WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Rejuvenation in the early 20th century.  

Science.gov (United States)

The first theoretical reflections concerning the relation of hormone production with the ageing process stemmed from Charles Edouard Brown-Séquard (1817 1894). At the age of 72 years he experimented on himself with an injection of animal testicular extract. The Viennese physiologist Eugen Steinach (1861 1944) gained world-wide acknowledgement for his theory of 'autoplastic' treatment of ageing. He deduced that after vasoligation, an increased incretory hormonal production would ensue following the cessation of the secretory output of the gonads. The first operation was performed in 1918 and resulted in a vasectomy boom over the next two decades. The Russian Serge Voronoff (1866 1951), working in Paris, was one of the first to transplant testicular tissue from a monkey into a human reproductive gland in 1920. Five years later he had already performed this procedure on 300 patients and attracted patients from all over the world. In America early efforts of human testicular transplantation were performed by Frank Lydston and V.D. Lespinasse. Steinach's vasoligation was taken over by many American doctors, e.g., Harry Benjamin and Charles H. Chetwood. Among the patients who underwent a rejuvenation operation according to Steinach's method were Sigmund Freud (1856 1939) and the Irish poet and Nobel Prize winner William Butler Yeats (1865-1939). Two caricatures from the German magazine Simplicissimus published in 1927, confirm that the rejuvenation operations were constantly in the limelight of the printed media. From 1935 onwards rejuvenation operations gradually lost their appeal due to the introduction of artificial androgens. PMID:9430441

Schultheiss, D; Denil, J; Jonas, U

1997-01-01

2

Early 20th century acoustics apparatus in Iowa  

Science.gov (United States)

In the first half of the 20th century G. W. Stewart was a physics faculty member at the University of Iowa (UI) with a distinguished record of research and teaching, especially in acoustics. Much of his research focused on the design and use of several types of acoustical filters. Some apparatus which he developed or utilized are still housed in the Department of Physics and Astronomy or are available in detailed diagrams. Demonstration apparatus (apparently homemade) from his era are still available for use. Carl E. Seashore, a renowned psychologist also at UI in the early 20th century, had interdisciplinary interests linking psychology, speech and hearing, music, and acoustics. He was responsible for obtaining an Henrici harmonic analyzer, a mechanical Fourier analyzer manufactured in Switzerland, a special grant from the state legislature during Depression conditions provided the funding. It resides in the Department of Speech Pathology and Audiology at UI. The Grinnell College Physics Historical Museum houses a set of 18 Helmholtz resonators and a Savart bell and resonator. Apparatus at Iowa State University, the University of Northern Iowa, and other Iowa institutions will also be described. Pictures and diagrams as well as some actual apparatus will be exhibited.

Hanson, Roger J.

2001-05-01

3

Atomic Modeling in the Early 20th Century: 1904 - 1913  

CERN Document Server

The scope of this paper is to discuss the major works that appeared in the period of 1904 to 1913: atomic models proposed by Thomson and Hantaro Nagaoka (1904), Rutherford (1911), and Bohr (1913), and the experimental work that motivated them. It will be seen that, although all of the models discussed here were later shown to be incorrect or incomplete, each one represented an essential step towards an understanding of the nature of matter, a view of the physical world often taken for granted a century down the road.

Baily, Charles

2011-01-01

4

Globalization and Chinese Education in the Early 20th Century  

Science.gov (United States)

With China's growing significance in the global economy ever more evident, studies in recent years have highlighted multiple aspects of China's "Globalization" (or global connections) that predate the contemporary period. This article focuses on educational reform in the late Qing and early Republic as a way of illuminating a…

Bailey, Paul J.

2013-01-01

5

Einstein and early 20th Century avant-garde art: points of contact?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Art history linked some early 20th Century avant-garde visual art movements to contemporary systems of ideas in mathematics and theoretical physics. One of the proposed connections is the one that might have existed between Cubism and Relativity, or more precisely, between Picasso and Einstein. The suggested links are similarity (in a weak version) or identity (in a strong version) in matters of space, time and simultaneity. It is possible, however, that these supposed links...

Martini, Jose? X.

2007-01-01

6

Ministers on the Lecture Circuit: Education, Entertainment and Religion in Early 20th Century America  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the early 20th century, some American ministers were eager participants in the Chautauqua and Lyceum lecture circuits that flourished across the Midwest and beyond. Ministers expressed their vocation in the public arena, and the Redpath Chautauqua collection shows how part of this public life was conducted. In their role as lecturers in multiple educational and civic venues, ministers functioned as experts on the Bible, as well as supporting American ideals that were loosely connected to P...

Lisa Gonzalez

2014-01-01

7

[German-Japanese scientific exchange in urology in the early 20th century].  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper analyzes the importance of the German language and German culture and institutional development of urology in Japan in the early 20th century, starting from the development of the medical school for Japanese in Germany and their function in the process of modernization of the Meiji period (1868-1912). Examples of bi-directional German-Japanese relations in medicine, which also included an integrated knowledge transfer, are shown. The study is based mainly on Japanese and German sources about Japanese physicians in Germany as well as contemporary publications in German and international medical journals. Methodologically, the article combines quantitative analysis with individual biographical aspects. PMID:24452403

Halling, T; Umehara, H; Moll, F

2014-01-01

8

Einstein and early 20th Century avant-garde art: points of contact?  

CERN Document Server

Art history linked some early 20th Century avant-garde visual art movements to contemporary systems of ideas in mathematics and theoretical physics. One of the proposed connections is the one that might have existed between Cubism and Relativity, or more precisely, between Picasso and Einstein. The suggested links are similarity (in a weak version) or identity (in a strong version) in matters of space, time and simultaneity. It is possible, however, that these supposed links of Einstein and avant-garde art movements were more the product of the imagination of historians and critics, than the result of connections between painters and scientists. On the one hand, the visual arts (in contrast to music, as far as we now) were of no interest to Einstein, who, moreover, did not seem inclined or knowledgeable enough to appreciate advanced forms. On the other hand, Einstein's theories fell outside the artists' ken, let alone their understanding, although there are firm clues pointing to the fact that repercussions o...

Martini, José X

2007-01-01

9

The mid 19th and early 20th Century Pull of a Nearby Eclipse Shadow Path  

Science.gov (United States)

The unique observing conditions allowed by total solar eclipses made them a highly desirable target of 19th and early 20th century astronomical expeditions, particularly after 1842. Due to the narrowness of the lunar shadow at the Earth's surface this usually implied traveling to faraway locations with all the subsequent inconveniences, in particular, high costs and complex logistics. A situation that improved as travel became faster, cheaper and more reliable. The possibility to observe an eclipse in one's own country implied no customs, no language barriers, usually shorter travelling distances and the likely support of local and central authorities. The eclipse proximity also provided a strong argument to pressure the government to support the eclipse observation. Sometimes the scientific elite would use such high profile events to rhetorically promote broader goals. In this paper we will analyse the motivation, goals, negotiating strategies and outcomes of the Portuguese eclipse expeditions made between 1860 and 1914. We will focus, in particular, on the observation of the solar eclipses of 22 December 1870 and 17 April 1912. The former allowed the start-up of astrophysical studies in the country while the movie obtained at the latter led Francisco da Costa Lobo to unexpectedly propose a polar flattening of the Moon.

Bonifácio, Vitor

2012-09-01

10

Exploring 20th Century London  

Science.gov (United States)

From the expansion of the Underground to the waves of new arrivals from the British colonies, London was greatly transformed through the 20th century. Recently, several London institutions, including the Museum of London, combed through their respective resources to create this interactive exhibit and archive that would tell visitors a bit about the city's evolution during those 100 years. The materials can be viewed through three sections: "Timeline", "Themes", and "Places". In the "Timeline" section, visitors can browse through featured objects and also learn about major events during the period. Moving on, the "Themes" area organizes the city's recent past into topical areas that focus on art and design, the built environment, ethnic communities, and leisure activities. The "Places" section features a clickable map of London's boroughs which reveals artifacts from each of these respective areas.

11

Roald Amundsen among the Magneticians: Polar Geophysics in the early 20th Century  

Science.gov (United States)

Roald Amundsen (1872-1928) is best known as a polar explorer, the first to lead a team to the South Pole in 1911. He did, however, have a serious interest in science, in particular, in geomagnetism. His expedition through the Northwest Passage above Canada in 1903 to 1906 and his Maud expedition through the Arctic ice in 1918 to 1925 included full complements of magnetic instrumentation. He and his magnetic researchers collaborated with the Carnegie Institution of Washington's Department of Terrestrial Magnetism and with the Prussian Geomagnetic Observatory in Potsdam for training, instruments, and research programs. Amundsen's expeditions provided magnetic and other geophysical data for important geographical regions, while gaining support for polar and geophysical research generally. His work is part of a broader 20th-century story that includes the International Polar Years and the International Geophysical Year.

Good, G. A.

2013-12-01

12

The controversial early brightening in the first half of 20th century: a contribution from pyrheliometer measurements in Madrid (Spain)  

CERN Document Server

A long-term decrease in downward surface solar radiation from the 1950s to the 1980s ("global dimming") followed by a multi-decadal increase up to the present ("brightening") have been detected in many regions worldwide. In addition, some researchers have suggested the existence of an "early brightening" period in the first half of 20th century. However, this latter phenomenon is an open issue due to the opposite results found in literature and the scarcity of solar radiation data during this period. This paper contributes to this relevant discussion analyzing, for the first time in Southern Europe, the atmospheric column transparency derived from pyrheliometer measurements in Madrid (Spain) for the period 1911-1928. This time series is one of the three longest dataset during the first quarter of the 20th century in Europe. The results showed the great effects of the Katmai eruption (June 1912, Alaska) on transparency values during 1912-1913 with maximum relative anomalies around 8%. Outside the period affect...

Antón, M; Aparicio, A J P

2014-01-01

13

Exploring glacial change - flying in the tailwind of the early 20th century Greenland explorers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the early 1930s Greenlandic explorers and scientists began using airplanes as an effective mean of surveying and mapping the hitherto unknown and inaccessible lands. By replacing the dogsled and the drawing board with the seaplane and camera, huge areas could now be covered. Here in the 21st Century the photographs now serve as a snapshot of the state of the glaciers, and possess unique scientific value as they stand as the first testimony of hundreds of Greenlandic glaciers. In the summer of 2013, we flew in the paths of the early flights and captured the changes that occurred during the last 80 years. To revisit all the historic glaciers would be a near impossible, not to mention extremely expensive task, so we targeted the most important glaciers in terms of present mass loss as well as the most aesthetically appealing historical images. The result is a then-and-now comparison that vividly captures both the raw beauty of the land and the ongoing often dramatic glacial changes. As the historic flights covered nearly half the Greenlandic coast line, we capture both areas of massive retreat and areas of still stand and even advance.

Khan, Shfaqat Abbas

14

The impact of the professionalization of physicians on social change in Germany during the late 19th and early 20th centuries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

'The professionalization of German medicine during the late 19th and early 20th centuries apparently develops its specific dynamics precisely in a phase of social development characterized by a threat to the privileges of the bourgeoisie and to the health sector as a whole, which exposed especially the medical profession to the pressure of increasing tendencies towards socialization. The imagination with regard to organization and planning of a great number of doctors was not however limited ...

Spree, Reinhard

1980-01-01

15

Scientists and scientific associations in Catalonia (Spain in the early 20th century: manuscript vs. published research in earth sciences  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available


Culture in Catalonia and, specifically, science had an important rebirth in the second half of the 19th century. But, due to the lack of State support, development of earth physical sciences in Catalonia at the beginning of the 20th century was almost a private enterprise. This situation caused dispersion of the efforts that, in any case, were extensive. The study of the evolution of earth sciences and the recovery and study of the accumulated data in such circumstances requires relying heavily on manuscript information. The present study deals with the problems and possibilities of this situation, shows some study cases and extracts some conclusions of general interest from them.


Josep Batlló

2009-06-01

16

Fighting the 'microbe of sporting mania': Australian science and Antarctic exploration in the early 20th century.  

Science.gov (United States)

The 'Heroic Age' of Antarctic exploration, which occurred during the first 15 years of the 20th century, captured headlines around the world. Australia was no exception, especially as Australian scientists played important roles in several expeditions. Through participation in the British Antarctic Expedition of 1907-1909, two Australian scientists - T.W. Edgeworth David (1858-1934) and Douglas Mawson (1882-1958) - became genuine national heroes, mainly through being members of the first party to reach the South Magnetic Pole area. At a superficial level, the vehicle of Antarctic exploration placed science at the forefront of public awareness, fulfilling David's ambition for greater recognition of science and scientists, especially considering the high level of public interest in sport. However, although David and Mawson gave Antarctic exploration a scientific veneer, simply through their status as scientists, the public viewed them as heroes because they had endured great hardships and conquered a point on the map in the name of science and the Empire. PMID:15350762

Roberts, Peder

2004-09-01

17

Orthodontics in 3 millennia. Chapter 5: the American Board of Orthodontics, Albert Ketcham, and early 20th-century appliances.  

Science.gov (United States)

Early in the last century, 3 events put Colorado in the orthodontic spotlight: the discovery-by an orthodontist-of the caries-preventive powers of fluoridated water, the formation of dentistry's first specialty board, and the founding of a supply company by and for orthodontists. Meanwhile, inventive practitioners were giving the profession more choices of treatment modalities, and stainless steel was making its feeble debut. PMID:16214639

Wahl, Norman

2005-10-01

18

In the laboratory of the Ghost-Baron: parapsychology in Germany in the early 20th century.  

Science.gov (United States)

During the early twentieth century the Munich-based psychiatrist Albert von Schrenck-Notzing constructed a parapsychological laboratory in his Karolinenplatz home. Furnished with a range of apparatus derived from the physical and behavioural sciences, the Baron's intention was to mimic both the outward form and disciplinary trajectory of contemporary experimental psychology, thereby legitimating the nascent field of parapsychology. Experimentation with mediums, those labile subjects who produced ectoplasm, materialisation and telekinesis, however, necessitated not only the inclusion of a range of spiritualist props, but the lackadaisical application of those checks and controls intended to prevent simulation and fraud. Thus Schrenck-Notzing's parapsychological laboratory with its stereoscopic cameras, galvanometers and medium cabinets was a strange coalescence of both the séance room and the lab, a hybrid space that was symbolic of the irresolvable epistemological and methodological problems at the heart of this aspiring science. PMID:19896715

Wolffram, Heather

2009-12-01

19

The Comparison of the Early Era of 20th and 21st Centuries: An Analysis of the Diver¬gent and Convergent Facts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is unavoidable that being of differential design of the political, military, social and economicat the beginning of 20th and 21st of centuries and this is a result of human being development. Thedevelopments at these centuries have considerable implication regarding human being history. Therefore,the intensiveness, velocity and prevalence of the developments have differentiated in many ways whencomparing the former centuries and millennium. However, although the political, military and economicsituation at the beginning of the 20th and 21st of centuries are different from each other in essence theyhave many commons facts either. The excessive growth of imperial power, the competition among majorpowers, the unstable alliance system, support of terrorism by some regimes and the existence of majorpowers balancing each other are the common characteristics at the beginning of the 20th and 21st ofcenturies.

Sertif Demir

2012-06-01

20

Evolution of atmospheric connectivity in the 20th century  

Science.gov (United States)

We aim to study the evolution of the upper atmosphere connectivity over the 20th century as well as to distinguish the oceanically forced component from the atmospheric internal variability. For this purpose we build networks from two different reanalysis data sets using both linear and nonlinear statistical similarity measures to determine the existence of links between different regions of the world in the two halves of the last century. We furthermore use symbolic analysis to emphasize intra-seasonal, intra-annual and inter-annual timescales. Both linear and nonlinear networks have similar structures and evolution, showing that the most connected regions are in the tropics over the Pacific Ocean. Also, the Southern Hemisphere extratropics have more connectivity in the first half of the 20th century, particularly on intra-annual and intra-seasonal timescales. Changes over the Pacific main connectivity regions are analyzed in more detail. Both linear and nonlinear networks show that the central and western Pacific regions have decreasing connectivity from early 1900 up to about 1940, when it starts increasing again until the present. The inter-annual network shows a similar behavior. However, this is not true of other timescales. On intra-annual timescales the minimum connectivity is around 1956, with a negative (positive) trend before (after) that date for both the central and western Pacific. While this is also true of the central Pacific on intra-seasonal timescales, the western Pacific shows a positive trend during the entire 20th century. In order to separate the internal and forced connectivity networks and to study their evolution through time, an ensemble of atmospheric general circulation model outputs is used. The results suggest that the main connectivity patterns captured in the reanalysis networks are due to the oceanically forced component, particularly on inter-annual timescales. Moreover, the atmospheric internal variability seems to play an important role in determining the intra-seasonal timescale networks.

Arizmendi, F.; Martí, A. C.; Barreiro, M.

2014-08-01

 
 
 
 
21

20th Century Accounts of American Citizenship  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Accounts of citizenship by Presidents of the American Political Science Association (APSA are examined through Mannheim’s sociology of knowledge. We use Marshall as a platform to reconceptualise the dynamics of Mannheim’s three incommensurable ‘thought styles’: one liberal; one conservative; and one dialectically social. We suggest on this basis that American political citizenship in the twentieth century entails three incompatible but concurrent ‘thought styles’, that involve a triple helix of political rationalities (see White and Donoghue 2003. The model is tested in a longitudinal study of ‘citizenship and democracy’ in regular social scientific usage. The empirical material comprises the presidential addresses to the American Political Science Association (APSA published in the American Political Science Review (APSR from 1906 to 1997. The findings suggest that the addresses by the presidents of the Political Science Association of America invoke intertwining rationalities that relate twentieth century citizenship to classical political discourses.

Jed Donoghue

2014-04-01

22

The early vs the late 20th century Arctic warming: The role of energy and aerosol fluxes in reanalysis driven datasets  

Science.gov (United States)

During the last two decades, the Arctic was put into the scientific focus as one of the most impacted regions worldwide concerning anthropogenic global warming. However, the warming between 1920 and 1940 proofs the importance of internal variability on yearly and decadal scale. Therefore, it is important to further investigate the role of external and internal forcings on the Arctic climate attribute process and causes leading to changes in the Arctic climate regime (Serreze & Barry 2009). Although much research effort was spent to understand the links and influences of and on the Arctic climate, there is still a need for further insights concerning this topic. Especially the results and discussion about anthropogenic global warming and Arctic amplification put the Arctic into the public and academic focus (Serreze & Barry 2011). However, the early 20th century Arctic warming, although discovered immediately, was scientifically forgotten until recently (Delworth & Knutson 2000, Bengtsson et al 2004, Grant et al 2009, Bekryaev et al 2010). The comparison of this earlier Arctic warming and the recent warming period grants a chance to deepen knowledge about the drivers of Arctic climate and can be used to evaluate the anthropogenic impact. The authors use the Twentieth Century Reanalysis (20CR) dataset and a nudged, reanalysis-driven Aerosol Global Circulation Model (A-GCM) to investigate the impact of atmospheric energy and aerosol fluxes into the Arctic during the 20th century. The 20CR dataset covers the period of 1871 - 2010 with a temporal resolution of 6hr and a spatial resolution of 2° x 2°. For the first time, this dataset (and ist 56 ensemble member) is used to compute the atmospheric energy flux, consisting of sensble heat, latent heat, potential energy and kinetic energy. The values are integrated around 70° N and between 1000 - 100 hPa. Aerosol fluxes for the same domain but for the years 1957 - 2000 are calculated based on the A-GCM nudged to the ECMWF 40 year Re-analysis (ERA) and correlated to circulation patterns. Based on these dataset we analyze timeseries and patterns of several variables, with a focus on the temperature changes in the Arctic domain. We show that the 20CR can recreate recent sensible heat fluxes, meaning from the 1950s onward. Before this timeperiod 20CR exhibits a strong positive energy influx between 1920 and 1930, which is difficult to validate, however probably arises due to missrepresentation of local wind maxima, mostly over the Canadian Arctic. The authors highlight the impact of this flaw by investigating snow cover and atmospheric stability over the Arctic. Finally, the two datasets are compared and exemplary extreme events in aerosol fluxes are analysed in terms of warming impact and the related circulation patterns. Possible implications for the future use of 20CR are discussed, together with the impact of our findings for the interpretation of the early 20th warming in todays context.

