented in the last millennium. Here we present results from Earth system model simulations that reproduce and explain t...

  19. Sedimentary organic biomarkers suggest detrimental effects of PAHs on estuarine microbial biomass during the 20th century in San Francisco Bay, CA, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Elena B; Rosenbauer, Robert J; Fuller, Christopher C; Jaffe, Bruce J

    2015-01-01

    Hydrocarbon contaminants are ubiquitous in urban aquatic ecosystems, and the ability of some microbial strains to degrade certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is well established. However, detrimental effects of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination on nondegrader microbial populations and photosynthetic organisms have not often been considered. In the current study, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) biomarkers in the sediment record were used to assess historical impacts of petroleum contamination on microbial and/or algal biomass in South San Francisco Bay, CA, USA. Profiles of saturated, branched, and monounsaturated fatty acids had similar concentrations and patterns downcore. Total PAHs in a sediment core were on average greater than 20× higher above ?200 cm than below, which corresponds roughly to the year 1900. Isomer ratios were consistent with a predominant petroleum combustion source for PAHs. Several individual PAHs exceeded sediment quality screening values. Negative correlations between petroleum contaminants and microbial and algal biomarkers - along with high trans/cis ratios of unsaturated FA, and principle component analysis of the PAH and fatty acid records - suggest a negative impacts of petroleum contamination, appearing early in the 20th century, on microbial and/or algal ecology at the site. PMID:25303655

  20. Risk communication and the transformations in the meta narrative of the nuclear field in the 20th and 21st centuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The meta narrative of the nuclear field was influenced in the beginning by the perspectives of economic prosperity and the possibility of diversifying to alternative sources of power. However, it has been transformed throughout the 20th and the early 21st centuries by the collective memory and micro narratives of the nuclear bombs during the II World War and the nuclear or radiologic incidents of Three Mile Island, in 1979, Chernobyl, 1986, Goiania, 1987, and Fukushima, 2011. The most recent occurrence made countries like France and Germany, which depend a great deal on nuclear power supply, to suspend their nuclear programs, although having to retake them afterwards due to the impossibility of getting new sources of energy in a short period of time. All that attracted negative attention to the field and severely impacted the perception of risk by the society. This paper observes the future of the meta narrative in such area will be based in the influence of other national and supranational risk communication narratives around security, pollution, environment and economy. The discussion is based on theories by researchers such as Andreas Huyssen, Carlo Ginzburg, Lorenzo Negri, Maurice Halbwachs, Max Weber, Pedro Fernando Bendassolli, Peter Sandman, Roland Barthes, Ulrick Beck and Walter Benjamin. (author)

  1. Demographic situation in Vojvodina in the last decade of the 20th century and at the beginning of the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?ur?ev Branislav S.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the analyzed demographic data for the last decade of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century, one could conclude that the most significant characteristics of the population of Vojvodina are: slow demographic increase; negative population growth; more and more unfavourable age structure; increase in the decision to remain single; relatively low level of urbanization, a very heterogeneous national composition of the population; acceptance of low reproductive norms in the majority of the population; and a very probable depopulation in the future. The discussed demographic features characteristic for Vojvodina as a whole are also present in most of the smaller territorial-administrative units like districts and muinicipalities. Their population is also characterized by the negative population growth, low birthrate and fertility, high general mortality-rate as well as by a very advanced process of demographic ageing. The analysis about the demographic situation in Vojvodina was primarily based on the data from the 1991 and 2002 censuses, as well as on the data of the vital statistics for that inter-census period.

  2. Ancient versus modern health patterns: biological and socioeconomic status differences and similarities between a Hellenistic and a 20th century human burial population from Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Vanna, V.

    2011-01-01

    The present research offers the rare opportunity to compare the human remains of an ancient (3rd-1st century BC) population from the North Cemetery of Demetrias, Thessaly, and a modern (late 19th-late 20th century AD) one, the Athens Collection, from various cemeteries in Athens, Greece. Its main purpose is to explore the biological similarities and differences between the two populations and among the subsets within each one of them, as these are defined by biosocial parameters, namely se...

  3. AMERICAN MULTI-DWELLING ARCHITECTURE OF THE SECOND HALF OF THE 19TH CENTURY AND FIRST HALF OF THE 20TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sr?an Na?

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available At the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century, the evolution of American multiple-dwelling architecture was marked by the passage from the standard construction of single-family standalone homes and row houses to a new housing typology which corresponded to all of the new urban planning rules and requirements of the contemporary way of life in cities. New York was the first American city to face the problem of dense settlement in limited spaces. The »U, E, H« ground plan designs were developed and were most commonly used during the period when the Building Zone Resolution adopted in 1916 by New York City was in force. The Building Zone Resolution introduced another novelty into New York town planning, i.e. the setting back of exterior walls above a determined height. Consequently, this gave rise to buildings with stepped profiles and many more storeys. The solutions developed by the New York residential architecture were adopted by other cities and further developed in line with specific local influences. Chicago is the most interesting of these cities; between 1924 and 1929 several quality housing complexes were built there which strongly deviated from the then housing construction in New York by the consistent ground plan designs of structures and apartment designs.

  4. Tidal sedimentation in the Tees estuary during the 20th century: radionuclide and magnetic evidence of pollution and sedimentary response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plater, Andrew J.; Appleby, Peter G.

    2004-06-01

    A series of short cores (ca. 0.5 m) were collected from the intertidal zone and reclaimed lowlands of Greatham Creek in the Tees estuary. Magnetic concentration data were combined with radionuclide chronologies based on down-core profiles of unsupported 210Pb activity and 137Cs activity to establish the history of estuarine pollution. The onset of metal pollution is dated to the latter part of the 19th century, peak metal concentrations date from the early 1950s, and the observed decline in metal pollution starts in the early 1980s. Radionuclide chronologies are considered unreliable in the outer part of the estuary where low 210Pb activities cannot be calibrated against 137Cs. In the intertidal zone, 137Cs inventories correlate well with sedimentation rate and can be linked to soil erosion in the catchment rather than the marine delivery of Sellafield radionuclides. In addition, temporal offsets between reliable 210Pb and 137Cs chronologies in the intertidal zone can be attributed to erosion of the upper part of the sedimentary record. Both the intertidal and reclaimed regions exhibit enhanced sedimentation rates for the last 40 years. This is likely to be a response to relative sea-level rise although the impact of engineering works can also be observed in the tidal flats and saltmarshes during the last 25 years in the form of differential erosion and accelerated sedimentation.

  5. Lake surface area variations in the North-Eastern sector of Sagarmatha National Park (Nepal at the end of the 20th Century by comparison of historical maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele BRUCCOLERI

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present work was to investigate variations in the surface areas of lakes in the north-east sector of Sagarmatha National Park (Nepal at the end of the 20th century, through comparison of the Mount Everest maps based on a survey done in the early 1980s, and the official Map of Nepal based on a survey done at the beginning of the 1990s. The analysis of the changes occurring between the 1980s and the 1990s in the surface areas and distribution of lakes in the north-east sector of SNP reveals that lake areas substantially increased, by 15.4 (-5.5; +5.7% (median 12.5%, within hydrographic basins that included a certain amount of glacial cover. In fact, 96% of the lakes whose surface area increased are located in glacial basins. Conversely, the majority of the lakes without glacial cover in their catchment showed a reduction in surface area, and in many cases disappeared (83% of the lakes that disappeared were situated in basins without glaciers. This different behaviour of these two types of lakes, though observed over a short time span, would appear to be consistent with the consequences of temperature increases recorded from the beginning of 1980s on a global and local scale. The digital tool produced (Limnological Information System, LIS as part of this work is intended to provide a useful platform for extending the analysis to entire area of SNP, as well as for subsequent comparisons based on earlier maps or more recent satellite images.

  6. Infancia y salud mental pública en España: siglo XX y actualidad / Children and mental health in spain: 20th century and today

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pilar, López Fraile; Sergio, Herrera López.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo aborda una revisión histórica de la infancia en nuestro país en su vertiente educativa, social y sanitaria, profundizando en la historia y características particulares de la atención pública a la salud mental de nuestros menores. Como en cualquier reflexión histórica, en este trabajo su [...] byace una concepción teórica sobre el fenómeno estudiado, considerando que una asistencia digna al menor es fundamental para la prevención en la salud mental del adulto. Pese a los diferentes aspectos mejorables como el desigual desarrollo autonómico, la insuficiente dotación presupuestaria o la falta de implementación efectiva de los proyectos legales, se puede concluir que la situación de práctica desprotección del niño con trastorno mental a principios del siglo XX ha dado paso a una red asistencial que proporciona atención integral y gratuita a toda la población. Abstract in english This work deals with a historical review of children in our country in its educational, social and sanitary side, deeper into the history and characteristics of the public attention to the mental health of our children. As in any historical reflection in this work underlyes a theoretical conception [...] on the phenomenon under study, whereas a worthy assistance to minors is essential for prevention in mental health of the adult. Despite the different areas for improvement (unequal regional development, insufficient staffing budget, lack of effective implementation of law...), one can conclude that the situation of practical vulnerability of children with mental disorder in the early 20th century has given way to a health care network that gives a comprehensive and free care to the entire population.

  7. Quantifying the role of fire in the Earth system - Part 2: Impact on the net carbon balance of global terrestrial ecosystems for the 20th century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Fang; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Levis, Samuel

    2014-03-07

    Fire is the primary terrestrial ecosystem disturbance agent on a global scale. It affects carbon balance of global terrestrial ecosystems by emitting carbon to atmosphere directly and immediately from biomass burning (i.e., fire direct effect), and by changing net ecosystem productivity and land-use carbon loss in post-fire regions due to biomass burning and fire-induced vegetation mortality (i.e., fire indirect effect). Here, we provide the first quantitative assessment about the impact of fire on the net carbon balance of global terrestrial ecosystems for the 20th century, and investigate the roles of fire direct and indirect effects. This study is done by quantifying the difference between the 20th century fire-on and fire-off simulations with NCAR community land model CLM4.5 as the model platform. Results show that fire decreases net carbon gain of the global terrestrial ecosystems by 1.0 Pg C yr-1 average across the 20th century, as a results of fire direct effect (1.9 Pg C yr-1) partly offset by indirect effect (-0.9 Pg C yr-1). Fire generally decreases the average carbon gains of terrestrial ecosystems in post-fire regions, which are significant over tropical savannas and part of forests in North America and the east of Asia. The general decrease of carbon gains in post-fire regions is because fire direct and indirect effects have similar spatial patterns and the former (to decrease carbon gain) is generally stronger. Moreover, the effect of fire on net carbon balance significantly declines prior to ~1970 with trend of 8 Tg C yr-1 due to increasing fire indirect effect and increases afterward with trend of 18 Tg C yr-1 due to increasing fire direct effect.

  8. Quantifying the role of fire in the Earth system - Part 2: Impact on the net carbon balance of global terrestrial ecosystems for the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F.; Bond-Lamberty, B.; Levis, S.

    2014-03-01

    Fire is the primary form of terrestrial ecosystem disturbance on a global scale. It affects the net carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems by emitting carbon directly and immediately into the atmosphere from biomass burning (the fire direct effect), and by changing net ecosystem productivity and land-use carbon loss in post-fire regions due to biomass burning and fire-induced vegetation mortality (the fire indirect effect). Here, we provide the first quantitative assessment of the impact of fire on the net carbon balance of global terrestrial ecosystems during the 20th century, and investigate the roles of fire's direct and indirect effects. This is done by quantifying the difference between the 20th century fire-on and fire-off simulations with the NCAR Community Land Model CLM4.5 (prescribed vegetation cover and uncoupled from the atmospheric model) as a model platform. Results show that fire decreases the net carbon gain of global terrestrial ecosystems by 1.0 Pg C yr-1 averaged across the 20th century, as a result of the fire direct effect (1.9 Pg C yr-1) partly offset by the indirect effect (-0.9 Pg C yr-1). Post-fire regions generally experience decreased carbon gains, which is significant over tropical savannas and some North American and East Asian forests. This decrease is due to the direct effect usually exceeding the indirect effect, while they have similar spatial patterns and opposite sign. The effect of fire on the net carbon balance significantly declines until ?1970 with a trend of 8 Tg C yr-1 due to an increasing indirect effect, and increases subsequently with a trend of 18 Tg C yr-1 due to an increasing direct effect. These results help constrain the global-scale dynamics of fire and the terrestrial carbon cycle.

  9. French school of neurology in the 19 th and first half of the 20th century, and its influence in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleide da Mota Gomes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available French medicine was of the utmost importance for the birth of modern medicine and neurology in the 19 th century. Innovative approaches, such as examination at the bedside, the use of the stethoscope, techniques of auscultation, palpation, and close patient examination, besides emphasis on anatomical-clinical correlation and observation of the outcome of the disease, were put into practice. French medicine offered professional training and incentives for the beginnings of Brazilian neurology and psychiatry. Returning from France, many Brazilian physicians implemented what they had learned, mainly in Paris. The most important pupils of the French neurology schools in Brazil during the 19 th century and first half of the 20 th century include names like Antonio Austregesilo, Aloysio de Castro, Enjolras Vampré, and Deolindo Couto, founders of the leading Brazilian neurological schools, directly influenced by Dejerine, Pierre Marie, Guillain and Babinski.

  10. Natural stones and types of tombstones in National cemetery in Martin from half of the 19th to half of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Pivko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available About 500 tombstones from National cemetery in Martin were carried out. The cemetery represents section through sepulchral architecture in the 19th and 20th centuries and records history of natural stones use and tombstone evolution. From c. 1850, classicistic steles were produced from Gerecse marble and Banská Bystrica sandstone. Historicist steles of Silesian marble were imported from 1870s. End of 1880s years, variability of tombstone appearance began to grow. Outlined text, carved text fields, ornaments and new typefaces were emerged. In 90s years Carrara marble is imported. Real variousness of tombstone face is typical for first 20 years of the 20th century, when hard natural stones (Silesian granite, Swedish dolerite, and Norwegian larvikite are widely used. Besides them domestic Cenozoic conglomerates, Banská Bystrica sandstone and Bohemian Ho?ice sandstone were utilized. From 20s years to half of the century, variability of natural stones decreased at the expense of Swedish dolerite. Variety of tombstone shapes grew from decorated secession steles, through geometric functionalistic compositions, to simple tabular tombstones.

  11. Mudança em dois períodos do século XX: inter-relacionando análises em tempo aparente / Linguistic change in two periods of the 20th century: interrelating apparent time analyses

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Alice, Tavares.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available À luz da sociolinguística variacionista, tomo os conectores E, AÍ, DAÍ e ENTÃO como variantes da variável dependente "sequenciação retroativo-propulsora". Os dados são oriundos das seguintes fontes: (i) As vinhas da ira, romance escrito por John Steinbeck em 1939, cuja tradução brasileira, datada de [...] 1940, apresenta marcas da fala de classes populares do Rio Grande do Sul; (ii) 48 entrevistas provenientes do Banco de Dados VARSUL de Florianópolis, que foram coletadas ao longo da última década do século XX. Tenho por objetivos: (i) buscar indícios de mudança em tempo real; (ii) buscar indícios de mudança em tempo aparente através do controle da variável social idade; (iii) inter-relacionar os resultados referentes à variável idade nos dois períodos de tempo considerados. Obtive indícios de mudança em tempo real e de mudança em tempo aparente. Além disso, fiz uma inter-relação entre os resultados referentes à variável idade no final da primeira metade do século XX e no final da segunda metade do século XX. Baseada nessa inter-relação, consegui traçar um panorama mais detalhado das mudanças possivelmente sofridas por E, AÍ, DAÍ e ENTÃO ao longo do século XX. Abstract in english Under the light of Labovian Sociolinguistics, I take the Brazilian Portuguese connectors E, AÍ, DAÍ, and ENTÃO as variants of the dependent variable "retroactive-propeller sequenciation". The data come from the following sources: (i) "The grapes of wrath", an novel written by John Steinbeck in 1939, [...] the 1940 Brazilian Portuguese translation of which is marked by spoken language traits of the working classes from Rio Grande do Sul (RS), the most southern Brazil State; (ii) 48 interviews from the VARSUL Data Base of Florianópolis (the capital of Santa Catarina State), which were collected during the last decade of the 20th century. My goal are: (i) to seek evidence of change in real time, (ii) to seek evidence of change in apparent time by controlling the social variable 'age', (iii) to interrelate the results regarding the variable 'age' in both periods of time. The results present evidences of change in both real time and apparent time. Moreover, I set up an inter-relationship between the results regarding the variable 'age' at the end of the first half of the 20th century and at the end of the second half of the 20th century. Based on this inter-relationship, I was able to trace a more detailed picture of the changes the connectors E, AÍ, DAÍ, and ENTÃO possibly underwent throughout the 20th century.

  12. Documentary evidence for changing climatic and anthropogenic influences on the Bermejo Wetland in Mendoza, Argentina, during the 16th–20th century

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas, F; M. R. Prieto

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the processes underlying changes to the once-extensive Bermejo Wetland, east of the city of Mendoza, Argentina (32°55' S, 68°51' W). Historical documents and maps from the 16th to 20th century are used to reconstruct environmental shifts. Historical documents indicate periods of increased snowfall in the adjacent Andes mountains, as well as high flow volumes in the Mendoza River. Data from georeferenced maps, the first from 1802 and the last from 1903, reflect the changes ...

  13. The Scientificalization and Vulgarization of Marxism in the 20th Century: A Critical Analysis on K. Popper’s Critique of Marxism

    OpenAIRE

    Fan Chang

    2013-01-01

    Marxism was indeed vulgarized due to scientism in the 20th century, which even limits the development of Chinese social theories nowadays. This paper put forward the idea that it was serious misunderstanding to interpret Marx as prophet or inventor like empiricists who regard finding out eternal laws as the goal of science. In fact, Marx did not propose any so-called “natural laws of historical development”. He articulated that the only thing worth to do was to take note of what happened befo...

  14. Abrupt and severe 20th Century changes in the fire regimes of southeastern Australia: Evidence from a 3000 year multi-proxy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Patrick; Mooney, Scott; Allen, Kathryn; Willersdorf, Timothy

    2015-04-01

    Fire is the dominant natural disturbance in southeastern Australia. For millennia it has been the driving force shaping terrestrial ecosystems in the region -- simultaneously killing vegetation and initiating regeneration across whole landscapes. Fire regimes across the region are driven by several factors including climate, vegetation, and ignition sources. Humans have been a significant contributing factor to past and present fire regimes. Prior to European settlement in the late 1700s, Aboriginal Australians used frequent, low-intensity fires to manage vegetation across much of the landscape. European settlement led to the displacement of Aboriginal communities and a shift to active fire suppression and control. This changing approach to fire management is widely believed to have initiated a fundamental shift towards extreme, high-intensity fire events as fuel loads increased. In addition, during the 20th Century prolonged periods of warm, dry conditions have occurred with greater frequency and intensity. The relative importance of climate and fire management practices on contemporary fire regimes is vigorously debated in Australia and is directly relevant to land management policies and their implementation. To put the current fire regime into historical context, we used a multi-proxy approach combining palaeo-charcoal and tree-ring analyses to assess how fire regimes have changed over the last 3000 years in the Snowy Mountains region of southeastern Australia. We found almost no evidence of high-intensity fires in the 3000 years that preceded the 20th Century. However, in the mid-20th Century there is a sudden and dramatic increase in the presence of charcoal and the pulsed establishment of trees across the landscape, suggesting a recent shift from low-intensity fires with minimal charcoal signatures to moderate- to high-intensity fires with substantial charcoal inputs. Importantly, the tree-ring data demonstrate that most of these fires were not stand-replacing and led to the establishment of multiple-age cohorts. While there is a clear shift in the fire regime in the 20th Century, the intensification of fire occurs nearly 150 years after European settlement in this area and has led to the establishment of complex, multi-aged forests across the landscape, suggesting an important interaction between fire management practices associated with European settlement and changing climatic conditions.

  15. On a set of 20th century monumental events that shaped the modern discipline of ocean wind wave's research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, P.

    2012-04-01

    History is made up of individual events. The modern ocean wind waves research has been active for nearly 70 years since the early years of the decade of 1940's while the World War II was still fighting in earnest and Sverdrup and Munk were embarked on an unprecedented attempt to make wave condition prediction for Navy Amphibious forces carrying out landing operation. That was certainly a monumental event that started the modern ocean wind wave's research. Here I wish to present a set of other monumental events in the intervening years which, in my personal view, are vital to the formation of our present day conventional ocean wind wave's research: • Circa 1945: The war time invention of underwater pressure wave gage that measures pressure fluctuations induced by surface waves and also marked as the start of single-point wave measurements prevalent today. • Circa 1950: When oceanographer Pierson met statistician Tukey and ocean wave spectrum analysis was thereby born. • Circa 1952: Something old something new - Longuet-Higgins introduced the distribution function of Load Rayleigh to the emerging ocean wave data analysis and Rayleigh distribution has been the mainstay of ocean wind wave's research ever since. • Circa 1953: Neumann started the quest to formulate a wind wave spectrum with his impressive first empirical spectrum before spectrum was widely measured. • Circa 1957: Phillips worked out the resonance theory for wind wave's generation. • Circa 1957: Miles simultaneously developed the shear flow model for wind wave's generation, complementary to Phillips theory. • Circa 1959: Hasselmann formulated the source function to start the first framework of comprehensive wind wave modeling. These are all the basic innovative milestones that the bulk of the conventional ocean wind wave research studies today were evolved from. While the monumental status of these works may represent merely the personal opinion of a single aficionado, I do feel that they were the ones that sowed a rich fertile ground from which a whole sphere of wind wave's research over the last 7 decades was stemmed from and also most of today's practices in ocean wind wave's research were evolved, directly or indirectly, from those original works. As we are now well into the second decade of the 21st century, we can only hope that at some time, a new period of rejuvenation like those flowerishing 1950's can be reshaped to further expand our knowledge on the wind wave research to take further advantages of the many new technological advancements of the new century has to offer and lead us to the true understanding of the ubiquitous but still elusive ocean wind waves which we are all mesmerized to study them!

  16. Multi-Scale Influences of Climate, Spatial Pattern, and Positive Feedback on 20th Century Tree Establishment at Upper Treeline in the Rocky Mountains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, G. P.

    2009-12-01

    The influences of 20th century climate, spatial pattern of tree establishment, and positive feedback were assessed to gain a more holistic understanding of how broad scale abiotic and local scale biotic components interact to govern upper treeline ecotonal dynamics along a latitudinal gradient (ca. 35°N-45°N) in the Rocky Mountains. Study sites (n = 22) were in the Bighorn, Medicine Bow, Front Range, and Sangre de Cristo mountain ranges. Dendroecological techniques were used for a broad scale analysis of climate at treeline. Five-year age-structure classes were compared with identical five-year bins of 20th century climate data using Spearman’s rank correlation and regime shift analysis. Local scale biotic interactions capable of ameliorating broad scale climate inputs through positive feedback were examined by using Ripley’s K to determine the spatial patterns of tree establishment above timberline. Significant correlations (p climate were confined to the Front Range, where a positive correlation exists with summer (June-Aug) and cool season (Nov-Apr) temperature range (Tmax-Tmin). Additionally, trees in the Front Range are almost exclusively situated in a random spatial pattern above timberline (4/5 sites). Random spatial patterns imply that positive feedback is of minimal importance and that trees are more closely aligned with broad scale changes in abiotic conditions. This tight coupling between climate and treeline vegetation in the Front Range helps explain synchronous ecological (tree establishment) and climate regime shifts (temperature) during the early 1950s. Similar to the Front Range, a majority of trees at upper treeline in the Bighorn Mountains are in a random spatial pattern, but their existence appears to be dependent on shelter availability in the lee of boulders. This contingency helps explain the lag time between a regime shift to more favorable temperatures and subsequent peaks in tree establishment. The Medicine Bow and Sangre de Cristo Mountains primarily contain clustered spatial patterns of trees above timberline, which indicates a strong reliance on the amelioration of abiotic conditions through positive feedback with nearby vegetation. Although clustered spatial patterns likely originate in response to harsh abiotic conditions such as drought or constant strong winds, the local scale biotic interactions within a clustered formation of trees appears to override the immediate influence of broad scale climate. This is evidenced both by a lack of significant correlations between tree establishment and climate in these mountain ranges, as well as the considerable lag times between initial climate regime shifts and corresponding shifts in tree age structure. Taken together, this research suggests that the influence of broad scale climate on upper treeline ecotonal dynamics is contingent on the local scale spatial patterns of tree establishment and related influences of positive feedback. These findings have global implications for our understanding of how vegetation patterns will respond to various global climate change scenarios.

  17. ENSO variability in the western tropical Pacific during the 20th and 14th centuries: preliminary results from a ~700 year coral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, M. K.; Quinn, T. M.; Taylor, F. W.; Shen, C.; Maupin, C. R.; Wu, C.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variability prior to anthropogenic influence is crucial to understanding natural climate variability and to informing predictions of future climate change. Coral-based climate records from ENSO-sensitive regions provide unique high-resolution archives of past ENSO variability. However, the massive coral most commonly used in climate studies, Porites spp., rarely provide climate record lengths in excess of 200 years. This presents a challenge because recent work suggests that proxy records of ENSO variability need to exceed 500 years in length in order to capture the full range of natural variability of the ENSO system. Here we present preliminary oxygen isotope (?18O) data from a slower growing, ~700 year long Diploastrea heliopora coral from Lambumbu Bay, Vanuatu (LBV; 16.19°S, 167.39°E), located at the southern edge of the Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP). Coral-based climate records from this region have been shown to be reliable recorders of ENSO-related variability of the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ). The LBV coral was drilled live in 2010 and the bottom of the coral has a U-Th date of 1228 ± 10 CE. Our initial focus is to characterize and compare the geochemical variability recorded in the oldest (14th century) and youngest (20th century) sections of the coral. We observe a ?18O anomaly during the 14th century similar in magnitude to the ?18O anomaly associated with the 1997-1998 ENSO warm-phase event. We also observe that coral ?18O values in the 14th century are enriched by ~ 0.9‰, relative to modern coral ?18O values, which likely reflects salinity differences. Finally, 20th century coral ?18O variability agrees well with a previously published ?18O record from a Porites lutea coral (Sabine Bank, Vanuatu, ~130 km away) providing us with confidence in using Diploastrea heliopora corals for multicentury, continuous coral-based paleoclimate reconstructions.

  18. [Russland an der Ostsee - Russia on the Baltic. Imperiale Strategien der Macht und kulturelle Wahrnehmungsmuster (16. bis 20. Jahrhundert) - Imperial Strategies of Power and Cultural Patterns od Perception (16th - 20th Centuries)] / Olaf Mertelsmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mertelsmann, Olaf, 1969-

    2015-01-01

    Arvustus: Russland an der Ostsee - Russia on the Baltic. Imperiale Strategien der Macht und kulturelle Wahrnehmungsmuster (16. bis 20. Jahrhundert) - Imperial Strategies of Power and Cultural Patterns od Perception (16th - 20th Centuries). Wien; Köln; Weimar: Böhlau, 2012

  19. [Russland an der Ostsee - Russia on the Baltic. Imperiale Strategien der Macht und kulturelle Wahrnehmungsmuster (16. bis 20. Jahrhundert) - Imperial Strategies of Power and Cultural Patterns od Perception (16th - 20th Centuries)] / Olaf Mertelsmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mertelsmann, Olaf, 1969-

    2015-01-01

    Arvustus: Russland an der Ostsee : imperiale Strategien der Macht und kulturelle Wahrnehmungsmuster (16. bis 20. Jahrhundert) = Russia on the Baltic : imperial strategies of power and cultural patterns of perception (16th-20th centuries). Wien [etc.] : Böhlau, 2012

  20. [A pragmatic alliance. Jewisch-Lithuanian political cooperation at the beginning of the 20th century. Hrsg. von Vladas Sirutavičius, Darius Staliūnas] / Karsten Brüggemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brüggemann, Karsten, 1965-

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: A pragmatic alliance. Jewisch-Lithuanian political cooperation at the beginning of the 20th century. Hrsg. von Vladas Sirutavičius und Darius Staliūnas. Verlag CEU Press. Budapest und New York, 2011

  1. [Russland an der Ostsee - Russia on the Baltic. Imperiale Strategien der Macht und kulturelle Wahrnehmungsmuster (16. bis 20. Jahrhundert) - Imperial Strategies of Power and Cultural Patterns od Perception (16th - 20th Centuries)] / Olaf Mertelsmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mertelsmann, Olaf, 1969-

    2015-01-01

    Arvustus: Russland an der Ostsee : imperiale Strategien der Macht und kulturelle Wahrnehmungsmuster (16. bis 20. Jahrhundert) = Russia on the Baltic : imperial strategies of power and cultural patterns of perception (16th-20th centuries). Wien [etc.] : Böhlau, 2012

  2. Documentary evidence for changing climatic and anthropogenic influences on the Bermejo Wetland in Mendoza, Argentina, during the 16th-20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, M. R.; Rojas, F.

    2012-05-01

    This paper examines the processes underlying changes to the once-extensive Bermejo Wetland, east of the city of Mendoza, Argentina (32°55' S, 68°51' W). Historical documents and maps from the 16th to 20th century are used to reconstruct environmental shifts. Historical documents indicate periods of increased snowfall in the adjacent Andes mountains, as well as high flow volumes in the Mendoza River. Data from georeferenced maps, the first from 1802 and the last from 1903, reflect the changes in the surface area of the wetland. The combined data sets show pulses of growth and retraction, in which major expansions coincided with more intense snowstorms and increased flow in the Mendoza River, which in turn influenced socio-economic activities. The wetland became progressively drier during the 19th century, before drying up completely around 1930, due in part to the construction of drainages and channels.