Wegmann, Martin; Broennimann, Stefan

2014-05-01

23

Manuscripts and Broadsheets. Narrative Genres and the Communication Circuit among Working-Class Youth in early 20th-Century Finland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article the hazy boundary between folklore and literature, orality and literacy is explored in relation to the individual and the community. How do people who belong to the first generation of active writers in their family and community express their own experiences through fictional narratives and the literary tradition? This question is explored in relation to the working-class youth in the small industrial community of Karkkila (Högforsin southern Finland. The most important research materials are the editions of hand-written newspapers written by these young people from 1914 to 1925.My theoretical background is derived from both folklore studies and book history. Inspired by the research of Robert Darnton, I have outlined the communication circuit of the working-class youth during the early 20th century, discussing the position of the manuscript tradition (hand-written newspapers, ballad books, minutes in relation to the printed texts(books, newspapers, broadsheets and the oral tradition. In my article I focus on the narratives of love in the manuscripts written by the working-class youth. How do they work with the ideas and narrative genres and themes adopted from the printed media and the oral tradition? I outline fictionalization of personal experiences and localization of fictional, printed texts as two basic narrative strategies utilized in these processes.

Kirsti Salmi-Niklander

2006-01-01

24

Rational Number Theory in the 20th Century  

CERN Document Server

The last one hundred years have seen many important achievements in the classical part of number theory. After the proof of the Prime Number Theorem in 1896, a quick development of analytical tools led to the invention of various new methods, like Brun's sieve method and the circle method of Hardy, Littlewood and Ramanujan; developments in topics such as prime and additive number theory, and the solution of Fermat's problem. "Rational Number Theory in the 20th Century: From PNT to FLT" offers a short survey of 20th century developments in classical number theory, documenting between

Narkiewicz, Wladyslaw

2012-01-01

25

Geodiversity and biodiversity interactions in the sand landscapes of the Netherlands on 19th and early 20th century landscape paintings  

Science.gov (United States)

Sand landscapes occupy about half of the territory of the Netherlands. Apart from an insignificant amount of Tertiary deposits, these sands are of Pleistocene and Holocene age. They include Saalian push moraines, Weichselian cover sands and Holocene drift sands. To these geological landscapes, cultural variants should be added such as the essen, i.e. a landscape with plaggen soils, and reclaimed lands (e.g. former moors). Not included are the coastal sands, which we dealt with in an earlier EGU contribution (van den Ancker & Jungerius 2012). Nature and man created a wide variety of sceneries that inspired painters in the 19th and early 20th century (Jungerius et al. 2012). Painter communities on the sandy soils flourished in Oosterbeek/Wolfheze, Laren/Blaricum, Nijkerk, Nunspeet/Elspeet, Hattem and Heeze. Many of the landscape paintings are found in the database of Simonis en Buunk that can be freely consulted on line (http//www.simonis&buunk.com). For this presentation we selected specimens that show geodiversity-biodiversity relationships, some of which have changed since. Painters of push moraines were attracted by the rolling terrain, the dry valleys and occasionally the colourful podzol soil profiles. Popular themes in the cover sands were the undulating relief and heathlands with herds of sheep, sandy footpaths and country roads with erosion phenomena. The dynamics of erosion captivated the painters of Holocene drift sand scenery, as did the bare fields of cultivated lands. Their paintings show the rural areas that since the beginning of the 20th century lost their traditional charm in large-scale re-allotment schemes and artificial nature-building project, that changed geodiversity-biodiversity relationships. Changes in the sandy terrains that can be inferred from the paintings are on a landscape scale, the scale of the landform and vegetation type, and are illustrated by changes in colour, pattern, structure and texture. Examples are: · active drift sands with erosional phenomena, most vanished as a result of afforestation and eutrophic precipitation; · wetland heath habitats, that largely disappeared due to reclamation and regional lowering of the groundwater table; · grazing of herded sheep of local breed on geo-structured heathlands, that is recently re-introduced for nature mangement purposes; · smaller agricultural plots on undulating 'essen' with crops such as buckwheat and wheat, now replaced by level terrain and maize monocultures; · monumental old trees on the oldest landscape paintings, often on river banks, are notably absent on later paintings. References Jungerius P, van den Ancker H, Wevers N 2012. The contribution of Dutch landscape painters to the conservation of geoheritage. Geology Today 28,3. Hanneke van den Ancker & Pieter Dirk Jungerius, 2012. Landscape paintings, a tool for research, planning and management of the coastal zone. Presentation General Assembly European Geosciences Union EGU - SSS, Vienna.

Jungerius, Pieter; van den Ancker, Hanneke

2014-05-01

26

Great solid state physicists of the 20th century  

CERN Document Server

The 20th Century has been called the Century of Physics. It could be even more appropriate to call it the Century of Solid State Physics . All the technological developments which had changed the world by the end of the century had been based upon previous scientific developments in Solid State Physics. The Braggs, Debye, Bardeen, Landau were certainly at the forefront of all those revolutionary changes. Contents: The Braggs; Peter Debye; John Bardeen; Lev Davidovich Landau; The Relevance of Materials Science. Readership: Final-year undergraduates, graduate students, teachers, researchers work

Aragó López, Carmen

2003-01-01

27

Effects of aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated early life stage toxicity on lake trout populations in Lake Ontario during the 20th century.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lake trout embryos and sac fry are very sensitive to toxicity associated with maternal exposures to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and structurally related chemicals that act through a common aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)-mediated mechanism of action. The loading of large amounts of these chemicals into Lake Ontario during the middle of the 20th century coincided with a population decline that culminated in extirpation of this species around 1960. Prediction of past TCDD toxicity equivalence concentrations in lake trout eggs (TEC(egg)s) relative to recent conditions required fine resolution of radionuclide-dated contaminant profiles in two sediment cores; reference core specific biota--sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) for TCDD-like chemicals in lake trout eggs; adjustment of the BSAFs for the effect of temporal changes in the chemical distributions between water and sediments; and toxicity equivalence factors based on trout early life stage mortality. When compared to the dose-response relationship for overt early life stage toxicity of TCDD to lake trout, the resulting TEC(egg)s predict an extended period during which lake trout sac fry survival was negligible. By 1940, following more than a decade of population decline attributable to reduced fry stocking and loss of adult lake trout to commercial fishing, the predicted sac fry mortality due to AHR-mediated toxicity alone explains the subsequent loss of the species. Reduced fry survival, associated with lethal and sublethal adverse effects and possibly complicated by other environmental factors, occurred after 1980 and contributed to a lack of reproductive success of stocked trout despite gradually declining TEC(egg)s. Present exposures are close to the most probable no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL TECegg = 5 pg TCDD toxicity equivalence/g egg). The toxicity predictions are very consistent with the available historical data for lake trout population levels in Lake Ontario, stocking programs, and evidence for recent improvement in natural reproduction concomitant with declining levels of persistent bioaccumulative chemicals in sediments and biota. PMID:12967107

Cook, Philip M; Robbins, John A; Endicott, Douglas D; Lodge, Keith B; Guiney, Patrick D; Walker, Mary K; Zabel, Erik W; Peterson, Richard E

2003-09-01

28

United States Contributions to Children's Rights: An Overview of the 20th Century.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reviews the contributions of the United States to the promotion of children's rights. In the 19th century, the United States created public schools to supplement family education. Societies to protect children were also established. Early in the 20th century, the government began a series of White House Conferences on Children and…

Lascarides, V. Celia

29

Nuclear tracks: A success story of the 20th century  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Starting with the observation of a few feeble trails of damage in a sheet of mica exposed to fission fragments some 40 years ago, the discipline based on their correct interpretation has emblazoned a resounding success story in the second half of the 20th century. The spectrum of information revealed by the technique extends from delineating the history of the cosmos over billions of years to observing exotic decays lasting from a minute to a fraction of a second. More, directly useful researches have included medical and biological uses as well as industrial applications. A topic of great current interest is the study of the environmental and health effects of the naturally occurring radon gas. These and other highlights of the track work over the past 40 odd years of the 20th century - with some tentative glimpses of things to come in the 21st - are presented and examined in this review paper

30

Nursing Transitions in Portugal. Second half of 20TH century  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aim of the Study: to contextualize nursing transitions in the second half of the 20th century, in the dimensions: context, curricula and actors. Purpose: As far as nursing education is concerned, in the Portuguese case for many years we can not talk about the existence of a discipline of nursing. The construction of the discipline seems to have happened between the process of the nurses’ professionalization and the social construction of the curriculum, essentially since the 50’s of...

Amendoeira, Jose?

2010-01-01

31

No limits : the 20th century discourse of economic growth  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The breakthrough of the concept of economic growth in economics marks a paradigm shift in thinking about the economy and its place in 'reality.' This thesis analyzes the 20th century discourse of economic growth, focusing its unlimited connotations. The thesis consists of four case studies, two introductory parts and a concluding dis­cussion. Part II first gives an etymological outline of how the concept 'growth' transformed: from signifying natural processes, to become crucial within econom...

Friman, Eva

2002-01-01

32

Mathematical and conceptual foundations of 20th-century physics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This volume presents a unified mathematical account of the conceptual foundations of 20th-century Physics. Part 1 provides a survey of classical physics divided in separate chapters on mechanics, thermodynamics and statistical mechanics, and electromagnetism. This study provides opportunities to place in perspective the successive advents of calculus, of probability and statistics, of differential and sympletic geometry, and of classical functional analysis. Relativity is presented in part 2 of this book and quantum theory in part 3. The motivation provided by physical problems in the development of mathematical disciplines such as, for instance, pseudo-Riemannian geometries, Hilbert spaces and operator algebras, are emphasized. (H.W.). refs.; figs.; schemes

33

Modern Medicine Environment and Adaptation of Korean Trader for Medicinal Herbs From the Late 19th Century to the Early 20th Century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since the late 18th century, the Korean traditional medicine trade witnessed a steady growth. There were lots of stores which sold Korean medicinal herbs in Seoul and every major towns had at least one or more stores in Korea, which led to a subsequent growth of people involved in the trade. However, Korean medicine merchants encountered a new environment with the influx of western medicines after the Opening of Ports and the execution of modern medicine policies. Such change of atmosphere led the merchants to seek new breakthroughs. Some of the merchants found the answer in producing and selling patent medicine. The people in the industry had little knowledge of western medicine, so that they had little choice but to combine their experience of Korean medicine with whatever information they had about western counterpart. Such resolution generated a new kind of medicine known as patent medicine. Patent medicine businessmen observed the new medicine policies of the Korean Empire. Some visionary ones even sought to eagerly utilize the trademark system to secure the selling route. The Japanese colonial government strengthened the medicine policies. It revised the legislature and mobilized administrative powers to manage and control the industry. However, such colonial policies in the 1910s implicated certain limits due to its lack of understanding of Korean medicine industry. Also, the colonial government showed poor efforts in introducing modern medicine facilities and systems, so that the ground was set for the patent medicine business to flourish. Patent medicine enjoyed a high turnover. So, the entrepreneurs endeavored to promote the sales in whatever means necessary. The most basic form of advertisement was through the newspaper. Indirect promotion through newspaper articles, issuing medicine flyers, free gift draw, reputation of an influential expert were widely used for its sales. Consequently, patent medicine industry in the 1910s saw a healthy prosperity. One example of such golden days was the case of Hwapyungdangyakbabg(one of the biggest patent medicine companies, which won a third place along with Kyungsungbangjik, which was the top Korean company at that time, in the advertisement design contest hosted by the classified department of Dong-a Daily in 1926. But actually, a few Japanese medicine merchants led the industry. So prosperity of Korean medicine merchant had its limits.

YANG Jeongpil

2006-12-01

34

The Risorgimento in 20th century Italian political discourse  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this paper is to understand both continuities and changes in the reference to the Risorgimento in 20th century political discourse. The narrative proceeds by analyzing historical “snapshots,” from the Liberal period to post-Cold War Italy, that allows us to spell out what has changed and what has remained constant in the memorization and actualization of the Risorgimento in the 20th century political discourse. We single out historical events, public rituals and public discourses unfolding in the context of symbolic years and anniversaries of the nation like 1911, 1932, and 1961 where the nexus between the Risorgimento past and the political present came to the fore with particular emphasis. In the contextual discussion of these memorization events, we discuss intellectual elaborations of Risorgimento memorization and indicate how such elaborations spread to wider layers of the populace. In the final section, we bring the analysis up to date by briefly discussing more current interpretations and evocations of the Risorgimento, with a focus on the highly symbolic Presidency of Carlo Azeglio Ciampi (1999-2006).

Thomassen, BjØrn; Forlenza, Rosario

35

ENTRE LO TRADICIONAL Y LO MODERNO BOGOTÁ A COMIENZOS DEL SIGLO XX / Between traditional and modern. Bogotá, in the early 20th century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El documento expone los procesos de transformación de Bogotá en las primeras tres décadas del siglo XX, centrando la mirada en tres factores específicos. 1) Las adecuaciones urbanísticas: servicios públicos; construcción de barrios para las élites y desarrollo de los denominados "barrios obreros". C [...] ivilización, modernización vs. tradición es lo que allí se establece como contradicción. 2) El desarrollo de la administración pública bogotana y los modos en que asume la modernización de la ciudad. 3) Los modos en que los habitantes de la ciudad comenzaban a sentir las experiencias de vida urbana a partir de la configuración de nuevos escenarios públicos, como parques, plazas, cine, entre otros. Finalmente, se presentan algunas conclusiones centradas en las tensiones entre tradición y modernidad para dar cuenta de un momento en el que se produce y se siente el tránsito entre la vida de pueblo y los elementos de ciudad. Abstract in english This document portrays the process of material and cultural transformation of Bogotá (Colombia) during the first three decades of 20th century from three points of view. First, the urban modifications: public services, development of elites and poor neighborhoods. The categories Civilization versus [...] Tradition are used to establish the central contradiction. Second, the development of public administration of de city and how is understood the modernization of the Bogotá by that public administration. Third, how the urban people started to feel the new experiences about the urban life from the configurations of new public scenarios such as parks, squares, cinemas, etc. Finally, this document offers some conclusions centered in the tensions between tradition and modernity with the purpose to depict the circumstances how the people in Bogotá started to feel the transition from the dynamic of a small town life to the city life.

Jorge Orlando, Blanco Suárez; Giovanny Francesco, Salcedo Cruz.

2012-07-15

36

A Look at Aircraft Accident Analysis in the Early Days: Do Early 20th Century Accident Investigation Techniques Have Any Lessons for Today?  

Science.gov (United States)

In the early years of powered flight, the National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics in the United States produced three reports describing a method of analysis of aircraft accidents. The first report was published in 1928; the second, which was a revision of the first, was published in 1930; and the third, which was a revision and update of the second, was published in 1936. This paper describes the contents of these reports, and compares the method of analysis proposed therein to the methods used today.

Holloway, C. M.; Johnson, C. W.

2007-01-01

37

Everglades Plant Community Response to 20th Century Hydrologic Changes  

Science.gov (United States)

Pollen records in sediment cores from sites in the historic Everglades allowed us to document the natural variability of the ecosystem over the past 2,000 years and contrast it to 20th century changes in wetland plant communities. The natural system included extensive water-lily sloughs, sawgrass ridges, and scattered tree islands extending from Lake Okeechobee southward through Shark River Slough. Between ~1000 AD and 1200 AD, weedy species such as Amaranthus (water hemp) became more abundant, indicating decreased annual rainfall, shorter hydroperiods, and shallower water depths during this time. After ~1200 AD, vegetation returned to its pre-1000 AD composition. During the 20th century, two phases of hydrologic alteration occurred. Completed by 1930, the first phase included construction of the Hoover Dike, canals linking Lake Okeechobee to the Atlantic Ocean, and the Tamiami Trail. Reconstructions of plant communities indicate that these changes shortened hydroperiods and lowered water depths throughout the Everglades. The extent of water-lily slough communities decreased, and tree islands became larger in Shark River Slough. The second phase resulted from construction of canals and levees in the 1950s, creating three Water Conservation Areas. The response of plant communities to these changes varied widely depending on location in the Everglades. In Loxahatchee NWR, weedy and short-hydroperiod plant species became more abundant in marshes, and species composition of tree islands changed. In Water Conservation Area 2A, cattail replaced sawgrass in marshes with high nutrient influx; the ridge and slough structure of the marshes was replaced by more homogeneous sawgrass marshes; sustained high water levels for more than a decade resulted in loss of tree islands that had existed for more than 1,000 years. In Everglades National Park, the extent of slough vegetation decreased further. Near Florida Bay, the rate of mangrove intrusion into fresh-water marshes accelerated due to increased diversion of fresh water from the southernmost Everglades. Our reconstruction of pre-1930s vegetational distribution provides a scenario that may be a harbinger of Everglades vegetational response to decompartmentalization of the system as levees and canals are removed and restoration of a more natural (deeper water, rain-driven seasonality) hydrologic regime. Drowned tree islands provide the one exception; they were destroyed by a hydrologic regime that does not occur naturally, and it is unclear whether their recovery is possible.

Willard, D. A.; Bernhardt, C. E.; Holmes, C. W.; Weimer, L. M.

2002-05-01

38

The Top Ten Astronomical 'breakthroughs' of the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Astronomy was revolutionized in the 20th century. The electron was discovered in 1897 and this transformed spectroscopy and introduced plasma and magnetohydrodynamic physics and astro-chemistry. Einstein’s E = mc2, solved the problem of stellar energy generation and spawned the study of elemental nuclear synthesis. Large telescopes led to a boom in astronomical spectroscopic and photometric data collection, leading to such cornerstones as the Hertzprung-Russell diagram and the mass-luminosity relationship, and to the realization that the Universe contained a multitude of galaxies and was expanding. Radio astronomy was introduced and the advent of the space age saw the astronomical wavelength range expand into the ultraviolet, X-ray and gamma-ray regions, as well as the infrared and millimetre. We also startedwandering around roaming the Solar System instead of merely glimpsing its members from the bottom of our warm, turbulent atmosphere. Astronomical “breakthroughs” abounded. We have asked astronomers to select their “top ten” and these are listed and discussed in this paper.

Hughes, D. W.

2007-10-01

39

The Enigma of 20th century sea level change  

Science.gov (United States)

Sea level has been constant at near-present levels from ~5500 calendar years BP to the end of the Little Ice Age at ~1860 AD. Since ~1900, tide gauge measurements indicate that it has risen steadily at ~2 mm/yr by about 18 cm. The comparative stability of sealevel from 5500 cal yr BP to 1860 AD is robust, being suggested by near-shore Mediterranean archeological sites, the few sea level records that extend back to 1700 AD, and the impossibility of projecting the current sea level rise of ~2 mm/y back 5000 years (it would produce a global 10 m inundation, which is not observed) (Douglas et al., 2001, Academic Press). The post 1870 sea level rise is not due to heating of the upper ocean (Liviticus et al., 2000, Science). Munk (2002, PNAS) characterized it as an "enigma", dismissing an upper ocean steric sea level explanation as "too little" (~3 cm), "too late" (the rise started in 1860), and "too linear" (not accelerating with the accelerating CO2 increase). GRACE gravity measurements show a near zero change in ocean mass. Cazenave et al. (2009, Global and Planetary Change) indicate a slight decrease in ocean mass between 2003 and 2008. The rate of meltwater mass being added to the oceans essentially equals the GIA correction (Chambers et al., 2010, JGR). Different GIA models give ocean mass increase ranging from 0.5 to 2 mm/y of equivalent sea level rise. Our GIA model suggests no ocean mass increases (~0 mm/y of equivalent sea level rise). In this talk I show that the heating of a two layer ocean model driven by the temperature changes that have occurred over the last 1000 years since the peak of the Medieval Warm Period produces a ~2mm/yr linear sea level rise over the last 100 years with much smaller preceding sea level changes. Ocean mass could be unchanging over the last century as well as the last ~5000 years. This result is compatible with GRACE measurements and eclipse data constraints, predictions of our GIA model, and it resolves the enigma the 20th Century sea level change noted by Munk.

Cathles, Larry

2014-05-01

40

Global physical water scarcity trajectories for the 20th century  

Science.gov (United States)

Food security and the overall wellbeing of human kind are threatened by overexploitation of our freshwater resources. Water scarcity is not only a threat to people, but also to many of the planet's key ecosystems. Due to increasing population pressure, changing water consumption behaviour, and climate change, the threat is projected to become even worse in the future. Water can be physically scarce in two ways: population-driven water shortage occurs in areas where a large population has to depend on a limited resources (indicated by m3/capita/yr), while demand-driven water stress is related to the excessive use of otherwise sufficient water resources (indicated by demand/supply ratio). Although many studies have increased our understanding of current water scarcity and how this may increase in the future, the understanding of trajectories with the past development of the water scarcity is less well understood. To date, studies of past water resources have focused on either water shortage or water stress. We aim to calculate global water scarcity, both water stress and water shortage, for the period 1900-2005. We can thus provide, for the first time, continuous regional trends and local analyses of trajectories of water scarcity for the entire 20th century. By including both dimensions of water scarcity, we can increase the understanding of reasons behind the scarcity. We found that in year 1900 13% of the population (i.e. 0.22 billion people) was living in areas that suffer some kind of water scarcity (0.2), while in year 2005 this percentage has increased to 57% (3.80 billion). Especially the population suffering from both high water stress (ratio >0.4) and high water shortage (Africa mainly suffers from water shortage. We used WaterGAP model to simulate the water use and available water resources. WaterGAP was forced with WATCH data. For the past population, we used HYDE dataset. The water scarcity results are plotted in Falkenmark's water scarcity matrix, which combines water stress and water shortage, to illustrate trajectories of how water scarcity develops for different regions. Insights into these trajectories can help to understand possible measures to alleviate water scarcity for different regions and support macro-scale analysis and planning to tackle with the future challenges in terms of water scarcity.

Kummu, Matti; de Moel, Hans; Eisner, Stefanie; Flörke, Martina; Siebert, Stefan; Varis, Olli

2014-05-01

 
 
 
 
41

The dawning of the theory of equilibrium figures: a brief historical account from the 17th through the 20th century  

CERN Document Server

A brief but complete historical survey of the theory of equilibrium figures from its early origins, dating back to 17th-century, until the late 20th-century developments, with a view towards its applications, is carried out.

Iurato, Giuseppe

2014-01-01

42

Perspectives and challenges from the 20th century.  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT The magnitude of change in our understanding of tree diseases during the past century is almost incomprehensible. This does not mean to imply that we know everything, but the science of forest pathology has come a long way in the past 100 years. This remarkable progress was driven by three events: (i) an investment in the early 1900s in federal and state experiment stations, which established the need for, and benefits of, research in tree diseases; (ii) veterans acquiring an education under the GI Bill, which created a pool of forest pathologists and students eager to solve the devastation caused by diseases such as chestnut blight, white pine blister rust, Dutch elm disease, and oak wilt; and (iii) the McIntire-Stennis Cooperative Forestry Program, which established a strategy for the federal government to assist the financing of forestry research in the universities. Although all three of these events are being drastically modified by a discontented tax-paying public, the threats of changing land use patterns, population pressures, and exotic pests on fragile forested ecosystems will certainly force a renaissance in our field that will dwarf progress of the past century and help assure an acceptable quality of life in the new century. The magnitude of what forest pathologists will accomplish, to a great extent, depends on what the public is willing to pay for. PMID:18943877

Tainter, F H

2003-08-01

43

Simulation of Daily Soil Moisture Content and Reconstruction of Drought Events from the Early 20th Century in Seoul, Korea, using a Hydrological Simulation Model, BROOK  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To understand day-to-day fluctuations in soil moisture content in Seoul, I simulated daily soil moisturecontent from 1908 to 2009 using long-term climatic precipitation and temperature data collected at the Surface SynopticMeteorological Station in Seoul for the last 98 years with a hydrological simulation model, BROOK. The output data setfrom the BROOK model allowed me to examine day-to-day fluctuations and the severity and duration of droughts in theSeoul area. Although the soil moisture content is highly dependent on the occurrence of precipitation, the pattern ofchanges in daily soil moisture content was clearly quite different from that of precipitation. Generally, there were severalphases in the dynamics of daily soil moisture content. The period from mid-May to late June can be categorized as theinitial period of decreasing soil moisture content. With the initiation of the monsoon season in late June, soil moisturecontent sharply increases until mid-July. From the termination of the rainy season in mid-July, daily soil moisture contentdecreases again. Highly stochastic events of typhoons from late June to October bring large amount of rain to the Koreanpeninsula, culminating in late August, and increase the soil moisture content again from late August to early September.From early September until early October, another sharp decrease in soil moisture content was observed. The periodfrom early October to mid-May of the next year can be categorized as a recharging period when soil moisture contentshows an increasing trend. It is interesting to note that no statistically significant increase in mean annual soil moisturecontent in Seoul, Korea was observed over the last 98 years. By simulating daily soil moisture content, I was also able toreconstruct drought phenomena to understand the severity and duration of droughts in Seoul area. During the periodfrom 1908 to 2009, droughts in the years 1913, 1979, 1939, and 2006 were categorized as ‘severe’ and those in 1988and 1982 were categorized as ‘extreme’. This information provides ecologists with further potential to interpret naturalphenomenon, including tree growth and the decline of tree species in Korea.

Eun-Shik Kim

2010-03-01

44

Spatial and temporal patterns of global burned area in response to anthropogenic and environmental factors: Reconstructing global fire history for the 20th and early 21st centuries  

Science.gov (United States)

is a critical component of the Earth system, and substantially influences land surface, climate change, and ecosystem dynamics. To accurately predict the fire regimes in the 21st century, it is essential to understand the historical fire patterns and recognize the interaction among fire, human, and environment factors. Until now, few efforts are put on the studies regarding to the long-term fire reconstruction and the attribution analysis of anthropogenic and environmental factors to fire regimes at global scale. To fill this knowledge gap, we developed a 0.5° × 0.5° data set of global burned area from 1901 to 2007 by coupling Global Fire Emission Database version 3 with a process-based fire model and conducted factorial simulation experiments to evaluate the impacts of human, climate, and atmospheric components. The average global burned area is ~442 × 104 km2 yr-1 during 1901-2007 and our results suggest a notable declining rate of burned area globally (1.28 × 104 km2 yr-1). Burned area in tropics and extratropics exhibited a significant declining trend, with no significant trend detected at high latitudes. Factorial experiments indicated that human activities were the dominant factor in determining the declining trend of burned area in tropics and extratropics, and climate variation was the primary factor controlling the decadal variation of burned area at high latitudes. Elevated CO2 and nitrogen deposition enhanced burned area in tropics and southern extratropics but suppressed fire occurrence at high latitudes. Rising temperature and frequent droughts are becoming increasingly important and expected to increase wildfire activity in many regions of the world.

Yang, Jia; Tian, Hanqin; Tao, Bo; Ren, Wei; Kush, John; Liu, Yongqiang; Wang, Yuhang

2014-03-01

45

Adult lipids associated with early life growth in traditional Melanesian societies undergoing rapid modernization: a longitudinal study of the mid-20th century.  

Science.gov (United States)

Both poor fetal development and accelerated post-natal growth have been linked to adult dyslipidemias in many studies conducted in developed societies. It is not known, however, whether these relationships only characterize populations with typical Western diets or if they also may develop in groups at the early stages of a dietary transition. Our longitudinal study of traditional rural populations in the Southwest Pacific during a period of extremely rapid modernization in diet and life-styles shows a nascent association between child growth retardation, subsequent growth acceleration, and adult lipid values in spite of a continuing prevalence of very low lipid levels. However, our results do not entirely conform to results from populations with "modern" diets. Outcome (i.e., young adult) cholesterol and triglyceride levels are more consistently related to initial measures of body fat and growth in body fat measures than with stature, while outcome apo A-1 is more consistently related to initial stature or stature growth than to measures of body fat. We suggest this may reflect a pattern characteristic of the initial stages of "modernization" associated with dietary change, with stronger and more pervasive relationships emerging only later as populations complete the dietary transition. PMID:24382639

Weitz, Charles A; Friedlaender, Françoise Y; Friedlaender, Jonathan S

2014-04-01

46

Cultura política e políticas para o ensino de história em Santa Catarina no início do século XX / Political culture and history teaching policies in early 20th-century Santa Catarina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O artigo apresenta análises das relações estabelecidas entre a produção historiográfica e a produção de uma história de Santa Catarina para o uso escolar, no início do século XX. A cultura política republicana era construída e se legitimava como parte de um fenômeno que precisava formular respostas [...] à sociedade sobre variados problemas 'herdados do Império' que impediam o progresso do Brasil. No caso dos catarinenses, era preciso enfrentar o desafio de uma educação cívico-patriótica num território em que o sistema escolar, precário, ainda lidava com o problema da língua, posto que em muitas escolas falava-se alemão ou italiano, por exemplo. Estas questões são problematizadas por meio da análise da produção sobre a história de Santa Catarina pelo Instituto Histórico e Geográfico Catarinense (criado em 1896), de manuais didáticos que circularam nesse período, programas e relatórios de ensino. O objetivo é contribuir para o estudo das relações entre ensino de História e cultura política, buscando compreender como o ensino de História participou, naquele período, de projeções simbólicas sobre o futuro do Brasil, a partir de leituras compartilhadas de seu passado. Abstract in english This article analyzes the relations weaved between historiographic production and the production of a history of Santa Catarina for school use in the early 20th century. Republican political culture was constructed and legitimated as part of a phenomenon which needed to formulate answers for society [...] regarding several 'Empire-inherited' issues holding back progress in Brazilian. In the case of Santa Catarina, one of the issues faced was the challenge of patriotic education in a territory where the precarious school system also had to deal with the issue of language, since in several schools the language spoken was German or Italian. These issues are analyzed through the production of the history of Santa Catarina history, consisting of the didactic material published at that time, such as teaching programs and reports, by the Instituto Histórico e Geográfico Catarinense (created in 1896). The objective is to contribute to discussions about the relation between history teaching and political culture, in the sense of understanding the ways in which the teaching of history participated, in the early 20th century, in symbolic projections of the future of Brazil through shared readings of their past.

Cristiani Bereta da, Silva; Ernesta, Zamboni.

47

History reconstruction: Third century parallels to 20th century South African Church 'History Origen Adamantinus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available History reconstruction: Third century parallels to 20th century South African Church History - Origen Adamantinus. In this paper a possible third century contribution to Church History reconstruction is considered. This is employed as an example for South African church historians who are dedicated to history interpretation, whether it be from the perspective of: acceptance on face value; justification; verification; criticism or renunciation of twentieth century historical events and the WG'S in which they have influenced the prophetic task of the church in South Africa. To this end, a parallel is drawn between third century Origen and a few South African church figures from the twentieth century, which will highlight the church's continuing prophetic ministry.

P.J. Maritz

1997-07-01

48

Changes in ranges of hoverflies in the Netherlands in the 20th century (Diptera: Syrphidae)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Changes in ranges of hoverflies in the Netherlands in the 20th century (Diptera: Syrphidae) In July 2001 the database of the Netherlands Syrphidae Recording Scheme contained approximately 200 000 records of Syrphidae. This database was used to examine changes in the hoverfly fauna of the Netherlands during the 20th century. The dataset was divided into two parts, before and since 1988, containing equal numbers of records. This revealed that there is a significant increase in the distribut...

Reemer, M.; Smit, J. T.; Steenis, W.

2003-01-01

49

???????????? ?? ??????? ??????? ? ????????????? ????? ?? 20 ??? : The theology of the Divine energies in 20th century Orthodox thought  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The dissertation was part of an individual doctoral research program as an external scholar in the Faculty of Theology at Sofia University, Bulgaria. It suggests a comprehensive study of the concept of energy in Orthodox theology and physics. It consists of a historical, dogmatic and empirical component. The first chapter discusses the re-emergence of the distinction between Divine essence and energies in Orthodox theology by focusing on the sophiological controversy in the first half of 20th century with a specific emphasis on the theology of Fr. Georges Florovsky and Fr. Sergius Bulgakov. The analysis points out the role of Fr. G. Florovsky for the rediscovery of the teaching on the Divine essence and energies as one of his key theological contributions by focusing on some of his letters to Bulgakov that were written as early as 1925 and on his work Creature and creaturehood (1927). The analysis suggests that these early works have determined the main direction of Orthodox theological reflection in the 20thcentury. Chapter II of the dissertation focuses on a comparative analysis of the theological insights of three key Orthodox theologians: Metropolitan John Zizioulas (1931 ?), Fr. Dumitru Staniloae (1903 ? 1993) and Fr. John Romanides (1927?2001). Metropolitan John Zizioulas is a Greek theologian who is currently the main theological representative of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, New Rome. Fr. D. Staniloae is a Romanian theologian who provided one of the most comprehensive theological syntheses in the 20th century. Fr. Romanides is a Greek-born American theologian who returned to Greece and became one of the main drivers of the renewal of Greek Orthodox theology in the 20th century. These three theologians have significantly contributed to Orthodox theology in the 20th century and have addressed the teaching on the Divine energies in different ways. Fr. D. Staniloae and Fr. John Romanides included the teaching on the Divine energies as an integral part of their theological systems. Metr. John Zizioulas adopted a different approach trying to demonstrate that the teaching on the Divine energies is not essential in Orthodox theology. The dissertation suggests a comparative analysis of the three theologians to show that neglecting the teaching on the energies leads to a narrower understanding of both spiritual life and the Church. Chapter III provides a parallel study of the term energy in Orthodox theology and physics. Its intention is to build on existing works and established knowledge to provide a basis for the development of an interdisciplinary analytical framework in contribution to the ongoing contemporary dialogue between science and theology. The Chapter starts with a discussion of the methodological grounds for the parallel exploration of the concept of energy in Orthodox theology and physics by focusing on the ‘analogical isomorphism’ approach. Afterwards it provides a more detailed articulation of the ways the concept of energy is used in physics and Orthodox theology by concentrating on the history, content and major issues related to two debates, the first one, between two monks - Barlaam the Calabrian and St Gregory Palamas - in 14th century Byzantium, and, the second, between two great physicists - Niels Bohr and Albert Einstein - in the 20th century. The qualitative comparative analysis approach was found to be particularly fruitful. It builds on insights from Eastern Christian (Byzantine) theology, philosophy of science and philosophy of religion to suggest an analysis of the way of using language in theology and quantum mechanics. The Chapter concludes by summarizing the observations emerging from the analysis and a number of conclusions related to their potential value for the science-theology dialogue.

Tanev, Stoyan

2012-01-01

50

The Metaphysical Structure of Education in the 20th Century.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lists presuppositions or assumptions that have been fundamental to educational thought in this century. Explores the "metaphysics of education" through a historical comparison and contrast of Eastern and Western educational thought and development. Discusses universal schooling as necessary for economic success and industrialization in the…

Winchester, Ian

1999-01-01

51

New Testament Studies in the 20th Century  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Considered diachronically, NT studies in the twentieth century is a story of vigorous scholarship. Especially after World War II, there is increasing diversification in approach and in the makeup of scholars, with a noticeable shift of centre to English-speaking settings (especially North America), and greater involvement of Roman Catholic, Evangelical, and Jewish scholars, a growing prominence of women, and a proliferation of approaches.

Hurtado, Larry W.

2009-01-01

52

The impact of new media on 20th century astronomy  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper offers a few comments on the impact and changing sociology of astronomy information handling over the past century (especially its last third), drifting from individual measurements or records to catalogues and data centres, and moving recently from information hubs to distributed digital research facilities including the current projects of so-called `virtual observatories'. After an introductory part and some notes on personal experience, the paper discusses data centres, methodologies, electronic publishing, as well problems and challenges inherited from the new media: fragility, security and ethics, not to forget the most important one, quality.

Heck, A.

2002-07-01

53

Radiation legacy of the 20th century: Environmental restoration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a result of events in the twentieth century, mainly related to the development of nuclear energy, mankind has been forced to deal with the restoration of the environments which contain radioactive residues. The International Conference RADLEG-200 was particularly focused on the radioactive legacy of the countries of the former Soviet Union and eastern Europe. By means of reviews and case studies the conference assessed the overall situation with respect to the contaminated sites and sources of potential environmental contamination and evaluated the achievements of rehabilitation and remediation programmes as well as identifying future needs in this field. The Conference was attended by 266 participants from 16 countries and 6 international organizations with 49 papers presented orally and 64 presented as posters. This publication contains the 49 orally presented papers, each of them was indexed separately

54

Pyrometallurgy near the end of the 20th century  

Science.gov (United States)

The second part of this century has seen great developments with a variety of new technologies, such as telecommunications, computers, and space travel. However, an age-old technology, the use of fire to make metals, also developed dramatically during this period—pyrometallurgy was used to produce more metal than the cumulative production of the millennia before it. The following discusses the extraordinary developments in flash-and bath-smelting technologies; the article also examines the issues that will drive the prospects of pyrometallurgy for the future. Currently, metal markets are on "easy street": metal profits are low, and government and industry in the United States have little interest in metals extraction research and development. This article discusses factors that may change this situation in the near future.

Themelis, Nickolas J.