  3. Trace elements in South America aerosol during 20th century inferred from a Nevado Illimani ice core, Eastern Bolivian Andes (6350 m asl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Correia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A 137 m ice core drilled in 1999 from Eastern Bolivian Andes at the summit of Nevado Illimani (16º 37' S, 67º 46' W, 6350 m asl was analyzed at high temporal resolution, allowing a characterization of trace elements in Andean aerosol trapped in the ice during the 20th century. The upper 50 m of the ice core were dated by multi-proxy analysis of stable isotopes (d18O and d2H, 137Cs and Ca+2 content, electrical conductivity, and insoluble microparticle content, together with reference historical horizons from atmospheric nuclear tests and known volcanic eruptions. This 50 m section corresponds to a record of environmental variations spanning about 80 years from 1919 to 1999. It was cut in 744 sub-samples under laminar flow in a clean bench, which were analyzed by Ion Chromatography for major ionic concentration, by a particle counter for insoluble aerosol content, and by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS for the concentration of 45 chemical species from Li to U. This paper focuses on results of trace element concentrations measured by ICP-MS. The high temporal resolution used in the analyses allowed classifying samples as belonging to dry or wet seasons. During wet season elemental concentrations are low and samples show high crustal enrichment factors. During dry seasons the situation is opposite, with high elemental concentrations and low crustal enrichments. For example, with salt lakes as main sources in the region, average Li concentration during the 20th century is 0.035 and 0.90 ng g-1 for wet and dry seasons, respectively. Illimani average seasonal concentration ranges cover the spectrum of elemental concentration measurements at another Andean ice core site (Sajama for most soil-related elements. Regional crustal dust load in the deposits was found to be overwhelming during dry season, obfuscating the contribution of biomass burning material. Marked temporal trends from the onset of 20th century to more recent years were identified for the concentrations of several trace species of anthropic origin, especially for Cu, As, Zn, Cd, Co, Ni and Cr. Among these elements, Cu shows average wet season crustal enrichment factors above 103, while the others range between 102 to about 5x102. P and K show moderate average wet season enrichment factors, suggesting an impact of natural biogenic emissions from the Amazon Basin. Pb has multiple anthropic sources in the region, from mining activities in the beginning of 20th century to automotive fuel after 1950s. From the large number of samples analyzed from Illimani, it was possible to derive an effective chemical characterization of the deposited background Andean soil dust aerosol during 20th century.

  4. Trace elements in South America aerosol during 20th century inferred from a Nevado Illimani ice core, Eastern Bolivian Andes (6350 m a.s.l.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-D. Taupin

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available A 137 m ice core drilled in 1999 from Eastern Bolivian Andes at the summit of Nevado Illimani (16° 37' S, 67° 46' W, 6350 m a.s.l. was analyzed at high temporal resolution, allowing a characterization of trace elements in Andean aerosol trapped in the ice during the 20th century. The upper 50 m of the ice core were dated by multi-proxy analysis of stable isotopes (d18O and d2H, 137Cs and Ca+2 content, electrical conductivity, and insoluble microparticle content, together with reference historical horizons from atmospheric nuclear tests and known volcanic eruptions. This 50 m section corresponds to a record of environmental variations spanning about 80 years from 1919 to 1999. It was cut in 744 sub-samples under laminar flow in a clean bench, which were analyzed by Ion Chromatography for major ionic concentration, by a particle counter for insoluble aerosol content, and by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS for the concentration of 45 chemical species from Li to U. This paper focuses on results of trace element concentrations measured by ICP-MS. The high temporal resolution used in the analyses allowed classifying samples as belonging to dry or wet seasons. During wet season elemental concentrations are low and samples show high crustal enrichment factors. During dry seasons the situation is opposite, with high elemental concentrations and low crustal enrichments. For example, with salt lakes as main sources in the region, average Li concentration during the 20th century is 0.035 and 0.90 ng g?1 for wet and dry seasons, respectively. Illimani average seasonal concentration ranges cover the spectrum of elemental concentration measurements at another Andean ice core site (Sajama for most soil-related elements. Regional crustal dust load in the deposits was found to be overwhelming during dry season, obfuscating the contribution of biomass burning material. Marked temporal trends from the onset of 20th century to more recent years were identified for the concentrations of several trace species of anthropic origin, especially for Cu, As, Zn, Cd, Co, Ni and Cr. Among these elements, Cu shows average wet season crustal enrichment factors above 103, while the others range between 102 to about 5×102. P and K show moderate average wet season enrichment factors, suggesting an impact of natural biogenic emissions from the Amazon Basin. Pb has multiple anthropic sources in the region, from mining activities in the beginning of 20th century to automotive fuel after 1950's. From the large number of samples analyzed from Illimani, it was possible to derive an effective chemical characterization of the deposited background Andean soil dust aerosol during 20th century.

  5. Fsiles de novela: paleontologa y literatura en la argentina de fines del siglo XIX y principios del siglo / Fossils as fictional characters: Argentine paleontology and literature in the late 19th century and the beginnings of the 20th century

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo G., Ottone.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available La literatura argentina de la segunda mitad del siglo XIX y comienzos del siglo XX refiri la presencia de mamferos fsiles cenozoicos en las pampas. Gliptodontes y megaterios devinieron en personajes de los textos de Eduardo Ladislao Holmberg, William Henry Hudson, Eduarda y Lucio Victorio Mansilla, [...] Leopoldo Lugones, Geoffroy Franois Daireux, Horacio Quiroga, Hugo Wast, Ezequiel Martnez Estrada, Leopoldo Marechal y Manuel Mujica Lainez. Estos autores contextualizaron a los vertebrados fsiles en escenas humorsticas o realistas, como iconos de la grandeza de la Pampa y la nacin o parodia de estereotipos culturales locales. Abstract in english Argentine literature from the second half of the 19th century and the early 20th century referred to the presence of Cenozoic fossil mammals in the pampas. Glyptodons and megatheriums became characters in the texts of Eduardo Ladislao Holmberg, William Henry Hudson, Eduarda y Lucio Victorio Mansilla [...] , Leopoldo Lugones, Geoffroy Franois Daireux, Horacio Quiroga, Hugo Wast, Ezequiel Martnez Estrada, Leopoldo Marechal and Manuel Mujica Lainez. These authors contextualize the fossil vertebrates in humoristic or realistic scenes, as icons of the greatness of the nation and the Pampa, or as a parody of local cultural stereotypes.

  6. Fsiles de novela: paleontologa y literatura en la argentina de fines del siglo XIX y principios del siglo Fossils as fictional characters: Argentine paleontology and literature in the late 19th century and the beginnings of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo G. Ottone

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available La literatura argentina de la segunda mitad del siglo XIX y comienzos del siglo XX refiri la presencia de mamferos fsiles cenozoicos en las pampas. Gliptodontes y megaterios devinieron en personajes de los textos de Eduardo Ladislao Holmberg, William Henry Hudson, Eduarda y Lucio Victorio Mansilla, Leopoldo Lugones, Geoffroy Franois Daireux, Horacio Quiroga, Hugo Wast, Ezequiel Martnez Estrada, Leopoldo Marechal y Manuel Mujica Lainez. Estos autores contextualizaron a los vertebrados fsiles en escenas humorsticas o realistas, como iconos de la grandeza de la Pampa y la nacin o parodia de estereotipos culturales locales.Argentine literature from the second half of the 19th century and the early 20th century referred to the presence of Cenozoic fossil mammals in the pampas. Glyptodons and megatheriums became characters in the texts of Eduardo Ladislao Holmberg, William Henry Hudson, Eduarda y Lucio Victorio Mansilla, Leopoldo Lugones, Geoffroy Franois Daireux, Horacio Quiroga, Hugo Wast, Ezequiel Martnez Estrada, Leopoldo Marechal and Manuel Mujica Lainez. These authors contextualize the fossil vertebrates in humoristic or realistic scenes, as icons of the greatness of the nation and the Pampa, or as a parody of local cultural stereotypes.

  7. São Paulo e a Ideologia Higienista entre os séculos XIX e XX: a utopia da civilidade Hygienism in Sao Paulo between 19th and 20th centuries: the civilizing utopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonso Soares de Oliveira Sobrinho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available No contexto da modernidade, situamos o período entre o final do Século XIX e início do XX, em São Paulo, mais precisamente nos primórdios da República, quando houve um processo de higiene e limpeza social, associado à pobreza e, ao mesmo tempo, a um desejo utópico de uma cidade limpa e saudável, como ideologia elitista.In this paper, we analyze, within the context of modernity, the period between the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century in São Paulo. More precisely, the early days of the Republic, when a process of hygiene and 'social cleansing' took place, which was associated with poverty, and, at the same time, with a utopian desire for a clean and healthy city as an ideology of elites.

  8. São Paulo e a Ideologia Higienista entre os séculos XIX e XX: a utopia da civilidade / Hygienism in Sao Paulo between 19th and 20th centuries: the civilizing utopia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Afonso Soares de, Oliveira Sobrinho.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available No contexto da modernidade, situamos o período entre o final do Século XIX e início do XX, em São Paulo, mais precisamente nos primórdios da República, quando houve um processo de higiene e limpeza social, associado à pobreza e, ao mesmo tempo, a um desejo utópico de uma cidade limpa e saudável, com [...] o ideologia elitista. Abstract in english In this paper, we analyze, within the context of modernity, the period between the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century in São Paulo. More precisely, the early days of the Republic, when a process of hygiene and 'social cleansing' took place, which was associated with povert [...] y, and, at the same time, with a utopian desire for a clean and healthy city as an ideology of elites.

  9. Proglacial sediment supply and channel evolution of the Arveyron of the Mer de Glace since the early 20th c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthet, Johan; Astrade, Laurent; Ravanel, Ludovic; Ployon, Estelle

    2015-04-01

    The Arveyron of the Mer de Glace is the emissary of the most famous and largest French glacier. The latter has dramatically shrunk since the end of the Little Ice Age (LIA), such as every alpine glacier: the front has registered a retreat of 2.7 km since 1820 and a recent modelling showed a likely decrease of an extra km by 2040. The Arveyron and its surroundings are deeply impacted by the retreat. Then, dynamics of proglacial streams and of lateral moraines have been studied at different time and space scales through various methods: airborne and terrestrial Lidar DEM comparisons, mapping from orthophotos, 2D and 3D monoplotting to quantify past events from old terrestrial pictures, etc. By coupling studies on moraines and on stream morphology we wanted to better understand the influence of glacier retreat on sediment supply and transport downstream. Results show the evolution of the stream sediment sources linked to the glacier retreat. Before the middle of the 20th century, till was the main sediment source and was released by major flood events such as GLOFs. Now, geomorphic activity is especially important on the right lateral moraine into the recently deglaciated hanging valley of the Mer de Glace but also in the moraine flanks of the current glacier tongue (many landslides occurred during the Summer 2014). The recent glacier retreat has also formed sediments sinks such as two proglacial lakes which are progressively filling. These lakes work as big sediment traps until they will disappear (around 2017). Fluvial dynamics of the Arveyron depends on the connectivity with potential sediments sources. This is why we crossed upstream studies with the channel evolution on its fan. Arveyron channel has got narrower and incised for at least a century. Such evolution should mean a decreasing sediment yield, but anthropic factors play also an important role on stream morphology. The main anthorpic impact is the complex subglacial harnessing of the Mer de Glace. The Arveyron discharge is totally by passed up to the restitution channel, even during flood events. Evolution of the paraglacial area, but also downstream, is thus largely influenced by that facility. Finally we used recent modelling of the Mer de Glace retreat for the next decades to comprehend the future paraglacial landscapes and what the Arveyron dynamics should become. Excepted small threshold effects, no major evolution should occur.

  10. Achievements of Polish doctors in gastrodiaphanoscopy at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries

    OpenAIRE

    Kierzek, Andrzej; Paprocka-Borowicz, Ma?gorzata; Pozowski, Andrzej; Kuciel-Lewandowska, Jadwiga

    2013-01-01

    Diaphanoscopy/transillumination, the method of shining a bright light through tissues, was devised in the mid-19th century and developed after the invention of the light bulb by T.A. Edison. Benjamin Milliot was the first to examine the stomach by means of an incandescent platinum wire. The experiments conducted by Max Einhorn using a device consisting of a Nelaton catheter with an inserted light bulb, were valuable. In Poland the method of gastrodiaphanoscopy was popularized by Teodor Heryng...

  11. Heisenberg Probably Slept Here: The Lives, Times, and Ideas of the Great Physicists of the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Richard P.

    1998-09-01

    "Here is a book I wish I had when taking physics my senior year in high school!" -Book Report A lively illumination of modern physics' marquee players, featuring: * Albert Einstein * Max Planck * Ernest Rutherford * Niels Bohr * Werner Heisenberg * Richard Feynman * Murray Gell-Mann "Brennan has a knack for explaining difficult technicalities simply. His essays give a useful summary of twentieth-century science." -Financial Times "Highly recommended to expert and layperson alike." -Choice

  12. The Influence of Canadian Intellectuals’ Ideological Views on the Political Culture in Canada at the Beginning of the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOKOV I.A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the political views of Canadian intellectuals which had influence on the formation of Canadian political culture at the turn of the 20th century. The author confirms that the Canadian intellectual thought was the main ideological factor in the conditions of the formation of Canadian statehood, undeveloped party and political system, the lack of deep traditions of the parliamentary system, insufficient political practice and the lack of distinct ideology of basic political parties in the process of forming the Canadian nation. On the basis of studied Canadian sources, the author makes conclusion that the most of Canadian intellectuals did not participate directly in the political process and they considered themselves its bystanders. Besides, the Canadian intellectuals promoted the British political culture of the Victorian epoch. Although all of them were familiar wih the British socialistic thought – Fabianism, they insisted that the social transformation in the Canadian society is possible only through the improvement of moral system, the education of lower social classes and the maintenance of elite monarch traditions. The American influence on Canadian political culture was peripheral at the beginning of the 20th century. The ideas of the Chicago Sociological School and the European continental thought were not used. The Victorian intellectuals understood their time as the social crisis and their political discussions were often devoted to the problems of imperialism, religion, education and feminism. They undoubtedly influenced the Canadian political elite in the matter of further development of the Canadian nation and state, but they expressed their own unique views on the contemporary society in academic press and in elite clubs discussions. They did not share the opinion of publicity about contemporary social processes, because their position was far from the direct party policy. Though some of them participated as the experts in the government commissions and in the international organizations, and doing so, they influenced the process of making political decisions. The Canadian Victorian intellectuals considering themselves bystanders of contemporary social processes, created the background for smooth evolution transition to the policy of social transformation, the development of unique Canadian liberal tradition and the creation of the social welfare state in the middle of the 20th century.

  13. [Amand Valeur and Raymond Delaby: the work of two "Béhaliens" pharmacists in organic chemistry in the 20th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, Loïc

    2009-04-01

    At the end of the 19th century, Auguste Béhal, student of Wurtz and Friedel, imposes the atomic theory, in the French higher education. Béhal then will teach and direct the work of many students called Béhaliens. Among the latter, one finds Amand Valeur and Raymond Delaby which are originating in the same birthplace as Béhal: Lens. These two chemist-pharmacists, as Béhal, will teach or carry out their research in the same place as them professor: the Ecole supérieure de pharmacie. Their work illustrates well the concerns of the researchers of the time. Moreover, they are polyvalent chemists: organic, inorganic, medicinal, etc. PMID:19824346

  14. A Networks and Machine Learning Approach to Determine the Best College Coaches of the 20th-21st Centuries

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Tian-Shun; Polizzi, Zachary; Yuan, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Our objective is to find the five best college sports coaches of past century for three different sports. We decided to look at men's basketball, football, and baseball. We wanted to use an approach that could definitively determine team skill from the games played, and then use a machine-learning algorithm to calculate the correct coach skills for each team in a given year. We created a networks-based model to calculate team skill from historical game data. A digraph was cr...

  15. Long-term Trends in Interplanetary Magnetic Field Strength and Solar Wind Structure during the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, I. G.; Cliver, E. W.; Cane, H. V.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Lockwood et al have recently reported an approximately 40% increase in the radial component of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) at Earth between 1964 and 1996. We argue that this increase does not constitute a secular trend but is largely the consequence of lower than average fields during solar cycle 20 (1964-1976) in comparison with surrounding cycles. For times after 1976 the average IMF strength has actually decreased slightly. Examination of the cosmic ray intensity, an indirect measure of the IMF strength, over the last five solar cycles (19-23) also indicates that cycle averages of the IMF strength have been relatively constant since approximately 1954. We also consider the origin of the well-documented increase in the geomagnetic alphaalpha index that occurred primarily during the first half of the twentieth century. We surmise that the coronal mass ejection (CME) rate for recent solar cycles was approximately twice as high as that for solar cycles 100 years ago. However, this change in the CME rate and the accompanying increase in 27-day recurrent storm activity reported by others are unable to account completely for the increase in alphaalpha. Rather, the CMEs and recurrent high-speed streams at the beginning of the twentieth century must have been embedded in a background of slow solar wind that was less geoeffective (having, for example, lower IMF strength and/or flow speed) than its modern counterpart.

  16. The Welfare Culture. Poetics of Comfort in Architecture of the 19th and 20th-centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Prieto González

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractArchitectural history of the last two centuries shows that welfare, far from being a purely technical issue – a balance between weather and the physiological human constants – is a culturally constructed idea concerning diverse factors, such as the relationship between space and human body or the ways of conceiving nature in architecture. However, the notion of comfort has not received the historiographical attention it deserves, hence the need for a new perspective, aesthetic and multidisciplinary in nature. Such a view is discussed in this article through a brief and partial history of comfort that addresses the different meanings assigned to the concept over the past two centuries, in accordance with a kind of 'poetics': the longstanding poetics of fire, linked the regenerative comfort; the poetics of hygiene and habitat, developed during modernity as a scientifistic dogma and as an aesthetic alibi, and, finally, the poetics of atmospheres, which accounts for contemporary concerns about perception, memory and sociability. From this historical review we can conclude that welfare is not an objectifiable concept, nor an idea synthesized in the technician or scientist test tubes, but a complex notion consisting of several intertwined layers: physiological, constructive, aesthetic, existential, social. The history of comfort is, thus, a sort of small version of the history of culture.Key wordscomfort, architecture, hygiene, habitat, atmosphere

  17. Estimation of the Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance for the 20th and 21st centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Fettweis

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Results from a regional climate simulation (1970–2006 over the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS reveals that more than 97% of the interannual variability of the modelled Surface Mass Balance (SMB can be explained by the GrIS summer temperature anomaly and the GrIS annual precipitation anomaly. This multiple regression is then used to empirically estimate the GrIS SMB since 1900 from climatological time series. The projected SMB changes in the 21st century are investigated with the set of simulations performed with atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs of the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC AR4. These estimates show that the high surface mass loss rates of recent years are not unprecedented in the GrIS history of the last hundred years. The minimum SMB rate seems to have occurred earlier in the 1930s and corresponds to a zero SMB rate. The AOGCMs project that the SMB rate of the 1930s would be common at the end of 2100. The temperature would be higher than in the 1930s but the increase of accumulation in the 21st century would partly offset the acceleration of surface melt due to the temperature increase. However, these assumptions are based on an empirical multiple regression only validated for recent/current climatic conditions, and the accuracy and time homogeneity of the data sets and AOGCM results used in these estimations constitute a large uncertainty.

  18. [Department of Psychiatry, Centre for Psychiatry, Psychatrium--trends and changes in the names for mental health care institutions in Germany in the 20th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carius, Dirk; Steinberg, Holger; Bauer, Manfred; Angermeyer, Matthias C

    2007-03-01

    This paper investigates trends in the history of names for psychiatric institutions in Germany in the 20 (th) century. Professional lobbyism as well as efforts to fight stigmatisation of mentally ill patients form the background for name changes. The replacement of the term "Heil- Und Pflegeanstalt" ("Institution for the Cure and Care") by "Krankenhaus" ("hospital") in the 1950s/1960s, when through the introduction of modern psychopharmaceuticals psychiatry finally got acknowledged as an equal medical discipline and at the same time broke with the dreadful heritage of Nazi psychiatry, was a major step. The unity of the hospital itself and complimentary mental health care institutions is often expressed by "Zentrum" ("centre") as is the preservation of the patients' ties and their reintegration into the community by "Soziale Psychiatrie". PMID:17106837

  19. 20th and 21st Century Climate Simulations and Projections in Central Africa by CMIP5 Climate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloysius, N. R.; Saiers, J. E.; Sheffield, J.

    2013-12-01

    Global and regional climate change assessments rely heavily on the Global Climate Model (GCM) outputs provided by the IPCC's Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP5). In this study, we evaluate the ability of 25 GCMs to simulate historical precipitation and near surface temperature fields in Central Africa, apply a quantile-mapping based bias correction to monthly climate fields, and develop three-hourly, daily, and monthly bias-corrected fields for the period 1948-2099. The dataset, at 1.0o latitude/longitude horizontal resolution, is constructed by combining a suite of global observation and reanalysis based monthly and three-hourly data, monthly GCM simulations for the twentieth century, and twenty-first century projections for the IPCC medium mitigation (RCP45) and high emission (RCP85) scenarios. The GCMs simulate historical temperature better than precipitation, but substantial spatial heterogeneity exists among models. Many models show limited skill in simulating the seasonal evolution of present day precipitation, but none of them reveal changes in the seasonality in the future at monthly scale. We present the comparison of historical model performance by individual GCMs as well as several combinations of multimodel ensemble averages. Our results do not reveal any improvement in model performance between high- and low-resolution GCMs during the historical period. But, the multimodel averages of better performing models show greater skills in reproducing the historical climate over randomly selected GCM averages in Central Africa. Our analyses also show that the choice of GCM and emission scenario will dominate the uncertainty in climate change projections. Although our analyses are done for the Central African region, the final dataset is available for global land areas, which will be useful for a variety of climate impact, assessment, and adaptation studies.

  20. Flood hazard of the Somma-Vesuvius region based on historical (19-20th century and geomorphological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana Alessio

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a preliminary susceptibility map of the flood hazard for the Somma-Vesuvius volcanic district, worked out by means of multi-disciplinary historical, geological, geomorphological and rainfall data processing. It is well known that the Somma-Vesuvius volcano, due to its explosive volcanism and the dense urbanization of the surrounding area, with a population exceeding 650,000 is one of the most dangerous active volcanoes of the world. Although this area has been extensively studied from the volcanological point of view with regards to its volcanic hazard, there are currently not many detailed studies about its flood hazard factors, despite the fact that, in the last century, many intense rainfall events in this area have produced several floods that invaded the surrounding plains affecting towns and roads, and causing much damages and loss of lives. Accordingly, in this paper high-resolution DEM (5×5 m pixel and detailed geomorphological maps of the whole area have been analyzed and processed in GIS environment, carrying out a comparative study of the present-day morphology and the morphology of the 1900’s volcanic edifice, including changes of infrastructures and buildings throughout the last century. These results, together with historical chronicles data and the rainfall accurate data for all flood events, have been processed in this paper for highlighting the drainage basins areas of Somma-Vesuvius where the flood phenomena could be more probable in the future, working out a preliminary zoning map, also suggesting in which sectors interventions useful for mitigation of flood risk should be implemented.

  1. Geochemical response of a closed-lake basin to 20th century recurring droughts/wet intervals in the subtropical Pampean Plains of South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel ARIZTEGUI

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Laguna Mar Chiquita is a highly variable closed saline lake located in the Pampean Plains of central Argentina. Presently is the largest saline lake in South America (? 6,000 km2 and also one of the largest in the world. During the 20th century the hydrological balance of the region was characterized by contrasting scenarios. Well-defined wet or dry climatic phases had ruled the lake level fluctuations and the rivers discharge, mainly controlling the geochemical composition of sediments. Sediments accumulated during positive hydrological balances (i.e., high lake level are mainly composed of allogenic mineral due to higher riverine inputs into the lake. This fluvial-dominated lake phases are recorded as sediments enriched in Al2O3, SiO2, K2O, Fe2O3 and TiO2 and in trace elements such as Co, Cr, Cs, Rb, Sc, Hf, Ta, Th as well as rare earth elements (REE. Sediments accumulated during dry phases (i.e., low lake levels and high salinity are evaporite mineral-rich with elevated concentrations of CaO, MnO, MgO, and P2O5. High contents of As and U are probably due to a co-precitation during high evaporative phases. The calibration of the sediment chemical composition of Laguna Mar Chiquita to well-defined water-level fluctuations of the 20th century shows that elemental geochemistry can be a useful proxy to study former lake-water fluctuations. It may further provide a comparative model to evaluate past environmental conditions in other saline lacustrine basins.

  2. [Links between profession and family in the community of Lithuanian pharmacists at the end of 19th and the beginning of 20th centuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudiene, Vilma

    2005-01-01

    Little research has been carried out in the sphere of the relations between a pharmaceutical career and family in the historiography of pharmacy history. A peculiar influence of family on the choice of the pharmaceutical way of life came into existence in the period of Lithuanian national revival at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th. This article aims to reveal the relations between a Lithuanian family and pharmaceutical career, to analyze the influence of political, social, economic factors on these relations. At the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th the resistance of Lithuanian peasants against Russification, Polonification manifested in their objective to form Lithuanian intelligentsia. Priestly seminaries became the major centre for preparing new Lithuanian intelligentsia. It was prestigious to become a priest. Moreover, this profession guaranteed material wealth. Young people often left the seminary and started their work in pharmacies where they got a shelter and small 5 rubles earning of a pharmacy apprentice. Such runaways from parents settled in the university cities of czarist Russia and had a purpose to become self-dependent (i.e. to get education) without parents' support. The choice of a woman-pharmacist career, however, was greatly influenced by the profession of her husband. Some educated Lithuanian pharmacists encouraged their wives to choose the same specialty as theirs but such occasions were rare. Sometimes it happened so that pharmacists married, but there were only few Lithuanian women-pharmacists or assistants of pharmacists, and in the period of Lithuanian national revival the point of view on ethnically mixed families was negative. This article discusses about the career of women-pharmacists and the influence of family on the choice of a profession, as well as Lithuanian point of view on ethnically mixed families of pharmacists. PMID:15998993

  3. A higienização da escola primária portuguesa no amanhecer do século 20 - The portuguese elementary school hygiene at the turn of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Manuela Pereira Figueiredo Rodrigues, Portugal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente texto procura refletir sobre as preocupações higienizantes que, a partir dos finais do século 19, passaram a atuar no espaço escolar. De um modo mais específico, procurar-se-á acompanhar a transposição didática dos normativos legais ao território espacial das escolas primárias do concelho do Barreiro, num período temporal que se estende até aos anos de 1920.Palavras-chave: higiene, escola primária, cultura escolar. THE PORTUGUESE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL HYGIENE AT THE TURN OF THE 20TH CENTURYAbstractThis paper seeks to reflect on the new hygiene concerns that from the late 19th century, act in school. In particular, it will try to follow the didactic transposition of the legal norms to the elementary schools spatial territory fromBarreiro, in a time period that extends until the twenties of the 20th century.Key-words: hygiene, elementary school, school culture. LA HIGIENIZAÇÃO DE LA ESCUELA PRIMARIA PORTUGUESA EN EL AMANECER DEL SIGLO 20ResumenEl presente texto pretende reflejar sobre las nuevas preocupaciones higienizantes que, a partir de los finales del siglo 19, actúan en el espacio escolar. De un modo más específico, se buscará acompañar la transposición didáctica de los normativos legais al territorio espacial de las escuelas primarias del municipio de Barreiro, en un período de tiempo que se extiende hasta los años 1920.Palabras-clave: higiene, escuela primaria, cultura escolar. L'HYGIÈNE DANS L’ ÉCOLE PRIMAIRE PORTUGAISE AU DÉBUT DU 20E SIÈCLERésuméCe text vise à réfléchir sur les nouvelles préoccupations d’hygiène qui, dès la fin du 19e siècle, ont commence à agir dans l'espace de l’école. Plus spécifiquement, nous voulons accompagner la transposition didactique des normes juridiques au territoire des écoles primaires du comté de Barreiro, dans une période de temps qui s'étend jusqu'aux années vingt du 20e siècle.Mots-clé: hygiène, école primaire, culture scolaire.

  4. Applied environmental technology development at the Savannah River Site: A retrospective on the last half of the 20th century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifty years ago, the Savannah River Site (SRS) was built to produce nuclear materials. These operations impacted air, soil, groundwater, ecology and the local environment. Throughout its history, SRS has addressed these contamination issues directly and has maintained a strong commitment to environmental stewardship. The site boasts many environmental firsts. Notably, SRS was the first major DOE facility to perform a baseline ecological assessment. This pioneering effort, by Ruth Patrick and the Philadelphia Academy of Sciences, was performed during SRS planning and construction in the early 1950's. This unique early example sets the stage for subsequent efforts. Since that time, the scientists and engineers at SRS have proactively identified environmental problems as they occurred and have skillfully developed elegant and efficient solutions

  5. A historical approach to scorpion studies with special reference to the 20 th and 21st centuries

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Wilson R, Lourenço.

    2014-03-11

    Full Text Available This work provides historical context about scorpion studies from the end of the 19 th century to the present day. The content is mainly addressed to non-zoologists, working in research fields that embrace scorpion biology, notably to those working with venoms and toxins. The historical aspects desc [...] ribed include academic professional scholars who worked on scorpion classification and general distribution patterns; and to a lesser extent, on studies of ecology and natural history. The aim is not to provide an exhaustive description of all scholars who in one way or another became involved with scorpions, but rather of those who greatly contributed during a given period to the research of these organisms. No critical analysis of the work of previous researchers is undertaken, but some comments are proposed to bring clarification on ‘who’s who’. Since a global consensus in relation to classification and/or distribution patterns has not been reached among modern experts, these different approaches are also presented without judgment. Consequently, distinct approaches remain open for discussion.

  6. Modelling the temperature evolution of permafrost and seasonal frost in southern Norway during the 20th and 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hipp

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A heat flow model was used to simulate both past and future ground temperatures of mountain permafrost in Southern Norway. A reconstructed air temperature series back to 1860 was used to evaluate the permafrost evolution since the end of the Little Ice Age in the region. The impact of a changing climate on discontinuous mountain permafrost until 2100 is predicted by using downscaled temperatures from an ensemble of downscaled climate models for the A1B scenario. From 13 borehole locations two consecutive years of ground temperature, air temperature and snow cover data are available for model calibration and validation. The boreholes are located at different elevations and in substrates having different thermal properties. With an increase of air temperature of ~+1.5 °C over 1860–2010 and an additional warming of +2.8 °C towards 2100 in air temperature, we simulate the evolution of ground temperatures for the borehole locations. According to model results, the active-layer thickness has increased since 1860 by about 0.5–5 m and >10 m for the sites Juvvass and Tron, respectively. The simulations also suggest that at an elevation of about 1900 m a.s.l. permafrost will degrade until the end of this century with a likelihood of 55–75% given the chosen A1B scenario.

  7. Modelling borehole temperatures in Southern Norway – insights into permafrost dynamics during the 20th and 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hipp

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A transient heat flow model was used to simulate both past and future ground temperatures of mountain permafrost and associated active layer thickness in Southern Norway. The model was forced by reconstructed air temperature starting from 1860, approximately coinciding with the Little Ice Age in the region. The impact of climate warming on mountain permafrost until 2100 is assessed by using downscaled air temperatures from a multi-model ensemble for the A1B scenario. For 13 borehole locations, records over three consecutive years of ground temperatures, air temperatures and snow cover data are available for model calibration and validation. The boreholes are located at different elevations and in substrates with different thermal properties. With an increase of air temperature of ~+1.5 °C over 1860–2010 and an additional warming of +2.8 °C until 2100, we simulate the evolution of ground temperatures for the borehole locations. According to model results, the active-layer thickness has increased since 1860 by 0.5–5 m and >10 m for the sites Juvvasshøe and Tron, respectively. The simulations also suggest that at an elevation of about 1900 m a.s.l. permafrost will degrade until the end of this century with a probability of 55–75% given the chosen A1B scenario.

  8. Observed linear trends in seasonal circulation patterns over North America in the second half of the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrac, M.; Hayhoe, K.; Stein, M.

    2006-12-01

    Trends in many surface climate variables have already been observed worldwide. These can then be compared with atmosphere-ocean general circulation (AOGCM) simulations to identify the influence of human-induced warming. However, many trends in surface climate are likely being driven by changes in atmospheric circulation patterns. Here, we cluster geopotential and surface pressure fields from ERA-40 and NCEP reanalysis for the period 1948-2002 to identify five dominant seasonal circulation patterns over North America that are strongly correlated with seasonal temperature anomalies. Several of these patterns show trends that are significant at the 95th confidence level, including increasing frequency of the dominant summer pattern in the "transition" months leading up to and following summer (June, September, and October). These results suggest that typically summer-like patterns are already occurring earlier in the year and lasting longer into the fall than the used to a few decades ago. Simulations from the PCM model also show similar seasonal patterns over the historical period, although the trends appear less distinct. Over the coming century, however, significant increases in the frequency of summer patterns and decreases in winter patterns are seen, particularly under a higher as compared with a lower emissions scenario.

  9. Population trends in Vojvodina during the 20th and at the beginning of the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golubovi? Petar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Demographic development belongs to the group of the primary social and developmental issues, and the demographic processes and tendencies in the population trends are included in the basic social processes which are expressed by the demographic (that is, synthetic social indicators. The process of the depopulation of Vojvodina is a result of the several-decades long decrease in birthrate, ageing of the population and mortality rate which is related to a series of historical, socioeconomic, cultural educational, specifically local, family, as well as psychological factors. Unfavourable demographic circumstances in Vojvodina started already in the 1920s, and became more pronounced after World War II, in 1989 resulting in the negative natural increase (-1%o, in the process of a more intensive decrease in the population which today, in the 21st century, acquires greater dimensions (-4,7%o in 2002, creating not only disturbances in the demographic, but also in the economic-social structures. Taking into account the far-developed process of demographic ageing of the population of Vojvodina and the accepted reproductive norms implying a low fertility (giving birth to a smaller number of children or only one child which does not ensure even the simple reproduction of the population, one cannot expect - in spite of the present immigrational processes (the inflow of refugees and the absolute increase in the population (between the previous two censuses - significantly more favourable population trends and a better prospective demographic picture of Vojvodina.

  10. [Madhouse, asylum, retreat, specialist hospital - on the genesis and history of names for psychiatric institutions in Germany until the beginning of the 20th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carius, Dirk; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Steinberg, Holger

    2003-11-01

    This paper analyses the history of names for psychiatric institutions in the German language. When scientific, medical psychiatry came into being in the late 18 (th) century, names with negative connotations such as "Narrenhaus" or "Tollhaus" (approximating to the English word "madhouse") were substituted by the then neutral "Irrenhaus" and later in the 19 (th) century by "Irrenanstalt". Soon, however, this new term became associated with negative connotations, making it unsuitable as a reflection of the many improvements made both in the treatment and the public image of psychiatric service users. Changes in word form such as "Heilanstalt", "Pflegeanstalt" and "Heil- und Pflegeanstalt" better reflect the character of the institutions. Objections to the word "Anstalt" (institution) were not acknowledged until the 20 (th) century when the term "Fachkrankenhaus" ("specialist hospital") was introduced. Before then the German word "Klinik" was reserved for university hospitals, the first of which was founded in 1878. The history of names for psychiatric institutions reflects both changes in the treatment of the mentally ill and the attempts made above all by psychiatrists to face and overcome stigmatisation of their clients. PMID:14658093

  11. Interpretations of the Chinese Boxer Rebellion in the Slovenian Press at the Beginning of the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uroš LIPUŠ?EK

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis essay deals with the Slovene reaction to the military intervention of eight coalition forces in China during the Boxer Rebellion in China in 1900. To Slovenes, China was then seen as a faraway land that had been visited by some Slovene missionaries, noblemen and travellers throughout the past centuries. Nevertheless, much interest was expressed by the Slovene public and press in the events surrounding the Boxer Rebellion. Despite the fact that the Austro-Hungarian military was part of the international coalition that intervened in Chinese internal affairs, the leading Slovene newspapers of the period supported the right of the Chinese people to defend their country against the big powers of the time, who tried to dismember China and enforce the regime of capitulation.Keywords: China, Slovenia, Boxer Rebellion, Austria-Hungary, Tientsin Izvle?ek?lanek obravnava slovenske reakcije na intervencijo osmih koalicijskih sil na Kitajskem med tako imenovano boksarsko vstajo na Kitajskem leta 1900. Za Slovence je bila Kitajska dolgo daljna dežela, ki so jo v teku stoletij obiskali le nekateri slovenski misijonarji, plemi?i in popotniki. Kljub temu pa je slovenska javnost dogajanje, povezano z boksarsko vstajo, spremljala z veliko pozornostjo. ?eprav je bila avstro-ogrska vojska sestavni del mednarodne koalicije, ki je intervenirala v kitajske notranje zadeve, so takratni vodilni slovenski ?asopisi podpirali pravico Kitajcev, da branijo svojo državo pred velikimi silami, ki so poskušale razbiti Kitajsko in ji vsiliti režim kapitulacije.Klju?ne besede: Kitajska, Slovenija, boksarska vstaja, Avstro-Ogrska, Tientsin

  12. [Carlos Younger de la Peña (1920-1996). "Urology in Madrid during the second half of the 20th century"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virseda Rodríguez, Julio Antonio

    2007-10-01

    Carlos Younger de la Peña (1920-1996) was one of the representative urologists of his time, both in urology as a whole and particularly in urology in Madrid, during the 40 years between 1945 to 1985. His professional training was linked to the department of urology in the "La Princesa" Hospital chaired by Dr. Pedro Cifuentes Díaz first and Luis Cifuentes Delatte posteriorly. The important influence of French urology led Carlos Younger to complete his studies in the departments of urology chaired by professors J. Cibert (Lyon), Truc (Montpellier) and Couvelaire (Paris). When he returned from France he completed his doctoral thesis with the title "Experimental study on the ureterosigmoidostomy type Coffey I" directed by Prof. J. Garcia Orcoyen in 1957. His first publications started in 1946 and he ended with almost 100, including communications to various speciality congresses and meetings. Established in his private clinic in the Ferraz Street in Madrid he alternated his professional practice between Social Security patients and the Red Cross Central Hospital. At the end of his life he had collected near to 10.000 patients' clinical records. He was member of various scientific societies (among them the International Society Of Nephrology) and received various awards such as the one from the Pediatric Surgeons Association for his work on "bladder exstrophy "and the one from the Medical Academy of Valladolid for his study "Vascular renal hypertension". In 1961 he performed the second renal transplant in Spain. His professional interest was preferentially focused on uro-oncology, pediatric urology, gynecologic urology, and endoscopic surgery. He left many disciples with the same interests. The professional life of Carlos Younger de la Peña, in the period of time under analysis, is much significant as a reflex of the evolution of urology and urologists over half a century. PMID:18050769

  13. Reconstructing the population dynamics of sprat (Sprattus sprattus balticus) in the Baltic Sea in the 20th century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Margit

    2012-01-01

    Long time-series of population dynamics are increasingly needed in order to understand human impacts on marine ecosystems and support their sustainable management. In this study, the estimates of sprat (Sprattus sprattus balticus) biomass in the Baltic Sea were extended back from the beginning of ICES stock assessments in 1974 to the early 1900s. The analyses identified peaks in sprat spawner biomass in the beginning of the 1930s, 1960s, and 1970s at ?900 kt. Only a half of that biomass was esti...

  14. Modelling borehole temperatures in Southern Norway – insights into permafrost dynamics during the 20th and 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hipp

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at quantifying the thermal response of mountain permafrost in southern Norway to changes in climate since 1860 and until 2100. A transient one-dimensional heat flow model was used to simulate ground temperatures and associated active layer thicknesses for nine borehole locations, which are located at different elevations and in substrates with different thermal properties. The model was forced by reconstructed air temperatures starting from 1860, which approximately coincides with the end of the Little Ice Age in the region. The impact of climate warming on mountain permafrost to 2100 is assessed by using downscaled air temperatures from a multi-model ensemble for the A1B scenario. Borehole records over three consecutive years of ground temperatures, air temperatures and snow cover data served for model calibration and validation. With an increase of air temperature of ~1.5 °C over 1860–2010 and an additional warming of ~2.8 °C until 2100, we simulate the evolution of ground temperatures for each borehole location. In 1860 the lower limit of permafrost was estimated to be ca. 200 m lower than observed today. According to the model, since the approximate end of the Little Ice Age, the active-layer thickness has increased by 0.5–5 m and >10 m for the sites Juvvasshøe and Tron, respectively. The most pronounced increases in active layer thickness were modelled for the last two decades since 1990 with increase rates of +2 cm yr?1 to +87 cm yr?1 (20–430%. According to the A1B climate scenario, degradation of mountain permafrost is suggested to occur throughout the 21st century at most of the sites below ca. 1800 m a.s.l. At the highest locations at 1900 m a.s.l., permafrost degradation is likely to occur with a probability of 55–75% by 2100. This implies that mountain permafrost in southern Norway is likely to be confined to the highest peaks in the western part of the country.

  15. PUBLICATIONS OF MYKOLAS BIRZISKA IN VILNIUS PRESS AT THE BEGINNING OF THE 20TH CENTURY: FEATURES OF THE INTELLECTUAL BIOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvietkauskas, Mindaugas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Mykolas Birziska (1882–1962 was a prominent Lithuanian scholar and politic, a signatory of the Act of Independence (1918, a member of Lithuanian Council (1917–1920, director of the first Lithuanian Gymnasium of Vytautas the Great in Vilnius (1915–1922, professor and rector of Kaunas and Vilnius universities. This articles deals with his early journalistic activities and editorship in the press in Vilnius before the outbreak of the First World War, and seeks to analyze the formation of his intellectual and political attitudes. In 1905, being a member of the Party of Lithuanian Social Democrats, Birziska began his journalistic career in socialist press. In 1906 heedited a party newspaper “Echo” in Polish language, where his specific interest in cooperation between different nationalities first became vivid. At the same time he began contributing to theliberal and antinationalist newspaper of the Polish krajovtsy movement “Gazeta Wileñska” (edited by Michal Römer, that argued for the political equality and tolerant cultural coexistence of allthe national groups in Lithuania. After the closure of “Gazeta Wileñska”, Birziska in 1907–1908 cooperated with another liberal daily in Russian language “Severo-Zapadnyj Golos”. Writing in threelanguages and simultaneously contributing to Lithuanian, Polish, and Russian press, Birziska exercised a specific role of a publicist as a mediator between different cultural groups in the multinational city. Professional analysis of the national conflicts, the principals of cultural tolerance and liberal antinationalist outlooks became the dominant features of his trilingual journalistic texts. Consequently, Birziska seeked to realize these intellectual attitudes working at the Lithuanian daily “Vilniaus zinios” in 1908 and especially editing the journal “Visuomene” (1910–1911 for the Lithuanian leftist intelligentsia. Birziska’s journalistic activities and his early intellectual biography carried features of specific cultural liberalism that was characteristic to the entire group of multinational intelligentsia in Vilnius before the First World War (Michal Römer, Tadeusz Wróblewski, Anton and Ivan Luckievich, Uriah Katzenelenbogen, and others.

  16. Establishment and evolution of the radiation risk concept for the man and human population in the 20th century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of radiation risk (RR) is the main basis for human protection from the harmful effect of ionizing radiation. It concerns the expected unfavorable health effects upon the irradiated person and probably upon his/her progeny. The early period of the history of RR evaluation was grounded on the assessment of acute skin reactions (erythema, epilation, dermatitis, ulceration) and on the measures (erythema dose) taken to diminish them. The second period covers the appraisal, based on estimation of different somatic effects and expected heredity ( genetic effects). They could be avoided if irradiation does not exceed the maximum permissible dose - the concept of zero RR. The current (third) period estimates both irradiation effects: deterministic effects that have a dose-related threshold and stochastic non-threshold effects. The ultimate goal of radiation protection is to exclude all deterministic effects and to diminish probability of stochastic effects (carcinogenesis and heredity effects) down to an acceptable level. Seven postulates describe the modern concept of RR for the man and human population: globalization irreversibility, accumulation, non-threshold harm, stochastic, non-specificity and acceptance of the risk

  17. Late 20th Century Deep-seated Vertical Motions in New Orleans and implications for Gulf Coast Subsidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokka, R. K.

    2010-12-01

    Subsidence of the Mississippi River delta and adjoining coastal areas is widely thought to be dominated by compaction of Holocene sediments. Current public policies regarding hurricane protection and ecosystems restoration are founded on this interpretation. To test this hypothesis, monuments that penetrate the entire Holocene section were measured using geodetic leveling and water gauges attached to bridge foundations. Results show that the entire sampling area subsided between 1955 and 1995 in amounts unanticipated by previous models. Subsidence due to processes originating below the Holocene section locally exceeded 0.9 m between 1955 and 1995. The maxima of deep subsidence occurred in the urbanized and industrialized sections of eastern New Orleans. Subsidence decreased away from urbanized areas and north of the belt of active basin margin normal faults; this decrease in subsidence continued to the north and east along the Mississippi coast. These independent measurements provide insights into the complexity and causes of modern landscape change in the region. Modern subsidence is clearly not dominated solely by shallow processes such as natural compaction, Deep subsidence occurring east and north of the basin margin faults can be explained by regional tectonic loading of the lithosphere by the modern Mississippi River delta and local groundwater withdrawal. Sharp, local changes in subsidence coincide with strands of the basin margin normal fault system. Deep subsidence of the New Orleans area can be explained by a combination of groundwater withdrawal from shallow upper Pleistocene aquifers, the aforementioned lithospheric loading, and non-groundwater-related faulting. Subsidence due to groundwater extraction from aquifers ~160 to 200 m deep dominated the urbanized areas from ~1960 to the early 1990s and is likely responsible for lowering flood protection structures and bridges in the area by as much as ~0.8 m.

  18. Procesos de escolarización en los inicios del siglo XX: La instrucción rudimentaria en México / Schooling processes at the beginning of the 20th century: Rudimentary education in Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Josefina, Granja Castro.

    Full Text Available La escolarización de masas fue un asunto público que ocupó la atención de intelectuales, políticos y pedagogos en la transición del siglo XIX al XX. La obligatoriedad de la enseñanza representó un paso importante aunque insuficiente: más de 50 por ciento de la población en edad escolar seguía siendo [...] analfabeta y la oferta educativa se concentraba en las ciudades en un país donde 70 por ciento de la población vivía en el campo. En el proceso de construir la escolarización pública de masas se traza una curva de pensamiento que muestra replanteamientos en las concepciones sobre "el pueblo" y las formas de vincularlo con el desarrollo de la nación. El artículo enfoca la instrucción rudimentaria de principios del siglo XX y propone que esta experiencia de escolarización preparó para una "ruptura relativa" en la constelación de ideas sobre quién es el pueblo y cómo educarlo entre finales del XIX y la escuela rural que despunta en la posrevolución. Abstract in english The schooling of the masses has been a public affair that took up the attention of intellectuals, politicians and educators during the transition period between the 19th and the 20th Century. The introduction of compulsory education represented an important, although unsatisfactory step: more than 5 [...] 0 percent of the population in school age was still illiterate and the educational offer was greater in the towns in a country where 70 percent of the population lived in the country. This process of building up the public schooling of masses shows a thinking curve that makes necessary to rethink the conceptions about "the people" and the ways to connect it with the development of the nation. The article focuses on the rudimentary education of the beginnings of the 20th Century and proposes that this schooling experiment was the starting point for a "relative breaking-of" within the constellation of ideas about who is the people and how to educate it between the end of the 19th Century and the rural school that comes up affer the Mexican Revolution.

  19. The symphonic music of the national schools in 20th century Europe in the repertoire of the Philharmonic of Cluj (1955-1989. Creative perspectives of C. Silvestri’s Chants Nostalgiques op. 27 no. 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Spiridon

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work focuses on the national cultures of the early 20th century in several European countries, such as Czechoslovakia, Poland, Hungary, Spain, Russia and Romania. Since my PhD thesis analyses the evolution of the Philharmonic “Transilvania”of Cluj between 1955-1989, there will be a thorough statistic of the concerts which were held during that period in which the orchestra performed musical pieces of the composers mentioned in this essay. For some concerts, there will also be stated the date when the concert took place, as well as the conductor who was invited to Cluj. There will also be an analysis of a piano work of the Romanian composer Constantin Silvestri (Chants Nostalgiques op. 27 no. 1 which I personally played a few years ago. The study will contain a musical bibliography, as well as several footnotes stating the documents found in the archives of the Philharmonic of Cluj.

  20. Exílio massivo, inclusão e exclusão política no século XX / Exils massifs, inclusion et exclusion politique au XXe siècle / Mass exile and political inclusion and exclusion in 20th century

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis, Roniger.

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Due to the strategies implemented by post-Independence Ibero-American states to curtail political participation, exile was mainly reserved as a privilege for ostracized members of the elite, who drew on their support networks in the process. The late 19th and early 20th centuries witnessed a process [...] of "mass exile", expressed by a growing number of exiles from different social classes, excluded due to their participation in politics and public spheres. The expansion of institutional exclusion spawned solidarity networks and increasing attention by the international community towards politics in the exiles' home countries. Old domestic political issues found a transnational echo, based on a growing concern over human rights violations and political persecution. This process produced a radical transformation in the structure, impact, and functioning of political exile from Ibero-American countries.

  1. The shift to the subject in 20th century philosophy of science: A liberating move? / Die skuif na die subjek in die 20ste eeuse wetenskapsfilosofie: 'n Bevrydende verskuiwing?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Renato, Coletto.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the 20th century, the 'subject' of knowledge (i.e. the individual scientist or a scientific community) was attributed an increasingly relevant role in (the philosophy of) science. Anchoring scientific knowledge to the subject (rather than to the object, as in early positivism) was proposed as [...] a 'liberating' move, leading to a less authoritarian and rationalistic view of science. This article provides a reformational point of view on the topic. A historical documentation of the shift to the subject is provided by visiting the philosophies of Popper, Kuhn, Collins and others. It is argued that the promise of a more libertarian or emancipating conception of science was challenged by several problems. In particular, the conflict between an individual and a communal understanding of the subject is highlighted. Furthermore, it is argued that the roots of the phenomenon in most cases remain hidden. An interpretation of the shift and the sketch of an alternative approach conclude the article.

  2. Major 20th century changes of carbonaceous aerosol components (EC, WinOC, DOC, HULIS, carboxylic acids, and cellulose) derived from Alpine ice cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, M.; Preunkert, S.; Schock, M.; Cerqueira, M.; Kasper-Giebl, A.; Afonso, J.; Pio, C.; GelencséR, A.; Dombrowski-Etchevers, I.

    2007-12-01

    An extended array of carbonaceous species including elemental carbon (EC), water insoluble organic carbon (WinOC) as well as dissolved organic carbon (DOC), humic-like substances (HULIS), and single organic compounds like carboxylic acids, levoglucosan, and cellulose was investigated for the first time in Alpine snow deposits. These investigations were done on selected discrete ice cores sections extracted from Mount Rosa and Mount Blanc glaciers covering the 20th century and extending back to previous centuries. Here we focus on major changes in summer ice layers. Among carbonaceous components, EC reveals an outstanding increase with a sharp summer increase after World War II. This result is discussed against available past EC emission inventories in Europe which are thought to be mainly driven by emissions from road transport and residential sector. The long-term trend of organic carbon (OC) aerosol preserved in ice, WinOC as well as water soluble organic carbon (WSOC), was successfully reconstructed using the suitable array of organic compounds we investigated in this study. It is shown that the level of OC preserved in ice has increased by a factor of 2 after 1950 likely as a result of the enhancement of the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere over the last decades producing more secondary organic atmospheric aerosol from biogenic gaseous precursors.

  3. A Bibliographic Note and Table on Mid-19th to Mid-20th Century Western Travelogues and Research Reports on Gansu and Qinghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Horrleman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Bianca Horrleman. 2015. A Bibliographic Note and Table on Mid-19th to Mid-20th Century Western Travelogues and Research Reports on Gansu and Qinghai in Gerald Roche, Keith Dede, Fernanda Pirie, and Benedict Copps (eds Asian Highlands Perspectives 37 Centering the Local, A Festschrift for Dr. Charles Kevin Stuart on the Occasion of his Sixtieth Birthday, 36-38. Starting from the late nineteenth century, northwest China, Eastern Turkestan (modern Xinjiang, and eastern Tibet became increasingly attractive destinations for foreign travelers and explorers. There was a veritable 'run' on the region, which was deemed one of the last blank spots on world maps. In addition, northwest China, Tibet, and Eastern Turkestan received special attention because of competition between the British and Russian empires as part of what is known as the Great Game in Central Asia. This caused other European countries such as France, Belgium, and Germany to fear that they would miss out on new geographic and scientific discoveries. Apart from geo-political, economic, and archeological incentives, Tibetan Buddhism also attracted considerable interest, although mostly on a 'touristic', rather than an academic, level.

  4. Response of the ice cap Hardangerjøkulen in southern Norway to the 20th and 21st century climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Giesen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Glaciers respond to mass balance changes by adjusting their surface elevation and area. These properties in their turn affect the local and area-averaged mass balance. To incorporate this interdependence in the response of glaciers to climate change, models should include an interactive scheme coupling mass balance and ice dynamics. In this study, a spatially distributed mass balance model, comprising surface energy balance calculations, was coupled to a vertically integrated ice-flow model based on the shallow ice approximation. The coupled model was applied to the ice cap Hardangerjøkulen in southern Norway. The available glacio-meteorological records, mass balance and glacier length change measurements were utilized for model calibration and validation. Forced with meteorological data from nearby synoptic weather stations, the coupled model realistically simulated the observed mass balance and glacier length changes during the 20th century. The mean climate for the period 1961–1990, computed from local meteorological data, was used as a basis to prescribe climate projections for the 21st century at Hardangerjøkulen. For a linear temperature increase of 3 °C from 1961–1990 to 2071–2100, the modelled net mass balance soon becomes negative at all altitudes and Hardangerjøkulen disappears around the year 2100. The projected changes in the other meteorological variables could at most partly compensate for the effect of the projected warming.

  5. Changes in mercury and cadmium concentrations and the feeding behaviour of beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) near Somerset Island, Canada, during the 20th century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) continues to be an important food species for Arctic communities, despite concerns about its high mercury (Hg) content. We investigated whether Hg and cadmium (Cd) concentrations had changed during the 20th century in beluga near Somerset Island in the central Canadian Arctic, using well-preserved teeth collected from historical sites (dating to the late 19th century and 1926-1947) and during subsistence hunts in the late 1990s. Mercury concentrations in both historical and modern teeth were correlated with animal age, but 1990s beluga exhibited a significantly more rapid accumulation with age than late 19th century animals, indicating that Hg concentrations or bioavailability in their food chain had increased during the last century. The geometric mean tooth Hg concentration in modern 30 year old animals was 7.7 times higher than in the late 19th century, which corresponds to threefold higher concentrations in muktuk and muscle. Teeth from 1926 to 1947 were similar in Hg content to the late 19th century, suggesting that the increase had occurred sometime after the 1940s. In contrast, tooth Cd was not correlated with animal age and decreased during the last 100 years, indicating that anthropogenic Cd was negligible in this population. Late 19th century beluga displayed a greater range of prey selection (tooth ? 15N values: 15.6-20.5%o) than modern animals (? 15N: 17.2-21.1%o). To prevent this difference from confounding the temporal Hg comparison, the Hg-age relationships discussed above were based on historical animals, which overlapped isotopically with the modern group. Tooth ? 13C also changed to isotopically more depleted values in modern animals, with the most likely explanation being a significant shift to more pelagic-based feeding. Industrial Hg pollution is a plausible explanation for the recent Hg increase. However, without further investigation of the relationship between the range exploitation of modern beluga and their possible exposure to regional marine food chains with (naturally) higher Hg contents than their historical counterparts, we cannot unequivocally conclude that the increase was anthropogenically driven

  6. 20th Century variability of Atlantic Meridional overturning circulation: Planetary wave influences on world ocean surface phosphate utilization and synchrony of small pelagic fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamykowski, Daniel

    The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), part of the global Thermohaline Circulation (THC), is variable. In the present analysis, an Atlantic Dipole Phosphate Utilization (ADPU) index, related to the existing Atlantic Dipole Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly (ADSA) index, is used to represent 20th century changes in AMOC strength that are applied to global ecosystem variability. ADPU index cycles set the timing for the calculation of six 2° latitude-longitude resolution world ocean maps depicting higher surface phosphate utilization (SPU) in some regions when AMOC is weaker and in other regions when AMOC is stronger. The average of these six maps yields a summary map with a pattern of alternating latitudinal SPU regions differentiated by AMOC strength that exhibits relationships with ocean bathymetry and wind-driven currents through a consideration of the THC deep and shallow limbs. The latitudinal pattern of SPU regions exhibits conceptual associations with sardine (S) and anchovy (A) population ranges off Japan (J), California (C), Peru (P) and South Africa (B). These sardine and anchovy populations have exhibited apparently synchronous fluctuations on decadal scales through at least part of the 20th century that is summarized in a Regime Indicator Series (RIS=(JS+CS+PS+BA)-(JA+CA+PA+BS)) index. In the present analysis based on Food & Agriculture Organization (FAO) catch data, a revised Regime Indicator Series index formulation (RIS3=(JS+CA+PS+BA)-(JA+CS+PA+BS)), in which CS and CA catches reverse positions, is defined. AMOC variability represented in ADPU is significantly correlated with the RIS3 index (no lag but a significant range of 14 years) and four of eight small pelagic fisheries (JS, PS, BA, and JA). The post-1950 RIS3 index is significantly correlated with seven of eight small pelagic fisheries but not CS. When the regional small pelagic fisheries are considered as normalized species differences (S-A), ADPU has significant positive correlations with Japan and Peru, and negative tendencies with California and South Africa, while the RIS3 index has significant positive correlations with Japan and Peru and significant negative correlations with California and South Africa. An extended RIS3 index, with pre-1950 catch data based only on Japan and California, continues a coherent, significantly correlated trend with the APDU index through 1920 (no lag but a significant range of 14 years). Though the mechanisms for multidecadal global synchrony are speculative, the global pattern of cyclical AMOC-related, alternating latitudinal SPU regions through the 20th century and the correlation of the ADPU index with the RIS3 and the extended RIS3 indices suggest a link between varying AMOC strength, ocean fertility and global marine ecosystem response. Signals from AMOC variability due to changes in both deep and shallow limb flow intensities propagate as Rossby and Kelvin waves through the Atlantic Ocean and possibly into the Indo-Pacific Ocean. Similar Rossby and Kelvin wave generation outside the Atlantic Ocean as a result of concurrent but complex global THC variability could reinforce AMOC-related planetary waves and contribute to the multidecadal global synchrony of ocean state and of responsive ecosystems. If present patterns continue into the future decades, a weaker AMOC associated with global warming would favor sardine off Japan and Peru and anchovy off California and South Africa.

  7. Assessing how seasonal hydrological balance has changed during the warming 20th century in the montane forests of Southeast Asian monsoon region using a stable isotope dendroclimatology approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, M.; Stott, L. D.