1994-08-01

55

Blackness and Whiteness as Historical Forces in the 20th Century United States  

Science.gov (United States)

At the core of the epistemology of black identity in the 20th century United States is the assertion that freedom is a human right, not a privilege to be earned. By the late 19th century, an ideology of racial uplift had emerged that revolved around four concepts--compassion, service, education, and a commitment to social and economic justice for…

Greason, Walter

2009-01-01

56

[Sexuality and medicine: the 20th-century sexual revolution].  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper discusses the role of medicine, ranging from the normative and technological control of women's sexuality ad reproductive process (childbirth, breastfeeding, contraception, and treatment of infertility) through the construction of a new (biological and social) reproductive model, based on a radical change of identities, relations, and forms of union between the sexes (a break with the traditional concept of marriage, growth of open unions, serial monogamy, etc.). This model is sustained by a radical distinction between sexuality and reproduction, related to a unique and horizontal model of sexuality (in opposition to the hierarchical 19th-century two-sexes model); the new model focuses mainly on pleasure and moves progressively away from social ties and affection. In addition to the contribution of medicine (notably through assisted reproduction) and sexology (universalization of the orgasm imperative), the paper also discusses the contribution of epidemiology (through AIDS-related research) to the transformation of a moral sexual norm into an abstract and merely statistical standard PMID:12973545

Loyola, Maria Andréa

2003-01-01

57

Distinct causes for two principal U.S. droughts of the 20th century  

Science.gov (United States)

Diagnosis of observational and climate model data reveals that the two major U.S. droughts of the 20th Century had distinct causes. Drought severity over the Southern Plains during 1946-1956 is very likely attributable to remote influences of global sea surface temperatures (SSTs). The Southern Plains and adjacent Southwest are regions particularly sensitive to SST variability, and strong La Niña events that occurred during 1946-1956 exposed that region's drought vulnerability. Drought severity over the Northern Plains during 1932-1939 was likely triggered instead by random atmospheric variability. The Northern Plains lies within a region of comparatively low sensitivity to SST variability, and that region's drought exhibited little sensitivity to SST conditions during the Dust Bowl period. Our results indicate that the southern portions of the Great Plains lie within an epicenter of potentially skillful drought predictions for which an ocean observing system is also a vital drought early warning system.

Hoerling, Martin; Quan, Xiao-Wei; Eischeid, Jon

2009-10-01

58

Pilk ingliskeelse kirjanduse tõlgetele 18. sajandi lõpust 20. sajandi algusveerandini / A Look at Estonian Translations of English Literature from the late 18th Century to the Early 20th Century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this article is to provide an overview of translations of English literature into Estonian between 1779 and 1917. There is an attempt to analyse the texts by describing them on the basis of, or in their departure from, a text or texts that chronologically and logically precede them. The discussion includes the nature of the transfer and the changes that have been made to the text, either because they existed in the source or mediating text or because of the expectations or requirements in the receptor, i.e. Estonian culture. The translated texts are seen in their historical-cultural context. For the analysis, a corpus of translated texts – religious, fiction, drama and non-fiction (published in a book form was compiled. The general orientation of Estonia until the 1880s was to the German cultural sphere. So the first translations of English literature were made via a mediating language, which was German. English Puritan writers were introduced by the Pietist missionaries with the aim of spreading their teachings in the second half of the 18th century. At about the same time the narrative element was introduced into stories with religious content. Some internationally popular stories, e.g. the Inkle and Yarico story, later robinsonades, stories of slavery and plant at ion life, as well as Amer ican Indian st or ies wer e also t r anslat ed fr om Ger man. However, until  1875  ver  y  few  translations  of  English  literature  into  E stonian were  published.  The  last quarter of the 19th century saw an explosion in literary production: there was a substantial increase  both  in  the  number  of  translations  of  English  literature  into  E stonian  as  well  as diversification of genres. This continued into the first decade of the 20th  centur y,  when  the sociopolitical situation in Estonia changed. In addition, books came to be translated directly from  English,  although  many  translations  of  English  literature  were  still  made  via  German and, to a lesser extent, via Russian, Swedish or Finnish. Thus, English literature often reached the Estonian audiences in a mediated form. The selection of authors and books, the structure of the texts and the overall meaning and tone of the texts often depended on the mediating text or culture. However, many changes were made by the translator: explanations of new words and phrases, pronunciations, references to the Estonian reader, etc. Here paratexts are quite important: the titles often explained the content or the purpose of the book and referred to the language from which the book was translated. In the prefaces, translators or publishers explained their aims or connected the book to discussions in society (e.g. the translator of Uncle Tom’s Cabin connected it to anabolitionist argument of slavery as a moral evil; on the other hand, the editor connected it to the Estonian fight for freedom; the translation of The Pathfinder was related to the polemics in the Estonian newspapers over migration. However, in very many cases it was difficult to positively identify the mediating or source language or text and to establish whether it was a translation of English literature.

Krista Mits

2012-06-01

59

What Caused the Significant Increase in Atlantic Ocean Heat Content Since the mid-20th Century?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As the upper layer of the world ocean warms gradually during the 20th century, the inter-ocean heat transport from the Indian to Atlantic basin should be enhanced, and the Atlantic Ocean should therefore gain extra heat due to the increased upper ocean temperature of the inflow via the Agulhas leakage. Consistent with this hypothesis, instrumental records indicate that the Atlantic Ocean has warmed substantially more than any other ocean basin since the mid-20th century. A surface-forced glob...

Lee, Sang-ki; Park, Wonsun; Sebille, Erik; Baringer, Molly O. Neill; Wang, Chunzai; Enfield, David Bruce; Yeager, Steve; Kirtman, Ben P.

2011-01-01

60

Towards a 20th Century History of Relationships between Theatre and Neuroscience  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article considers some preliminary reflections in view of a 20th century theatre-and-neuroscience history. Up to now, the history of the 20th century theatre has been too fragmentary and irregular, missing out on the subterranean links which, either directly or indirectly, bound different experiences. The article aims to put in evidence the recurrent problems of these encounters. The hypothesis of the essay concerns the possibility of gathering and grouping a great part of the relationships between theatre and neuroscience around four trajectories: the physiology of action, the physiology of emotions, ethology, and studies on the spectator’s perception.

Gabriele Sofia

2014-05-01

 
 
 
 
61

Book of extremes why the 21st century isn’t like the 20th century  

CERN Document Server

What makes the 21st century different from the 20th century? This century is the century of extremes -- political, economic, social, and global black-swan events happening with increasing frequency and severity. Book of Extremes is a tour of the current reality as seen through the lens of complexity theory – the only theory capable of explaining why the Arab Spring happened and why it will happen again; why social networks in the virtual world behave like flashmobs in the physical world; why financial bubbles blow up in our faces and will grow and burst again; why the rich get richer and will continue to get richer regardless of governmental policies; why the future of economic wealth and national power lies in comparative advantage and global trade; why natural disasters will continue to get bigger and happen more frequently; and why the Internet – invented by the US -- is headed for a global monopoly controlled by a non-US corporation. It is also about the extreme innovations and heroic innovators yet t...

Lewis, Ted G

2014-01-01

62

A history of leprosy in Iran during the 19th and 20th centuries.  

Science.gov (United States)

From ancient time leprosy has been regarded as a terrifying, stigmatized disease; nevertheless, its cause remained unidentified up to the late 19th century. For centuries numerous leprosy victims worldwide suffered from its morbidity and were socially isolated. The afflicted individuals were segregated because they were considered 'unclean' and had to live in leper colonies, generally under very poor conditions. Physicians believed that leprosy was an incurable, highly contagious, and hereditary disease. In 1873 the Norwegian physician, Gerhard Armauer Hansen (1841-1912), ended the myth of leprosy and discovered its causative agent, known as Mycobacterium leprae. Hansen's discovery was a great triumph in the fight against leprosy. In the 1930's, the first effective antileprosy drug, dapsone, was introduced and in the early 1980's multi-drug therapy was popularized because of high efficacy in resistant cases. Here, we have presented a brief look at the history of leprosy in the world with special focus on the historical account of leprosy in Iran, particularly during the 19th and 20th centuries. PMID:22039850

Azizi, Mohammad Hossein; Bahadori, Moslem

2011-11-01

63

Serbian schools and teaching of Serbian language in Greece in the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The topic of this work is Serbian schools and the teaching of Serbian language in Greece in the 20th century. During the first half of the 20th century the existence of Serbian people in Turkey (later in Greece was acknowledged through school and church. Thanks to the Serbian schools, Serbs as an invisible minority became a visible one. In the second half of the 20th century there is primarily a teaching of Serbian language as a foreign language. During this period, Serbian was accepted primarily by Greeks at courses and private classes. At the beginning of the nineties in the 20th century because of the war in the territory of Yugoslavia, a large number of refugees went to Greece. Teaching of Serbian as a native language was organized only ten years later (at the beginning of 21st century. In some places, the schools are located in consular sections and have the assistance of the country of origin (Thessalonica, Katerini while in Hani (Crete immigrants organized them-selves without the assistance from the country of origin. By studying Serbian schools and the teaching of Serbian language, this work considers relation towards language as a symbol of ethnic identity - at the individual level, at the level of receiving country and at the level of country of origin.

Blagojevi? Gordana

2007-01-01

64

Trends in development of nuclear energetics in the 20th century (a review)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the work, the development and use of nuclear energy is analysed with regard to the second half of the 20th century. In 1996, the nuclear power plants produced 17%. Considered are factors favourable for development of nuclear energetics and those interfering with it. (author)

65

Temperature variability in Serbia in the second half of the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available According to data of IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel for Climatic Change, the global surface air temperature increased to 0,6 ± 0,2 °C in the 20th century. Weber G. R., (1995 quotes that there is a trend of cold in the last 60 years in the middle latitudes including Europe, too. Starting from already mentioned perplexities we have tried to perceive the problem of climate variability in Serbia in the second half of the 20th century, when it came to very important increasing of concentration of CO2. With that aim we observed the decade values of average annual temperatures in the network of 20 climatic stations. In the period 1951 - 1990 a decrease of temperature was registered in 13 stations while in other stations an increase was less than 0,1 °C. Explorers from Bulgaria (Alexandrov V., 2000 and Hungary (Domonkos P., Zoboki J., 2000 came to similar results, too. However, if we take in account the last decade 20th century the number of stations with positive changes is enlarged on 15. Stations that have small changes and those with decrease of temperature were localized in the south and south eastern part of the country, and they are mainly coincided with before separated climatic regions with maritime pluviometric regime (Radovanovi? M., 2001. Using Dzerdzevskis B. L., (1975 division on three main types of circulation in the north hemisphere, we found that the increase of temperatures in the last decade 20th century is above all caused by change of dominant type of circulation from the south meridian to zonal. An analysis of seasonal changes showed that in the last five decades 20th century it came to decrease of winter temperatures in almost half of the stations in contrast with results of paleoclimatics models of possible greenhouse effect.

Radovanovi? Milan M.

2004-01-01

66

20th-century glacier fluctuations on Disko Island (Qeqertarsuaq), Greenland  

Science.gov (United States)

This study assesses glacier fluctuations on Disko Island (Qeqertarsuaq), central West Greenland, during the 20th century. A total of 247 glaciers, of which 75 are classified as surge-type glaciers, are included, representing about 95% of the glacierized area. Based on expedition accounts and early maps, it is concluded that recession rates were highest during the first half of the century. Between 1953 and 2005, 70% of the glaciers showed recession, 28% remained stationary and 2% experienced overall advance due to glacier surging. The mean recession rate of quiescent surge-type glaciers was 20 m a-1 compared to 8 m a-1 for normal glaciers. Identification of changes in glacier length controlled by climate changes is achieved by excluding surge-type glaciers from the dataset. The result indicates that glaciers with ablation areas facing in the arc south to northwest, covering an area above 5 km2 and having a terminus elevation below 800 m are the most climate-sensitive.

Yde, Jacob C.; Knudsen, N. Tvis

2007-10-01

67

Wintertime Arctic temperature variability in the 20th century: dominant modes  

Science.gov (United States)

It is shown that the Arctic averaged wintertime temperature variability during the 20th century can be essentially described by two orthogonal modes. These modes were identified by an EOF decomposition of the 1892-1999 surface wintertime air temperature anomalies (40°N-80°N) using a gridded dataset covering high Arctic. The first mode (also the first leading EOF) is related to the NAO and has a major contribution to Arctic warming during the last 30 years. The second one (the third leading EOF) dominates the SAT variability prior to 1970 including the early century warming anomaly. A correlation between the corresponding principal component timeseries PC3 and the averaged SAT anomalies north of 60°N is 0.79. This mode has the largest amplitudes in the Kara-Barents Seas and Baffin Bay and exhibits no direct link to the large-scale atmospheric circulation teleconnection patterns, in contrast to the other leading EOFs. We suggest that the existence of this mode is caused by long-term sea ice variability in the Kara-Barents Seas and Baffin Bay presumably due to the Atlantic inflow variability.

Semenov, V. A.; Bengtsson, L.

2003-04-01

68

Lunar and Planetary Robotic Exploration Missions in the 20th Century  

Science.gov (United States)

The prospect of traveling to the planets was science fiction at the beginning of the 20th Century and science fact at its end. The space age was born of the Cold War in the 1950s and throughout most of the remainder of the century it provided not just an adventure in the exploration of space but a suspenseful drama as the US and USSR competed to be first and best. It is a tale of patience to overcome obstacles, courage to try the previously impossible and persistence to overcome failure, a tale of both fantastic accomplishment and debilitating loss. We briefly describe the history of robotic lunar and planetary exploration in the 20th Century, the missions attempted, their goals and their fate. We describe how this enterprise developed and evolved step by step from a politically driven competition to intense scientific investigations and international cooperation.

Huntress, W. T., Jr.; Moroz, V. I.; Shevalev, I. L.

2003-07-01

69

History of Cholera Outbreaks in Iran during the 19th and 20th Centuries  

Science.gov (United States)

Cholera is an acute infectious disease with high mortality if left untreated. Historically, between the 19th and 20th centuries seven great pandemics of cholera occurred and worldwide, thousands of people died. Based on an old theory, cholera was considered an air-born disease and the emergence of its outbreaks were attributed to bad weather or miasma. However later in the 18th century, British physician John Snow (1813-1858) explained the association of a terrible cholera outbreak in London in 1849 to contamination of the drinking water supply with human excreta. Despite his finding, the causative agent of this dreaded illness was unidentified until later in the 19th century. In 1854, Filippo Pacini (1812-1883) an anatomist from Italy and then in 1883, Robert Koch (1843-1910) the German bacteriologist, discovered ‘vibrio cholerae’ as the etiologic agent. During the major pandemics of cholera in 19th and 20th centuries this illness reached Iran and led to vast depopulation and a crucial impact on the country’s socioeconomic status. Poor public health conditions, lack of a well-organized public health authority for implementing preventive and quarantine measures as well as Iran’s specific geographic location were the main facilitating factors of the emergence of various epidemics, including cholera in Iran. The present paper briefly reviews the cholera outbreaks in Iran during the 19th and 20th centuries.

Azizi, MH; Azizi, F

2010-01-01

70

Observed 20th century desert dust variability: impact on climate and biogeochemistry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Desert dust perturbs climate by directly and indirectly interacting with incoming solar and outgoing long wave radiation, thereby changing precipitation and temperature, in addition to modifying ocean and land biogeochemistry. While we know that desert dust is sensitive to perturbations in climate and human land use, previous studies have been unable to determine whether humans were increasing or decreasing desert dust in the global average. Here we present observational estimates of desert dust based on paleodata proxies showing a doubling of desert dust during the 20th century over much, but not all the globe. Large uncertainties remain in estimates of desert dust variability over 20th century due to limited data. Using these observational estimates of desert dust change in combination with ocean, atmosphere and land models, we calculate the net radiative effect of these observed changes (top of atmosphere over the 20th century to be ?0.14 ± 0.11 W/m2 (1990–1999 vs. 1905–1914. The estimated radiative change due to dust is especially strong between the heavily loaded 1980–1989 and the less heavily loaded 1955–1964 time periods (?0.57 ± 0.46 W/m2, which model simulations suggest may have reduced the rate of temperature increase between these time periods by 0.11 °C. Model simulations also indicate strong regional shifts in precipitation and temperature from desert dust changes, causing 6 ppm (12 PgC reduction in model carbon uptake by the terrestrial biosphere over the 20th century. Desert dust carries iron, an important micronutrient for ocean biogeochemistry that can modulate ocean carbon storage; here we show that dust deposition trends increase ocean productivity by an estimated 6% over the 20th century, drawing down an additional 4 ppm (8 PgC of carbon dioxide into the oceans. Thus, perturbations to desert dust over the 20th century inferred from observations are potentially important for climate and biogeochemistry, and our understanding of these changes and their impacts should continue to be refined.

N. M. Mahowald

2010-11-01

71

Observed 20th century desert dust variability: impact on climate and biogeochemistry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Desert dust perturbs climate by interacting with incoming solar and outgoing long wave radiation, thereby changing precipitation and temperature, in addition to modifying ocean and land biogeochemistry. While we know that desert dust is sensitive to perturbations in climate and human land use, previous studies have been unable to determine whether humans were in the net increasing or decreasing desert dust. Here we present observational estimates of desert dust based on paleodata proxies showing a doubling of desert dust during the 20th century over much, but not all the globe. Large uncertainties remain in estimates of desert dust variability over 20th century due to limited data. Using these observational estimates of desert dust change in combination with ocean, atmosphere and land models, we calculate the net radiative effect of these observed changes (top of atmosphere over the 20th century to be ?0.14±0.11 W/m2 (1990–1999 vs. 1905–1914. The estimated radiative change due to aerosols is especially strong between the dusty 1980–1989 and the less dusty 1955–1964 time periods (?0.57±0.46 W/m2, which model simulations suggest may have reduced the rate of temperature increase between these time periods by 0.11 °C. Model simulations also indicate strong regional shifts in precipitation and temperature from the desert dust changes, causing 6 ppm (12 Pg C reduction in model carbon uptake by the terrestrial biosphere over the 20th century. Desert dust carries iron, an important micronutrient for ocean biogeochemistry that can modulate ocean carbon storage; here we show that dust deposition trends increase ocean productivity by an estimated 6% over the 20th century, drawing down an additional 4 ppm (8 Pg C of carbon dioxide into the oceans. Thus, perturbations to desert dust over the 20th century inferred from observations are potentially important for climate and biogeochemistry, and our understanding of these changes and their impacts should continue to be refined.

N. M. Mahowald

2010-05-01

72

Marxism's 'Communicative Crisis'? Mapping Debates over Leninist Print-Media Practices in the 20th Century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Despite the scholarly neglect of Marxism’s ‘communicative crisis’, it was a topic of concern that was addressed, debated and negotiated over by party leaders, intellectuals and activists on a continuous basis throughout the 20th century. These concerns revolved around three areas: first, the primary means of print communication, the party paper; second, the specialization of production, particularly around the role of writers and journalists; and third, the search for a popular rhetoric and writing style, which would appeal to the general public. This paper maps out the ‘communicative crisis’ of Marxism in the 20th century through an examination of key intersections of disputes over the correct approach to its practices of print communication, as a starting point for an historical analysis of the failures and successes of Marxist political praxis.

Herbert F. Pimlott

2006-09-01

73

Remarks regarding the Romanian writers and literary world at the beginning of the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An analysis of the cultural configuration at the beginning of the 20th century leads to theconclusion that the dominant tendency is that of changing. The two forces in dispute are thetraditionalism and the modernism.The Romanian literary world is characterised by impurity. The reason is the fact that manyartistic forms that were already anachronistic in Occident, in Romania didn’t express all theirpotential and, on the other hand, we can detect, at the very beginning of the 20th century, a newwave of confusion between the concepts of aesthetic, ethic and ethnic.This contradictory landscape is completed by the avant-garde movements, characterised byextreme denial of tradition, cancellation of all patterns and revolt accompanied by repulsionagainst human and cultural condition.

Speran?a Sofia MILANCOVICI

2011-01-01

74

Attributing the increase in Northern Hemisphere hot summers since the late 20th century  

Science.gov (United States)

high summertime temperatures have occurred with increasing frequency since the late 20th century. It is not clear why hot summers are becoming more frequent despite the recent slowdown in the rise in global surface air temperature. To examine factors affecting the historical variation in the frequency of hot summers over the Northern Hemisphere (NH), we conducted three sets of ensemble simulations with an atmospheric general circulation model. The model accurately reproduced interannual variation and long-term increase in the occurrence of hot summers. Decadal variabilities in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans accounted for 43 ± 27% of the recent increase over the NH middle latitudes. In addition, direct influence of anthropogenic forcing also contributes to increasing the frequency since the late 20th century. The results suggest that the heat extremes can become more frequent in the coming decade even with the persistent slowdown in the global-mean surface warming.