    2010-12-01

    Tropical montane forests act as water catchment and host of biodiversity in the Southeast Asian monsoon region, and understanding how their hydrological conditions change with global warming is vitally important. Global climate model simulations project enhanced moisture cycle in the tropics, which would cause stronger summer monsoon precipitations, but on the other hand the adiabatic lapse rate would be shifted towards a moister condition (amplification of warming at high elevation), inhibiting dry season orographic lifting cloud/fog formation (lifting cloud base hypothesis), enhancing evapo-transpiration, and leading to a net moisture loss during winter dry season. In this study, we have attempted to investigate how the seasonal moisture balance in Southeast Asia has evolved in response to these influences through the 20th century using the oxygen isotopic composition (?18O) of subannual tree cellulose samples extracted from the annual rings of pine trees that grow in Doi Chiang Dao, a limestone mountain in northern Thailand. At this location the ?18O of cellulose exhibits distinctive annual cycles of up to 12‰, which is primarily a reflection of both the so-called ‘isotope amount effect’ that is associated with the strong monsoon precipitation during summer wet season and the moisture availability from different sources during winter dry season. We have demonstrated that tree cellulose ?18O could be used as a proxy for regional monsoon strength by showing that the annual mean cellulose ?18O correlate significantly with All India Rainfall, Webster-Yang monsoon index, as well as with both local and regional monsoon precipitation. ENSO is the dominant influence on interannual rainfall variability and this is well expressed in the interannual cellulose ?18O record. Using a 21-year moving window correlation analysis we find a weakening of ENSO influence after 1980, coinciding with the most rapid atmospheric warming. We expect to analyze older trees to reconstruct monsoon behavior beyond the instrumental period. Further we find that the annual cellulose ?18O maxima, which represent the ?18O of soil moisture in winter dry season, has decline progressively by about 3.5‰ over the 80 years. We interpret this 20th century trend to reflect a smaller contribution of isotopically enriched fog drip to soil moisture, and propose that both global warming and low land deforestation have resulted in reduced dry season fogginess/cloudiness. This would imply that the dry season moisture budget of these tropical montane forests has shifted towards dryer conditions, with a possible impact on biodiversity in this region. We intend to test this hypothesis against a longer and more regionally extensive data set of cellulose isotope records.

  8. False memory 1/20th of a second later: what the early onset of boundary extension reveals about perception

    OpenAIRE

    Intraub, Helene; Dickinson, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Errors of commission are thought to be caused by heavy memory loads, confusing information, and/or lengthy retention intervals. We report false memory beyond the boundaries of a view, boundary extension, after less than 1/20th of a second. Photographs of scenes were interrupted by a 42-ms or 250-ms mask, 250-ms into viewing, before reappearing or being replaced with a different view (Experiment 1). Post-interruption photographs that were unchanged were rated as “closer-up”; when they changed,...

  9. Reconstructing hydroclimatic variability of the Bermejo River (Subtropical Andes of Argentina-Bolivia) through Archival Documents - 17th to 20th centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rosario Prieto, M.; Cueto, C.

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to use climatic history for contributing to the general objectives of the IAI -CRN II-047 Project. It will reconstruct, from archival documents, the hydroclimatic variability occurring in the high basin of the Bermejo River during the last centuries and its effects on the floods and swellings in the middle basin. The Río Bermejo in the Southern Andes, is a binational (Argentina-Bolivia) river that contributes the largest proportion of the sediment load to the La Plata basin. Its headwaters are in the Subtropical Andes, near Tarija, Bolivia (22?00'14"S, 64?57'38"W). The main headwater tributaries are the Río Grande de Tarija, in Bolivia and the Iruya and San Francisco Rivers in Argentina. When the river abandons the mountain and turns eastwards (Gran Chaco), it acquires the characteristics of typical lowland rivers, widens its course, and occupies a large, low sedimentary plain with vast floodland areas. Quite often during very high sediment discharge the main river avulses and changes its course, creating big alluvial plains that are occupied for many years. Administrative documents from the colonial and republican periods have provided useful information to reconstruct climate and hydrology of the region. Documents from the Archivo General de Indias in Seville, Archivo Nacional de Bolivia and Archivo General de la Nación (Argentina) have been used to identify extreme floods and swellings in the high and middle-basin of the Rio Bermejo from the 17th century to the first decades of the 20th century. Old maps of the region, reports from annals, chronicles, priests' and travelers' descriptions were also used. Diaries written by the military, explorers and government officials in charge of discovering and taking possession of the territory also provide important sources of information. The archival documents show abrupt hydrological changes in response to the climatic fluctuations in the headwaters region. These records document extensive periods of drought followed by periods of abundant precipitation that have led to changes in the river course, mainly during the 1870s. More than 20 distinct floods, low water periods and droughts have been identified between 1800 and 2000. The extent of floods and changes in the river course have been mapped most detailedly for the 19th century. There is historical evidence suggesting that flood events have increased in frequency and intensity during the last century. Finally, we have compared the results with other historical reconstructions of streamflow from the Andes region as the Sali-Dulce River (Tucuman) and the Mendoza River.

  10. A bicicleta, o ciclismo e as mulheres na transição dos séculos XIX e XX Bicycle, cycling and women in the 19th to 20th centuries' transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Andrade de Melo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem por objetivo discutir as relações entre a nova configuração da presença social das mulheres (e nesse cenário as posições de líderes dos movimentos por direitos civis femininos, a nova dinâmica social marcada pela valorização das atividades públicas de lazer (da qual o ciclismo é um exemplo privilegiado e um novo invento (a bicicleta na transição dos séculos XIX e XX. Inicialmente abordaremos os casos específicos da Europa (com destaque para a França e dos Estados Unidos, buscando recuperar as pioneiras discussões e ocorrências acerca do envolvimento de mulheres com o ciclismo. Posteriormente, discutiremos o caso específico do Rio de Janeiro, a maior cidade e a capital do país à época, cujos dirigentes tinham aspirações de constituí-la na metrópole moderna brasileira.This article aims to discuss the relationships between the new configuration of the women social presence (and, in this scenario, the positions of leaders of feminine civil rights' movements, the new social dynamics marked by the valorization of public leisure activities (of which cycling is a remarkable example and a new invention (the bicycle in the 19th to 20th centuries' transition. Initially, we discuss specific cases of Europe (mainly those of France and United States, searching to recover the pioneer discussions and occurrences concerning the involvement of women with cycling. Later, we discuss the specific case of Rio de Janeiro, the biggest city and capital of the country at that time, whose leaders had aspirations to constitute in the Brazilian modern metropolis.

  11. RUSSIAN LITERARY NEOTRADITIONALISM OF THE 20TH CENTURY IN THE CONTEXT OF PHILOSOPHICAL AND AESTHETIC-AXIOLOGICAL PROBLEM OF THE CREATIVE CONSCIOUSNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Nikolaevich Sklyarov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a continuation of the series of the research on the phenomenon of neotraditionalism in philosophical-aesthetic thought and artistic literature of the 20th century. The crisis phenomena in the creative consciousness of the post-traditionalist period, a kind of "response" to which became the new traditionalism, which was formed in the non-classical conditions and combining in itself the sensitivity to the most valuable discoveries of European modernism and the aspiration to eternal landmarks of classical culture.Cultural, historical, mental preconditions of the neotraditionalism and its key features are considered in the article. The author gives priority to the ontology, and also axiological and poetological aspects of neotraditional thinking. By virtue of the fact that it appears as a special vector of the creative research, and alternative to the divergent strategies of avant-gardism and reglamentaric intentions of the so-called "Socialist Realism" art. The subject of the research interest are the predominant traits of neotraditional mentality such as life acceptance, logocentric, responsibility, a tendency to seek modern forms of actualization of the eternal universals, and solidarity (convergence of the creative aspirations.

  12. FROM “PEASANT” TO “FARMER” IN GREEK MODERNITY: CONSTRUCTING FARMER IDENTITIES IN 19th - AND 20th - CENTURY GREECE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NIKOS KABERIS

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Constructing the farmer in the 19th -and-20th political discourses in Greece pertains to a passage from the peasant to the farmer/farm worker and farmer/patriot, on to the professional farmer; this passage ought to be studied in terms of a specific model which is characterized by small-size family farm units. The above model was mainly promoted by bourgeois forces which led the modernization process in Greek society, and it was the model which the rival socialist movements consented to after their defeat in the Civil War. In the postwar period the acceleration of agricultural development, particularly following the country’s integration in the European Community, imposed a certain consensus in seeking a unitary model of agriculture, whereby the dominant role was assigned to the small farmer-landowner-entrepreneur. At the dawn of the new century, the European agricultural policy reforms entail new vicissitudes for the small landowner, who is now finding him/herself seeking new roles in order to be integrated into a post-industrial developmental model for the countryside. He/she is constituted, once more, a subject of new ontological ventures, such as, for instance, the much-discussed symbolisms of the “warden of the countryside”, and “protector of the environment” and/or the “national cultural heritage”.

  13. The making of a social, representative and intellectual police force - Recruitment and education of police trainees in Sweden during the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Furuhagen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the development of recruitment and education of police trainees in Sweden during the 20th century. The aim is to analyse the efforts to promote a role for the police and a police force that would be more social, representative and intellectual. While this has been the goal during the last ten to fifteen years, this investigation shows that the roots of these efforts go back to the 1930s. The ideas underlying recruitment originally sought the ideal police among soldiers, a foundation that metamorphosed into the desire to attract men from different social and occupational groups, and finally developed into attempts at including more women and immigrants. Gradually, police education has been prolonged with an orientation and introduction, plus increased instruction in theoretical subjects such as the social sciences, psychology and Swedish. The conclusion is that more research is needed in other countries as well, because knowledge about changes in recruitment and education can make a valuable contribution to the general field of police history.

  14. The Concerns Underlying Sex Education for Young People in France During the First Half of the 20th Century: Morality, demography and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie De Luca Barrusse

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During the first half of the 20th century, the issue of sex education for young people was the topic of virulent debate. Increasing proposals for sex education in schools, along with lectures and information leaflets, were quickly opposed by Catholic circles, which did not reject sex education in principle but sought to control its form and content. Yet no matter which form or content was chosen, sex education remained underpinned by considerations about the future of the population and the state of public health, particularly the resurgence of syphilis, as well as moral principles. The concerns underlying sex education were morality, demography and public health, which set limits on what was desirable and undesirable in this area and guided the objectives it was to achieve. Sex education was therefore conceived as an instrument for the reproduction and preservation of the race but was not supposed to become an instrument of debauchery. This is confirmed by an analysis of the proposed systems, which differed according to the sexes.

  15. A bicicleta, o ciclismo e as mulheres na transição dos séculos XIX e XX / Bicycle, cycling and women in the 19th to 20th centuries' transition

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Victor Andrade de, Melo; André, Schetino.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem por objetivo discutir as relações entre a nova configuração da presença social das mulheres (e nesse cenário as posições de líderes dos movimentos por direitos civis femininos), a nova dinâmica social marcada pela valorização das atividades públicas de lazer (da qual o ciclismo é um [...] exemplo privilegiado) e um novo invento (a bicicleta) na transição dos séculos XIX e XX. Inicialmente abordaremos os casos específicos da Europa (com destaque para a França) e dos Estados Unidos, buscando recuperar as pioneiras discussões e ocorrências acerca do envolvimento de mulheres com o ciclismo. Posteriormente, discutiremos o caso específico do Rio de Janeiro, a maior cidade e a capital do país à época, cujos dirigentes tinham aspirações de constituí-la na metrópole moderna brasileira. Abstract in english This article aims to discuss the relationships between the new configuration of the women social presence (and, in this scenario, the positions of leaders of feminine civil rights' movements), the new social dynamics marked by the valorization of public leisure activities (of which cycling is a rema [...] rkable example) and a new invention (the bicycle) in the 19th to 20th centuries' transition. Initially, we discuss specific cases of Europe (mainly those of France) and United States, searching to recover the pioneer discussions and occurrences concerning the involvement of women with cycling. Later, we discuss the specific case of Rio de Janeiro, the biggest city and capital of the country at that time, whose leaders had aspirations to constitute in the Brazilian modern metropolis.

  16. La parasitología y la entomología en la narrativa latinoamericana del siglo XX / Parasitology and entomology in the 20th century Latin American narrative

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hugo, Schenone.

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english In the present reviev of twelve pieces produced by distinguished 20th century Latin American writers Jorge Luis Borges from Argentina, Jorge Amado and João Ubaldo Ribeiro from Brazil, José Donoso from Chile, Gabriel García Márquez from Colombia, Alejo Carpentier from Cuba, Miguel Angel Asturias from [...] Guatemala, Octavio Paz from Mexico, Mario Vargas Llosa from Perú, Horacio Quiroga and Mario Benedetti from Uruguay and Arturo Uslar-Pietri from Venezuela ­ paragraphs or parts of paragraphs in which parasitological or entomological situations of the most varied hues are referred to or described, have been extracted in a selective form. Sometimes in these descriptions appear, local or regional expressions, without ignoring colorful folkloric representations. For a easier interpretation these or part of these paragraph sentences have been arranged by thematic similarities. In a varied and kaleidoscopic vision, it will be possible to find protozooses (malaria, Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, amibiasis), helminthiases (ascariasis, hydatidosis, trichinosis, schistosomiasis, cysticercosis, onchocerciasis), parasitoses produced by arthropods (pediculosis, scabies, tungiasis, myiasis), passing progressivelly to hemaphagous arthropods (mosquitoes, gnats, horse flies, bedbugs, ticks), venomous arthropods (Latrodectus spiders, scorpions, wasps, bees), mechanical vectors (flies and cockroaches), culminating with a conjuction of bucolic arthropods (butterflies, crickets, grasshoppers cicadas, ants, centipedes, beetles, glowworms, dragonflies).

  17. Energy feedbacks of northern high-latitude ecosystems to the climate system due to reduced snow cover during 20th century warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euskirchen, E.S.; McGuire, A.D.; Chapin, F.S.

    2007-01-01

    The warming associated with changes in snow cover in northern high-latitude terrestrial regions represents an important energy feedback to the climate system. Here, we simulate snow cover-climate feedbacks (i.e. changes in snow cover on atmospheric heating) across the Pan-arctic over two distinct warming periods during the 20th century, 1910-1940 and 1970-2000. We offer evidence that increases in snow cover-climate feedbacks during 1970-2000 were nearly three times larger than during 1910-1940 because the recent snow-cover change occurred in spring, when radiation load is highest, rather than in autumn. Based on linear regression analysis, we also detected a greater sensitivity of snow cover-climate feedbacks to temperature trends during the more recent time period. Pan-arctic vegetation types differed substantially in snow cover-climate feedbacks. Those with a high seasonal contrast in albedo, such as tundra, showed much larger changes in atmospheric heating than did those with a low seasonal contrast in albedo, such as forests, even if the changes in snow-cover duration were similar across the vegetation types. These changes in energy exchange warrant careful consideration in studies of climate change, particularly with respect to associated shifts in vegetation between forests, grasslands, and tundra. ?? 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. The speech choir in central European theatres and literary-musical works in the first third of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer-Kalkus Reinhart

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Speech choirs emerged as an offshoot of the choral gatherings of a wider youth musical and singing movement in the first half of the 20th century. The occasionally expressed opinion that choral speaking was cultivated primarily by the Hitler Youth and pressed into service on behalf of Nazi nationalist and racist propaganda is, historically, only partially accurate. The primary forces of choral speaking in Germany were, from 1919, the Social Democratic workers’ and cultural movement and the Catholic youth groups, in addition to elementary and secondary schools. The popularity of speech choirs around 1930 was also echoed in the music of the time. Compositions for musical speech choirs were produced by composers like Heinz Thiessen, Arnold Schönberg, Ernst Toch, Carl Orff, Vladimir Vogel, Luigi Nono, Helmut Lachenmann and Wolfgang Rihm. Moving forward from the Schönberg School, the post-1945 new music thereby opens up the spectrum of vocal expressions of sound beyond that of the singing voice. It does so not only for solo voices but for the choir as well.

  19. Emplacement of ideas. The development of geographical thought in Brazil in the early 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Osorio Machado

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the circulation of modern geographical ideas in Brazil. The focus is on the relationship between geographical source models and the target model of domestic modernization. Three corresponding "mechanisms" provided the translation from one to the other: gradualism, adaptation and essentialism.

  20. Transport, tourism and technology in Portugal between the late 19th and early 20th centuries

    OpenAIRE

    Matos, Ana Cardoso; Bernardo, Maria Ana; Santos, Maria Luísa F.N.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, tourism has experienced increasing interest from researchers in various areas, a fact that has resulted not only in a diversity of approaches from which this theme can be treated, but also in the uncovering of the interconnections that exist between tourism and the development of the economy of transport and of society2. Thus, tourist growth in each country has been the subject of several studies, ranging from economics to the political and cultural aspects associated wit...

  1. Hyperdisease in the late Pleistocene: validation of an early 20th century hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Bruce M.; Laub, Richard

    2006-11-01

    The hypothesis of disease-related large mammal extinction has new support. A unique pathologic zone of resorption was first noticed in a Hiscock Mammut americanum metacarpal. The pathognomonic zone of resorption was present in fifty-nine (52%) of 113 skeletons with feet available for examination. Metacarpals and metatarsals were most commonly affected. Associated rib periosteal reaction is highly suggestive of tuberculosis and the foot lesions were identical to that documented in Bison as pathognomonic for tuberculosis. Recognizing that only a portion of animals infected by infectious tuberculosis develop bone involvement, the high frequency of the pathology in M. americanum suggests that tuberculosis was not simply endemic, but actually pandemic, a hyperdisease. Pandemic tuberculosis was one of several probable factors contributing to mastodon extinction.

  2. Upwelling signals in radiocarbon from early 20th-century Peruvian bay scallop ( Argopecten purpuratus) shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kevin B.; Hodgins, Gregory W. L.; Etayo-Cadavid, Miguel F.; Andrus, C. Fred T.

    2009-11-01

    We quantified ? 14C, ?18O, and ?13C cycles along ontogeny within four bay scallop ( Argopecten purpuratus) shells collected from Callao Bay, Salaverry, and Sechura Bay, Peru following the 1907-1908 non-El Niño years and the 1925-1926 El Niño. ? 14C and ?13C generally covary; ? 14C and ?18O vary inversely. Simultaneous decreases in ? 14C and increases in ?18O in non-El Niño shells are followed by constant ? 14C and gradually decreasing ?18O, which we interpret as evidence for discrete marine upwelling events followed by warming of the initially cold upwelled water. Upwelling changes from El Niño events are detectable with difficulty in mollusk shell ? 14C.

  3. Narratives Under Attack: Outrage and Reaction in Early 20th Century Espionage Novels

    OpenAIRE

    Raimbault, Élodie

    2013-01-01

    Au début du siècle, l’anarchiste, figure de l’ennemi intérieur, peuplait les romans policiers et la presse. Dans The Man Who Was Thursday (1908), Chesterton renverse les stéréotypes sur les anarchistes et les policiers, sapant la doxa sur la menace anarchiste et la physiognomonie. The Secret Agent (1907) de Conrad, centré sur une réécriture de l’attentat de Greenwich de 1894, fait lui aussi la satire des typologies criminologiques. Alors que « outrage » désigne péjorativement l’attentat à la ...

  4. Public and Catholic School Responses to IQ Testing in the Early 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Ann Marie; Stoskopf, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Background: Between 1910 and 1930, IQ tests were introduced to and institutionalized in American schools. IQ testing represents an important component of the first wave of test-driven educational reform in American history, but surprisingly, there is relatively little research focusing on public educators' perception of these tests at the time,…

  5. Atomic Pioneers Book 2 From the Mid-19th to the Early 20th Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiebert, Ray [University of Maryland; Hiebert, Roselyn

    1971-01-01

    This book gives a brief account of the lives and work of 26 men and women who contributed to the great surge of knowledge vital to atomic science from the 1800s to the mid-1900s. The 26 are: William Prout, Michael Faraday, Eilhardt Mitscherlich, Joseph Henry, Thomas Graham, Stanislao Cannizzaro, James Clerk Maxwell, Dmitri I. Mendeleev, Joseph Norman Lockyer, John William Strutt, Wilhelm Konrad Roentgen, Antione Henri Becquerel, Hendrik A. Lorentz, J.J. Thomson, Max Planck, Svante A. Arrhenius, Pierre Curie, Marie Curie, Pieter Zeeman, Theodore W. Richards, C.T.R. Wilson, Ernest Rutherford, Francis W. Aston, Frederick Soddy, Lise Meitner, and Otto Hahn.

  6. Rethinking Constitutionalism in Late 19th and Early 20th Century China

    OpenAIRE

    ZHAO, HUI

    2012-01-01

    In the tenets of Western political science, “limited government” is usually seen as the touchstone of modern constitutionalism. Yet significant issues can arise when one applies this framework to East Asia. By studying the origin of constitutionalism in China and Japan, my dissertation reexamines the idea that “limited government” is the core of modern constitutionalism. I argue that constitutionalism, as it was introduced in Meiji Japan and late Qing China, focused on strengthening the gover...

  7. Interannual-to-decadal variability of the stratosphere during the 20th century: ensemble simulations with a chemistry-climate model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Fischer

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Interannual-to-decadal variability in stratospheric ozone and climate have a number of common sources, such as variations in solar irradiance, stratospheric aerosol loading due to volcanic eruptions, El Niño Southern Oscillation variability and the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO. Currently available data records as well as model simulations addressing stratospheric chemical climate variability mostly cover only the past few decades, which is often insufficient to address natural interannual-to-decadal variability. Here we make use of recently reconstructed and re-evaluated data products to force and validate transient ensemble model simulations (nine members across the twentieth century computed by means of the chemistry-climate model SOCOL. The forcings included sea surface temperatures, sea ice, solar irradiance, stratospheric aerosols, QBO, changes in land properties, greenhouse gases, ozone depleting substances, and emissions of carbon monoxides, and nitrogen oxides. The transient simulations are in good agreement with observations, reconstructions and reanalyses and allow quantification of interannual-to-decadal variability during the 20th century. All ensemble members are able to capture the low-frequency variability in tropical and mid-latitudinal total ozone as well as in the strength of the subtropical jet, suggesting a realistic response to external forcings in this area. The region of the northern polar vortex exhibits a large internal model variability that is found in the frequency, seasonality, and strength of major warmings as well as in the strength of the modeled polar vortex. Results from process-oriented analysis, such as correlation between the vertical Eliassen Palm flux (EP flux component and polar variables as well as stratospheric ozone trends, are of comparable magnitude to those observed and are consistent in all analysed ensemble members. Yet, trend estimates of the vertical EP flux component vary greatly among ensemble members precluding any robust conclusions. This suggests that internal variability in models must be accounted for in order to quantify the atmospheric model response in wave energy upon external forcings.

  8. The relative contributions of radiative forcing and internal climate variability to the late 20th Century winter drying of the Mediterranean region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, Colin; Ting, Mingfang; Seager, Richard; Kushnir, Yochanan [Columbia University' s Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Palisades, NY (United States)

    2012-05-15

    The roles of anthropogenic climate change and internal climate variability in causing the Mediterranean region's late 20th Century extended winter drying trend are examined using 19 coupled models from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report. The observed drying was influenced by the robust positive trend in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) from the 1960s to the 1990s. Model simulations and observations are used to assess the probable relative roles of radiative forcing, and internal variability in explaining the circulation trend that drove much of the precipitation change. Using the multi-model ensemble we assess how well the models can produce multidecadal trends of realistic magnitude, and apply signal-to-noise maximizing EOF analysis to obtain a best estimate of the models' (mean) sea-level pressure (SLP) and precipitation responses to changes in radiative forcing. The observed SLP and Mediterranean precipitation fields are regressed onto the timeseries associated with the models' externally forced pattern and the implied linear trends in both fields between 1960 and 1999 are calculated. It is concluded that the radiatively forced trends are a small fraction of the total observed trends. Instead it is argued that the robust trends in the observed NAO and Mediterranean rainfall during this period were largely due to multidecadal internal variability with a small contribution from the external forcing. Differences between the observed and NAO-associated precipitation trends are consistent with those expected as a response to radiative forcing. The radiatively forced trends in circulation and precipitation are expected to strengthen in the current century and this study highlights the importance of their contribution to future precipitation changes in the region. (orig.)

  9. Detecting long-term metabolic shifts using isotopomers: CO2-driven suppression of photorespiration in C3 plants over the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Ina; Augusti, Angela; Betson, Tatiana R; Nilsson, Mats B; Marshall, John D; Schleucher, Jürgen

    2015-12-22

    Terrestrial vegetation currently absorbs approximately a third of anthropogenic CO2 emissions, mitigating the rise of atmospheric CO2. However, terrestrial net primary production is highly sensitive to atmospheric CO2 levels and associated climatic changes. In C3 plants, which dominate terrestrial vegetation, net photosynthesis depends on the ratio between photorespiration and gross photosynthesis. This metabolic flux ratio depends strongly on CO2 levels, but changes in this ratio over the past CO2 rise have not been analyzed experimentally. Combining CO2 manipulation experiments and deuterium NMR, we first establish that the intramolecular deuterium distribution (deuterium isotopomers) of photosynthetic C3 glucose contains a signal of the photorespiration/photosynthesis ratio. By tracing this isotopomer signal in herbarium samples of natural C3 vascular plant species, crops, and a Sphagnum moss species, we detect a consistent reduction in the photorespiration/photosynthesis ratio in response to the ?100-ppm CO2 increase between ?1900 and 2013. No difference was detected in the isotopomer trends between beet sugar samples covering the 20th century and CO2 manipulation experiments, suggesting that photosynthetic metabolism in sugar beet has not acclimated to increasing CO2 over >100 y. This provides observational evidence that the reduction of the photorespiration/photosynthesis ratio was ca. 25%. The Sphagnum results are consistent with the observed positive correlations between peat accumulation rates and photosynthetic rates over the Northern Hemisphere. Our results establish that isotopomers of plant archives contain metabolic information covering centuries. Our data provide direct quantitative information on the "CO2 fertilization" effect over decades, thus addressing a major uncertainty in Earth system models. PMID:26644588

  10. Interannual-to-decadal variability of the stratosphere during the 20th century: ensemble simulations with a chemistry-climate model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Fischer

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Interannual-to-decadal variability in stratospheric ozone and climate have a number of common sources, such as variations in solar irradiance, stratospheric aerosol loading due to volcanic eruptions, El Niño Southern Oscillation variability and the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO. Currently available data records as well as model simulations addressing stratospheric chemical climate variability mostly cover only the past few decades, which is often insufficient to address natural interannual-to-decadal variability. Here we make use of recently reconstructed and re-evaluated data products to force and validate transient ensemble model simulations (nine members across the twentieth century computed by means of the chemistry-climate model SOCOL (SOlar Climate Ozone Links. The forcings include sea surface temperatures, sea ice, solar irradiance, stratospheric aerosols, QBO, changes in land properties, greenhouse gases, ozone depleting substances, and emissions of carbon monoxides, and nitrogen oxides. The transient simulations are in good agreement with observations, reconstructions and reanalyses and allow quantification of interannual-to-decadal variability during the 20th century. All ensemble members are able to capture the low-frequency variability in tropical and mid-latitude total ozone as well as in the strength of the subtropical jet, suggesting a realistic response to external forcings in this area. The region of the northern polar vortex exhibits a large internal variability that is found in the frequency, seasonality, and strength of major warmings as well as in the strength of the modeled polar vortex. Results from process-oriented analysis, such as correlation between the vertical Eliassen Palm flux (EP flux component and polar variables as well as stratospheric ozone trends, are of comparable magnitude to those observed and are consistent in all analysed ensemble members. Yet, trend estimates of the vertical EP flux component vary greatly among ensemble members precluding any robust conclusions. This suggests that internal variability in models must be accounted for in order to quantify the atmospheric model response in wave energy upon external forcings.

  11. A doença meningocócica em São Paulo, Brasil, no século XX: características epidemiológicas Meningococcal disease in São Paulo, Brazil, in the 20th century: epidemiological characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cássio de Moraes

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo analisa o comportamento epidemiológico da doença meningocócica na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil, ao longo do século XX. Utilizando dados de prontuários, atestados de óbito e do sistema de vigilância epidemiológica os autores descrevem a tendência secular da doença, sua variação sazonal, a distribuição espacial e por idade e sexo. A tendência secular mostra incidência constante nos períodos endêmicos, interrompida pela presença de epidemias. As quatro epidemias registradas durante o século XX ocorreram em momentos de graves perturbações sociais e foram produzidas pelos sorogrupos A, A e C, e B e C. A variação sazonal com exacerbação no outono/inverno mantém-se constante durante todo o século. A distribuição espacial acompanha os deslocamentos da população pobre no espaço urbano. A distribuição por idade e sexo mantém-se inalterada em todos os períodos endêmicos, mostrando maior risco entre os menores de um ano e decréscimos acentuados à proporção que aumenta a idade. Os períodos epidêmicos, com exceção do último, mostram alteração significante na distribuição etária, com aumento do risco entre jovens e adultos jovens, e ocorrência de casos em todas as faixas etárias.This study analyzes the epidemiological behavior of meningococcal disease in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, over the course of the 20th century. Applying data from patient records, death certificates, and epidemiological surveillance, the authors describe trends in the disease throughout the century, seasonal variations, and incidence distribution by area, age, and gender. The temporal trends show constant incidence during endemic periods, interrupted by epidemic events. Four epidemic events during the last century occurred in circumstances of serious social disturbances and were caused by serogroups A (the first two, A and C, and B and C, respectively. Seasonal variations involved aggravation during autumn and winter throughout the entire century. Geographic distribution followed the displacement of the poor population in the urban territory. Age and gender distribution remained unaltered during all the endemic periods, showing an increased risk associated with younger age. The epidemic periods (except for the last showed major alterations in age and gender distribution, with an increased risk among young people and youth adults and occurrence in all age brackets.

  12. [Russland an der Ostsee : imperiale Strategien der Macht und kulturelle Wahrnehmungsmuster (16. bis 20. Jahrhundert) = Russia on the Baltic : imperial strategies of power and cultural patterns of perception (16th-20th centuries). Hrsg. von Kartsen Br

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laur, Mati, 1955-

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Russland an der Ostsee : imperiale Strategien der Macht und kulturelle Wahrnehmungsmuster (16. bis 20. Jahrhundert) = Russia on the Baltic : imperial strategies of power and cultural patterns of perception (16th-20th centuries). (Quellen und Studien zur Baltischen Geschichte, 22). Hrsg. von Kartsen Brüggemann und Bradley Woodworth. Böhlau Verlag. Wien u.a. 2012.