Kamae, Youichi; Shiogama, Hideo; Watanabe, Masahiro; Kimoto, Masahide

2014-07-01

75

Ibn Khaldun and Some Classic Views in 20th Century Linguistics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Muqaddimah of Ibn Khaldun or the Prolegomena (in Greek, is a book written by the Arab North African’s Ibn Khaldun who records an early view of universal history. We need to point out that some modern thinkers view it as the first work dealing with the: philosophy of history, or the social sciences of sociology, demography, historiography or cultural history, and economics. We need to add that the Muqaddimah also deals with Islamic theology, political theory and the natural sciences of biology and chemistry. Ibn Khaldun wrote the work in 1377 as the preface or first book of his planned world history, the Kitab al-Ibar (lit. Book of Advice, but already in his lifetime it became regarded as an independent work. The following article will try to make a comparison between Ibn Khaldun’s linguistic work in his Muqaddimah and some Western linguists i.e., Chomsky and Bloomfield. We have found that it is really mazing and interesting to show that there are some ideas, concepts, etc., discussed by Ibn Khaldun, appears again by some linguists who live in the 20th century.

Abdullah Yaqub Samarah

2011-11-01

76

Dominating north american forest pathology issues of the 20th century.  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT The profession of forest pathology evolved in the early decades of the 20th century from a science describing microorganisms that infect trees to a discipline that was required to deal with numerous disease outbreaks. The foundations of the science were carried from Europe to the "New World" and initially dealt with decay and the resource losses it caused. The profession was forced to shift direction quickly because it was called upon to address major diseases caused by the introduction of pathogens from other continents; notably organisms inciting chestnut blight, Dutch elm disease, and white pine blister rust. Changes in natural ecosystems that resulted from a legacy of poor forest practice, land abuse, and an increase in plantation monocultures gave rise to other disease problems when host-pathogen balances in natural ecosystems were disturbed. Further, the need for large numbers of tree seedlings resulted in numerous nursery disease problems. Although many of the principles of general plant pathology had application to the study of forest diseases, the long-term nature of forests requires varied approaches to their study and management. Today, the science continues to evolve as the complexities of forest ecosystems unfold. PMID:18943872

Macdonald, William L

2003-08-01

77

Numerical Simulation of the Water Cycle Change Over the 20th Century  

Science.gov (United States)

We have used numerical models to test the impact of the change in Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration on the global circulation, particularly focusing on the hydrologic cycle, namely the global cycling of water and continental recycling of water. We have run four numerical simulations using mean annual SST from the early part of the 20th century (1900-1920) and the later part (1980-2000). In addition, we vary the CO2 concentrations for these periods as well. The duration of the simulations is 15 years, and the spatial resolution is 2 degrees. We use passive tracers to study the geographical sources of water. Surface evaporation from predetermined continental and oceanic regions provides the source of water for each passive tracer. In this way, we compute the percent of precipitation of each region over the globe. This can also be used to estimate precipitation recycling. In addition, we are using the passive tracers to independently compute the global cycling of water (compared to the traditional, Q/P calculation).

Bosilovich, Michael G.; Schubert, Siegfried D.

2003-01-01

78

The great exodus of 1939 and other exiles of the 20th Century  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In spite of being a historic constant and a characteristic phenomenon of the 20th century, the subject ‘exile’ is still little valued by contemporary historiography´. The civil war from 1936 to 1939 and the Francoist triumph provoked an exile without precedent in recent Catalonian history. This exile was decisive in the preservation of Catalan culture (persecuted by the Franco regime in Catalonia itself), as well as for the continuity of Catalan self-government, the ‘Generalitat of Cat...

Enric Pujol

2009-01-01

79

Reception of the 20th Century Literature: Polemic over Literature, History and the Critic  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper examines a polemic that rose after the publishing of Vytautas Kubilius’ book 20th Century Literature in 1995: the main topics, forms, and development; the positions and professional, institutional, and generation dependence of its participants, their arguments and rhetoric. The number and fervour of reviews was evidence of the importance and influence attached to Kubilius’ work, but at the same time it highlighted different approaches to literature (an artistic composition or a ...

Jakonyte?, Loreta

2006-01-01

80

Corpus methods and their reflection in linguistic theories of the 20th century  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the 20th century structuralism established itself as the central linguistic theory, in the first half mainly through its originator Ferdinand de Saussure, and in the second half with the figure of Noam Chomsky. The latter consistently refused to acknowledge analysis of extensive quantity of texts as a valuable method, and favoured linguistic intuition of a native speaker instead. In parallel with structuralism other trends in linguistics emerged which pointed to the inadequateness of the p...

Simon Krek

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

The process of Danish nurses’ professionalization and patterns of thought in the 20th century  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This article discusses how the professionalization process is reflected in the way Danish nursing textbooks present ‘nursing’ to new members of the profession during the 20th century. The discus-sion is based on a discourse analysis of seven Danish textbooks on basic nursing published be-tween 1904 and 1996. The analysis was inspired by the work of Michel Foucault, in particular the concepts of rupture and rules of formation. First, we explain how the dominating role of the human body in nursing textbooks disappears in the mid-20th century. This transformation can of course be attributed to changes in tasks and responsibilities for nurses or to the implementation of increasing amounts of knowledge and theories from other disciplines than medicine into the nurses’ knowledge base. However, inspired by Foucault, we consider these historical changes to be the conditions of possibilities and not causes. The second part of the analysis shows that along with ‘the disappearance of the body’, a second discursive change appears: the role of doctors and medicine changes fundamentally from about mid-20th century. Finally, we argue that this discursive reorganization enabling new patterns of thought to emerge was driven by a professional interest in describing nursing as an independent profession.

Beedholm, Kirsten; Frederiksen, Kirsten

2014-01-01

82

Un Médico Higienista Buscando Ordenar el Mundo Urbano Argentino de Comienzos del Siglo XX / A Hygienist Doctor Trying to Bring Some Order to the Early 20th Century Argentine Urban World  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Aferrándose a las altas expectativas generadas por el discurso del progreso y las promesas de la ciencia, la higiene fue una suerte de gran consejera, de experta en el arte de observar, corregir, mejorar o tratar de cambiar radicalmente la salud del cuerpo social en su conjunto. En ese contexto lleg [...] ó incluso a imaginar ciudades alternativas o utópicas. Emilio Coni, probablemente el higienista argentino más destacado de fines del siglo XIX y comienzos del XX, imaginó una de esas ciudades. Las notas que siguen contextualizan su "Ciudad argentina ideal o del porvenir", cuyo texto original -publicado por primera vez el 3 de abril de 1919 en La Semana Médica- se reproduce. Abstract in english As part of the discourse of progress and the promises of science, hygiene as a discipline has been playing the role of a great advisor, a sort of expert in the art of observing, correcting, improving and trying to change the health of the social body and the modern nation. In that context hygiene ev [...] en imagined alternative or utopian cities. Emilio Coni, perhaps the most distinguished Argentine hygienist of the end of the 19th century and the beginnings of the 20th, imagined one of such cities. The following notes aim at contextualizing his "Argentine ideal city". The original version of Coni's text, published in La Semana Médica on April 3, 1919, is also included.

Diego, Armus.

2007-04-01

83

Un médico higienista buscando ordenar el mundo urbano argentino de comienzos del siglo XX / A hygienist doctor trying to bring some order to the early 20th century argentine urban world  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Aferrándose a las altas expectativas generadas por el discurso del progreso y las promesas de la ciencia, la higiene fue una suerte de gran consejera, de experta en el arte de observar, corregir, mejorar o tratar de cambiar radicalmente la salud del cuerpo social en su conjunto. En ese contexto lleg [...] ó incluso a imaginar ciudades alternativas o utópicas. Emilio Coni, probablemente el higienista argentino más destacado de fines del siglo XIX y comienzos del XX, imaginó una de esas ciudades. Las notas que siguen contextualizan su "Ciudad argentina ideal o del porvenir", cuyo texto original -publicado por primera vez el 3 de abril de 1919 en La Semana Médica- se reproduce. Abstract in english As part of the discourse of progress and the promises of science, hygiene as a discipline has been playing the role of a great advisor, a sort of expert in the art of observing, correcting, improving and trying to change the health of the social body and the modern nation. In that context hygiene ev [...] en imagined alternative or utopian cities. Emilio Coni, perhaps the most distinguished Argentine hygienist of the end of the 19th century and the beginnings of the 20th, imagined one of such cities. The following notes aim at contextualizing his "Argentine ideal city". The original version of Coni's text, published in La Semana Médica on April 3, 1919, is also included.

Diego, Armus.

2007-04-01

84

Un Médico Higienista Buscando Ordenar el Mundo Urbano Argentino de Comienzos del Siglo XX / A Hygienist Doctor Trying to Bring Some Order to the Early 20th Century Argentine Urban World  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Aferrándose a las altas expectativas generadas por el discurso del progreso y las promesas de la ciencia, la higiene fue una suerte de gran consejera, de experta en el arte de observar, corregir, mejorar o tratar de cambiar radicalmente la salud del cuerpo social en su conjunto. En ese contexto lleg [...] ó incluso a imaginar ciudades alternativas o utópicas. Emilio Coni, probablemente el higienista argentino más destacado de fines del siglo XIX y comienzos del XX, imaginó una de esas ciudades. Las notas que siguen contextualizan su "Ciudad argentina ideal o del porvenir", cuyo texto original -publicado por primera vez el 3 de abril de 1919 en La Semana Médica- se reproduce. Abstract in english As part of the discourse of progress and the promises of science, hygiene as a discipline has been playing the role of a great advisor, a sort of expert in the art of observing, correcting, improving and trying to change the health of the social body and the modern nation. In that context hygiene ev [...] en imagined alternative or utopian cities. Emilio Coni, perhaps the most distinguished Argentine hygienist of the end of the 19th century and the beginnings of the 20th, imagined one of such cities. The following notes aim at contextualizing his "Argentine ideal city". The original version of Coni's text, published in La Semana Médica on April 3, 1919, is also included.

Diego, Armus.

85

Un médico higienista buscando ordenar el mundo urbano argentino de comienzos del siglo XX / A hygienist doctor trying to bring some order to the early 20th century argentine urban world  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Aferrándose a las altas expectativas generadas por el discurso del progreso y las promesas de la ciencia, la higiene fue una suerte de gran consejera, de experta en el arte de observar, corregir, mejorar o tratar de cambiar radicalmente la salud del cuerpo social en su conjunto. En ese contexto lleg [...] ó incluso a imaginar ciudades alternativas o utópicas. Emilio Coni, probablemente el higienista argentino más destacado de fines del siglo XIX y comienzos del XX, imaginó una de esas ciudades. Las notas que siguen contextualizan su "Ciudad argentina ideal o del porvenir", cuyo texto original -publicado por primera vez el 3 de abril de 1919 en La Semana Médica- se reproduce. Abstract in english As part of the discourse of progress and the promises of science, hygiene as a discipline has been playing the role of a great advisor, a sort of expert in the art of observing, correcting, improving and trying to change the health of the social body and the modern nation. In that context hygiene ev [...] en imagined alternative or utopian cities. Emilio Coni, perhaps the most distinguished Argentine hygienist of the end of the 19th century and the beginnings of the 20th, imagined one of such cities. The following notes aim at contextualizing his "Argentine ideal city". The original version of Coni's text, published in La Semana Médica on April 3, 1919, is also included.

Diego, Armus.

86

Sea Level did not Accelerate in the Last Quarter of the 20th Century  

Science.gov (United States)

The Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL)collects quality-controlled sea levels from tide gages on all seas, and tabulates them at www.pol.ac.uk/psmsl/psmsl(underline)individual(underline)stations.html. I examined annual average sea levels (Ra in column 6) for generally open-coast tide gages having data at the years defining quarter points in the 20th century: 1900, 1925, 1950, 1975, 2000. Gages lacking data for a given date, say 1975, were assumed to qualify if they had data for one year, plus or minus, of the missing data, i. e., for 1974 or 1976 in this example. This examination of data from gages on all seas identified 54 gages with data for the last three of the five dates, which included 26 gages with data for the last four of the five dates, which included 7 gages with data for all five dates. This means that sea-level change during the last quarter (Q4) of the 20th century could be compared at 54 sites with sea-level change in Q3, at 26 sites with sea- level change in Q2, and at 7 sites with sea-level change in Q1, providing 87 tests of the widely reported acceleration in rate of sea-level rise at the end of the 20th century. If sea level is rising at an accelerating rate, then sea-level rise during Q4 should almost always exceed sea-level rises in Q1, Q2, and Q3 of the 20th century. Of the 87 tests, 44 showed more sea-level rise in Q4, and 43 showed less sea-level rise in Q4, compared to the earlier quarters. Thus there is no evidence for an accelerating rise in sea level at the end of the 20th century from these quality-controlled data. The data do indicate that sea-level changes are synchronized over long reaches of shoreline (Sturges, 1990), and sites where gages are imbedded in deposits of clastic sediment have higher apparent sea-level rise attributable to sediment compaction. Beach erosion on the East Coast of the U.S. is widely attributed to the acceleration of sea-level rise, yet all 8 long-term gages at this coast show significantly LESS sea-level rise during Q4, when the reported beach erosion increased, compared to during Q3, Q2, or Q1.

Galvin, C.

2004-12-01

87

Circuito aberto: idéias e intercâmbios médico-científicos na América Latina nos primórdios do século XX / Open circuit: the exchange of medical and scientific knowledge in Latin America in the early 20th century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo aborda a realização dos Congressos Médicos Latino-Americanos e das Exposições Internacionais de Higiene nas primeiras décadas do século XX como estratégia de legitimação e persuasão do conhecimento médico produzido perante a comunidade especializada e as autoridades públicas, suportes es [...] tes fundamentais para sua apresentação à sociedade em geral como portadores do saber oficial da arte de medicar. Tais eventos fizeram parte de um movimento mais amplo de internacionalização e organização do campo profissional da medicina na América Latina. O artigo sugere ainda que as atividades desenvolvidas durante esses eventos tiveram papel central na difusão de idéias e na troca de experiências entre os países latino-americanos, caracterizando uma rede de intercâmbios científicos no continente. Abstract in english This article discusses the Latin American Medical Congresses and International Exhibitions on Hygiene held in the first few decades of the 20th century as a strategy for underpinning and influencing medical knowledge within the specialized community itself and for public authorities, which were fund [...] amental for presenting to society at large as they were seen as the vehicles of official know-how on the art of medicating. These events made up part of a broader movement to internationalize and coordinate the professional field of medicine in Latin America. The article further suggests that the activities that took place during these events played a key role in the propagation of ideas and exchange of experience between Latin American nations, forming a network of scientific exchange in the continent.

Marta de, Almeida.

2006-09-01

88

Role of tropospheric ozone increases in 20th-century climate change  

Science.gov (United States)

Human activities have increased tropospheric ozone, contributing to 20th-century warming. Using the spatial and temporal distribution of precursor emissions, we simulated tropospheric ozone from 1890 to 1990 using the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) chemistry model. Archived three-dimensional ozone fields were then used in transient GISS climate model simulations. This enables more realistic evaluation of the impact of tropospheric ozone increases than prior simulations using an interpolation between preindustrial and present-day ozone. We find that tropospheric ozone contributed to the greater 20th-century warming in the Northern Hemisphere extratropics compared with the tropics and in the tropics compared with the Southern Hemisphere extratropics. Additionally, ozone increased more rapidly during the latter half of the century than the former, causing more rapid warming during that time. This is especially apparent in the tropics and is consistent with observations, which do not show similar behavior in the extratropics. Other climate forcings do not substantially accelerate warming rates in the tropics relative to other regions. This suggests that accelerated tropospheric ozone increases related to industrialization in the developing world have contributed to the accelerated tropical warming. During boreal summer, tropospheric ozone causes enhanced warming (>0.5°C) over polluted northern continental regions. Finally, the Arctic climate response to tropospheric ozone increases is large during fall, winter, and spring when ozone's lifetime is comparatively long and pollution transported from midlatitudes is abundant. The model indicates that tropospheric ozone could have contributed about 0.3°C annual average and about 0.4°C-0.5°C during winter and spring to the 20th-century Arctic warming. Pollution controls could thus substantially reduce the rapid rate of Arctic warming.

Shindell, Drew; Faluvegi, Greg; Lacis, Andrew; Hansen, James; Ruedy, Reto; Aguilar, Elliot

2006-04-01

89

A short history of ocean acidification science in the 20th century: a chemist's view  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This review covers the development of ocean acidification science, with an emphasis on the creation of ocean chemical knowledge, through the course of the 20th century. This begins with the creation of the pH scale by Sørensen in 1909 and ends with the widespread knowledge of the impact of the "High CO2 Ocean" by then well underway as the trajectory along the IPCC scenario pathways continues. By mid-century the massive role of the ocean in absorbing fossil fuel CO2 was known to specialists, but not appreciated by the greater scientific community. By the end of the century the trade-offs between the beneficial role of the ocean in absorbing some 90% of all heat created, and the accumulation of some 50% of all fossil fuel CO2 emitted, and the impacts on marine life were becoming clear. This paper documents the evolution of knowledge throughout this period.

P. G. Brewer

2013-05-01

90

A short history of ocean acidification science in the 20th century: a chemist's view  

Science.gov (United States)

This review covers the development of ocean acidification science, with an emphasis on the creation of ocean chemical knowledge, through the course of the 20th century. This begins with the creation of the pH scale by Sørensen in 1909 and ends with the widespread knowledge of the impact of the "High CO2 Ocean" by then well underway as the trajectory along the IPCC scenario pathways continues. By mid-century the massive role of the ocean in absorbing fossil fuel CO2 was known to specialists, but not appreciated by the greater scientific community. By the end of the century the trade-offs between the beneficial role of the ocean in absorbing some 90% of all heat created, and the accumulation of some 50% of all fossil fuel CO2 emitted, and the impacts on marine life were becoming more clear. This paper documents the evolution of knowledge throughout this period.

Brewer, P. G.

2013-11-01

91

[Famous doctors who stayed on the Croatian coast at the turn of the 20th century].  

Science.gov (United States)

At the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century many famous persons stayed on the Croatian coast mostly because of touristic and health reasons, than because of natural beauties, scientific or political reasons. Most often they came from Austro-Hungary, Germany or Russia but also from our homelands. Among them were also many famous doctors, some known worldwide. The most distinguished were the surgeon Theodor Billroth, the bacteriologist and a Nobel prize winner Robert Koch, the pathologist Rudolf Virchow, and the psychiatrist Sigmund Freud. They left a deep impression and a big benefit at the area they stayed in. PMID:22768686

Ivanisevi?, Petar; Lesin, Mladen; Plestina-Borjan, Ivna; Ivanisevi?, Milan

2012-01-01

92

Modelling the 20th and 21st century evolution of Hoffellsjökull glacier, SE-Vatnajökull, Iceland  

Science.gov (United States)

The Little Ice Age maximum extent of glaciers in Iceland was reached about 1890 AD and most glaciers in the country have retreated during the 20th century. A model for the surface mass balance and the flow of glaciers is used to reconstruct the 20th century retreat history of Hoffellsjökull, a south-flowing outlet glacier of the ice cap Vatnajökull, which is located close to the southeastern coast of Iceland. The bedrock topography was surveyed with radio-echo soundings in 2001. A wealth of data are available to force and constrain the model, e.g. surface elevation maps from ~1890, 1936, 1946, 1989, 2001, 2008 and 2010, mass balance observations conducted in 1936-1938 and after 2001, energy balance measurements after 2001, and glacier surface velocity derived by kinematic and differential GPS surveys and correlation of SPOT5 images. The approximately 20% volume loss of this glacier in the period 1895-2010 is realistically simulated with the model. After calibration of the model with past observations, it is used to simulate the future response of the glacier during the 21st century. The mass balance model was forced with an ensemble of temperature and precipitation scenarios derived from 10 global and 3 regional climate model simulations using the A1B emission scenario. If the average climate of 2000-2009 is maintained into the future, the volume of the glacier is projected to be reduced by 30% with respect to the present at the end of this century. If the climate warms, as suggested by most of the climate change scenarios, the model projects this glacier to almost disappear by the end of the 21st century. Runoff from the glacier is predicted to increase for the next 30-40 yr and decrease after that as a consequence of the diminishing ice-covered area.

Aðalgeirsdóttir, G.; Guðmundsson, S.; Björnsson, H.; Pálsson, F.; Jóhannesson, T.; Hannesdóttir, H.; Sigurðsson, S. Þ.; Berthier, E.

2011-11-01

93

Modelling the 20th and 21st century evolution of Hoffellsjökull glacier, SE-Vatnajökull, Iceland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Little Ice Age maximum extent of glaciers in Iceland was reached about 1890 AD and most glaciers in the country have retreated during the 20th century. A model for the surface mass balance and the flow of glaciers is used to reconstruct the 20th century retreat history of Hoffellsjökull, a south-flowing outlet glacier of the ice cap Vatnajökull, which is located close to the southeastern coast of Iceland. The bedrock topography was surveyed with radio-echo soundings in 2001. A wealth of data are available to force and constrain the model, e.g. surface elevation maps from ~1890, 1936, 1946, 1989, 2001, 2008 and 2010, mass balance observations conducted in 1936–1938 and after 2001, energy balance measurements after 2001, and glacier surface velocity derived by kinematic and differential GPS surveys and correlation of SPOT5 images. The approximately 20% volume loss of this glacier in the period 1895–2010 is realistically simulated with the model. After calibration of the model with past observations, it is used to simulate the future response of the glacier during the 21st century. The mass balance model was forced with an ensemble of temperature and precipitation scenarios derived from 10 global and 3 regional climate model simulations using the A1B emission scenario. If the average climate of 2000–2009 is maintained into the future, the volume of the glacier is projected to be reduced by 30% with respect to the present at the end of this century. If the climate warms, as suggested by most of the climate change scenarios, the model projects this glacier to almost disappear by the end of the 21st century. Runoff from the glacier is predicted to increase for the next 30–40 yr and decrease after that as a consequence of the diminishing ice-covered area.

G. Aðalgeirsdóttir

2011-11-01

94

Transformations in understanding the health impacts of air pollutants in the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The transformations of air pollution in the 20th century are well known. The century opened with urban atmospheres polluted by the combustion products of burning coal: smoke and sulfur dioxide. At the millennium these pollutants had almost vanished, replaced by the pollutants, both primary and secondary, a function of fossil-fuelled vehicles. However transitions in terms of health outcomes have been equally dramatic. Fine particulate matter causes notable cardiovascular problems such as increased incidence of stroke and heart attack, although the mechanism remains somewhat unclear. Cancer inducing air pollutants remain a concern, but in addition more recently there has been a rising interest in the presence of neurotoxins and endocrine disrupting substances in the environment.

Brimblecombe P.

2009-02-01

95

The municipal continuum: Research on maritime water pollution in Helsinki in the 20th century  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In general, the history of environmental research is not known very well. Our study contributes to filling this gap by focusing on the history of the methods that were used during the 20th century to study the state of the urban sea area in Helsinki, Finland. From the beginning of the past century, the methodological basis of municipal water pollution studies in Helsinki was broad, involving the use of physical, chemical, hygienic and biological methods. Since 1904, municipal laboratories have overseen and conducted most physico-chemical and bacteriological studies of pollution of urban watercourses, and they have done regular annual sampling since 1947. In the 1920s and 1930s, the municipal laboratories cooperated with the University of Helsinki and, secondarily, with the Helsinki University of Technology in order to develop the skills and manpower that were required in order to conduct pollution studies. Statutory monitoring was initiated in the mid-1960s, and it continues today. (orig.)

Laurila, S. K. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Social History; Laakkonen, S. J. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Social Policy

2004-07-01

96

The Evolution of Spine Surgery in Greece in the Second Half of the 20th Century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Spine Surgery began its evolution in the beginning of the 19th century in order to reach nowadays the point of being considered an important subspecialty of Neurosurgery and Orthopaedics. The purpose of this historical review is the search and evaluation of the progress in spine surgery in the second half of the 20th century. This review concerns the evolution of this field in Greece. Special references are made to the achievements of this field, to the departments that practised it, to physicians and surgeons (orthopaedic surgeons, neurosurgeons, radiologists and rheumatologists who developed this subspecialty and to clinical and scientific work of this time period. Eventually, the progress of medicine and technology who led to the first achievements of this subspecialty are shown and also that this progress followed the development of the National Healthcare System. In Greece, with small exceptions, the new techniques emerged with a certain delay.

Konstantinos Markatos

2014-08-01

97

Lezione sulla medievistica del Novecento Lecture on medieval studies in the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Si tratta del testo di una lezione tenuta nel 1994 a un pubblico di insegnanti della scuola media superiore. In rapida sintesi, si propongono i grandi problemi attorno ai quali si è incentrata nel Novecento la ricerca sul medioevo europeo (sino al secolo XI: rapporti tra mondo latino e mondo tedesco, relazioni tra cristianesimo e potere, dialettica tra universalismi e localismi.

This paper comes from a lecture delivered in 1994 to high school teachers. It briefly deals with the relevant problems faced by the research on the European Middle Age (considered until the 11th century in the 20th-century: relationships between Latin and German world, Christianity and political power, dialectic between universalism and localism.

Giovanni Tabacco

2006-12-01

98

„One-way ticket” Romanian Migration at the beginning of the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Unlike the new age of migration that we are experiencing now, the social mobility specific to the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century may be defined by the expression “one way ticket”; the immigrant, usually a man, used to leave his country of origin and settle for good in his host-country (he did not look for his happiness from state to state, as it happens now. The Romanian migration of that time was directed mainly towards the New World (particularly to the USA, and less to Canada. This paper is an attempt to sketch the image of Romanian emigration by taking into account the peculiarities determined by: emigration causes, geographical predominance, social composition, occupational options in the host-country, and the structure of Romanian immigrant communities.

Silvia Bocancea

2011-12-01

99

Reconstructing 20th Century SST Variability in the Southwest Pacific: A Replication Study Using Multiple Coral Sr/Ca Records From New Caledonia  

Science.gov (United States)

Coral-based climate reconstructions typically have not used multiple cores from a region to capture and replicate a climate signal largely because of concerns focused on coral conservation, analytical expense, and time constraints. Coral Sr/Ca reproducibility through the 20th century was investigated using three intra-colony and three inter-colony coral records, from the reefs offshore of the Amédée Island, New Caledonia. The coral Sr/Ca signal is highly reproducible; the average absolute offset between coeval monthly Sr/Ca determinations between any two coral Sr/Ca time series is 0.036 mmol/mol (~0.65 °C), which is coral Sr/Ca measurements. The stack average of the monthly coral Sr/Ca variations and monthly anomalies are significantly correlated with monthly in situ SST (r = -0.95, -0.56, respectively, p coral Sr/Ca-SST reconstruction exhibits decadal-scale fluctuations that exceed those observed in the gridded SST time series, which may reflect true differences between the SST at a shallow reef site and those averaged over a 1°-grid box or they may reflect inadequacies in the methodology used to create the gridded SST product when few observations are available. A warming trend of ~0.65 °C is observed in the coral Sr/Ca-SST record, which is consistent with estimates of warming of the tropical surface oceans over the 20th century. Monthly coral Sr/Ca records and a seasonally resolved coral ?18O record from this site share variance in the later half of the 20th century, but not in the early 20th century, suggestive of a change in seawater ?18O. The 20th century trend in the coral ?18O record is consistent with a 20th century freshening of surface seawater at Amédée.

Delong, K. L.; Quinn, T. M.; Taylor, F. W.

2006-12-01

100

Source parameters of four strong earthquakes in Bulgaria and Portugal at the beginning of the 20th century  

Science.gov (United States)

Using original seismograph records and bulletin data we re-determined theorigin time, location, seismic moment (M0) and magnitudes(MS and Mw) for four earthquakes in the beginning of the20th century. These are two strong earthquakes April 4, 1904 nearKrupnik, Bulgaria (Mw = 6.8, MS = 7.2 respectively), the April 231909 earthquake near Benavente, Portugal (MS = 6.3), and the June14, 1913 earthquake near Gorna Orjahovitza, Bulgaria (MS = 6.3).Twenty-nine traces from original records have been analysed, a largenumber of original station bulletins have been consulted and a consistentmethodology for analysing these early 20th century instrumentalinformation is presented.In spite of a thorough effort in re-assembling and quality control of theoriginal data, large inaccuracies remain in the improved instrumentalepicentre locations and origin times. The seismic moment estimates weobtained (2.3 1018 M0 3.9 1019Nm) are the first ever determined for these events. The magnitudeestimates (6.3 MS 7.2 and 6.2 Mw 7.0) are robust and systematically lower than most of previousestimates for all earthquakes (Gutenberg and Richter, 1954; Christoskovand Grigorova, 1968; Karnik, 1969). For the largest Krupnik event ourestimates agree with those of Abe and Noguchi (1983b) and Pacheco andSykes (1992). The studied earthquakes all occur in moderately seismicactive regions, therefore our results may have significant consequences forhazard estimates in those regions.

Dineva, S.; Batllo, J.; Mihaylov, D.; et al.

 
 
 
 
101

Determination and characterization of 20th century global sea level rise  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we provide a determination of the 20th Century (1900--2002) global sea level rise, the associated error budgets, and the quantifications of the various geophysical sources of the observed sea level rise, using data and geophysical models. We analyzed significant geographical variations of the global sea level including those caused by the steric component (heat and salinity) in the ocean, and the self-gravitational signal as a result of ice sheets melting, including the effects of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) since the Pleistocene. In particular, relative sea level data from long-term (longest is 150 year records) and over 600 tide gauge sites globally from PSMSL and other sources, and geocentric sea level data from multiple satellite altimetry (1985--2005) have been used to determine and characterize 20th century global sea level rise. Altimeter and selected tide gauge sea level data have been used for the 20th century sea level determination, accounting for relative biases between the altimeters, effects of sea level corresponding to oceanic thermal expansion, vertical motions affecting tide gauge measurements, self gravitations, and barotropic ocean response. This study is also characterized by the roles of the polar ocean in the global sea level study and addressing the question whether there is a detectable sea level rise acceleration during the last decade. Vertical motions have been estimated by combining geocentric sea level measurements from satellite altimetry (TOPEX/POSEIDON) and long-term relative (crust-fixed) sea level records from global tide gauges using the Gauss-Markov (GM) model with stochastic constraints. The study provided a demonstration of improved vertical motion solutions in semi-enclosed seas and lakes, including Fennoscandia and the Great Lakes region, showing excellent agreement with independent GPS observed radial velocities, or with predictions from GIA models. In general, the estimated uncertainty of the observed vertical motion is ˜0.4 mm/yr, significantly better than other studies. Finally, improved algorithms to account for nonlinear vertical motions caused by other geodynamic processes than GIA, e.g.-post-seismic deformations, have been developed and applied to tectonically active regions such as Alaska and compared with GPS velocities and other studies. This novel technique could potentially provide improved vertical motion globally where long-term tide gauge records exist. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Kuo, Chung-Yen

102

High resolution sedimentary record of dinoflagellate cysts reflects decadal variability and 20th century warming in the Santa Barbara Basin  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a continuous record of dinoflagellate cysts from a core of laminated sediments collected in the Santa Barbara Basin (SBB), off Southern California. The core spans the last ?260 years and is analysed at biennial (two-year) resolution. Variations in dinoflagellate cyst assemblages are compared with 20th century historical changes, and are used to examine changes in primary productivity and species composition, which are bound to the variability in upwelling and sea-surface temperature (SST) in the region. Cysts produced by heterotrophic dinoflagellates dominate the assemblages. In particular, Brigantedinium spp. (on average 64.2% of the assemblages) are commonly associated with high levels of primary productivity, typically observed under active upwelling conditions, when nutrient supply is higher. Other heterotrophic taxa such as cysts of Protoperidinium americanum, Protoperidinium fukuyoi, Protoperidinium minutum and Archaeperidinium saanichi, all Echinidinium species, Quinquecuspisconcreta and Selenopemphix undulata are more abundant in the early part of the record (?1750s-1870s). These taxa are generally associated with high primary productivity and are observed predominantly during intervals marked by relatively variable conditions of SST, stratification and nutrient loading. The 20th century is marked by an increase in several species of autotrophic affinity, primarily Lingulodinium machaerophorum and Spiniferites ramosus. In recent surface sediments from the region, these species are more abundant in the Southern California Bight, and they are associated with conditions of relaxed upwelling in the SBB (typically observed during summer and fall), when SST is higher and nutrient supply is moderate. Their increasing concentrations since the early 20th century reflect warmer SST and possibly stronger stratification during the warmest season. Taken together, the changes in cyst assemblages provide further evidence that persistently warmer conditions in the SBB began affecting marine populations by the late 1920s. Decadal-scale variations in primary productivity are encoded in the heterotrophic dinoflagellate cyst record, with higher (lower) concentrations of heterotrophic taxa occurring during “cool” (“warm”) phases of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) index. Wavelet analysis of heterotrophic taxa concentrations suggests a weaker influence of the PDO on biota of the region during the 19th century.

Bringué, Manuel; Pospelova, Vera; Field, David B.

2014-12-01

103

Rapid 20th-century increase in coastal upwelling off northwest Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Near-shore waters along the northwest African margin are characterized by coastal upwelling and represent one of the world's major upwelling regions. Sea surface temperature (SST) records from Moroccan sediment cores, extending back 2500 years, reveal anomalous and unprecedented cooling during the 20th century, which is consistent with increased upwelling. Upwelling-driven SSTs also vary out of phase with millennial-scale changes in Northern Hemisphere temperature anomalies (NHTAs) and show relatively warm conditions during the Little Ice Age and relatively cool conditions during the Medieval Warm Period. Together, these results suggest that coastal upwelling varies with NHTAs and that upwelling off northwest Africa may continue to intensify as global warming and atmospheric CO2 levels increase. PMID:17272719

McGregor, H V; Dima, M; Fischer, H W; Mulitza, S

2007-02-01

104

Medieval Warm Period, Little Ice Age and 20th century temperature variability from Chesapeake Bay  

Science.gov (United States)

We present paleoclimate evidence for rapid (Medieval Warm Period (???800-1300 AD) possibly related to changes in the strength of North Atlantic thermohaline circulation (THC). Evidence is presented for a long period of sustained regional and North Atlantic-wide warmth with low-amplitude temperature variability between ???450 and 1000 AD. In addition to centennial-scale temperature shifts, the existence of numerous temperature maxima between 2200 and 250 years BP (average ???70 years) suggests that multi-decadal processes typical of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) are an inherent feature of late Holocene climate. However, late 19th and 20th century temperature extremes in Chesapeake Bay associated with NAO climate variability exceeded those of the prior 2000 years, including the interval 450-1000 AD, by 2-3??C, suggesting anomalous recent behavior of the climate system. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Cronin, T. M.; Dwyer, G.S.; Kamiya, T.; Schwede, S.; Willard, D.A.

2003-01-01

105

Atomic Pioneers Book 3 From the Late 19th to the Mid-20th Century  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book tells the story of the atom by presenting a brief account of the lives and work of 24 atomic scientists who brought the world into the complex Age of the Atom by mid-20th century. The 24 are: Albert Einstein, James Franck, Max Born, Peter J.W. Debye, Niels Bohr, George von Hevesy, Henry G.J. Moseley, Gustav Hertz, Erwin Schrodinger, Otto Stern, James Chadwick, Arthur H. Compton, Louis Victor de Broglie, Harold C. Urey, John D. Cockcroft, Patrick M.S. Blackett, Isidor I. Rabi, Leo Szilard, Jean Frederic Joliot-Curie, Irene Joliot-Curie, Wolfgang Pauli, Ernest O. Lawrence, Enrico Fermi, and Robert J. Van de Graaff.

Hiebert, Ray [University of Maryland; Hiebert, Roselyn

1973-01-01

106

RTG's for space exploration at the end of the 20th century. [radioisotope thermoelectric generators  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) as energy conversion devices for spacecraft designed for weak-sunlight environments is discussed. The two upcoming missions Galileo and Ulysses will both use general-purpose heat source RTGs. Two other missions that are planned for the mid-nineties and will carry RTGs onboard are the comet rendezvous asteroid flyby and Cassini. Another mission that might become a program start in the last decade of the 20th century is Solarprobe, which is most likely to use modular RTGs. Several other missions that are in different planning stages that are in need of RTGs to meet their power requirements are the Mars rover sample return, planetary (Mars) penetrators, microspacecraft, and the Mars Egg. All of these missions are discssed, stressing their RTG requirements.

Chmielewski, Art

1989-01-01

107

RTG's for space exploration at the end of the 20th century  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG's) are the only type of energy conversion devices that are available for spacecraft designed for environments where sunlight is weak. The two upcoming missions Galileo and Ulysses will both use General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) RTG's. Two other missions that are planned for mid nineties and will carry RTG's on board are: Comet Rendezvous Astroid Flyby (CRAF) and Cassini. Another mission that might become a program start in the last decade of the 20th century is Solarprobe. Solarprobe is most likely to use Modular RTG's. Several other missions that are in different planning stages are in need of RTG's to meet their power requirements: Mars Rover Sample Return, planetary penetrators, microspacecraft and Mars Egg. The paper briefly describes all of these missions stressing their RTG requirements

108

Causes of mortality and development: Evidence from large health shocks in 20th century America  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Exploiting pre-intervention variation in flu/pneumonia, tuberculosis and maternal mortality, together with time variation arising from medical breakthroughs starting in the late 1930s, this paper studies the aggregate impact of large health shocks across US states. The analysis demonstrates that the shocks influenced income per capita in different ways. While the shock to flu/pneumonia mortality has been conductive for development, the large reduction in the incidence of tuberculosis deaths has been a negative force in the development of US states over the second-half of 20th century. In addition, the decline in maternal mortality has a fragile, but positive relationship with income per capita. Because these specific health shocks affected mortality across the life cycle differently, the evidence here underscores the general tenet of regarding health as multifaceted.

Worm Hansen, Casper

2012-01-01

109

Interpreting mathematics in physics: Charting the applications of SU(2) in 20th century physics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The role mathematics plays within physics has been of sustained interest for physicists as well as for philosophers and historians of science. We explore this topic by tracing the role the mathematical structure associated with SU(2) has played in three key episodes in 20th century physics - intrinsic spin, isospin, and gauge theory and electroweak unification. We also briefly consider its role in loop quantum gravity. Each episode has led to profound and new physical notions of a space other than the traditional ones of space and spacetime, and each has had associated with it a complex and in places, contested history. The episodes also reveal ways mathematical structures provide resources for new physical theorizing and we propose our study as a contribution to a need Roger Penrose has identified to develop a 'profoundly sensitive aesthetic' sense for locating physically relevant mathematics.