  13. [Russland an der Ostsee : imperiale Strategien der Macht und kulturelle Wahrnehmungsmuster (16. bis 20. Jahrhundert) = Russia on the Baltic : imperial strategies of power and cultural patterns of perception (16th-20th centuries). Hrsg. von Kartsen Br

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laur, Mati, 1955-

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Russland an der Ostsee : imperiale Strategien der Macht und kulturelle Wahrnehmungsmuster (16. bis 20. Jahrhundert) = Russia on the Baltic : imperial strategies of power and cultural patterns of perception (16th-20th centuries). (Quellen und Studien zur Baltischen Geschichte, 22). Hrsg. von Kartsen Brüggemann und Bradley Woodworth. Böhlau Verlag. Wien u.a. 2012.

  14. A reversão do hiato de gênero na educação brasileira no século XX Reversal of the gender gap in Brazilian education in the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaizô Iwakami Beltrão

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A redução do hiato de gênero e o maior acesso das mulheres à educação são objetivos explícitos da IV Conferência da Mulher (1995, do Fórum Mundial de Educação (2000 e da Cúpula do Milênio (2000. As conferências internacionais promovidas pela Organização das Nações Unidas recomendam ações para eliminar as discriminações contra o sexo feminino em todos os campos de atividade, especialmente na educação. O hiato de gênero e o déficit educacional das mulheres sempre fizeram parte da realidade brasileira. Contudo, as mulheres conseguiram eliminar e reverter esse hiato ao longo do século XX. Este artigo tem como objetivo principal analisar quando se deu a reversão do hiato de gênero na educação no Brasil. Para isso, apresentaremos as informações educacionais dos censos demográficos de 1960 a 2000, segundo níveis de escolaridade, desagregadas por sexo e por coortes de nascimento. Essa metodologia nos permitirá acompanhar a evolução do hiato de gênero das coortes nascidas após 1890 até o ano 1995.The reduction of the gender gap and the improvement in female access to education were explicit objectives of the IV Conference on Women (1995, of the World Education Forum (2000 and of the Millennium Summit (2000. All International Conferences promoted by the United Nations Organization (UN recommend actions to eradicate discrimination against women in all fields of activity, especially education. The gender gap and the education deficit among women have always been part of the Brazilian reality. However, women have been able to eliminate and reverse this gap throughout the 20th century. The main purpose of this article is to analyze when the reversion of the gender gap in Brazilian education occurred. In order to do so, we will present information obtained from demographic censuses from 1960 to 2000, based on schooling levels disaggregated by gender and birth cohorts. This methodology will allow us to track the evolution of the gender gap in birth cohorts after 1890 until 1995.

  15. A reversão do hiato de gênero na educação brasileira no século XX / Reversal of the gender gap in Brazilian education in the 20th century

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Kaizô Iwakami, Beltrão; José Eustáquio Diniz, Alves.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A redução do hiato de gênero e o maior acesso das mulheres à educação são objetivos explícitos da IV Conferência da Mulher (1995), do Fórum Mundial de Educação (2000) e da Cúpula do Milênio (2000). As conferências internacionais promovidas pela Organização das Nações Unidas recomendam ações para eli [...] minar as discriminações contra o sexo feminino em todos os campos de atividade, especialmente na educação. O hiato de gênero e o déficit educacional das mulheres sempre fizeram parte da realidade brasileira. Contudo, as mulheres conseguiram eliminar e reverter esse hiato ao longo do século XX. Este artigo tem como objetivo principal analisar quando se deu a reversão do hiato de gênero na educação no Brasil. Para isso, apresentaremos as informações educacionais dos censos demográficos de 1960 a 2000, segundo níveis de escolaridade, desagregadas por sexo e por coortes de nascimento. Essa metodologia nos permitirá acompanhar a evolução do hiato de gênero das coortes nascidas após 1890 até o ano 1995. Abstract in english The reduction of the gender gap and the improvement in female access to education were explicit objectives of the IV Conference on Women (1995), of the World Education Forum (2000) and of the Millennium Summit (2000). All International Conferences promoted by the United Nations Organization (UN) rec [...] ommend actions to eradicate discrimination against women in all fields of activity, especially education. The gender gap and the education deficit among women have always been part of the Brazilian reality. However, women have been able to eliminate and reverse this gap throughout the 20th century. The main purpose of this article is to analyze when the reversion of the gender gap in Brazilian education occurred. In order to do so, we will present information obtained from demographic censuses from 1960 to 2000, based on schooling levels disaggregated by gender and birth cohorts. This methodology will allow us to track the evolution of the gender gap in birth cohorts after 1890 until 1995.

  16. Multi-decadal modulations in the Aleutian-Icelandic Low seesaw and the axial symmetry of the Arctic Oscillation signature, as revealed in the 20th century reanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Shi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Seesaw relationship in intensity between the surface Aleutian and Icelandic Lows (AIS is a manifestation of atmospheric teleconnection that bridges the interannual variability over the Pacific and Atlantic in particular winter months. Analysis of the 20th Century Reanalysis data reveals that the strength and timing of AIS have undergone multi-decadal modulations in conjunction with those in structure of the Arctic Oscillation (AO signature, extracted in the leading mode of interannual sea-level pressure (SLP variability over the extratropical Northern Hemisphere. Specifically, events of what may be called ‘pure AO’, in which SLP anomalies exhibit a high degree of axial symmetry in association with in-phase SLP variability between the midlatitude Atlantic and Pacific, tended to occur during multi-decadal periods in which the inter-basin teleconnection through AIS was active under the enhanced interannual variability of the Aleutian Low. In contrast, the axial symmetry of the AO pattern was apparently reduced during a multi-decadal period in which the AIS teleconnection was inactive under the weakened interannual variability of the Aleutian Low. In this period, the leading mode of interannual SLP variability represented a meridional seesaw between the Atlantic and Arctic, which resembles SLP anomaly pattern associated with the cold-ocean/warm-land (COWL temperature pattern. These multi-decadal modulations in interannual AIS signal and the axial symmetry of the interannual AO pattern occurred under multi-decadal changes in the background state that also represented the polarity changes of the COWL-like anomaly pattern.

  17. Lovro Stepišnik and the development of travelling librarianship in Slovenia at the turn of the 19th to the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Vozel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Travelling library service is a field of librarianship which has not been thoroughly explored yet either in Slovenia or abroad. The most interesting question is who the beginner was and how the idea of a travelling library service has been introduced to Slovenia.Methodology/approach: The analysis of primary and secondary resources served to represent the life and work of Lovro Stepišnik as well as a short introduction to the history of travelling librarianship in Slovenia at the turn of the 19th to the 20th century.Results: The findings show that the hypothesis on Lovro Stepišnik as the first travelling librarian in Slovenia could be confirmed. After establishing the library together with the Reading society in the year 1863, either Stepišnik or his assistant, delivered baskets of books to rural readers. At the same time, some initiatives on private travelling libraries based on American and European practices emerged. The aim of the first travelling libraries was to stimulate reading and literacy among rural population, especially in the areas without reading societies and on the borders with German speaking population,in order to stimulate national consciousness and the use of the Slovenian language.Research limitation: The research was limited to the selected primary resources of selected serial publication in the Slovenian language. Some difficulties due to the variety of terms and archaic expressions were identified.Originality/practical implications: The short study should stimulate the research in the development of travelling libraries in Slovenia.

  18. Intercomparison of CMIP5 and CMIP3 simulations of the 20th century maximum and minimum temperatures over India and detection of climatic trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonali, P.; Kumar, D. Nagesh; Nanjundiah, Ravi S.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change impact assessment has become one of the most important subjects of the research community because of the recent increase in frequency of extreme events and changes in the spatiotemporal patterns of climate. This paper analyses the ability of 46 coupled climate models from Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phases 3 and 5 (CMIP5 and CMIP3). The performance of each climate model was assessed based on its skills in simulating the current seasonal cycles (monthly) of both maximum temperature and minimum temperature (Tmax, Tmin) over India. The performance measures such as coefficient of correlation (Skill_r), root mean square error (Skill_rmse), and the skill in simulating the observed probability density function (Skill_s) are mainly employed for evaluation of the simulated monthly seasonal cycle. A new metric called Skill_All which is an intersection of the above three metrics has been defined for the first time. A notable enhancement of Skill_All for CMIP5 vis-a-vis CMIP3 is observed. Further, three best CMIP5 models each for Tmax and Tmin were selected. The methodology employed in this study for model assessment is implemented for the first time for India, which establishes a robust foundation for the climate impact assessment study. The seasonal trends in Tmax and Tmin were analyzed over all the temperature homogenous regions of India for different time slots during the 20th century. Significant trends in Tmin can be seen during most of the seasons over the entire Indian region during last four decades. This establishes the signature of climate change over most parts of India.

  19. Studying in-between spaces of the Danish primary and secondary school as spaces of and in transition in the late 20th century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lisa Rosén

    This paper analyzes the history of school corridors, walking areas, entrance halls and stairwells in the Danish primary and lower secondary school from 1970 and up till now. The paper uses the notion of transitory spaces to explore these in-betweens as spaces of and in transition. Spaces of transition in the sense of: being a space for moving across or moving between different contexts. Spaces in transition in the sense that: perceptions, uses and materiality of it change over time. A large corpus of written and visual material together with interviews and school visits is analyzed to see how in-between spaces come into being through specific attention to their danger and potential, but also in relation to the perception and construction of classrooms and school layout. In this the alteration of the in-between spaces pulls together important dynamics in the formation of the Danish primary and lower secondary school in the late 20th century, closely linked to the overall transformation of school life and its displaced material and discursive becoming as it is. The analysis is inspired by works of Karen Barad (2003, 2007) and Nigel Thrift (2006) and shows how the notion of the in-between spaces has taken shape in complex material-discursive intra-actions related to shifting concerns about the vulnerable and yet potential child as well as through available building materials, architectural designs and the number and organization of pupils’ bodies. By using this approach and working through the empirical material the analysis also points to possible ways to think the notion of transitory spaces as such.

  20. BOOKSELLER AS A CULTURAL AGENT: BOOK TRADE IN ESTONIA IN THE SECOND HALF OF THE 19TH AND AT THE BEGINNING OF THE 20TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jantson, Signe

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The article handles general developments and changes in book trade which took place in Estonia during the second half of the 19th century. The aim is to show the formation of bookshops trading with Estonian books and to analyse the activities of Estonian booksellers.The survey is based on the research literature and on the master thesis by Signe Jantson “Raamatukaubandus Eestis aastatel 1850–1917: raamatukauplused ja nende omanikud” (Book trade in Estonia 1850–1917: bookshops and their owners [9]. In this study great importance wasattached to the national and social origin of bookshop owners and their activities. Up to the middle of the 19th century the book production and dissemination in Estonia was in the hands of Baltic German entrepreneurs and depended on the political and economic developments not only in Russia but also in Germany. In the middle of the 19th century there were only 5 bookshops in Estonia located in bigger towns – Tallinn and Tartu. In 1870 the number of bookshops reached 13. The greater ascent can be noticed in the last decade of the period – 1870–1880 when 20 new bookshops were opened. In 1867 Heinrich Laakmann, a German origin publisher and the printing shop owner opened the first bookshop in Tartu to sell Estonian language books. The economic and political reforms as well as the national awakening movement favoured the engagement of Estonians in the sphere of book production and dissemination. Increasing publishing of Estonian language books enabled the development of trade. At the end of the national awakening period most of the bookshop owners were already of Estonian origin. Since 1870ies the number of Estonian bookshops started to grow and at the end of the 19th century they outnumbered German and Russian shops. In all over Europe book trade concentrated into the big cities (in the case of Estonia in Tallinn and Tartu, but bookshops were opened also in the rural area (small towns and villages. Altogether 263 bookshops were founded in the second half of the 19th and at the beginning of the 20th century and 283 persons became bookshop owners (at least for some years. These figures allow to conclude that book trade was a popular sphere of activity. The most intensive was foundation of bookshops during 1898–1904. Legally it was not difficult to get a permission to open a bookshop but only few shops (31% operated more than ten years; most often was that small shops operated up to five years. Trading with books did not guarantee sufficient income and the bookshop owners were often engaged in other spheres, mainly in book production and publishing. Majority of the Estonian origin bookshop owners derived from the peasant families and made up the first generation in book trade business. The newcomers had not enough education nor experience in the field. The most important achievement can be seen in the fact that bookshops were opened in all over Estonia that guaranteed dissemination of Estonian language books to all stratums of the society.

  1. O comércio internacional de peles silvestres na Amazônia brasileira no século XX / The international trade in wild animals skins from the Brazilian Amazon in the 20th Century

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    André Pinassi, Antunes; Glenn Harvey, Shepard Junior; Eduardo Martins, Venticinque.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Durante o século XX, o comércio internacional de peles foi responsável pelo abate de milhões de mamíferos e répteis na Amazônia. Negociadas no regime de comércio fluvial e aviamento, as peles seguiam dos portos e seringais, localizados no interior, para as casas aviadoras e exportadoras de Manaus e [...] Belém, de onde eram exportadas principalmente para os Estados Unidos, a Europa e o sul brasileiro. Neste artigo, analisamos documentos fiscais inéditos liberados pelo extinto império econômico do aviamento - a empresa J. G. Araujo -, bem como periódicos da Associação Comercial do Amazonas e os registros portuários da Manáos Harbour Ltd. O comércio internacional de peles silvestres intensificou-se imediatamente após a crise da borracha (1912) e atingiu seu auge entre 1935 e 1946, com o pico durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial. O segundo pico ocorreu na década de 1960, principal e ironicamente logo após a publicação da Lei de Proteção à Fauna (1967). Ao longo do período que antecedeu a aprovação da Convenção sobre o Comércio Internacional de Espécies Ameaçadas (CITES), em 1973-1975, não houve depreciação significativa no preço ou na demanda internacional por peles silvestres, sugerindo um esforço de caça constante e intenso por quase meio século. Abstract in english Throughout the 20th century, an international trade in animal hides resulted in the slaughter of millions of mammals and reptiles in the Amazon. Animal hides were purchased from extractivists through a network of traveling river merchants in a regime of debt peonage known as aviamento, carried from [...] trade posts in the hinterlands to warehouses in Manaus and Belém, and then exported to the United States, Europe and southern Brazil. Here we analyze previously unpublished shipping invoices from the famous merchant empire of J. G. Araujo as well as public port registries and commercial statistics from Manaus (Manáos Harbour Ltd., Associação Comercial do Amazonas). The international trade in Amazonian animal hides intensified immediately after the 1912 crash in rubber prices and spiked between 1935 and 1946, with a peak during World War II. The second spike occurred in the 1960s, mainly after the passage of Brazil's 1967 "Wild Animal Protection Law" intended to halt this trade. Throughout the period leading up to the adoption of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) in 1973-1975, there was no significant depreciation in the price or international demand for animal skins, suggesting constant and intense hunting effort for nearly half a century.

  2. A Coupled Ocean-Iceberg Model Over The 20th Century: Iceberg Flux At 48°N As A Proxy For Greenland Iceberg Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigg, G. R.; Wilton, D.; Hanna, E.

    2013-12-01

    Grant R. Bigg1 , David J. Wilton1 and Edward Hanna1 1Department of Geography, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, S10 2TN We have used a coupled ocean-iceberg model, the Fine Resolution Greenland and Labrador ocean model [1], to study the variation in, and trajectory of, icebergs over the twentieth century, focusing particularly on Greenland and surrounding areas. The model is forced with daily heat, freshwater and wind fluxes derived from the Twentieth Century Reanalysis Project [2]. We use the observed iceberg flux at 48°N off Newfoundland (I48N) from 1900 to 2008 [3] to assess the iceberg component of the model. Model I48N is calculated with both a variable and constant annual calving rate. The results show that ocean and atmosphere changes alone do not account for the variation in observed I48N and suggests that this series can be used as a proxy for iceberg discharge from west Greenland tidewater glaciers. The implication of this proxy is that there is significant interannual variability in Greenland iceberg discharge over the whole twentieth century. Our model results suggest that in the early decades of the twentieth century I48N was dominated by icebergs originating from south Greenland (below latitude 65°N) with west Greenland becoming the main source of I48N from the late 1930s onwards. Modeled icebergs from the east of Greenland very rarely reach 48°N. We also present results from the ocean model showing the variation of ocean transport fluxes over the course of the twentieth and early twenty first century. References 1. M. R. Wadley, and G. R. Bigg, (2002), Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 128, 2187-2203 2. G. P. Compo, et al. (2011), Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 137, 1-28 3. D. L. Murphy (2011) http://www.navcen.uscg.gov/?pageName=IIPIcebergCounts

  3. Migration in the Swiss Alps and Swiss Jura from the Middle Ages to the mid-20th century: a brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Lise Head-König

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at retracing the important phases of migrations in the alpine regions and the Jura from the Middle Ages up to the middle of the 20th century. Migration has always functioned as a necessary complement to the resources of the inhabitants of the upland regions and it increases when the economic disparity with the lowlands becomes more marked. A striking characteristic of such migration is the great diversity that can be observed, since not only the destinations of the migrants varied from community to community, but also different forms of mobility coexisted within the same territory. Migration might be seasonal, pluriannual, lifelong or even definitive. It is also notable that the various types of migration can be observed to be part of a plurisecular tradition, apart from some significant exceptions, such as the emigration of the Walser, enforced migrations and the new types of migration as from the second half of the nineteenth century. The mobility of part of the population was also a consequence of modifications deriving from changes in the prevalent type of production (animal husbandry instead of the cultivation of cereals, as well as from demographic factors. In addition to these factors one can observe the role played by political institutions throughout the period under study: seigneurial power in the Middle Ages, the communal and cantonal instances until the second half of the nineteenth century, and afterwards the federal authorities.Cette contribution vise à montrer les grandes phases des mouvements migratoires du Moyen Age au milieu du XXe siècle dans les mondes alpin et jurassien suisses. La migration a toujours été une complémentarité nécessaire aux ressources de la montagne, et elle s'amplifie lorsque les disparités économiques avec le plat pays s'accroissent. Elle se caractérise par une forte diversité, puisque non seulement les destinations et les aires d'établissement des migrants peuvent varier fortement d'une commune à l'autre, mais aussi parce qu'au sein d'un même territoire ont toujours coexisté des formes différentes de mobilité, saisonnières, pluriannuelles, viagères ou définitives. Un aspect remarquable de ces types de migration est qu’ils s'inscrivent dans une très longue tradition pluriséculaire, avec quelques exceptions notables, ainsi les migrations des Walser, les migrations forcées et les nouvelles formes de la migration dès la seconde moitié du XIXe siècle. La mobilité est imposée aussi par les modifications des formes prévalantes de production (élevage plutôt qu'emblavures, de même que par les facteurs démographiques. A ces facteurs s'ajoute celui du rôle des institutions politiques tout au long de la période étudiée, seigneuriales au Moyen Age, communales et cantonales jusque dans la seconde moitié du XIXe siècle, puis fédérales.

  4. Tree-ring reconstruction of seasonal mean minimum temperature at Mt. Yaoshan, China, since 1873 and its relevance to 20th-century warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Liu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available It is very important to comprehend the climate variations in the vast regions of Central Plains of China. Current knowledge about climate changes of the past few hundred years in this region is primarily based on historical documents, and lack of evidences from the natural archives. However, these documents had somewhat artificially effects caused by the recorders, and not sufficient to fully understand natural climatic changes. In this paper, based on a significant correlation between the tree-ring width of Chinese Pine and observed instrumental data in the Mt. Yaoshan, China, we formulated a transfer function to reconstruct the mean minimum temperature (MMinT from the previous December to the current June (Tmin_DJ for the period 1873–2011. The reconstruction explained 39.8% of the instrumental variance during the calibration period of 1958–2011. High Tmin_DJ intervals with values greater than the 139 year average occurred in 1932–1965 and 1976–2006. The intervals 1878–1894 and 1906–1931 experienced a Tmin_DJ lower than the 139 year average. The ten highest Tmin_DJ years occurred after the 1950s, especially after 1996. A distinct upward trend in the Tmin_DJ series beginning in the 1910s was apparent, and the highest value occurred around 2000. The 20th-century warming signal was captured well by the Yaoshan Tmin_DJ temperature reconstruction, indicating that the temperature rise in the sensitive Central Plains of China region reflected the global temperature change. The Tmin_DJ reconstruction also matched several other temperature series in China with similar warm-cold patterns. The distinct spatial correlation between both observed and reconstructed series and CRU TS3.10 grid data indicates that our results may represent Tmin_DJ changes on a larger scale. The spatial correlation with sea surface temperature (SST indicated that observed and reconstructed Tmin_DJ temperatures in the Mt. Yaoshan are closely linked to the West Pacific, Indian and North Atlantic Oceans as well as El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO.

  5. Dangerous and/or potential spaces. Securing the in-between in Danish primary and secondary schools in the late 20th century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lisa Rosén

    The alterations of entrance halls, walking areas, stairways and schoolyards pull together important aspects of the formation of the Danish primary and lower secondary school in the late 20th century. On the one hand these in-between spaces can be seen as shaped by considerations of the child’s well-being as well as by safety legislation, and on the other hand their potentials as learning areas have been pointed out, they have been utilized for teaching purposes and optimized according to the latest didactics. These spaces which to a large extent have been overlooked as can be seen – in the terminology of Werner and Zimmermann’s histoire croisée (2006) – as important intersection points of entangled histories that fuel the changing understandings of what school, school life and school pupils are all about. This paper will explore how these in-between spaces at Danish schools have taken shape in complex material-discursive intra-actions between architects’ design of new school buildings, everyday furnishing andshifting concerns about the vulnerable and yet potential child. The paper will also look into the intra-actions between the physical layout of the schools and the increased focus on how to enhance learning with its altered connections between playing and learning. The analysis will work through notions of space, potentiality and material-discursive intra-activity inspired by works of Nigel Thrift (2006), Brian Massumi (2002) and Karen Barad (2003, 2007). The paper will concentrate on two examples from schools in the 1970s and the 2000s, respectively. Empirically, the paper will draw on material generated for the project “Schools in Denmark: A History of Everyday Life, Conditions, and Visions over 500 Years” (De Coninck-Smith et al. 2015) and include sources such as pedagogical journals, architects’ magazines, newspaper articles, reports from conferences and school developments, photographs, observations from school visits and from architects’, municipalities’ and schools’ digital platforms. References Barad, K. (2003). Posthumanist performativity: Toward an understanding of how matter comes to matter. Signs 28 (3): 801-831. Barad, K. (2007). Meeting the Universe Halfway: Quantum Physics and the Entanglement of Matter and Meaning. Durham: Duke University Press. De Coninck-Smith, N., Rosén Rasmussen, L. & Vyff, I. (2015). Da skolen blev alles interesse. Dansk skolehistorie 1970-2014. Aarhus: Aarhus Universitetsforlag. Massumi, Brian. 2002. Parables for the Virtual. Movement, Affect, Sensation. Durham/London: Duke University Press. Thrift, Nigel (2006). Space. In: Theory, Culture and Society 23 (2-3): 139-146. Werner, M. & Zimmermann, B. (2006). Beyond Comparison: Histoire Croisée and the Challenge of Reflexivity. In: History and Theory vol. 45(1).

  6. Conformando uma Argentina leitora: educação pública, bibliotecas e mercado editorial entre fins do século XIX e meados do século XX Building a reading Argentina: state schools, libraries and the publishing market in late -19th century and in the first half of 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Pellegrino Soares

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo pretende lançar luz sobre políticas públicas de promoção da leitura que tiveram lugar na Argentina de fins do século XIX e primeira metade do XX, e sobre a forma como essas interagiram com o mercado editorial em desenvolvimento no país. A preocupação em cultivar e orientar desde cedo nos cidadãos a prática da leitura fez das crianças alvo privilegiado de iniciativas educacionais e editoriais, às quais dedicarei particular atenção.This article aims at shedding light on public policies of reading practices’ promotion, that took place in Argentina in late 19th century and in the first half of 20th century, and on the way they affected the country’s developing publishing market. The purpose of motivating reading practices since the citizens’ early years turned children into an important goal of educational and publishing initiatives, which shall here receive special focus.

  7. Conformando uma Argentina leitora: educação pública, bibliotecas e mercado editorial entre fins do século XIX e meados do século XX / Building a reading Argentina: state schools, libraries and the publishing market in late -19th century and in the first half of 20th century

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gabriela Pellegrino, Soares.

    Full Text Available Este artigo pretende lançar luz sobre políticas públicas de promoção da leitura que tiveram lugar na Argentina de fins do século XIX e primeira metade do XX, e sobre a forma como essas interagiram com o mercado editorial em desenvolvimento no país. A preocupação em cultivar e orientar desde cedo nos [...] cidadãos a prática da leitura fez das crianças alvo privilegiado de iniciativas educacionais e editoriais, às quais dedicarei particular atenção. Abstract in english This article aims at shedding light on public policies of reading practices’ promotion, that took place in Argentina in late 19th century and in the first half of 20th century, and on the way they affected the country’s developing publishing market. The purpose of motivating reading practices since [...] the citizens’ early years turned children into an important goal of educational and publishing initiatives, which shall here receive special focus.

  8. Paul Hamilton Wood (1907-1962: El máximo exponente de la cardiología clínica Británica del siglo XX Paul Hamilton Wood: The foremost British clinical cardiologist of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan D Humphreys

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the United Kingdom, during the mid-20th century, Paul Wood appears as the new leader of European cardiology. He introduced rigorous bed-side diagnostic methods and the confirmation of these clinical findings by cardiac catheterization, in an effort to demonstrate the pathophysiological causes of cardiac disease. In his search for the correct diagnosis, his comments, which could be caustic, both impressed and offended many. He had a strong commanding personality and was intensely honest in his appreciations. His showmanship and diagnostic ability became renown. In 1950, the publishing of the first edition of his textbook "Diseases of the Heart and Circulation" brought him worldwide recognition. In this book, Wood introduces his personal fresh style of narrative and his physiologic approach to cardiology. His intense professional activity, teaching, lecturing and preparing the third edition of his book, plus the fact that he was a heavy smoker, must have been the factors that lead to a myocardial infarction and death at the early age of 54. As Paul Dudley White and Ignacio Chávez in America, Paul Wood in Europe will be remembered as the emblematic figure leading the transition of cardiology into the modern era.

  9. Paul Hamilton Wood (1907-1962): El máximo exponente de la cardiología clínica Británica del siglo XX / Paul Hamilton Wood: The foremost British clinical cardiologist of the 20th century

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juan D, Humphreys; Pablo, Young.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english In the United Kingdom, during the mid-20th century, Paul Wood appears as the new leader of European cardiology. He introduced rigorous bed-side diagnostic methods and the confirmation of these clinical findings by cardiac catheterization, in an effort to demonstrate the pathophysiological causes of [...] cardiac disease. In his search for the correct diagnosis, his comments, which could be caustic, both impressed and offended many. He had a strong commanding personality and was intensely honest in his appreciations. His showmanship and diagnostic ability became renown. In 1950, the publishing of the first edition of his textbook "Diseases of the Heart and Circulation" brought him worldwide recognition. In this book, Wood introduces his personal fresh style of narrative and his physiologic approach to cardiology. His intense professional activity, teaching, lecturing and preparing the third edition of his book, plus the fact that he was a heavy smoker, must have been the factors that lead to a myocardial infarction and death at the early age of 54. As Paul Dudley White and Ignacio Chávez in America, Paul Wood in Europe will be remembered as the emblematic figure leading the transition of cardiology into the modern era.

  10. The place occupied by early measurement (20th minute) of the thyroid uptake of sup(99m)Tc pertechnetate in thyroid pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The place occupied by early measurement (20th minute) of the thyroid uptake of sup(99m)Tc pertechnetate is situated for different types of thyroid condition (hypo-, normo- and hyperthyroidism). The use of technetium is simple in practice because only the cervical and crural radioactivity measurements are required. Like all simplified methods it involves risks of errors but lends itself to systematic routine use. The practical advantages of this isotope, which in view of its short half-life appears with iodine 123 as the nearly ideal tracer for thyroid exploration at present are outlined. The thyroid gland can be studied both functionally and scintigraphically at the cost of minimum irradiation, which is a great advantage. The fact that a number of data may be obtained in less than an hour (including scintigraphy) is a particularly valuable asset. However the method has its limits. For example a diagnosis of hyper or hypothyroidism based on the technetium uptake at the 20th minute alone is out of the question. A zero uptake may be observed in the presence of Basedow's disease or conversely a high uptake in hypo- or euthyroid cases. Discrimination is satisfactory between hyper and euthyroid but not between eu- and hypothyroid subjects. Technological progress however promises a routine use of 123 I and 99mTc together, the two isotopes serving to explore two different phases of the thyroid metabolism

  11. Os alcances do crescimento econômico. Pobreza e escassez de alimento na Argentina agroexportadora (Córdoba, fins do século XIX e inícios do XX - doi: 10.4025/dialogos.v13i1.371 The reaches of economic growth. Poverty and food shortage in agricultural exporting Argentina (Córdoba, late 19th and early 20th centuries - doi: 10.4025/dialogos.v13i1.371 Los alcances del crescimento económico. Pobreza y alimento escaso en la Argentina agroesportadora (Córdoba, fines del siglo xix e inicios del xx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando J. Remedi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Entre fins do século XIX e início do XX, a província de Córdoba - localizada no centro geográfico da Argentina - atravessou por forte crescimento econômico devido à sua inserção ao modelo agro-exportador dominante à época. Este desenvolvimento supunha um incremento do bem-estar geral da população; porém, teve uma distribuição desigual entre os diferentes grupos sociais. O objetivo deste trabalho é efetuar uma primeira aproximação sobre como foi o acesso dos setores de baixos recursos à alimentação, tomando-o como um claro e significativo indicador das condições sociais que caracterizaram a expansão econômica e seus limites.

    The province of Córdoba, located in the geographic center of Argentina, experienced strong and sustained economic growth during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, as it was inserted in the then-dominant primary exporting model. Growth led to an increase in the general welfare of the population, but which was distributed unequally among different social groups. The objective of this work is to attempt a first survey of the access to food by the least affluent sectors, as it is a clear and very significant indicator of the social conditions that marked the economic expansion, as well as its limits.

    La provincia de Córdoba, en el centro geográfico de la Argentina, hacia fines del siglo XIX e inicios del XX experimentó un fuerte y sostenido crecimiento económico, por su inserción en el modelo primario-exportador entonces dominante. El crecimiento supuso un incremento del bienestar general de la población, pero que se distribuyó de modo desigual entre los grupos sociales. El objetivo de este trabajo es efectuar una primera aproximación al acceso a la alimentación de los sectores de menores recursos, que es un claro y muy significativo indicador de las condiciones sociales que enmarcaron la expansión económica y de sus límites.  

     

  12. Psicanálise e psiquiatria nos inícios do século XX: a apropriação do conceito de esquizofrenia no trabalho de Hermelino Lopes Rodrigues / Psychanalyse et psychiatrie au début du XX siècle: l'assimilation du concept de schizophrénie dans le travail de Hermelino Lopes Rodrigues / Psychoanalysis and psychiatry in the early 20th century: appropriation of the concept of schizophrenia in the work of Hermelino Lopes Rodrigues / Psicoanálisis y psiquiatría en inicio del siglo XX: a apropriación del concepto de esquizofrenia en el trabajo de Hermelino Lopes Rodrigues

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Renato Diniz, Silveira.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho tem como principal objetivo descrever e analisar as contribuições do médico psiquiatra Hermelino Lopes Rodrigues (18991971), na apropriação do conceito de esquizofrenia no Brasil, nas primeiras décadas do século XX. Suas contribuições possuem clara influência das ideias do psiquiatra suíç [...] o Eugen Bleuler (1857-1939), na transição entre o conceito de demência precoce e esquizofrenia. O trabalho também procura destacar a inédita leitura que Lopes Rodrigues fez do texto de Eugen Bleuler, ressaltando a influência de aspectos psicológicos e biográficos no estudo do doente esquizofrênico. Abstract in spanish El trabajo tiene como principal objetivo describir y analizar las contribuciones del médico psiquiatra Hermelino Lopes Rodrigues (1899-1971) en la apropiación del concepto de esquizofrenia en Brasil, en las primeras décadas del siglo XX. Sus contribuciones tienen claramente la influencia de las idea [...] s del psiquiatra suizo Eugen Bleuler (1857-1939), en la transición entre el concepto de demencia precoz y el de esquizofrenia. El trabajo también trata de destacar la lectura poco común que Lopes Rodrigues hizo del texto de Eugen Bleuler, resaltando la influencia de los aspectos biográficos y psicológicos en el estudio de los pacientes esquizofrénicos. Abstract in english The main objective of this article is to describe and analyze the contributions of the psychiatrist Hermelino Lopes Rodrigues (1899-1971) in appropriating the concept of schizophrenia in Brazil in the early decades of the 20th century. His thinking was clearly influenced by the Swiss psychiatrist Eu [...] gen Bleuler (1857-1939) regarding the transition from the concept of dementia praecox to that of schizophrenia. The article also seeks to highlight the unprecedented reading that Lopes Rodrigues made of Bleuler's texts and highlights the influence of biographical and psychological aspects in schizophrenic patients.

  13. São Paulo e a Ideologia Higienista entre os séculos XIX e XX: a utopia da civilidade Hygienism in Sao Paulo between 19th and 20th centuries: the civilizing utopia

    OpenAIRE

    Afonso Soares de Oliveira Sobrinho

    2013-01-01

    No contexto da modernidade, situamos o período entre o final do Século XIX e início do XX, em São Paulo, mais precisamente nos primórdios da República, quando houve um processo de higiene e limpeza social, associado à pobreza e, ao mesmo tempo, a um desejo utópico de uma cidade limpa e saudável, como ideologia elitista.In this paper, we analyze, within the context of modernity, the period between the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century in São Paulo. More precisely, t...

  14. Antologías e identidades en la poesía chilena hasta mediados del siglo XX Anthologies and identities in the chilean poetry in the first half of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Galindo V

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available En el artículo se analiza el rol de un conjunto de antologías poéticas publicadas en la primera mitad del siglo XX como un espacio privilegiado para la construcción de los procesos de canonicidad del sistema literario chileno. De su lectura se advierte, por un lado, una identidad discursiva tensionada entre lo propio y lo foráneo y, por otro, la consolidación de un sistema de preferencias para la poesía chilena contemporáneaIn this article the role of a collection of poetic anthologies is analyzed which were published in the early XX Century as a privileged space for the building of the process of canonization of the literary system. By reading it we notice, on one hand, a tense discursive identity and on the other hand, the consolidation of a system of preference for contempory Chilean poetry

  15. Historia de la salud publica en México: siglos XIX y XX History of public health in Mexico: 19th and 20th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cecilia Rodríguez de Romo

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available A evolução da saúde pública mexicana foi gradual. Nos séculos XIX e XX desenvolveu-se paralelamente às mudanças políticas e sociais do país. Na primeira metade do século XIX o cuidado com os doentes dependia parcialmente da caridade religiosa. Depois, instituiu-se a beneficiência pública, consolidada pelo presidente Benito Juárez (1856, forma de atendimento continuada por Porfirio Díaz (1880-1910. A partir da Revolução (1910-1917 surgiu o princípio de assistência pública como obrigação do Estado para com a sociedade. Atualmente, a assistência à saúde, e a seguridade social conjugam-se em um conceito de medicina institucional que compreende a investigação, o ensino e os serviços prestados à sociedade. Este trabalho é uma análise do desenvolvimento da saúde pública mexicana nos dois últimos séculos. Faz referência às doenças e seu controle, ao aparecimento das instituições e à evolução do conceito de saúde pública na história mexicana.During the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, its growth accompanied the country’s political and social changes. In the early half of the nineteenth century, care for the sick depended in part on religious charity. So-called public beneficial care was later introduced and consolidated under president Benito Juárez (1856 and then continued under Porfirio Díaz (1880-1910. The Mexican Revolution (1910-1917 brought the notion that public-health assistance is the State’s social responsibility. Health care and social security are now both part of so-called "institutional medicine," which also encompasses research and teaching on public health. This analysis of public-health care in Mexico examines the question of diseases and their control, the emergence of institutions, and the development of the concept of public health.

  16. The Problem of Financial Accounting Measurement in Italian Accounting Thought between the 19th and the 20th Century From “Exchange Value” to “Historical Cost”

    OpenAIRE

    Gonnella, Enrico

    2010-01-01

    The main subject of the paper is the theory of accounting measurement as observed in its historical development. More notably, the research concerns theoretical concepts of such discipline, as developed by the Italian doctrine in a very specific age, that is, between the second half of the nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth century, i.e. from the theorization of the “exchange value rule” to the theorization of the “historical cost principle”. As it was impossible to examin...

  17. Noor-Eesti enesekoloniseerimisprojekt. Teine osa Olulised kirjandusmõtteviisid . The Self-Colonization Project of Young Estonia. Part II. Modes of Literary Thinking and Relations with Colonialism in Estonian Literature of the beginning of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiit Hennoste

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this article is the literary discourse of Young Estonia; its relations with other important Estonian literary discourses from the beginning of the 20th century, and its relations with colonial cultural discourse. First, I give an overview of the basic positions of the Young Estonians’ literary discourse, the main shapers of which were Friedebert Tuglas, Gustav Suits, later on Johannes Semper as well. Next, I present the basic principles of three Estonian literary discourses from the beginning of the 20th century, which were also important to the Young Estonians: nationalist-naturalistic (close-to-life; socialist/ class-based, and 20th century modernist. The Young Estonians began as nationalists and/or socialists. During the formation of Young Estonia’s discourse at the end of the first and beginning of the second decade of the 20th century, 20th century modernism began, which the Young Estonians regarded first and foremost with irony. The Young Estonians’ literary discourse is a mixture of aestheticism, decadence, symbolism, romanticism, and classicism. The point of departure for the Young Estonian approach to literature was eurocentrism. They took a superior and negative view of existing Estonian literature, which they regarded as having fallen drastically behind Europe. Since it was unable to build on its own foundation, it had to borrow from Europe. The discourse’s understandings of cultural values – theory, reading, knowledge, ready-made culture, derive from the centrality of the dynamic of borrowing. New culture could be created freely, without the support of previous local tradition; it was to be an elite culture, while the writer remained an individualist. Literature was to follow the principle of art for art’s sake; aesthetics and the form of the work of art were basic criteria. The formal ideals of the work of art were classicist: unity, integrity (wholeness, harmony, order, logic, etc. Thirdly, I outline the basic positions of colonial thinking about culture, and compare the Young Estonian approaches to literature with colonial thought. The foundation of colonialism is eurocentrism: if Europe is the core; everything else belongs to the periphery, and regarded from the outset as of lesser inherent worth: colonialism is characterized by a superior and negative attitude toward local culture. The colonizing culture interprets its own values and experiences as universals; these are congruent with the outlines of what is deemed to be ”European” culture. The mission of colonialism is to bring the periphery into the sphere of influence of the enlightened core. Though colonial thinking does not commit itself to any specific artistic movement or style, its most important tenet with regard to evaluating art is classicist, emphasizing enduring values and good ”handiwork”. The bases for the creation of colonial culture are ready-made models and categories, and the outcome of colonization is culture constructed according to a model. The outcome of the analysis is that the Young Estonian way of thinking is in close consonance with the colonial way of thinking. Those attitudes that Young Estonians did not adopt, or those they relinquished and discarded, are in opposition to it. My own basic claim is that the Young Estonians unconsciously carried a colonial way of thinking, and that they might be considered to be self-colonizers.

  18. Important theories of the 20th century. Relativity, cosmology, quantum mechanics and chaos theory. 3. corr. ed.; Bedeutende Theorien des 20. Jahrhunderts. Relativitaetstheorie, Kosmologie, Quantenmechanik und Chaostheorie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinnebrock, Werner [Fachhochschule Rheinland-Pfalz (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The past century changed the classical, scientific way of view enormously. The quantum theory broke with the imagination of continuity of all dynamical processes and gave space to completely new, nearly revolutionary approaches of thinking. Einstein's relativity theory put the absoluteness of time and space as well as the general validity of the Euclidean geometry in question. The absolute calculability, as it was formulated by Laplace, was by the influence of chaos theory proven as illusion. Computers made by the Mandelbrot set the presentation of new esthetic and never seen structures. Hilbert's century program of a complete formalization of mathematics failed because of the famous law of Goedel. It is the demand of this book to present all these theories and conclusions easily understandably and entertainingly.

  19. Peopling and Colonization in the Tsarist Age (19th-20th Century Popolamento e colonizzazione della Siberia in età zarista (fine Ottocento-inizio Novecento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Franco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the phenomenon of Siberian colonization, particularly during the last part of the 19th Century. While Siberia had previously long been considered as an empty space, simply a source of precious furs, by the end of the 19th Century, it was seen as a strategic resource for solving some of the problems of Russian agriculture. In order to exploit Siberian resources, Minister Vitte decided to conclude the pioneering phase of migration: the construction of the Transiberian railway was a key factor in this project. The impact of appropriating this immense territory was huge, it involved and, finally, deeply influenced the orientation of Russian thought, which gradually became more inclined to a Euro-Asian vision. Finally, the paper deals with the appearance of a Siberian specificity which also stengthened the regionalistic point of view.The article investigates the phenomenon of Siberian colonization, particularly during the last part of the 19th Century. While Siberia had previously long been considered as an empty space, simply a source of precious furs, by the end of the 19th Century, it was seen as a strategic resource for solving some of the problems of Russian agriculture. In order to exploit Siberian resources, Minister Vitte decided to conclude the pioneering phase of migration: the construction of the Transiberian railway was a key factor in this project. The impact of appropriating this immense territory was huge, it involved and, finally, deeply influenced the orientation of Russian thought, which gradually became more inclined to a Euro-Asian vision. Finally, the paper deals with the appearance of a Siberian specificity which also stengthened the regionalistic point of view.

  20. Understanding the object of design through project drawin: an archive of drawings by Portuguese designers from the 20th and 21st centuries

    OpenAIRE

    Magalhães, Graça Maria Alves dos Santos; Pombo, Fátima

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the usefulness of creating an archive of the design project drawings. It will be the creation of a digital archive of drawings made by Portuguese designers in the XX and XXI century. The project drawings are normally intended to be lost, by their ephemeral and transitory nature, even if they participate clearly in the projectual understanding, namely both of the process and of the proposed answer/solution. In this case, the digital images’ recording of the designe...

  1. From equilibrium to equity. The survival of the commons in the Ebro Basin: Navarra from the 15th to the 20th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Miguel Lana Berasain

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an historical case of management of common lands, and their survival and transformation through the great agrarian reforms of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The hypothesis is that the notion of community survived after the great rural changes caused by the emergence of capitalism and liberalism. However, the notion of community was very different after these great changes: the old community was based on the notion of equilibrium, whereas the new community is focused on equity.

  2. Teatro chileno y anarquismo (desde comienzos de siglo XX hasta el período dictatorial) / Chilean Theatre and Anarchism (from the beginning of 20th century to the dictatorship)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sara, Rojo.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio analiza la relación entre el pensamiento anarquista y el teatro en Chile desde comienzos de siglo hasta el período de la dictadura militar. Comienza con un recorte teórico del concepto de anarquismo dentro del marco histórico chileno, para posteriormente analizar, de manera cronológica, [...] producciones teatrales específicas del período anteriormente citado. Abstract in english This study analyzes the relationship between anarchist thinking and theatre in Chile from the beginning of the century up to the time of the military dictatorship. It begins with a theoretical highlight of the concept of anarchism in Chilean history and later chronologically analyzes theater plays t [...] hat are specific to the abovementioned period.

  3. The space, the solitude and the simulacrum: the metaphysicals trajectories in the Italian’s narrative in the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Santurbano

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses, through the analysis of works of authors which Gadda, Savinio, Bontempelli, Buzzati and Morselli, an anti-realistic tendency, though multiform in its stylistic and thematic success, which can be identified in the Italian literature of the twentieth century. In a comparative perspective, in dialogue with the avant-garde art, and more specifically, with the metaphysical paintings of Giorgio de Chirico, seeks to reflect on some aspects of these narratives as spatial and symbolic elements, to the threshold of the genus (or mode fantastic metaforize and constitute a condition of existential concern.

  4. [On the history of obsessive compulsive disorders: their place in the nosological classifications up to the beginning of the 20th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberbeck, A; Stengler, K; Steinberg, H

    2013-12-01

    Influenced by French psychiatry, the first German works on obsessive-compulsive phenomena were published in the second half of the 19th century. First they were seen as one form of the unitary psychosis, later they became involved in the dispute about the concept of paranoia. The first German definition, proposed by Carl Westphal in 1877 and of crucial importance in the conceptual history of obsessive disorders as an illness (OCD) ever since, stood in this tradition. Still the adequate nosological classification of obsessive phenomena was still heavily disputed. As more and more varied forms of obsessive disorders were described, the highly unspecific concept of neurasthenia gained importance. Then degeneration theory was a widespread aetiological concept to integrate the large number of obsessive phenomena. Towards the end of the 19th century, when psychoanalysis emerged, psychological aspects started to interest psychiatrists and psychoanalytical suggestions like Sigmund Freud's concept of obsessional neurosis were discussed. However, none of these different nosological suggestions, nor any of the proposed definitions, found general approval. Above all the question to what extent affects were involved and whether certain phenomena were compulsive in nature or not remained the subject of (ongoing) controversy. This led to a variety of highly inconsistent aetiopathogenetic concepts being proposed. PMID:24307089

  5. A noção de modelo na virada do século XIX para o século XX / The notion of model at the turn of the 20th century

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tatiana, Roque; Antonio Augusto Passos, Videira.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo descreve o modo pelo qual a noção de modelo começou a ingressar na ciência, em particular na física, no final do século XIX. Este é talvez o primeiro domínio científico a fazer uso explícito e consciente dessa noção, para o qual o uso de modelos significou o abandono de toda e qualquer t [...] entativa de representar fielmente os fenômenos naturais. Em questão, estava a representação dos fenômenos elétricos e magnéticos por meio de analogias. Abstract in english This article describes the way in which the idea of model began to be discussed in science, in particular in physics, towards the end of the 19th century. Physics is perhaps the first scientific domain that explicitly and consciously made use of models in a way that was understood to involve abandon [...] ing any attempt faithfully to represent natural phenomena. The representation of electromagnetic phenomena by means of analogies was in question.

  6. Ghosts of Solitude: Guido Gozzano reader of Petrarch. An episode of the 20th-century reception of Rvf 35

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Mantovani

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The essay offers a comparative analysis of Guido Gozzano’s poem “Un’altra risorta,” from the collection I colloqui (1911, and the Petrarchan sonnet “Solo e pensoso” (Rvf 35, of which Gozzano gives a modern and partially ironic rewriting. Sonnet 35, together with a constellation of elements drawn from other poems from the Canzoniere concerning the theme of love surviving the loss of beauty and the passing of time, gives to the modern poet the thematic and lexical frame to describe his condition of sceptical, disillusioned lover. Gozzano’s poetry represents in this sense a significant episode of twentieth-century Petrarchism and the critical and problematic relationship of contemporary poetry with the language of literary tradition

  7. The Pronunciation of Hebrew in the Western Sephardic Settlements (16th-20th Centuries. Second Part: The Pronunciation of the Consonant ‘Ayin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    di Leone Leoni, Aron

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to ascertain when the Italian Jewish communities and the Western Portuguese “Nations” adopted the nasal-guttural pronunciation of the ‘ayin, variously represented as gn, ng, ngh, hg. In 16th century Ferrara and Venice, the phonetic value of this consonant was zero or close to zero. Only at the very end of the 16th century, some authors in Italy graphically represented it as ng. In the same period, an Amsterdam author introduced new graphemes and expressed the ‘ayin as gh or hg, while a Hamburg scholar published a grammar-book where he gave the name of this consonant as Hgain. The new graphemes were not adopted by the majority of authors, who continued to represent it by a simple h, or left it without notation. Both in Italy and in Northern Europe, the h > gn shift was rather discontinuous.Estudio de la adopción de la pronunciación naso-gutural de la consonante ‘ayin y de su variada representación gráfica entre los judíos de Italia y de las «Naciones» judías hispano-portuguesas. Durante el siglo XVI, el valor fonético de esa consonante era o tendía a cero. A fines de ese siglo y a comienzos del XVII, algunos autores en Italia la representan como ng. Un autor coetáneo en Amsterdam introduce nuevos grafemas, tales como gh o hg, mientras que otro autor de Hamburgo publicaba una gramática en la que denomina Hgain esta consonante. Los nuevos grafemas no fueron adoptados por la mayoría de autores que continuaron representando dicha consonante por una h. Tanto en Italia como en el norte de Europa el cambio h > gn fue discontinuo.

  8. Notas para una historia de la desnutrición en la Iberoamérica del siglo XX Notes for a history of the malnutrition in the Latin America of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bernabeu-Mestre

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo analiza los principales determinantes y las características de la desnutrición en América Latina durante la segunda mitad del siglo XX. En primer lugar, se explican las bases del problema moderno del hambre y la desnutrición, tanto en su dimensión fisiológica como social, al destacarse su condición de calamidad social y de expresión biológica del subdesarrollo y de las desigualdades sociales. En segundo lugar, a partir de testimonios contemporáneos, se exponen las principales características de la desnutrición que ha afectado a la población iberoamericana, y las causas que la explican. Por último, a modo de conclusión, se subrayan las consecuencias negativas de no haber aprovechado la oportunidad que conllevaba el reto de superar los factores condicionantes de la malnutrición por defecto, y haber finalizado el siglo XX con un panorama epidemiológico nutricional donde los problemas del hambre y la desnutrición conviven con fenómenos como los de la obesidad de la pobreza.The work analyzes the principal determinants and the characteristics of the malnutrition in Latin America during the second half of the 20th century. First, are explained the bases of the modern problem of the hunger and the malnutrition (undernourishment, so much in his physiological as social dimension, on having been outlined his condition of social calamity and of biological expression of the underdevelopment and of the social inequalities. Secondly, from contemporary testimonies, there are exposed the principal characteristics of the malnutrition that has affected the Latin-American population, and the causes that explain it. Finally, like conclusion, are underlined the negative consequences of not having taken advantage of the opportunity that was carrying the challenge of overcoming the determining factors of the malnutrition (undernourishment, and to have finished the 20th century with an epidemiological nutritional panorama where the problems of the hunger and the malnutrition coexist with phenomena as those of the obesity of the poverty.

  9. Notas para una historia de la desnutrición en la Iberoamérica del siglo XX / Notes for a history of the malnutrition in the Latin America of the 20th century

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J., Bernabeu-Mestre.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo analiza los principales determinantes y las características de la desnutrición en América Latina durante la segunda mitad del siglo XX. En primer lugar, se explican las bases del problema moderno del hambre y la desnutrición, tanto en su dimensión fisiológica como social, al destacarse su [...] condición de calamidad social y de expresión biológica del subdesarrollo y de las desigualdades sociales. En segundo lugar, a partir de testimonios contemporáneos, se exponen las principales características de la desnutrición que ha afectado a la población iberoamericana, y las causas que la explican. Por último, a modo de conclusión, se subrayan las consecuencias negativas de no haber aprovechado la oportunidad que conllevaba el reto de superar los factores condicionantes de la malnutrición por defecto, y haber finalizado el siglo XX con un panorama epidemiológico nutricional donde los problemas del hambre y la desnutrición conviven con fenómenos como los de la obesidad de la pobreza. Abstract in english The work analyzes the principal determinants and the characteristics of the malnutrition in Latin America during the second half of the 20th century. First, are explained the bases of the modern problem of the hunger and the malnutrition (undernourishment), so much in his physiological as social dim [...] ension, on having been outlined his condition of social calamity and of biological expression of the underdevelopment and of the social inequalities. Secondly, from contemporary testimonies, there are exposed the principal characteristics of the malnutrition that has affected the Latin-American population, and the causes that explain it. Finally, like conclusion, are underlined the negative consequences of not having taken advantage of the opportunity that was carrying the challenge of overcoming the determining factors of the malnutrition (undernourishment), and to have finished the 20th century with an epidemiological nutritional panorama where the problems of the hunger and the malnutrition coexist with phenomena as those of the obesity of the poverty.

  10. Agricultural Genetics and Plant Breeding in Early Twentieth-Century Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Iori, Luca

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is about plant breeding in Early 20th-Century Italy. The stories of the two most prominent Italian plant-breeders of the time, Nazareno Strampelli and Francesco Todaro, are used to explore a fragment of the often-neglected history of Italian agricultural research. While Italy was not at the forefront of agricultural innovation, research programs aimed at varietal innovation did emerge in the country, along with an early diffusion of Mendelism. Using philosophical as well as histor...

  11. Major 20th century changes of water-soluble humic-like substances (HULISWS) aerosol over Europe inferred from Alpine ice cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilhermet, J.; Preunkert, S.; Voisin, D.; Baduel, C.; Legrand, M.

    2013-05-01

    Using a newly developed method dedicated to measurements of water-soluble humic-like substances (HULISWS) in atmospheric aerosol samples, the carbon mass quantification of HULISWS in an Alpine ice core is achieved for the first time. The method is based on the extraction of HULISWS with a weak anion-exchanger resin and the subsequent quantification of the extracted carbon fraction with a total organic carbon (TOC) analyzer. Measurements were performed along a Col du Dôme (4250 m above sea level, French Alps) ice core covering the 1920-2004 time period. The HULISWS concentrations exhibit a well-marked seasonal cycle with winter minima close to 7 ppbC and summer maxima ranging between 10 and 50 ppbC. Whereas the winter HULISWS concentrations remained unchanged over the twentieth century, the summer concentrations increased from 20 ppbC prior to the Second World War to 35 ppbC in the 1970-1990s. These different trends reflect the different types of HULISWS sources in winter and summer. HULISWS are mainly primarily emitted by domestic wood burning in winter and secondary in summer being produced from biogenic precursors. For unknown reason, the HULISWS signal is found to be unusual in ice samples corresponding to World War II.

  12. La medicina en busca de público: España, siglos XIX y XX / Medicine in quest of a service population: Spain, 19th and 20th centuries

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Esteban, Rodríguez Ocaña.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el conjunto de trabajos que constituyen este número. Bajos distintos aspectos, en todos ellos se explora el proceso de constitución de la medicina en 'profesión de servicio' en el contexto de la formación histórica española, metropolitana y colonial, entre los siglos XIX y XX, fijándose [...] en el modo cómo alcanza relaciones permanentes y rutinarias con un público. Los distintos estudios abordan aspectos en general poco estudiados, como el mundo de la medicina militar, la colonización española en Marruecos, las campañas sanitarias y la conjunción de la medicina con la previsión social, se basan en un amplio elenco de fuentes originales y contribuyen a esclarecer los procesos ideológicos, institucionales y profesionales que configuran la medicina de hoy. Abstract in english Approaching from various angles, the articles in this dossier explore the process by which medicine became a 'service profession' within the context of the historical formation of both metropolitan and colonial Spain between the nineteenth and twentieth centuries - that is, how ongoing, routine rela [...] tions with a given public came to be established. The articles address facets that by and large have not been the object of much study, such as the world of military medicine, Spanish colonialism in Morocco, public health campaigns, and the intersection of medicine and forms of social security. Based on a broad gamut of original sources, these studies offer a contribution to our understanding of the ideological, institutional, and professional processes that have helped shape today's medicine.

  13. L’Homme, un itinéraire vietnamien. Humanisme et sujet humain au xxe siècle Man, a Vietnamese Itinerary. Humanism and the Human Subject in the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Hémery

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Cette étude interroge la confrontation qui s’est instaurée au Vietnam depuis le milieu du xixe siècle – et sans doute bien avant – entre la conception de l’homme-individu importée par les Occidentaux en Asie orientale et les philosophies du sujet qui s’y étaient développées depuis l’antiquité chinoise. Cette confrontation a-t-elle abouti dans la culture vietnamienne à une réévaluation socialement acceptée du statut du sujet et sur une nouvelle figure de l’humanisme ? Quel bilan provisoire dresser ?This paper examines the mid 19th century encounter in Vietnamese culture of the concept of the individual imported by Westerners to Far East Asia with the philosophical tradition of the human subject that has developed in China since the classic period. Did this conflictual encounter result in a new, socially acceptable evaluation of the human statute and in a renewed Vietnamese humanism? This article concludes with a provisional assessment of a cultural confrontation.

  14. Planning in a Vacuum: Tartu University Hospital and Urban Development of the City of Tartu in the Second Half of the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epi TOHVRI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The University of Tartu has been an anchor institution – as a driver of urban revitalization and a designer of urban landscape. Starting from the re-opening of the university, the growth of the population in the city has been directly correlated with the growth of the university and its student body (Kruus, 1927. In 2010 the collective body of the university constituted approximately 1/5 of the registered population (Tartu City Forum, 2010. The anchor institution is a driver of economic growth, a real estate developer and a service provider (Harkavy et al., 2009. The University of Tartu and Tartu University Hospital known as Estonian Meds and Eds are one of the key factors of the favorable economic climate since the two medical and educational institutions concur in providing health care, quality of life, amenity and highly educated labor for the community. In the 21st century Tartu University Hospital has become one of the anchor institutions of Tartu and South Estonian Region, having a direct impact on the City and its economic growth.

  15. El Romancero nuevo: recuperación, publicaciones y estudios en el tercer cuarto del siglo XX (1953-1973) / Romancero nuevo: Recovery, Publications ans Studies During the Last Quarter of the 20th Century (1953-1973)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mariano, de la Campa Gutiérrez.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo que presento analiza las publicaciones y estudios que, durante el tercer cuarto del siglo XX, es decir, entre 1953 y 1973, llevaron a cabo Menéndez Pidal, Fernández Montesinos, Rodríguez-Moruno y otros eruditos dando a conocer, por vez primera, textos de los romances procedentes de los ca [...] ncioneros, romanceros, pliegos sueltos y manuscritos que permanecían olvidados desde principios del siglo XVIII. Este estudio se inscribe en un trabajo más amplio, del que hace tiempo vengo ocupándome, que pretende reconstruir la historia del Romancero nuevo, desde su aparición a fines del siglo XVI hasta nuestros días. Abstract in english This paper analyses publications and studies by scholars including Menéndez Pidal, Fernández Montesinos and Rodríguez-Moñino, who brought to light -for the first time during the third quarter of the 20th Century (1953-1973)- ballads from the Romancero nuevo. These texts: songbooks, ballads, broadsid [...] es and manuscripts, had remained forgotten since the beginning of the 18th Century. This study is part of a wider work that aims to reconstruct the history of the new ballad from its origins, at the end of the 16th Century, up to the present day.

  16. Expanding the Territory of Historical Reconstruction: The Study of Frequency and Severity of Hail Storms, Based on 19th and 20th-Century Records from Swiss Insurance Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauelshagen, F.