Anderson, Ronald [Department of Philosophy, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467 (United States)], E-mail: ronald.anderson@bc.edu; Joshi, G.C. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)], E-mail: joshi@physics.unimelb.edu.au

2008-04-15

110

Cognitive study and upgrading of the 20th century architectonic heritage: experiences and methodologies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One component of the heritage of publicly funded property developments put up since the Second World War is residential districts designed by leading architects in which upgrading has to take into account considerations of safeguarding. The raising of the threshold from 50 to 70 years before safeguarding norms come into effect means that local authorities and management companies have sole responsibility for the modification and safeguarding of this heritage. This paper looks at some examples of 20th century housing estates designated for upgrading in order to highlight the specific strategies adopted, selected from a range of actions based on the need for accurate knowledge and collective agreement by all the parties involved right from the design phase.

Paola Ascione

2012-04-01

111

Fire dynamics during the 20th century simulated by the Community Land Model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fire is an integral Earth System process that interacts with climate in multiple ways. Here we assessed the parametrization of fires in the Community Land Model (CLM-CN and improved the ability of the model to reproduce contemporary global patterns of burned areas and fire emissions. In addition to wildfires we extended CLM-CN to account for fires related to deforestation. We compared contemporary fire carbon emissions predicted by the model to satellite based estimates in terms of magnitude, spatial extent as well as interannual and seasonal variability. Longterm trends during the 20th century were compared with historical estimates. Overall we found the best agreement between simulation and observations for the fire parametrization based on the work by Arora and Boer (2005. We obtain substantial improvement when we explicitly considered human caused ignition and fire suppression as a function of population density. Simulated fire carbon emissions ranged between 2.0 and 2.4 Pg C/year for the period 1997–2004. Regionally the simulations had a low bias over Africa and a high bias over South America when compared to satellite based products. The net terrestrial carbon source due to land use change for the 1990s was 1.2 Pg C/year with 11% stemming from deforestation fires. During 2000–2004 this flux decreased to 0.85 Pg C/year with a similar relative contribution from deforestation fires. Between 1900 and 1960 we simulated a slight downward trend in global fire emissions, which is explained by reduced fuels as a consequence of wood harvesting and partly by increasing fire suppression. The model predicted an upward trend in the last three decades of the 20th century caused by climate variations and large burning events associated with ENSO induced drought conditions.

S. Kloster

2010-01-01

112

Fire dynamics during the 20th century simulated by the Community Land Model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fire is an integral Earth System process that interacts with climate in multiple ways. Here we assessed the parametrization of fires in the Community Land Model (CLM-CN and improved the ability of the model to reproduce contemporary global patterns of burned areas and fire emissions. In addition to wildfires we extended CLM-CN to account for fires related to deforestation. We compared contemporary fire carbon emissions predicted by the model to satellite-based estimates in terms of magnitude and spatial extent as well as interannual and seasonal variability. Long-term trends during the 20th century were compared with historical estimates. Overall we found the best agreement between simulation and observations for the fire parametrization based on the work by Arora and Boer (2005. We obtained substantial improvement when we explicitly considered human caused ignition and fire suppression as a function of population density. Simulated fire carbon emissions ranged between 2.0 and 2.4 Pg C/year for the period 1997–2004. Regionally the simulations had a low bias over Africa and a high bias over South America when compared to satellite-based products. The net terrestrial carbon source due to land use change for the 1990s was 1.2 Pg C/year with 11% stemming from deforestation fires. During 2000–2004 this flux decreased to 0.85 Pg C/year with a similar relative contribution from deforestation fires. Between 1900 and 1960 we predicted a slight downward trend in global fire emissions caused by reduced fuels as a consequence of wood harvesting and also by increases in fire suppression. The model predicted an upward trend during the last three decades of the 20th century as a result of climate variations and large burning events associated with ENSO-induced drought conditions.

S. Kloster

2010-06-01

113

Cultura cívico-escolar católica e desfiles patrióticos no Brasil do início do século XX / School civic catholic culture and patriotic parades in Brazil in the early 20th century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A narrativa adotada neste artigo apresenta uma intriga histórica que tem origem em um conjunto de interpretações que propõe analisar as estratégias utilizadas pela hierarquia da Igreja Católica que incentivaram em seus documentos episcopais as manifestações culturais de caráter cívico nas instituiçõ [...] es educacionais sob sua tutela. O artigo centra sua investigação nos desfiles patrióticos de escolares e colegiais que aconteceram no início do século XX, que homenageavam em diferentes momentos a República. Nesse sentido, toma o exemplo das escolas administradas pela Congregação Salesiana de Dom Bosco, em especial, o Liceu Nossa Senhora Auxiliadora de Campinas (São Paulo). Abstract in english The narrative adopted in this article presents a historical intrigue that comes from a set of interpretations that propose to analyze the strategies used by the Catholic Church hierarchy which encouraged cultural manifestations of civic character in educational institutions under their tutelage thro [...] ugh their episcopal documents. The paper focuses his investigation in patriotic parades of students of elementary and secondary schools that occurred in the early twentieth century, which paid tribute to the Republic at different moments. In this sense it takes the example of schools administered by the Salesian Congregation of Dom Bosco, in particular, the Lyceum Nossa Senhora Auxiliadora of Campinas (São Paulo).

Marcus Levy, Bencostta.

2014-08-01

114

Cultura cívico-escolar católica e desfiles patrióticos no Brasil do início do século XX / School civic catholic culture and patriotic parades in Brazil in the early 20th century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A narrativa adotada neste artigo apresenta uma intriga histórica que tem origem em um conjunto de interpretações que propõe analisar as estratégias utilizadas pela hierarquia da Igreja Católica que incentivaram em seus documentos episcopais as manifestações culturais de caráter cívico nas instituiçõ [...] es educacionais sob sua tutela. O artigo centra sua investigação nos desfiles patrióticos de escolares e colegiais que aconteceram no início do século XX, que homenageavam em diferentes momentos a República. Nesse sentido, toma o exemplo das escolas administradas pela Congregação Salesiana de Dom Bosco, em especial, o Liceu Nossa Senhora Auxiliadora de Campinas (São Paulo). Abstract in english The narrative adopted in this article presents a historical intrigue that comes from a set of interpretations that propose to analyze the strategies used by the Catholic Church hierarchy which encouraged cultural manifestations of civic character in educational institutions under their tutelage thro [...] ugh their episcopal documents. The paper focuses his investigation in patriotic parades of students of elementary and secondary schools that occurred in the early twentieth century, which paid tribute to the Republic at different moments. In this sense it takes the example of schools administered by the Salesian Congregation of Dom Bosco, in particular, the Lyceum Nossa Senhora Auxiliadora of Campinas (São Paulo).

Marcus Levy, Bencostta.

115

1900 ?zmir ve 1901 ?stanbul Salg?nlar? Ba?lam?nda Veban?n XX. Yüzy?l Ba?lar?nda Osmanl? ?mparatorlu?u’nda Devam Eden Etkisi///The Ongoing ?mpact Of The Most Dreadful Disease Of World History Plague In The Ottoman Empire In The Early 20th Century Within The Contexts Of 1900 Izmir And 1901 Istanbul Epidemics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available At the beginning of the 20th century plague had almost become a local, demographically ineffective and even an ordinary disease. However, even at such a late period, in the epidemics occured in any part of the ottoman territories, plague continued to cause economy based troubles similar to the ones in the previous centuries, due to the quarantines.

Mesut AYAR

2010-07-01

116

On the long term change in the geomagnetic activity during the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The analysis of the aa index series presented in this paper clearly shows that during the last century (1900 to 2000 the number of quiet days (Aa<20 nT drastically diminished from a mean annual value greater than 270 days per year at the end of the nineteenth century to a mean value of 160 quiet days per year one hundred years later. This decrease is mainly due to the decrease of the number of very quiet days (Aa<13 nT. We show that the so-evidenced decrease in the number of quiet days cannot be accounted for by drift in the aa baseline resulting in a systematic underestimation of aa during the first quarter of the century: a 2–3 nT overestimation in the aa increase during the 20th century would lead to a 20–40% overestimation in the decrease of the number of quiet days during the same period.

The quiet days and very quiet days correspond to periods during which the Earth encounters slow solar wind streams flowing in the heliosheet during the period where the solar magnetic field has a dipolar geometry. Therefore, the observed change in the number of quiet days is the signature of a long term evolution of the solar coronal field topology. It may be interpreted in terms of an increase in the magnitude of the solar dipole, the associated decrease of the heliosheet thickness accounting for the observed decrease in the number of quiet days.

F. Ouattara

2009-05-01

117

Missionários da 'boa imprensa': a revista Ave Maria e os desafios da imprensa católica nos primeiros anos do século XX 'Good press' missionaires: Ave Maria magazine and the challenges of the catholic press in the early years of the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O artigo discute o papel da imprensa católica no Brasil de primeiros anos do século XX. De modo especial, focaliza o desempenho da revista mariana popular Ave Maria, fundada em 1898. Discute como o catolicismo institucional brasileiro, ao consagrar um projeto fundado na criação e expansão da imprensa confessional, pretendeu defender com eficácia os múltiplos interesses da Igreja, em face de progressivas exigências políticas e culturais.This article emphasises the role of catholic press in Brazil in the early years of the 20th century. In a particular way, it focuses the performance of the popular Marian magazine Ave Maria, founded in 1898. This work also discusses how Brazilian institutional Catholicism intended to defend efficiently the multiple interests of the Catholic Church before progressive cultural and political demands, by consecrating a project founded on the creation and expansion of the confessional press.

Marcos Gonçalves

2008-06-01

118

Simulation of Sahel drought in the 20th and 21st centuries.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Sahel, the transition zone between the Saharan desert and the rainforests of Central Africa and the Guinean Coast, experienced a severe drying trend from the 1950s to the 1980s, from which there has been partial recovery. Continuation of either the drying trend or the more recent ameliorating trend would have far-ranging implications for the economy and ecology of the region. Coupled atmosphere/ocean climate models being used to simulate the future climate have had difficulty simulating Sahel rainfall variations comparable to those observed, thus calling into question their ability to predict future climate change in this region. We describe simulations using a new global climate model that capture several aspects of the 20th century rainfall record in the Sahel. An ensemble mean over eight realizations shows a drying trend in the second half of the century of nearly half of the observed amplitude. Individual realizations can be found that display striking similarity to the observed time series and drying pattern, consistent with the hypothesis that the observations are a superposition of an externally forced trend and internal variability. The drying trend in the ensemble mean of the model simulations is attributable to anthropogenic forcing, partly to an increase in aerosol loading and partly to an increase in greenhouse gases. The model projects a drier Sahel in the future, due primarily to increasing greenhouse gases. PMID:16322101

Held, I M; Delworth, T L; Lu, J; Findell, K L; Knutson, T R

2005-12-13

119

Coral Records of Late 20th Century Warming and Freshening in the Central Tropical Pacific  

Science.gov (United States)

Tropical Pacific climate variability strongly impacts global temperature and rainfall patterns. The evolution of tropical Pacific climate under anthropogenic greenhouse warming is unclear, observational and modeling studies support both a strengthening (Cane et al.,1997) and a weakening (Vecchi et al.,2006) of the tropical Pacific zonal sea-surface temperature (SST) gradient. Corals from the central tropical Pacific (CTP) have provided monthly-resolved climate proxy records that contain late 20th century trends toward more negative oxygen isotopic (d18O) values, suggesting that regional warming and/or freshening has occurred over the last several decades (Urban et al.,2000; Cobb et al.,2001). It is important to identify the physical mechanisms that underlie these trends in order to better predict low-frequency changes in tropical Pacific climate over the next decades. One potential mechanism involves a reduction in the tropical Pacific zonal SST gradient, which would warm the CTP by reducing upwelling while increasing rainfall (thereby decreasing salinity). On the other hand, warming might have occurred absent any change in the zonal SST gradient, and the freshening may signal changes in the location and/or intensity of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Here we apply d18O and Sr/Ca proxies to modern corals from Palmyra, Fanning and Christmas Islands (2-6°N,157-162°W) in order to reconstruct SST and sea-surface salinity (SSS) over the last several decades. While coral d18O changes in SST and/or the d18O of seawater (d18Osw, which is linearly related to salinity in this region), coral Sr/Ca is mainly controlled by SST. When used together, these two proxies allow us to quantify recent climate trends in the CTP with respect to SST and SSS, particularly because Palmyra, Fanning and Christmas span strong gradients in SST and SSS. The islands are aligned in a NW-SE fashion, such that Christmas (2°N) is bathed by the South Equatorial Current and dominated by upwelling variability; while Palmyra (6°N) lies in the core of the North Equatorial Counter Current (NECC) and is heavily influenced by ITCZ variability. We measure coral Sr/Ca ratios with an analytical error of better than ±0.3percent or ~±0.4°C(1?). We measure coral d18O values with an analytical error of ±0.05percent(1?). After converting the coral Sr/Ca measurements into SST anomalies, we construct d18Osw timeseries by removing the Sr/Ca-derived SST contribution from the coral d18O. The Sr/Ca-based SST reconstructions show that Palmyra and Christmas have warmed by 0.6 and 1.5°C over the period 1970-1998, respectively. The stronger warming trend at Christmas is consistent with a reduction in equatorial upwelling over this period. The d18Osw timeseries suggest that Palmyra and Christmas have experienced seawater freshening of 0.94psu and 0.36psu, respectively over the period. The stronger freshening trend at Palmyra may suggest enhanced and/or a southward migration of the ITCZ, and/or a reduction in the salinity of waters advected from the West Pacific Warm Pool by the NECC. Preliminary SST and SSS reconstructions from Fanning, which lies between Palmyra and Christmas, confirm these late 20th century warming and freshening trends. Taken together, the coral-based evidence for simultaneous warming and freshening in the CTP is consistent with a weakening of the tropical Pacific zonal SST gradient in the late 20th century. References: Cane et al.(1997).Science,275:957-960. Cobb et al.(2001).Geophys.Res.Lett.,28(11):2209-2212. Urban et al.(2000).Nature,407:989-993. Vecchi et al.(2006).Nature,441:73-76.

Nurhati, I. S.; Cobb, K. M.; Charles, C. D.

2007-12-01

120

Trends and extremes of drought indices throughout the 20th century in the Mediterranean  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Average monthly precipitation, the original Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI and a recent adaptation to Europe, the Self Calibrated PDSI (scPDSI have been used here to analyse the spatial and temporal evolution of drought conditions in the Mediterranean during the 20th century. Monthly, seasonal and annual trends were computed for the period 1901–2000 and also for the first and second halves of this period. The statistical significance of trends was obtained with a modified version of the Mann-Kendall test that accounts for serial auto-correlation. The results show a clear trend towards drier conditions during the 20th century in most western and central Mediterranean regions, with the exceptions of northwestern Iberia and most of Turkey that reveal an increase of moisture availability. A Generalized Extreme Values (GEV analysis was applied to the maximum and minimum regional values of scPDSI, with results pointing towards a significant decline of absolute extreme values in central areas (Italy and Balkans and a less clear picture emerging in western (Iberia and eastern (Turkey realms.

The inter-annual variability of the scPDSI index series is shown to be more realistic than the corresponding PDSI version, fitting better the drought episodes sequence and magnitude described in the literature for each sub-region. We assess the decadal and inter-annual variability of the scPDSI for each sub-domain and evaluate the role played by the major teleconnection patterns, and by several sea surface temperature (SST anomalies. The main driver of scPDSI in western and central Mediterranean areas is the winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO pattern that is also relevant during the following spring and summer seasons with anti-correlation values below ?0.60. The second most important mode corresponds to the Scandinavian Pattern that is significantly associated to the scPDSI between winter and summer over central Mediterranean (correlation values around 0.50. Finally, the teleconnection and SST analysis has allowed us to calibrate a stepwise regression model, enabling the forecasting of summer drought conditions six months in advance. The final model obtained is capable of reproducing the observed scPDSI time series fairly well, with a correlation coefficient of 0.79 (0.77 after cross-validation and a significant gain over climatology (SSc=59%, while the corresponding result against persistence is more modest (SSp6=11%.

P. M. Sousa

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Santorini Volcano's 20th Century Eruptions: A Combined Petrogenetical, Volcanological, Sociological and Environmental Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Santorini, the famous stratovolcano in the Aegean Sea, erupted three time periods during the 20th century (1925-1928, 1939-1941, 1950) and since then remains dormant. This study tried to combine and evaluate new and published volcanological, petrological, geochemical, environmental and sociological data of these three phases of Santorini's activity, which practically restricted to the caldera center on the Nea Kameni Islet. After field work on the formed dacite flows, pyroclastics and domes, representative rock samples and enclaves were collected and investigated for their texture, physical parameters, mineralogy and chemical composition by polarizing light microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDS), XRD, Raman spectroscopy and ICP-MS. The petrogenetic evaluation of the data obtained suggests slight but significant changes in the solid and aerial phases produced during the three explosion stages, which can be attributed to minor variations in the magmatic differentiation and magma chamber physicochemical conditions. These variations were also expressed by decrease of duration and intensity of the eruptions, as well as in their volume of ejecta and lava. Probably, the subsequent relatively long dormant period of the volcano is also related to this tension of decrease. The first compared results were collected from scientific literature, old photos as well as local and regional press and state documents from the different periods of volcanism, record the past hazard case scenarios and civil defense planning of the individual eruptions. As part of the disaster management a pilot survey, in which personal interviews with aged local islanders that were eye-witnesses of the events and elderly people or tourists that they indirectly experienced or have heard about them, was also conducted. This event-tracing, along with air pollution software models using volcanological data have shown the social impacts and the environmental consequences of the volcanic activities seem generally to follow the same way of reduction with time as above. Conclusively, this integrated comparison of the three successive per decade eruption periods within the 20th century, which had followed a long dormant period of about 60 years, provide worthy hazard and risk assessment for Santorini volcano future waking up.

Drymoni, Kyriaki; Magganas, Andreas; Pomonis, Panagiotis

2014-05-01

122

Late 20th Century Warming and Freshening in the Central Tropical Pacific  

Science.gov (United States)

Tropical Pacific climate variability explains a significant fraction of global temperature and precipitation variability, yet how the tropical Pacific might evolve under greenhouse forcing is still uncertain. Climate model projections and analyses of instrumental climate data support both a weakening and as well as a strengthening of the tropical Pacific zonal SST gradient1. Published modern corals from the central tropical Pacific (CTP) exhibit trends toward depleted coral oxygen isotopic (?18O) values over the late 20th century2,3, suggesting that warming and/or seawater freshening has recently occurred in this region. It is important to understand the physical mechanisms that underlie these trends in order to better predict changes in tropical Pacific climate over the next decades. Here, we apply coral ?18O and Sr/Ca to coral cores from Palmyra, Fanning and Christmas Islands (2°N-6°N, 157°W- 162°W) located in the CTP in order to reconstruct the histories of SST and sea-surface salinity (SSS) over the period 1972-1998. The three islands span strong gradients in SST and SSS. The islands are aligned in a NW-SE fashion, with Christmas bathed by the South Equatorial Current and dominated by upwelling variability at the southern end; while Palmyra as the northern-most island, lies in the core of the North Equatorial Counter Current and is heavily influenced by ITCZ variability. We measure Sr/Ca ratio as a proxy for SST with an analytical precision of better than ± 0.3% (1?). We measure coral ?18O with an analytical precision of ± 0.05‰ (1?), and derive ?18O of seawater (?18Osw - a proxy for SSS) by removing the Sr/Ca-derived SST contribution from coral ?18O. The Sr/Ca-derived SST reconstructions reveal warming trends ranging from 0.94 ± 1.55°C (1?) at Palmyra to 1.65 ± 1.26°C (1?) at Christmas that increase towards the equator, inferring a reduction in equatorial upwelling over the last three decades. The corals also reveal seawater freshening trends (?18Osw trends of -0.12 to -0.33 ± 0.09‰, 1?) that increase towards the ITCZ, coherent with an equatorward shift of the convergent zone that is dynamically consistent with warmer equatorial temperatures. Together, the coral reconstructions support a late 20th century trend towards a weakening of the Pacific zonal SST gradient, which is in agreement with projections of the majority of coupled global climate models under increased greenhouse forcing.