    2009-09-01

    Switzerland lies almost in the centre of a zone of high frequency of hail storm occurrence, often causing costly damage to agriculture, motor vehicles, the built environment and - consequentially - to insurance companies. Over the last ten years hailstorms and the resulting damage have been discussed, with some noticeable frequency, in the context of recent climate change. The final report of the Swiss National Research Programme No. 31: "Climate Change and Natural Disasters” (NFP 31: Klimaänderung und Naturkatastrophen) concludes that "the number of days with agricultural hail damage has increased”. This can be demonstrated from time series of days with severe hail occurrence in Switzerland between 1920 and 2005. Radar observations provide evidence for a doubling of severe hailstorms (on a scale >100 km) within the twenty-year period 1983 to 2003. More recent large-scale damage resulted from hailstorms on 24 June 2002 (causing damage of approx. 250 million CHF on insured risks) and 8 July 2004 (causing loss of 100 mill. on car insurance alone). 2007 was particularly disastrous for crop insurance. The latest OcCC-report on Klimaänderung und die Schweiz 2050 ("Climate Change and Switzerland, 2050”) concludes that peasants, house owners, and insurers should prepare for more extreme hailstorms to come if the frequency of synoptic weather situations favouring hailstorms develops along the trend of the last two decades. However, the same report argues that hailstorms can hardly be simulated by existing climate models, because hail occurrence is a local phenomenon. In other words, existing models of global warming cannot predict the effect global change is likely to have on hailstorm patterns (frequency, severity etc.), which is partly due to the limits of existing time series on hailstorm occurrence. For hail, the instrumental period doesn't begin before the 1950s. As early as 1954, Meteo-Swiss meteorologist M. Bider stated that insurance data were more reliable than observations from the existing network of meteorological offices. Some researchers have even suggested that the entire period before radar observation, beginning in the 1980s, should be classified as pre-instrumental. However, it is undoubted that documents kept in the archives of insurance companies provide valuable proxy information on hail storm occurrence for, at least, the pre-1950-period (well back into the 19th century). This paper discusses key problems in dealing with these proxy data (reliability, interpretation and density of records), as well as methodologies that may lead to extend existing time series on hail storm occurrence in Switzerland. As a consequence, this paper suggests that, for some meteorological phenomena, the field of reconstruction from documentary archival sources must be extended well up into the 20th century, which cannot simply and statically be categorized as "instrumental period”.

  17. A few questions concerning exterior migrations of Yugoslav population during the second half of the 20th century: A time for reconsideration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavi?evi? Aleksandra B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The territory of the former Yugoslavia (within all of its structures and forms during the second half of the 20? century - from FPRY, SFRY, FRY, to Serbia and Montenegro was the subject of more or less intensive external and internal migrations. The first larger wave of emigration occurred immediately after the end of World War II, mostly due to the political events in the country that concerned ideological orientation of national-liberation war winners. In most cases, the furthest destinations of these emigrants were overseas countries. The remoteness of the new "homelands", among other reasons, made these relocations permanent. In the beginning of 1960's a new wave of mass immigrations occurred due to the "liberation" of Yugoslavia's economy and politics, and the need of labor force in the countries of Western Europe. These were the economic, so-called labor-migrations that were supposed to have a temporary character. During the period of 1964-1973, Yugoslav citizens living in Western European countries numbered approximately one million and one hundred thousand, out of which two-fifths were Serbs. In the mid 1970's, a migration trend seemed to slightly decline, only to increase again in the 1980's, and especially during the 1990's, however with the new socio-economic-political background and different characteristics than the preceding ones. It could be argued though, that these new migrations of Yugoslav citizens sum up all the characteristics of the preceding ones, being, at the same time, very dramatic in nature considering that the migrations were most of the time the only available option for emigrants. In general, these migrations are characterized by relocation of whole families, absence of a long-term plan considering the future (duration of stay, return to the home country, money investment in the home country, and relatively high although diverse educational level. Actually, based on comparison between censuses in 1981 and 1991, it is evident that in 1991 more people with a high school diploma gymnasium, higher and academic education have left the country than in 1981. The available data from 2001 census consist only of a relative number of Yugoslav citizens living abroad, around 400,000, but this number does not include citizens from Kosovo and Metohija, or Montenegro. Only when the final census data come out, will it be possible to analyze and compare migrations from 1991 -2001, although considering census gathering and its limitations, it is clear that many trends will remain hidden.

  18. EVOLUCION DE LA NUTRICION Y ALIMENTACION EN CHILE EN EL SIGLO XX NUTRITION AND FEEDING TRENDS IN CHILE IN THE 20TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Valiente B.

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo da una visión del desarrollo de la nutrición y la alimentación en Chile en el siglo XX. Se presenta la nutrición y la alimentación relacionada con la solución de problemas multidisciplinarios, integrada con salud, considerada un derecho humano, que en Chile ha motivado un compromiso del gobierno, de la comunidad y de los grupos profesionales y académicos. Se destaca a los profesionales que tuvieron la visión de incorporar la nutrición a campos pediátricos, clínicos de la salud pública y bioquímica como "precursores de la nutrición", cuyas actividades se iniciaron alrededor de 1940. Se enumeran 8 Centros que se desarrollaron antes de 1970 y se unieron para acciones comunes. Posterior a la Reforma universitaria las 4 instituciones creadas por sus discípulos. Se destaca la labor de los creadores de estos Centros y la visionaria orientación del Laboratorio de Investigaciones Pediátricas del INTA y de CONIN-CREDES junto a innumerables profesionales. Países desarrollados han destacado la experiencia chilena como un ejemplo para el mundo en desarrollo y como "el modelo chileno". La virtual erradicación de la desnutrición infantil ha permitido reorientar los esfuerzos y recursos a las enfermedades crónicas. Se señala el rol de las instituciones académicas en el desarrollo de políticas y programas nutricionales, investigación, desarrollo de programas y entrenamiento de profesionales de la salud, educación y agricultura. La formación de nutricionistas por las escuelas respectivas y la creación de postítulos y postgradosIn this article the authors give their vision of the development of food and nutrition activities during the XXth century. Food and nutrition are seen related with solution of multidisciplinary problems and integrated with health, considered as a human right, which has motivated a deep compromise of the government, community and academic profesionals. Special mention is given to those who incorporate the starting nutrition approach, about 1940, to pediatrics, clinical fields, public health, biochemistry. and so on. They are recognized as "precursors of nutrition" in Chile. Eight special centers developed prior to 1970, worked in an academic relationship, and later after the University reform (1967- 1970, four main Food and Nutrition institutions prevail until now. The work of these centers and the inspiring orientation of the Laboratory of Pediatric Investigation, of INTA, CONIN-CREDES, CONPAN and others has been recognized and presented as an experience, which might be a useful model for developing countries. The virtual erradication of undernutrition in Chile has allowed to re-orient efforts and resources to chronic diseases of the epidemiologic transition. The academic institutions have play a mayor rol in policies, programs, research, training of health, education and agriculture professionals, with post-graduate courses and programs, mainly to nutritionists and other health profesionals

  19. Esimesed läti naismaalikunstnikud 20. sajandi alguses = The first Latvian female painters in the early 20th century / Baiba Vanaga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vanaga, Baiba, 1981-

    2014-01-01

    Läti kunstiharidusest ja kunstikoolidest 20. sajandi alguses. Naiste kunstihariduse kvaliteedist, nende mõjutajatest, kunstilisest stiilist, arenguteedest ning naiste tegelikust kohast oma aja kunstiväljal.

  20. Back Stairs at Brucemore: Life as Servants in Early 20th-Century America. Teaching with Historic Places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Melanie; Pustz, Jennifer

    When friends and family visited the Douglas family at Brucemore in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, they had the opportunity to enjoy the beauty and grace of the mansion's public places. On its 33 acres, Brucemore had a duck pond, swimming pool, tennis courts, and large formal gardens, besides its 21 extravagant rooms and furnishings. Domestic servants were…

  1. Musical marginalization processes: Problematizing the marginalization concept through an example from early 20th century American popular culture.

    OpenAIRE

    Bjerstedt, Sven

    2013-01-01

    The author sets out to analyse a number of representations of the biblical Hagar figure in African American and white American culture. Spivak (1988) has problematized the marginalization concept with regard to the study of the third world subject, arguing that knowledge always expresses the interests of the knowledge producers, and that Western academic research is always colonial. The aim of the present analysis is to demonstrate that a certain doubleness and instability may be intrinsic to...

  2. Introduction. Theory and Practice of the Welfare State in the 20th and the Early 21st Century.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zudová-Lešková, Zlatica; Vorá?ek, Emil

    Praha : Historický ústav, 2014 - (Zudová-Lešková, Z.; Vorá?ek, E.), s. 11-45 ISBN 978-80-7286-216-0 Institutional support: RVO:67985963 Keywords : welfare state * interdisciplinary * crisis Subject RIV: AB - History

  3. Mortalidad materna en las primeras décadas del siglo xx Maternal Mortality during the early decades of 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubaldo Farnot

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: describir la mortalidad materna ocurrida entre 1910 y 1949. Métodos: investigación descriptiva y documental. Resultados: en las cuatro primeras décadas estudiadas de 1910 a 1949, la mortalidad materna en Cuba mostró un descenso de 51,0 %, desde tasas de 493,4 por 100 000 nacidos vivos en la década 1910-1919 a tasas de 242,2 en la década de 1940-1949, en una época en la que no existían los antibióticos ni los bancos de sangre, ni tampoco se había generalizado la atención prenatal. Estas cifras no deben considerarse demasiado elevadas en aquellos años en un país subdesarrollado. El notable descenso de una década a otra, es testimonio de la lucha contra sus principales causas, llevada a cabo por profesores y discípulos, por el desarrollo obtenido por las mujeres, las facilidades del transporte, la disponibilidad de médicos, enfermeras y comadronas y el alcance obtenido por los medios masivos de comunicación como la radio y la prensa escrita. Se muestran los descensos obtenidos en las principales causas de muerte como la infección puerperal, las muertes por hemorragia y las debidas a eclampsia convulsiva y preclampsia. Conclusiones: el comportamiento de las cifras analizadas no es una simple coincidencia con la aplicación en Cuba de los nuevos cambios en la medicina en general, y en la atención materna en particular, sino también la influencia que tuvo en la salud el desarrollo económico y social de la nación.Objective: to describe cases of maternal deaths between 1910 and 1949. Methods: descriptive and documentary research. Results: in the first four decades surveyed from 1910 to 1949, maternal mortality in Cuba showed a decrease of 51.0 % from rates of 493.4 per 100 000 live births from 1910 to 1919 at a rate of 242.2 during 1940-1949, at a time when there were no antibiotics or blood banks, nor was widespread prenatal care. These figures should not be considered as too high in those years in an underdeveloped country. The sharp decline during these decades is an evidence of the fight against the main causes, conducted by teachers and pupils, by the work achieved by women, the availability of doctors, nurses, midwives and means of transportation, and the extended scope of mass media such as radio and print media. The declines in the leading causes of death as puerperal infection, bleeding and deaths due to preeclampsia and convulsive eclampsia are shown in the study. Conclusions: the behavior of the data examined is not a mere coincidence with the implementation of the new changes in medical general practice in general in Cuba, and particularly maternal care, but also influence it had on the health and social-economic development of the whole nation.

  4. Taphonomy of a village: the early 20th century site of Mariano Miró (Chapaleufú department, La Pampa, Argentina)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos, Landa; Virginia, Pineau; Emanuel, Montanari; Jimena, Doval.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El sitio Mariano Miró (departamento Chapaleufú, Provincia de La Pampa, Argentina) fue un pueblo de casi 500 habitantes fundado en 1901 y abandonado en 1911. Desde la perspectiva de la arqueología histórica, se propone reconstruir las historias tafonómicas del conjunto artefactual de superficie de es [...] te "Ghost town". Los procesos tafonómicos son analizados desde la escala del artefacto y su distribución espacial considerando múltiples variables (tamaño, alteración térmica, meteorización, topografía del terreno, pisoteo, actividades antrópicas y animales cavadores). Se utiliza sistema de información geográfica (SIG) para interrelacionar las diferentes variables de análisis y evaluar la incidencia de los distintos agentes tafonómicos en las características y distribución de los materiales. Esperamos poder comprender la dinámica de formación que afectó al sitio y generar expectativas para contextos tafonómicos similares de la región. Abstract in english The Mariano Miró archaeological site (Chapaleufú Department, La Pampa Province, Argentina) was a town of nearly 500 inhabitants, founded in 1901 and abandoned in 1911. From the Historical Archaeology perspective, this paper aims to reconstruct the taphonomic histories of surface artifact assemblages [...] from the Mariano Miró ghost town. We analyze taphonomic processes at both the artifact and the assemblage level, considering multiple variables including size, thermal alteration, weathering, site topography, trampling, anthropic activities and burrowing animal activities. We use GIS to interrelate the selected variables and assess the roles of various taphonomic agents in shaping the characteristics and distributions of materials at Mariano Miró. The information pertaining to formation processes obtained from Mariano Miró is potentially useful for generating expectations for and understanding other sites in the region that exhibit similar taphonomic conditions.

  5. Gute alte Zeit? Kindheit im frühen 20. Jahrhundert Good Old Times? Childhood in the Early 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadette Gotthardt

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Die 1959 geborene Historikerin Inge Friedl ließ Menschen über ihre Kindheit erzählen und hat für dieses Buch Berichte aus insgesamt zehn verschiedenen Familien aus Salzburg, Oberösterreich und der Steiermark gesammelt. Die interviewten Männer und Frauen wurden zwischen 1909 und 1948 geboren, lebten als Bauern oder einfache Handwerker in armseligen Verhältnissen auf dem Land und schwanken in ihren Erzählungen zwischen Nostalgie und nüchternen Rückblicken auf ein hartes Leben.The historian Inge Friedl, born in 1959, encouraged people to talk about their childhood and this book collects her reports from a total of ten different families from Salzburg, Upper Austria, and Styria. The men and women interviewed were born between 1909 and 1948, lived as farmers or simple tradespeople in poor conditions in the countryside, and in their stories they vacillate between nostalgia and a sobering look back at a hard life.

  6. Mortalidad materna en las primeras décadas del siglo xx / Maternal Mortality during the early decades of 20th century

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ubaldo, Farnot; Norma Eneida, Rios.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: describir la mortalidad materna ocurrida entre 1910 y 1949. Métodos: investigación descriptiva y documental. Resultados: en las cuatro primeras décadas estudiadas de 1910 a 1949, la mortalidad materna en Cuba mostró un descenso de 51,0 %, desde tasas de 493,4 por 100 000 nacidos vivos en l [...] a década 1910-1919 a tasas de 242,2 en la década de 1940-1949, en una época en la que no existían los antibióticos ni los bancos de sangre, ni tampoco se había generalizado la atención prenatal. Estas cifras no deben considerarse demasiado elevadas en aquellos años en un país subdesarrollado. El notable descenso de una década a otra, es testimonio de la lucha contra sus principales causas, llevada a cabo por profesores y discípulos, por el desarrollo obtenido por las mujeres, las facilidades del transporte, la disponibilidad de médicos, enfermeras y comadronas y el alcance obtenido por los medios masivos de comunicación como la radio y la prensa escrita. Se muestran los descensos obtenidos en las principales causas de muerte como la infección puerperal, las muertes por hemorragia y las debidas a eclampsia convulsiva y preclampsia. Conclusiones: el comportamiento de las cifras analizadas no es una simple coincidencia con la aplicación en Cuba de los nuevos cambios en la medicina en general, y en la atención materna en particular, sino también la influencia que tuvo en la salud el desarrollo económico y social de la nación. Abstract in english Objective: to describe cases of maternal deaths between 1910 and 1949. Methods: descriptive and documentary research. Results: in the first four decades surveyed from 1910 to 1949, maternal mortality in Cuba showed a decrease of 51.0 % from rates of 493.4 per 100 000 live births from 1910 to 1919 at [...] a rate of 242.2 during 1940-1949, at a time when there were no antibiotics or blood banks, nor was widespread prenatal care. These figures should not be considered as too high in those years in an underdeveloped country. The sharp decline during these decades is an evidence of the fight against the main causes, conducted by teachers and pupils, by the work achieved by women, the availability of doctors, nurses, midwives and means of transportation, and the extended scope of mass media such as radio and print media. The declines in the leading causes of death as puerperal infection, bleeding and deaths due to preeclampsia and convulsive eclampsia are shown in the study. Conclusions: the behavior of the data examined is not a mere coincidence with the implementation of the new changes in medical general practice in general in Cuba, and particularly maternal care, but also influence it had on the health and social-economic development of the whole nation.

  7. Objetos de ensino: a renovação pedagógica e material da escola primária no Brasil, no século XX / Objects of learning: the pedagogic and material renovation of elementary school in Brazil, in the 20th century

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rosa Fátima de, Souza.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste texto é analisar o papel dos objetos de ensino nas proposições de renovação da escola primária durante o século XX assinalando as mudanças na composição material das escolas tendo em vista os objetos que foram introduzidos e ressaltados como relevantes para a modernização da educaçã [...] o e aqueles que permaneceram ou foram redefinidos em termos de finalidades e usos. Pretende-se, dessa forma, examinar três momentos significativos de implantação de inovações na escola elementar: a modernização pelo método intuitivo na virada do século XIX para o século XX, as proposições da Escola Nova nas décadas de 1930 a 1950 e a renovação representada pela Tecnologia Educacional nas décadas de 1960 e 1970. Abstract in english This article aims at analyzing the role of the objects of learning in the propositions for innovation of primary schools during the 20th century, highlighting the changes in the composition of school subjects having in mind the objects that were introduced and marked out as relevant for school moder [...] nization and those that remained or were redefined in terms of their finality and uses. The examination of three significant moments of the implementation of innovations in the elementary school is intended: the modernization by the intuitive method at the turn of the century; the propositions of "Escola Nova" between the 1930s and the 1950s; and the renovation represented by educational technology in the 1960s and 1970s.

  8. Evolución histórica de las farmacias en Santiago de Cuba en la primera mitad del siglo XX / Historical development of drugstores in Santiago de Cuba during the first half of the 20th century

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Clara Aurora, Zúñiga Moro.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Se expone la evolución de las farmacias en Santiago de Cuba durante la primera mitad del siglo XX, con sus características, auge y desarrollo; la organización del Colegio de Farmacéuticos de la ciudad; así como la participación en la vida social y política de los farmacéuticos en el territorio. Se m [...] encionan las farmacias que prestaban servicio de guardia en caso de urgencias y se ofrece información sobre algunas dirigidas por graduadas de la especialidad en ese período, durante el cual la actividad farmacéutica en Santiago evolucionó, desde las farmacias iniciales al estilo colonial, hasta alcanzar un desarrollo superior vinculado con servicios de dispensario, patentes de medicamentos, atención a domicilio y horario de guardias nocturnas. Abstract in english This paper presented the evolution of the pharmacies in Santiago de Cuba during the first half of the 20th century, with its characteristics, peak period and development; the organization of the school of pharmacists of the city, as well as the participation of the pharmacists in the social and poli [...] tical life in the territory. The pharmacies that rendered service for emergencies were stated. Some pharmacies managed by female pharmacists during the first half of the century were also described. The pharmaceutical activity in Santiago de Cuba evolved from the initial colonial styled pharmacies to higher stage of development related to dispensary services, drug patents, home care and night service.

  9. AGS 20th anniversary celebration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On May 22, 1980, a symposium was held at Brookhaven to celebrate the 20th birthday of the AGS, to recall its beginnings, and to review major discoveries that have been made with its beams. The talks at the symposium are recorded in this volume

  10. AGS 20th anniversary celebration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baggett, N.V. (ed.)

    1980-05-22

    On May 22, 1980, a symposium was held at Brookhaven to celebrate the 20th birthday of the AGS, to recall its beginnings, and to review major discoveries that have been made with its beams. The talks at the symposium are recorded in this volume.

  11. Armenians and 20th century genocide - Debates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Immacolata Macioti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Somalia has been one of the UN member countries who lingers from the presence of terrorist groups in its territory, that exert tremendous influence in the daily life of its society and economy. Al Shabaab is well known in the horn of Africa, particularly in Somalia, for its terrorist training and strong affiliation with other terrorist groups in Nigeria and Al-Qaeda. The Harakat Shabaab Al Mujahidin, also known as Al-Shabaab. has completely controlled the central and southern part of Somalia including some of its important sea ports, which are vital for the country’s economy. Although Ethiopian and Somali military forces attempted to rout the group in a two week war between December 2006 and January 2007, Al Shabaab, with its 14,500 militants, still continues to maintain control over strategic locations, not only in Somalia, but also throughout the horn of Africa. The paper delves into the recent events and attacks either undertaken or influenced by Al-Shabaab, including a snap shot of its threat to humanitarian aid personnel as well as the Africa Union troops who are desperately trying to lower the intensity of conflict along the Somalia Kenya border area and Al-Shabaab’s actions to secure financial resources.

  12. Analytic Philosophy in the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, T. M.

    1971-01-01

    As analytic philosophy shows no sign of being abandoned or superseded in the English-speaking world, the prospects of continued conceptual clarification of nonphilosophical disciplines must be regarded as highly favorable at this point in time. (60 references) (Author/MM)

  13. Armenians and 20th century genocide - Debates

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Immacolata Macioti

    2011-01-01

    Somalia has been one of the UN member countries who lingers from the presence of terrorist groups in its territory, that exert tremendous influence in the daily life of its society and economy. Al Shabaab is well known in the horn of Africa, particularly in Somalia, for its terrorist training and strong affiliation with other terrorist groups in Nigeria and Al-Qaeda. The Harakat Shabaab Al Mujahidin, also known as Al-Shabaab. has completely controlled the central and southern part of Somalia ...

  14. Antimatter and 20th Century Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gary

    2005-01-01

    This article gives an outline of the history of antimatter from the concept first introduced in 1898 up to the present day and is intended to complement the article "Antihydrogen on Tap" on page 229 [of this issue of "Physics Education"]. It is hoped that it will provide enough historical background material along with interesting snippets of…

  15. O sagrado no romance hispano-americano do século XX (The sacred in the Hispanic-American novel of the 20th century - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2013v11n29p279

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lucia Trevisan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho estuda as formas de representação do sagrado no romance hispano-americano do século XX e propõe uma reflexão sobre algumas formas de utilização das mitologias e tradições religiosas pela literatura. A presença das narrativas sagradas no texto literário do século XX surge marcada por uma renovada experiência estética, pois não se trata apenas de utilizar ou reutilizar uma temática exótica, mas, sim, perceber um potencial tradutor de verdades universais, imanentes aos textos religiosos ou mitologias ancestrais. O artigo propõe uma reflexão sobre as particularidades da produção literária europeia e hispano-americana, que utilizam os temas sagrados, a fim de perceber as consonâncias e dissonâncias estéticas e históricas. O fenômeno estético denominado “mitologismo”, estudado por E.M. Mielietinski, pode ser entendido como um modus operandi da estruturação do romance que conjuga literatura e relatos sagrados e, neste estudo, fundamenta a discussão sobre a heterogeneidade cultural dos povos hispânicos expressa em suas representações literárias. Palavras-chave: Romance . Mitologias. Religião. Hispano-América. Abstract This article studies the forms of representation of the sacred in the Hispanic-American novel of the 20th century and proposes a reflection on some ways of using the mythological and religious traditions by literature. The presence of sacred narratives in the literary texts of the 20th century is marked by a renewed aesthetic experience, once it does not only refer to using or re-using an exotic theme, but perceiving a potential translator of universal truths, immanent to religious texts or mythological ancestors. The present proposal offers a reflection on the peculiarities of European and Hispanic-American productions which make use of sacred themes, meaning to understand the aesthetic and historical consonances and dissonances. The aesthetic phenomenon named “mythologism”, studied by E.M. Mielietinski, can be understood as a modus operandi of the structure of the novel that joins literature and sacred texts and, in this study, serves as a basis for the discussion on the cultural diversity of Hispanic peoples expressed in their literary representations. Keywords: Novel. Mythologies. Religion. Hispanic-America

  16. Uma história das práticas alimentares de trabalhadores paulistanos em dois momentos do século XX A history of practices in nourishment among workers in São Paulo city in two moments of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Rodrigues

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A partir de uma discussão sobre estudos que lidaram com os temas alimentares nas Ciências Humanas, este artigo aponta as possibilidades das Pesquisas de Padrão de Vida como fontes para uma história social da alimentação entre trabalhadores que viviam em São Paulo durante a primeira metade do século XX. Apresento os métodos de aplicação, as intenções dessas pesquisas e o perfil das famílias. Em seguida, os produtos e as quantidades consumidas pelas famílias são analisados em temporalidades distintas, tentando verificar o impacto da industrialização, da renda e da propaganda.Based on studies about food issues in the Humanities, this article indicates the possibilities of the Living Standards Research as sources for a social history of nourishment between workers living in Sao Paulo during the first half of the 20th century. I present the methods of application, the intentions of this research and the profile of families analyzed. After, I analyze the products and quantities consumed by families in different times, trying to understand the impact of industrialization, wage income and advertisement.

  17. Uma história das práticas alimentares de trabalhadores paulistanos em dois momentos do século XX / A history of practices in nourishment among workers in São Paulo city in two moments of the 20th century

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jaime, Rodrigues.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A partir de uma discussão sobre estudos que lidaram com os temas alimentares nas Ciências Humanas, este artigo aponta as possibilidades das Pesquisas de Padrão de Vida como fontes para uma história social da alimentação entre trabalhadores que viviam em São Paulo durante a primeira metade do século [...] XX. Apresento os métodos de aplicação, as intenções dessas pesquisas e o perfil das famílias. Em seguida, os produtos e as quantidades consumidas pelas famílias são analisados em temporalidades distintas, tentando verificar o impacto da industrialização, da renda e da propaganda. Abstract in english Based on studies about food issues in the Humanities, this article indicates the possibilities of the Living Standards Research as sources for a social history of nourishment between workers living in Sao Paulo during the first half of the 20th century. I present the methods of application, the inte [...] ntions of this research and the profile of families analyzed. After, I analyze the products and quantities consumed by families in different times, trying to understand the impact of industrialization, wage income and advertisement.

  18. La idea de juventud en Chile en el siglo XX. Aproximación genealógica al discurso de las revistas de juventud* / The Idea of Youth in Chile during the 20th Century. A Genealogical Approach to the Speech of Juvenile Magazines.

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Óscar, Aguilera Ruiz.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El texto expone resultados preliminares de una investigación sobre la construcción histórica de la idea de juventud en las revistas chilenas en el periodo 1900-1940. Para ello, el artículo presenta el contexto comunicacional de las revistas de juventud, las identidades juveniles reconocibles en las [...] primeras décadas del siglo XX y los regímenes de juvenilidad que se comienzan a perfilar. Concluimos de manera provisional algunas cuestiones vinculadas con el proceso de estabilidad semiótica de la idea de juventud y el papel que las imágenes, específicamente las publicitarias, cumplen en la construcción de lo juvenil. Abstract in english This article exhibits preliminary results of a research about the historical construction of the idea of youth given in Chilean magazines between 1900 and 1940. For this purpose, the article shows the communicational context of juvenile magazines, juvenile identities with high recognition during the [...] first decades of the 20th century and the juvenility regimes that were arising at that time. Temporary conclusions were given about some topics related to the semiotic stability process of the idea of youth and the role that images (specifically advertising images) play to construct what is juvenile.

  19. Escuela Nueva y saber pedagógico en Colombia: apropiación, modernidad y métodos de enseñanza. Primera mitad del siglo XIX / New education and pedagogical knowledge in Colombia: appropriation, modernity and teaching methods. First half of the 20th Century

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rafael, Ríos Beltran.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available La Escuela Nueva es una propuesta de naturaleza pedagógica extendida en toda América Latina, y que tuvo una influencia variada en la educación en los diferentes países de América Latina. En Colombia, la Escuela Nueva significó la apertura hacia un proceso de apropiación de los saberes modernos. En e [...] ste sentido, el artículo desarrolla algunas reflexiones sobre esta tendencia pedagógica durante la primera mitad del siglo XX, para hacer visible desde una perspectiva histórica, las transformaciones en los métodos de enseñanza de las ciencias y los saberes en el saber pedagógico colombiano. Abstract in english New Education is a proposal of pedagogic nature throughout Latin America as a whole, which had a diverse influence on education in its different countries. In Colombia, New Education meant openness to the process of appropriation of modern knowledge. In this sense, the article develops some thoughts [...] on this pedagogical tendency during the first half of the 20th Century, in order to make visible, from a historical perspective, the transformations of science's teaching methods and of the existing wisdom on the Colombian pedagogy knowledge.

  20. From a farm road to a public highway: The Dutch Reformed Church and its changing views regarding the city and urbanisation in the first half of the 20th century (1916-1947)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Robert, Vosloo.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The big question which should be in every theologian's mind is: How did the Dutch Reformed Church's response to the rapid urbanisation of the Afrikaner people in the first half of the 20th century unfold and develop? This was a painful transition to the many Afrikaner volk. And in order to address t [...] his question, this article looks more closely at some of the popular booklets by Rev JR Albertyn from the 1940s, the Kerk en Stad report (1947), and the published papers and decisions of the Volkskongres of 1947. These texts give us a glimpse onto the (changing) views on the city and urbanisation within the Dutch Reformed Church, as well as within the broader Afrikaner society. This article will also highlight the possible theological convictions that played a role in an attempt to face the challenges arising from a new urban environment. This article will furthermore focus on the way in which the discourse, within the Dutch Reformed Church, which related the challenges posed by urbanisation to the so-called "race problem", was dealt with.

  1. ECO (1960-1984) Y LAS DINÁMICAS DEL CAMPO LITERARIO COLOMBIANO DE MITAD DEL SIGLO XX* / ECO (1960-1984) AND THE DYNAMICS OF THE COLOMBIAN LITERARY FIELD DURING THE MIDDLE OF THE 20TH CENTURY

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paula Andrea, Marín Colorado.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La revista Eco (1960-1984) fue una de las revistas culturales de más larga trayectoria e influencia en la vida literaria de la segunda mitad del siglo XX en Colombia. Esta publicación permite entender algunas de las dinámicas del campo literario de la época en relación con la jerarquía de los género [...] s literarios y con el papel del crítico literario como agente legitimador de diversas funciones, normas y valores estéticos que influyen en la configuración del horizonte de expectativas del público lector y en la consagración de ciertos escritores y obras literarias. Abstract in english The Eco magazine (1960-1984) had one of the longest and most influential trajectories in the Colombian literary life during the second half of 20th century. This magazine makes possible to understand some dynamics of the literary field from this period, such as the literary genders hierarchy and the [...] performance of the literary critic as a qualifier of aesthetics roles, rules and values. These dynamics affect the readership expectations and the validity of writers and literary works.

  2. As mulheres e as práticas corporais em clubes da cidade de São Paulo do início do século XX / The women and the corporal practices at Sao Paulo city clubs during the beginning of 20th century

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Katia, Rubio.

    Full Text Available No Brasil a condição feminina na década de 1920 era determinada pela exclusão da vida pública e dedicação a vida privada. Neste mesmo período o movimento feminista lutou pelo direito das mulheres à cidadania, a uma existência legal fora de casa. Na Educação Física os discursos apontam uma mulher fis [...] icamente ativa, dentro de propósitos eugenistas e higienistas. O atletismo, a dança clássica e o basquetebol começaram a ser considerados atividades saudáveis para mulheres. O objetivo deste trabalho é discutir como se deu a participação da mulher nas práticas corporais em clubes na década de 1920 na cidade de São Paulo. Abstract in english The woman condition at 20’s was determined by a discourse that, based in the public life and dedication to a private life. At the same time the Feminist Movement fight to the rights of the women to citizenship and a social life outside. Among Physical Education, the discourses added a woman physical [...] ly active. The athletics’, classic dance and basketball started to be consider health activities to women. The subjective of this paper is to discuss how it was the women participation at the corporal practices in clubs at 20’s of 20th Century in Sao Paulo.

  3. The correlates of infant and childhood mortality: A theoretical overview and new evidence from the analysis of longitudinal data of the Bejsce (Poland parish register reconstitution study of the 18th-20th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Tymicki

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper has two main goals. The first is to review the context for studying infant mortality, which includes a review of the theoretical framework, the covariates used to examine mortality over the first 60 months of life, and the major findings of empirical studies. Second, the paper adds some new empirical evidence that comes from the longitudinal reconstitution of church registers of Bejsce parish, located in the south of Poland. This rich database allows for an analysis of mortality trends of cohorts born between the 18th and 20th centuries in the parish. The analysis includes a reconstruction of descriptive measures of infant and childhood mortality, and a hazard model of mortality over the first 60 months of life. The hazard model has been calculated for each cohort separately in order to demonstrate the change in the relative importance of analyzed factors during the process of mortality decline in the parish. Obtained mortality patterns are discussed with reference to the theoretical context presented in the first part of the paper.

  4. Similarities in mortality patterns from influenza in the first half of the 20th century and the rise and fall of ischemic heart disease in the United States: a new hypothesis concerning the coronary heart disease epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azambuja Maria Inês Reinert

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The classic risk factors for developing coronary heart disease (CHD explain less than 50% of the decrease in mortality observed since 1950. The transition currently under way, from the degenerative to the infectious-inflammatory paradigm, requires a new causal interpretation of temporal trends. The following is an ecological study based on data from the United States showing that in men and women an association between the age distribution of mortality due to influenza and pneumonia (I&P associated with the influenza pandemic in 1918-1919 in the 10-49-year age bracket and the distribution of CHD mortality from 1920 to 1985 in survivors from the corresponding birth cohorts. It further shows a significant negative correlation (r = -0.68, p = 0.042 between excess mortality from I&P accumulated in epidemics from 1931 to 1940 (used as indicator for persistent circulation of H1N1 virus combined with vulnerability to infection and the order of the beginning in the decline in CHD mortality in nine geographic divisions in the United States. In light of current biological knowledge, the data suggest that the 1918 influenza pandemic and the subsequent epidemics up to 1957 might have played a determinant role in the epidemic of CHD mortality registered in the 20th century.

  5. La parasitología y la entomología en la narrativa latinoamericana del siglo XX Parasitology and entomology in the 20th century Latin American narrative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Schenone

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present reviev of twelve pieces produced by distinguished 20th century Latin American writers Jorge Luis Borges from Argentina, Jorge Amado and João Ubaldo Ribeiro from Brazil, José Donoso from Chile, Gabriel García Márquez from Colombia, Alejo Carpentier from Cuba, Miguel Angel Asturias from Guatemala, Octavio Paz from Mexico, Mario Vargas Llosa from Perú, Horacio Quiroga and Mario Benedetti from Uruguay and Arturo Uslar-Pietri from Venezuela ­ paragraphs or parts of paragraphs in which parasitological or entomological situations of the most varied hues are referred to or described, have been extracted in a selective form. Sometimes in these descriptions appear, local or regional expressions, without ignoring colorful folkloric representations. For a easier interpretation these or part of these paragraph sentences have been arranged by thematic similarities. In a varied and kaleidoscopic vision, it will be possible to find protozooses (malaria, Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, amibiasis, helminthiases (ascariasis, hydatidosis, trichinosis, schistosomiasis, cysticercosis, onchocerciasis, parasitoses produced by arthropods (pediculosis, scabies, tungiasis, myiasis, passing progressivelly to hemaphagous arthropods (mosquitoes, gnats, horse flies, bedbugs, ticks, venomous arthropods (Latrodectus spiders, scorpions, wasps, bees, mechanical vectors (flies and cockroaches, culminating with a conjuction of bucolic arthropods (butterflies, crickets, grasshoppers cicadas, ants, centipedes, beetles, glowworms, dragonflies.

  6. Algumas hipóteses comparativas entre Brasil e Argentina no século XX / Des hypothèses comparatives entre le Brésil et l'Argentine au XXème siècle / Some comparative hypotheses on Brazil and Argentina during the 20th century

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vicente, Palermo.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Comparar trajetórias políticas ao longo de um século supõe um esforço muito maior de esquecimento do que de memória. Tentarei aqui converter uma grande quantidade de matérias analíticas muito heterogêneas em algumas conjeturas "popperianas". Elas podem provir de qualquer parte e podem ser submetidas [...] à corroboração ou à refutação. Ou seja, trata-se de um processo inverso à tarefa estritamente acadêmica. Em certamedida, estou recomeçando "desde o zero" o meu trabalho. É verdade que a história democrática argentina, no século XX, é mais longa do que a brasileira. Todavia, essa diferença não invalida a comparação. Minha hipótese concisa é a seguinte: na política democrática brasileira, a dimensão institucional é dominante - as instituições, de fato, representam o lugar em que se dão as interações e em que os atores coletivos configuram-se. Em compensação, nessas instituições, a inclusão tanto social como política tem sido fraca. No entanto, no caso argentino, a dimensão inclusiva tem sido dominante, com o prejuízo indubitável da dimensão institucional. Na política democrática argentina, participaram "todos". Na política democrática brasileira até 1964, a estabilidade baseou-se na exclusão - por exemplo, das massas rurais. Estas hipóteses podem estar corretas ou erradas, mas, em qualquer caso, importa dizer que não as estabeleci ex nihilo, como vindas do nada, nem diacrônica, nem sincronicamente. Diacronicamente, porque a história do século XX sustenta-se, é obvio, na do XIX; sincronicamente, porque com certeza cada uma das hipóteses ou conjeturas que discuti aqui pode imbricar-se com os processos do próprio século XX, com os dramas, as lutas, as lideranças, os conflitos, as controvérsias, as gestões de governo, os períodos de depressão e de prosperidade e as esperanças, tudo, enfim, o que constitui a história desse século. Abstract in english Comparing political trajectories over the course of a century demands more forgetting than remembering. I will make an attempt here to convert a considerable amount of very heterogeneous analytical material into some "Popperian" conjectures. They may emerge from anywhere within and may be subjected [...] to corroboration or refutation. In other words, this process is precisely the reverse of the one that informs strictly academic tasks. To some extent, I begin my work "from scratch". It may be true that the history of democracy in Argentina is longer than that of Brazil. Nonetheless, this difference does not invalidate comparison. My concise hypothesis is the following: in Brazilian democratic politics, the institutional dimension prevails - institutions, in fact, represent the place in which interactions occur and collective actors take shape. In compensation, within these institutions, both social and political inclusion has been weak. However, in the Argentine case, the inclusive dimension has been dominant, in clear detriment to the one. In Argentine democratic politics, "everyone" was included. In Brazilian democratic politics until 1964, stability was based on exclusion - for example, the exclusion of the rural masses. These hypotheses may be correct or incorrect but in any case, it is important to emphasize that they have not been established ex nihilo, as if coming from nowhere and neither diachronic nor synchronic. Diachronic, insofar as the history of the 20th century is sustained, obviously, in the history of the preceding one; synchronic, because each of the hypotheses or conjectures discussed here are undeniably embedded in processes that are proper to the 20th century, its dramas, struggles, leaders, conflicts, controversies, political administrations, periods of depression and prosperity and hopes; in short, all that makes up the history of the century.

  7. A mortalidade por doenças infecciosas no início e no final do século XX no Município de São Paulo / Deaths due to infectious diseases in the beginning and the end of the 20th century in the City of São Paulo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cássia Maria, Buchalla; Eliseu Alves, Waldman; Ruy, Laurenti.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A melhora das condições de vida do homem durante o século XX contribuiu para transformações da estrutura demográfica e para mudanças dos padrões de morbi-mortalidade. Com o objetivo de discutir essas mudanças, pretende-se comparar os dados de mortalidade do Município de São Paulo em 1901, 1960 e 200 [...] 0. As causas de morte foram obtidas das seguintes fontes: Anuários Estatísticos da FSEADE, para 1901; Anuário de 1961 do Departamento de Estatística do Estado e CD-ROM de Mortalidade do Ministério da Saúde, para o ano de 2000. Os demais dados - de população, de nascidos vivos, coeficientes de mortalidade geral e infantil - foram obtidos do CD-ROM "500 anos de Divisão territorial e 100 anos de Estatísticas Demográficas Municipais" da FSEADE. Do início até o final do século XX, a população do Município de São Paulo aumentou 36 vezes, o número de nascimentos quase 24 e o número de óbitos 13,6 vezes. No entanto, as taxas de mortalidade diminuíram, a mortalidade geral foi 2,6 vezes menor no ano 2000 e a mortalidade infantil 11,3 vezes menor. A proporção de óbitos por doenças infecciosas declina de 45,7% do total de óbitos em 1901 para 9,7% em 2000. Em 1901, entre as 10 principais causas de morte no Município, 5 eram doenças infecciosas, correspondendo a 37% das mortes; em 1960, apareciam nesta lista apenas 3 doenças infecciosas (16,1% dos óbitos), e em 2000 apenas a pneumonia constava entre as principais causas de morte. Doenças como tétano, difteria, coqueluche, sarampo e escarlatina mostraram-se controladas no final do período. No entanto, a pneumonia, a tuberculose, a septicemia e a aids ainda se situam entre as que merecem especial atenção na área de saúde pública. Abstract in english The changes in living conditions during the 20th century have contributed to change morbidity and mortality standards, and the population structure. This study aims to present and discuss these changes by comparing mortality data of the City of São Paulo from 1901, 1960 and 2000. Mortality data were [...] collected from Annual Statistical Reports of Fundação SEADE (State Data Analysis System Foundation), for 1901; from Annual Statistical Reports of the State Department of Statistics, for 1961; and from a CD-ROM of the Ministry of Health, for 2000. The population data, number of newborns and infant mortality rates were collected from the CD-ROM "500 anos de Divisão Territorial e 100 Anos de Estatísticas Demográficas Municipais" (500 years of Territory Division and 100 Years of Municipal Demographic Statistics) of FSEADE. During the 20th century, the population of the City of São Paulo increased 36-fold, the number of newborns 24-fold and deaths 13.6-fold. On the other hand, mortality rates decreased, general mortality was 2.6 times lower and infant mortality was 11.3 lower in 2000 when compared to 1901. The proportion of deaths due to infectious diseases decreased from 45.7% of total deaths in 1901 to 9.7% in 2000. Taking into consideration the 10 main causes of death for 1901, 5 were infectious diseases, corresponding to 37% of all deaths. In 1960 there were only 3 infectious diseases among the main causes of deaths, accounting for 16.1% of all deaths, and in 2000 only pneumonia was among the 10 main causes of death. Tetanus, diphtheria, whooping cough, measles, and scarlet fever were controlled in this period. Nevertheless, infectious diseases as pneumonia, septicemia, tuberculosis, and AIDS still deserve special attention from public health authorities.

  8. A mortalidade por doenças infecciosas no início e no final do século XX no Município de São Paulo Deaths due to infectious diseases in the beginning and the end of the 20th century in the City of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia Maria Buchalla

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A melhora das condições de vida do homem durante o século XX contribuiu para transformações da estrutura demográfica e para mudanças dos padrões de morbi-mortalidade. Com o objetivo de discutir essas mudanças, pretende-se comparar os dados de mortalidade do Município de São Paulo em 1901, 1960 e 2000. As causas de morte foram obtidas das seguintes fontes: Anuários Estatísticos da FSEADE, para 1901; Anuário de 1961 do Departamento de Estatística do Estado e CD-ROM de Mortalidade do Ministério da Saúde, para o ano de 2000. Os demais dados - de população, de nascidos vivos, coeficientes de mortalidade geral e infantil - foram obtidos do CD-ROM "500 anos de Divisão territorial e 100 anos de Estatísticas Demográficas Municipais" da FSEADE. Do início até o final do século XX, a população do Município de São Paulo aumentou 36 vezes, o número de nascimentos quase 24 e o número de óbitos 13,6 vezes. No entanto, as taxas de mortalidade diminuíram, a mortalidade geral foi 2,6 vezes menor no ano 2000 e a mortalidade infantil 11,3 vezes menor. A proporção de óbitos por doenças infecciosas declina de 45,7% do total de óbitos em 1901 para 9,7% em 2000. Em 1901, entre as 10 principais causas de morte no Município, 5 eram doenças infecciosas, correspondendo a 37% das mortes; em 1960, apareciam nesta lista apenas 3 doenças infecciosas (16,1% dos óbitos, e em 2000 apenas a pneumonia constava entre as principais causas de morte. Doenças como tétano, difteria, coqueluche, sarampo e escarlatina mostraram-se controladas no final do período. No entanto, a pneumonia, a tuberculose, a septicemia e a aids ainda se situam entre as que merecem especial atenção na área de saúde pública.The changes in living conditions during the 20th century have contributed to change morbidity and mortality standards, and the population structure. This study aims to present and discuss these changes by comparing mortality data of the City of São Paulo from 1901, 1960 and 2000. Mortality data were collected from Annual Statistical Reports of Fundação SEADE (State Data Analysis System Foundation, for 1901; from Annual Statistical Reports of the State Department of Statistics, for 1961; and from a CD-ROM of the Ministry of Health, for 2000. The population data, number of newborns and infant mortality rates were collected from the CD-ROM "500 anos de Divisão Territorial e 100 Anos de Estatísticas Demográficas Municipais" (500 years of Territory Division and 100 Years of Municipal Demographic Statistics of FSEADE. During the 20th century, the population of the City of São Paulo increased 36-fold, the number of newborns 24-fold and deaths 13.6-fold. On the other hand, mortality rates decreased, general mortality was 2.6 times lower and infant mortality was 11.3 lower in 2000 when compared to 1901. The proportion of deaths due to infectious diseases decreased from 45.7% of total deaths in 1901 to 9.7% in 2000. Taking into consideration the 10 main causes of death for 1901, 5 were infectious diseases, corresponding to 37% of all deaths. In 1960 there were only 3 infectious diseases among the main causes of deaths, accounting for 16.1% of all deaths, and in 2000 only pneumonia was among the 10 main causes of death. Tetanus, diphtheria, whooping cough, measles, and scarlet fever were controlled in this period. Nevertheless, infectious diseases as pneumonia, septicemia, tuberculosis, and AIDS still deserve special attention from public health authorities.

  9. Chinos y gamines: imágenes de los habitantes pobres de Bogotá en la primera mitad del siglo XX / The urchins and street boys: images of the poor inhabitants of Bogota in the first half of the 20th century

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yeimy Cárdenas, Palermo.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available En el artículo se tejen algunos indicios que permiten poner en escena las formas como los niños pobres o los hijos de los habitantes pobres de la ciudad de Bogotá fueron diferenciados de la infancia "normal", en la primera mitad del siglo XX. Acudiendo a discursos de especialistas, voces de reformis [...] tas educativos y periodistas se evidencia que la diferenciación fue producida mediante la estigmatización de los lugares sociales de los niños pobres, a través de la imagen de los chinos y los gamines. Imágenes que resultan paradigmáticas para desentrañar la deslegitimación de las estructuras familiares, de las trayectorias escolares y de los modos de habitar la ciudad de los niños y niñas de los sectores populares, dada la articulación, infundada y temeraria que se estableció entre la vida de los pobres y la delincuencia infantil. Abstract in english In this paper we present hints that allow us to reveal the ways poor children, or the children of poor inhabitants, from the city of Bogota were excluded from the "normal" childhood in the first half of the 20th century. Based on specialists' statements as well as opinions from educational reformers [...] and journalists it is clear that this exclusion was created due to the stigmatization of the social places belonging to the poor children through the image of the urchins and street boys.. Such images were a model that could reveal the illegitimacy of the family structures, of the school history and of the way children from the popular areas lived, given the articulation, mistaken and dangerous, that was established between the life of poor people and children delinquency.

  10. Las diócesis del Valle del Cauca (Colombia) en el siglo XX: Hacia el fortalecimiento de la modernización / The Diocese of Valle del Cauca (Colombia) during 20th Century: Towards the Strengthening of Modernity

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antonio José, Echeverry Pérez; Carolina, Abadía Quintero.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo hace un recorrido histórico (consultando fundamentalmente los archivos diocesanos, en su mayoría inéditos), por la instauración de las principales diócesis creadas en el Departamento del Valle del Cauca (Colombia) durante el siglo XX: Cali, Palmira, Buenaventura, Cartago y Buga. [...] Se muestra como la Iglesia constituye un proyecto fundamental de modernización religiosa, que se denota ante todo en la extensión de su presencia en el territorio vallecaucano. Proceso que inicia con la desfragmentación del gran territorio de la arquidiócesis de Popayán, con lo cual cada diócesis creada logra impulsar sus propios procesos de generación de parroquias, centros educativos y de beneficencia, logrando con esto, construir la iglesia vallecaucana y fortalecer la religión católica tanto en los sectores rurales como en los espacios urbanos del departamento del Valle del Cauca. Cada nueva diócesis se inscribe además, en su propia coyuntura local de desarrollo y modernización económica y social. Abstract in english The present article, based on a research carried out on diocesan archives -mainly unpublished- describes the historical path followed during the creation of the most important dioceses in the Valle del Cauca region (Colombia) during the 20th century: Cali, Palmira, Buenaventura, Cartago and Buga. It [...] shows how the Church constituted a fundamental project of religious modernization as a result of its growing presence in the Valle del Cauca territory. The process begun with the fragmentation of the wide area occupied by the Archdiocese of Popayan, when each new diocese developed its own process in the establishment of new parishes, schools and charity institutions. These constitute the foundations of the Catholic Church and the construction and empowerment of religion, both in rural sectors and urban spaces along the Department. Nevertheless, each new parish in the Valle del Cauca was created according to local circumstances of economic development and social modernization.

  11. Professoras e crianças pequenas no contexto da Educação Infantil pelotense em meados do século XX / Teachers, kindergarten and preschool children in the context of childhood education in Pelotas in the mid 20th century

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lourdes Helena Dummer, Venzke; Jane, Felipe.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda uma pesquisa realizada nas primeiras instituições escolares de Pelotas/RS que se dedicaram ao atendimento de crianças pequenas, sem o caráter asilar, em meados do século XX. Tais espaços apresentam as marcas deixadas pelos desafios assumidos em nome da proteção e educação dessas c [...] rianças. Essa pesquisa, de cunho qualitativo, teve como aporte teórico os estudos de gênero, os estudos culturais e autores/as pós-estruturalistas. Os materiais coletados e os contextos nos quais eles foram produzidos indicaram alguns elementos que compunham o cenário no qual as professoras desenvolveram seu trabalho. Com esta pesquisa tornou-se possível visibilizar como as professoras foram representadas e como o exercício da docência na Educação Infantil estava atrelado à resolução de alguns problemas sociais. Nesse sentido, as exigências atribuídas às docentes incorporam os valores pertinentes a um dado período histórico, com seus diferentes momentos e necessidades apontadas. Abstract in english The present article approaches a research carried out at the first school institutions in Pelotas/RS which focused on helping kindergarten and preschool children, without an asylum character, in the mid 20th century. Such spaces present the marks left by the challenges assumed in the name of the pro [...] tection and education of these children. This research, a qualitative one, had as technical support some studies on gender, cultural studies and post-structuralist authors. The collected materials and the contexts in which they were produced indicated some elements which comprised the scenario in which the teachers developed their work. With this research it was possible to highlight how the teachers were represented and how the teaching practice in Childhood Education was connected to the resolution of some social problems. Therefore, the demands attributed to the teachers incorporate relevant figures to a certain historical period, with their different moments and necessities pointed out.

  12. Las prácticas higienistas en el entorno urbano caleño, durante la primera mitad del siglo XX / THE PRACTICAL HYGIENISTS IN THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT OF THE CITY OF CALI, DURING THE FIRST HALF OF THE 20TH CENTURY

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aceneth, Perafán Cabrera.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio tiene como propósito mostrar desde una perspectiva histórico-ambiental, aspectos relacionados con las prácticas higienistas características de la ciudad de Cali durante la primera mitad del siglo XX. Se destacan algunos de los problemas centrales relacionados con esta urbe y con algunas [...] poblaciones aledañas, en un momento histórico en el que se presentaron graves dificultades concernientes al abastecimiento de agua, al sistema de desagüe urbano y a la organización de los servicios de higiene correspondientes a la limpieza pública, la recolección de residuos, y la situación de establecimientos insalubres. El estrecho vínculo existente entre el discurso higienista y la idea de progreso impulsó la ejecución de propuestas encaminadas al mejoramiento de la potabilidad del agua y la adopción de prácticas en las que este recurso se convirtió en elemento estratégico para la limpieza pública, doméstica y personal. La construcción del acueducto y el alcantarillado representó una vía de solución frente a los requerimientos propios del panorama citadino de comienzos de siglo, en el que resultaba prioritario responder al tema de la salubridad, al avance del crecimiento demográfico, industrial y urbano, y al logro de mejores condiciones de vida para la población. Abstract in english This study has as intention show from a historical environmental perspective, aspects related to the practical hygienists typical of the city of Cali during the first half of the 20th century. Are outlined some of the central problems related to this city and to some bordering populations, in a hist [...] orical moment in which they presented serious difficulties relating to the water supply, to the system of urban outlet and to the organization of the services of hygiene corresponding to the public cleanliness, the compilation of residues, and the situation of noxious industries. The narrow existing link between the speech hygienist and the idea of progress stimulated the execution of offers directed to the improvement of the potability of the water and the adoption of practices in which this resource turned into strategic element for the public, domestic and personal cleanliness. The construction of the aqueduct and the sewer represented a route of solution opposite to the own requirements of the panorama of the city of beginning of century, in which it was turning out to be priority to answer to the topic of the health, to the advance of the demographic, industrial and urban growth, and to the achievement of better living conditions for the population.

  13. A educação física e o funâmbulo: entre a arte circense e a ciência (século XIX e início do século XX) / Physical Education and the funambulist: between science and circus arts (19th century and the beginning of the 20th century) / La Educación Física y el funámbulo: entre el circo y la ciencia (siglo XIX y principios del siglo XX)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mirian Kormann, Hauffe; Edivaldo, Góis Junior.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar a separação entre atividades circenses e a Educação Física, mais especificamente, a ginástica no século XIX e início do século XX. Para isto, foi realizada uma pesquisa histórica que buscou explicações e dados empíricos sobre esta relação. As fontes foram ca [...] racterizadas por textos de personagens históricas identificadas como teóricos da Educação Física no período. Os documentos foram analisados tendo como centro a mentalidade dos professores sobre os critérios para a organização de uma ginástica científica. Concluiu-se que a associação entre Educação Física e as ciências naturais identificou a ginástica como meio científico de educação do corpo. Nessa delimitação, as artes circenses eram criticadas e excluídas. Abstract in spanish Este estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar la separación de las actividades del circo y la Educación Física, más concretamente, la gimnasia, en el siglo XIX y principios del siglo XX. Para esto, se realizó una investigación que buscaba explicaciones históricas y datos sobre esta relación. Las fuente [...] s se caracterizan por textos de personajes históricos identificados como los teóricos de la Educación Física en el período. Se examinó los ficheros centrados en la mentalidad de los profesores sobre los criterios para la organización de un ejercicio científico. Se concluyó que la asociación entre la Educación Física y ciencias naturales identifica la gimnasia como la educación científica del cuerpo. En esta definición, las artes del circo fueron criticadas y excluidas. Abstract in english This study aimed to investigate the separation of circus activities and Physical Education, more specifically, the gymnastic, in the 19th century and early 20th century. For this, it was conducted a historical research which found explanations and data of this relationship. The sources were characte [...] rized by texts of historical persons identified as theorists of Physical Education in the period. The study examined the files centered in the thoughts of the teachers on the criteria for the organization of a scientific gymnastic. It concluded that the association between Physical Education and natural sciences identified the gymnastic as the scientific education of the body. In this definition, circus arts were criticized and excluded.

  14. Población, actividad y paro en la segunda mitad del siglo XX en Extremadura / Population, activity and unemployment in the second half of the 20th century in Extremadura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mª Hernández Carretero

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: A lo largo de la segunda mitad del siglo XX se han producido las más profundas transformaciones de la historia regional, impulsadas tanto por factores exógenos como endógenos de toda índole. Se ha pasado de una economía agraria de subsistencia a una economía competitiva de los servicios y del conocimiento, lo que ha supuesto enormes excedentes de mano de obra agraria hasta el final de siglo. Excedentes que fueron engrosando la intensa sangría emigratoria de los sesenta y setenta, que arrastró al 40% de la población regional. Sin embargo, desde comienzos de los ochenta, la población ha tendido a estabilizarse. Pero la emigración ya había provocado un estrangulamiento irreparable en las edades activas y de procreación, un fuerte descenso de la natalidad acentuado por la caída de la fecundidad posteriormente y un profundo envejecimiento. Por otra parte, la retención de los efectivos jóvenes y adultos en sus lugares de origen, junto a otros factores, incrementaron el paro hasta niveles desconocidos, si bien es un fenómeno que se ha conseguido paliar en buena medida en los últimos años del siglo. El futuro se presenta incierto, pues aunque no existe ningún núcleo abandonado, el envejecimiento, la baja natalidad y el paro están hipotecando el desarrollo endógeno de los núcleos rurales de la región.Summary: Along the second half of the 20th century the deepest transformations of the regional history have been produced so much by factors exogenous as endogenous of every kind. It has passed of an agrarian economy of subsistence to a competitive economy of the services and of the knowledge, what has supposed enormous excesses of agrarian unemployment to the end of century. Surplus that enlarged the great volume of emigrant population of the sixties and seventy that supposed the 40% of the regional population. Nevertheless, from beginnings of the eighty, the population is being stabilized. But the emigration already had caused an irreparable strangulation in the active ages and of procreation and a strong descent of the birthrate accentuated by the fall of the fertility and a deep aging. On the other hand, the retention of the young and adult population in its places of origin, next to other factors, it has increased the unemployment to unknown levels, though is a phenomenon that has managed to alleviate itself in good measure in recent years of the century. The future is presented uncertain, therefore although no nucleus abandoned exists, the aging, the low birthrate and the unemployment are mortgaging the endogenous development of the rural nuclei of the region.

  15. Medios de transporte, accidentes de tránsito y legislación en Medellín (Colombia) durante las tres primeras décadas del siglo XX / Means of Transport, Traffic Accidents and Legislation in Medellín, Colombia, During the First Three Decades of the 20th Century

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juan David, Alzate Alzate.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Automóviles, coches, camiones y trenes aparecieron en Medellín (Colombia) durante las primeras décadas del siglo XX, afectando las rutinas de los habitantes que tuvieron la necesidad de usarlos, transformando así las dinámicas de la ciudad. En este proceso, hombres y mujeres se vieron involucrados e [...] n circunstancias aciagas en las que estos aparatos fueron los medios a través de los cuales se cometían atropellamientos, que podían ser calificados como delitos, extendiendo así el marco de aplicación de las leyes y obligando, incluso, a generar estrategias legales para intentar llevar coherentemente estos litigios. El objeto central de este artículo es describir las formas como se presentaron los accidentes de tránsito en el contexto señalado y al mismo tiempo relacionar este tipo de hechos con la legislación existente en aquella época y la manera como era aplicada por las autoridades al momento de generar un veredicto sobre la culpabilidad por homicidio de un conductor. Para su elaboración se tuvieron en cuenta cinco sumarios por homicidio del Archivo Histórico Judicial de Medellín, información del Archivo Histórico de Medellín y de la Colección Patrimonio Documental de la Universidad de Antioquia, artículos de la prensa local, legislación y datos estadísticos de la época. Abstract in english Automobiles, cars, trucks and trains appeared in Medellín, Colombia, during the first decades of the 20th century, and affected the routines of the inhabitants who had the need to use them, thus transforming the dynamics of the city. In this process, men and women were involved in unfortunate circum [...] stances in which these machines were the means through which people were run over. Since this act was qualified as a committed crime, it was necessary to enforce the laws and even generate legal strategies for consistently attempt these disputes. The aim of this article is to describe the ways how traffic accidents occurred in the stated context, and at the same time, relate this kind of facts with the existing legislation in that time, and the way as it was applied by the authorities when generating a verdict on the guilt of murder of a driver. For its preparation five summaries were considered by murder of the Archivo Historico Judicial de Medellín, the information of the Archivo Histórico de Medellín, and the Collection Heritage Documentary of the Unviersidad de Antioquia, articles from the local press, legislation and statistical data of that time

  16. A Comparative Stud