Nurhati, I. S.; Cobb, K. M.; Charles, C. D.; Dunbar, R. B.

2008-12-01

123

Stationarity analysis of historical flood series in France and Spain (14th–20th centuries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Interdisciplinary frameworks for studying natural hazards and their temporal trends have an important potential in data generation for risk assessment, land use planning, and therefore the sustainable management of resources. This paper focuses on the adjustments required because of the wide variety of scientific fields involved in the reconstruction and characterisation of flood events for the past 1000 years. The aim of this paper is to describe various methodological aspects of the study of flood events in their historical dimension, including the critical evaluation of old documentary and instrumental sources, flood-event classification and hydraulic modelling, and homogeneity and quality control tests. Standardized criteria for flood classification have been defined and applied to the Isère and Drac floods in France, from 1600 to 1950, and to the Ter, the Llobregat and the Segre floods, in Spain, from 1300 to 1980. The analysis on the Drac and Isère data series from 1600 to the present day showed that extraordinary and catastrophic floods were not distributed uniformly in time. However, the largest floods (general catastrophic floods were homogeneously distributed in time within the period 1600–1900. No major flood occurred during the 20th century in these rivers. From 1300 to the present day, no homogeneous behaviour was observed for extraordinary floods in the Spanish rivers. The largest floods were uniformly distributed in time within the period 1300–1900, for the Segre and Ter rivers.

M. Barriendos

2003-01-01

124

Language & authoritarianism in the 20th century: The cases of Estonia and Catalonia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The 20th century saw the Soviet and Francoist regimes enforce their respective ideologies in Estonia and the Catalan-speaking territories in Spain. In both cases, the autochthonous language suffered under the stringent control of the mechanisms of censorship and repression. In fact, Soviet and Spanish leaders—representing both extremes of the political spectrum—tried to replace the use of the autochthonous language in many sociolinguistic domains with their own—Russian and (Castilian Spanish—as these languages embodied the ideologies and the new orders that they wished to establish. This paper compares and contrasts the diverse methods of control over language carried out in Estonia and the Catalan-speaking areas of Spain in order to demonstrate that highly centralised multilingual states—whatever their political ideology—can make use of surprisingly similar means of control, ultimately depriving local linguistic communities of the ability to use and develop their own language.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5128/ERYa6.16

Delaney Michael Skerrett

2010-05-01

125

Increased baseflow in Iowa over the second half of the 20th Century  

Science.gov (United States)

Historical trends in annual discharge characteristics were evaluated for 11 gauging stations located throughout Iowa. Discharge records from nine eight-digit hydrologic unit code (HUC-8) watersheds were examined for the period 1940 to 2000, whereas data for two larger river systems (Cedar and Des Moines Rivers) were examined for a longer period of record (1903 to 2000). In nearly all watersheds evaluated, annual baseflow, annual minimum flow, and the annual baseflow percentage significantly increased over time. Some rivers also exhibited increasing trends in total annual discharge, whereas only the Maquoketa River had significantly decreased annual maximum flows. Regression of stream discharge versus precipitation indicated that more precipitation is being routed into streams as baseflow than as stormflow in the second half of the 20th Century. Reasons for the observed streamflow trends are hypothesized to include improved conservation practices, greater artificial drainage, increasing row crop production, and channel incision. Each of these reasons is consistent with the observed trends, and all are likely responsible to some degree in most watersheds.

Schilling, K.E.; Libra, R.D.

2003-01-01

126

Observed Abrupt Changes in Minimum and Maximum Temperatures in Jordan in the 20th Century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examines changes in annual and seasonal mean (minimum and maximum temperatures variations in Jordan during the 20th century. The analyses focus on the time series records at the Amman Airport Meteorological (AAM station. The occurrence of abrupt changes and trends were examined using cumulative sum charts (CUSUM and bootstrapping and the Mann-Kendall rank test. Statistically significant abrupt changes and trends have been detected. Major change points in the mean minimum (night-time and mean maximum (day-time temperatures occurred in 1957 and 1967, respectively. A minor change point in the annual mean maximum temperature also occurred in 1954, which is essential agreement with the detected change in minimum temperature. The analysis showed a significant warming trend after the years 1957 and 1967 for the minimum and maximum temperatures, respectively. The analysis of maximum temperatures shows a significant warming trend after the year 1967 for the summer season with a rate of temperature increase of 0.038°C/year. The analysis of minimum temperatures shows a significant warming trend after the year 1957 for all seasons. Temperature and rainfall data from other stations in the country have been considered and showed similar changes.

Mohammad M.  samdi

2006-01-01

127

Trends in coastal upwelling intensity during the late 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study presents linear trends of coastal upwelling intensity in the later part of the 20th century (1960–2001 employing various indices of upwelling, derived from meridional wind stress and sea surface temperature. The analysis was conducted in the four major coastal upwelling regions in the world, which are off North-West Africa, Lüderitz, California and Peru. The trends in meridional wind stress showed a steady increase of intensity from 1960–2001, which was also reflected in the SST index calculated for the same time period. The steady cooling observed in the instrumental records of SST off California substantiated this observation further. It was also noted that the trends in meridional wind stress obtained from different datasets differ substantially from each other. Correlation analysis showed that basin-scale oscillations like the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO could not be directly linked to the observed increase of upwelling intensity off NW Africa and California respectively. The relationship of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO with coastal upwelling off NW Africa turned out to be ambiguous due to a negative correlation between the NAO index and the meridional wind stress and a lack of correlation with the SST index. Our results give additional support to the hypothesis that the coastal upwelling intensity increases globally because of raising greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere and an associated increase of the land-sea pressure gradient and meridional wind stress.

N. Narayan

2010-09-01

128

Trends in coastal upwelling intensity during the late 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study presents linear trends of coastal upwelling intensity in the later part of the 20th century (1960–2001 employing various indices of upwelling, derived from meridional wind stress and sea surface temperature. The analysis was conducted in the four major coastal upwelling regions in the world, which are off North-West Africa, Lüderitz, California and Peru respectively. The trends in meridional wind stress showed a steady increase of intensity from 1960–2001, which was also reflected in the SST index calculated for the same time period. The steady cooling observed in the instrumental records of SST off California substantiated this observation further. Correlation analysis showed that basin-scale oscillations like the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO could not be directly linked to the observed increase of upwelling intensity off NW Africa and California respectively. The relationship of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO with coastal upwelling off NW Africa turned out to be ambiguous due to a negative correlation between the NAO index and the meridional wind stress and a lack of correlation with the SST index. Our results give additional support to the hypothesis that the coastal upwelling intensity increases globally because of raising greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere and an associated increase of the land-sea pressure gradient and meridional wind stress.

N. Narayan

2010-02-01

129

The NPR 100: The 100 most important American musical works of the 20th century  

Science.gov (United States)

Last October, working off of a list created by NPR staff, critics, and scholars, NPR listeners and a panel of musicians voted for the 100 most important American musical works of the 20th century. Throughout this year, NPR has been broadcasting stories featuring these works on All Things Considered NPR's Performance Today, and other NPR shows. The Website currently features 53 of these broadcasts, which typically run about ten minutes and feature performances of the musical piece along with a background report on its genesis and significance to American music. The list is both fascinating and profoundly eclectic, ranging from Stravinsky's Symphony of Psalms to Nirvana's "Smells like Teen Spirit" with representatives from folk, rock, jazz, R 'n' B, gospel, punk, American musicals, the hit parade, and country. The broadcasts are listed in order of appearance (most recent first) with annotations, or alphabetically without annotations. A description of the voting process is also posted. Visitors will need RealPlayer to listen to the broadcasts. Note: we do wish that the creators of the site had chosen the QuickTime audio application so as to avoid that wobbly streaming effect that so undermines a piece like Barber's Adagio for Strings.

130

Brief resume of exploration history in Azerbaijan sector of Caspian sea in 20th century  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text : This article contains information about seismic exploration activities in the shallow water part of Azeri sector of Caspian see in the 20th century. During this time 145 perspective structures had been discovered in Azeri sector of Caspian as a result of the exploration. On some of those perspectives that were prepared for geological prospecting deep-hole exploration drilling was carried out and according to the data acquired, there were 27 oil and gas gas fields discovered at that time. The distinctive feature of these deposits is that the production was conducted by means of special dums, piers, built from the shore and also by deviated wells having there wellhead on the land. After World War 2, due to depletion of the main oil producing region, i.e. Apsheron peninsular, Azerbaijan geologists appealed to exploring new oil bearing deposits in other regions of Azerbaijan. Analyses of the geological and geophysical data reveal that along with the high probability of new deposit detection within already discovered structures, positive results may also be acquired by exploration of non-anticlinal traps and pliocene deposits of the western slope of Caspian sea.

131

Offsetting effects of aerosols on Arctic and global climate in the late 20th century  

Science.gov (United States)

We examine the impacts of atmospheric aerosols on Arctic and global climate using a series of 20th century transient simulations from Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4). We focus on the response of surface air temperature to the direct radiative forcing driven by changes in sulfate and black carbon (BC) concentrations from 1975 to 2005 and we also examine the response to changes in sulfate, BC, and organic carbon (OC) aerosols collectively. The direct forcing from sulfate dominates the aerosol climate effect. Globally averaged, simultaneous changes in all three aerosols produce a cooling trend of 0.015 K decade-1 during the period 1975-2005. In the Arctic, surface air temperature has large spatial variations in response to changes in aerosol concentrations. Over the European Arctic, aerosols induce about 0.6 K decade-1 warming, which is about 1.8 K warming over the 30-year period. This warming is triggered mainly by the reduction in sulfate and BC emissions over Europe since the 1970s and is reinforced by sea ice loss and a strengthening in atmospheric northward heat transport. Changes in sulfate concentrations account for about two thirds of the warming and BC for the remaining one third. Over the Siberian and North American Arctic, surface air temperature is likely influenced by changes in aerosol concentrations over Asia. An increase in sulfate optical depth over Asia induces a large cooling while an increase in BC over Asia causes a significant warming.

Yang, Q.; Bitz, C. M.; Doherty, S. J.

2014-04-01

132

Serbian societies in Dubrovnik at the beginning of the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the second half of the 19th century and at the beginning of the 20th century. Dubrovnik was the center of the coastline Serbs, both Catholic and Orthodox. National activities of the Serbs developed through cultural and economic societies. The educational-economic society Srpska Zora (Serbian Dawn was founded in 1901 in Knin. It encouraged the establishment of agricultural co-operatives in villages and savings banks in towns. After the initiative of Srpska Zora, The Alliance of Serbian Economic Co-operatives at the coast was founded in 1905. The main activity of Srpska Zora was to strengthen the Serbian intelligentsia by helping the poor pupils. It helped financially the work of Serbian singing societies at the coast. Matica Srpska in Dubrovnik was founded in 1909 as an endowment of the merchant Konstantin Vu?kovi?. The first gymnastics (chivalrous societies at the coast were founded in 1907, Dušan Silni (Dušan the Great in Dubrovnik and Srpski Soko (Serbian Falcon in Risan. The chivalrous education was at the same time physical, moral and national. The Srpski Soko center at the coast was founded in 1911 in Herceg Novi. The center was a part of the Association of the Serbian Soko Movement in Belgrade. It held a spots rally in Dubrovnik in 1913 and in Knin in 1914. After Austria-Hungary declared war to Serbia in 1914 all Serbian societies were banned. The coastal Serbs tried to defect and to join the army of the Serbian states as volunteers. The Serbian army entered Dubrovnik on November 13, 1918. On the Unification Day, December 1, 1924, the monument to the King Peter I was unveiled. In 1925, Dubrovnik was visited by the King Aleksandar and Queen Maria. With very modest resources and with devoted work, the national entrepreneurs managed to gather, inspire and lead to coastal Serbs to the fight for liberation and unification.

Nedeljkovi? Saša

2007-01-01

133

Discursive Discrimination against the "Deaf-Mute"/"Deaf" and the Importance of Categorization in 20th Century Sweden  

Science.gov (United States)

This article sheds light on issues concerning discrimination in the history of deaf people in Sweden in the 20th century. With the help of a specific typology of concepts for analysing discrimination exercised through the use of language, it is shown how the categorization of the hearing impaired has changed over time and how, in this process of…

Boreus, Kristina

2007-01-01

134

The economic historiography of Valle del Cauca, 19th and 20th centuries. Topics, spaces, and times: A quantitative approximation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available From a quantitative perspective, the article deals with the economic historiography of the Valle del Cauca for the 19th and 20th centuries. The aim is to offer a sectorial approximation from the selection of a series of variables such as: topics, centuries and periods, and spaces. The intention is, in a critical style, to give an account of the level of development achieved by this historiography on the regional economy.

Julio César Zuluaga Jiménez

2009-12-01

135

Manuais didáticos no início do século XX em Sergipe: cultura material escolar dos grupos escolares Textbooks from the early 20th century in Sergipe: institutional teaching material for school groups  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ao investigar a cultura escolar dos grupos escolares sergipanos, questionou-se acerca da presença de manuais didáticos nestas instituições no início do século XX e suas características. Assim, com base em pesquisa bibliográfica e documental desenvolvidas sob a perspectiva da História Cultural, objetivou-se identificar quais manuais didáticos integraram a cultura dos grupos escolares, analisar a materialidade dos documentos e identificar aspectos característicos da cultura escolar do período, por meio da análise do conteúdo dos textos dos manuais escolares.When investigating the school institutions of Sergipe, the presence and characteristics of textbooks at the beginning of the twentieth century were examined. Thus, based on a literary and documentary search developed from the perspective of Cultural History, the objective was to identify which textbooks had been integrated into the school institutions, then analyze the materiality of the documents, identifying characteristic features of the school institutions of that period through an analysis of the content of the textbooks.

Crislane Barbosa Azevedo

2011-12-01

136

AN ANALYSIS OF THE DIFFERENTIATION STRATEGIES OF RURAL FOUNDRIES IN THE BEGINNING OF THE 20TH CENTURY IN THE PROVINCE OF QUEBEC  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The business model and strategic position of Quebec's rural foundries at the beginning of the 20th century is virtually unknown. Inferences have been made based on pictorial and oral data sources. This data reveals that successful rural foundries were, in essence, confined to producing and selling agricultural tools to local farmers on an as-needed basis, because large urban foundries were already mass-producing domestic and industrial objects. In contrast, use of detailed accounting records and advertising publications of three rural foundries over the 1900 to 1914 period provides a clearer picture of the production and of the clientele of those rural foundries. Analysis of these sources suggests that the strategic business model of rural foundries was much more elaborate than the existing literature posits. Rural owner-managers of the early 20th century were sophisticated strategists, marketers, and operators.

Lisa Baillargeon

2009-01-01

137

A critical analysis of actions taken upon historic musical instruments through the period of the early music revival from the beginning of the 20th century to the 1990s.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This work is a critical analysis of craft internvention upon historic musical instruments. It is centred upon the tension between use and preservation that arose with the conflicting demands of the early music revival for working musical instruments,and of the conservation discipline for the preservation of these artefacts as documents of contemporary instrument-making and musical practices. A framework is developed around three regimens of function, termed Currency, Restitution and Preservat...

Barclay, Robert Leslie

1999-01-01

138

Conceptual Revolution of the 20th Century Leading to One Grand Unified Concept -- The Quantum Vacuum  

Science.gov (United States)

Concepts and the relations between concepts are the basis for all our scientific understanding and explanation of the wide variety of constituents and phenomena in nature. Some of the fundamental concepts like space, time, matter, radiation, causality, etc. had remained unchanged for almost four hundred years from the time of the dawn of science. However all these underwent a drastic transformation in the 20th century because of two reasons. One, in the light of certain experimental findings two radical theories namely theory of relativity and theory of quantum mechanics replaced the classical theory that had dominated since Newton's time. Secondly, the science-technology spiral resulted in the discovery of very many new features of the universe both on the micro scale and on the mega scale. There was an exponential increase in our knowledge. These new facts could not be fitted into the old concepts. Apart from drastic revision, many new concepts had to be brought in. Despite all this, one very encouraging trend has been to discern a holistic synthesis and unification of the different concepts -- an endeavor that has been helped by experiments over a wide scale of energy and distances and most importantly from theoretical insights triggered by mathematical underpinnings. These developments in physics and astrophysics are pointing to one grand concept, namely, the "quantum vacuum" endowed with certain special properties, as the substratum from which all the constituents of the universe as well as the processes of the universe emerge, including the creation of the universe itself. This is the view, at least of some of the scientists. In this brief article the essence of these approaches toward unification is highlighted. Maybe life sciences can take a clue from these developments in physical sciences.

Sreekantan, B. V.

2014-07-01

139

MINING ENTREPRENEURS IN CROATIA FROM THE MID-19TH TO THE MID-20TH CENTURY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The masters, or owners, of mining rights for the exploration of ores were prospectors and free or independent prospectors. Concession books and registers were kept about the proprietors of ore fields or mines. In them was entered, among other things, which ore was planned to be exploited. The possessor of a licence, permits for exploration and exploitation of ores, paid a certain fee every year. He could also sell his mining righis. in the shape of permits, partially or, more frequently, totally, as was recorded in the books. If he did not pay taxes, he could lose all his rights, which were then deleted, or crossed out of the mining books. Those who possessed mining permits had to solve the questions of compensation to the owners of the lands where they intended to do detailed explorations, and to exploit the ore, even to the extent of leasing or buying the land. The mining activity in Croatia between the mid-19th and mid-20th centuries is richly documented in the (Imperial and Royal mining captaincies in Zagreb, Zadar and Split. The basic mining law was the General Austrian Mining Law of 1854, with its amendments of 1911 (Legal Article VI about mineral oil substances and natural gases.In Croatia, mining enterpreneurs were individuals or companies (including the slate with the proviso that at the beginning there were more foreigners. However, Croatian traders, industrialists, magnates, officials, bankers, various companies, engineers, artists, retired persons, peasants, officers and others soon became involved in mining. Among the entrepreneurs there were various noblemen.It has been ascertained in this research that in individual periods between 1855 and 1945 there was a dominance of individuals (mainly 81%-85% while today (1990-1995 it is quite the opposite (86% are companies, because this is the end of the long term control of the socially owned companies. Thes same situation obtains today with respect to exploitation licenses, where companies predominate (84%.

Berislav Šebe?i?

1996-12-01

140

Manuais didáticos no início do século XX em Sergipe: cultura material escolar dos grupos escolares / Textbooks from the early 20th century in Sergipe: institutional teaching material for school groups  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Ao investigar a cultura escolar dos grupos escolares sergipanos, questionou-se acerca da presença de manuais didáticos nestas instituições no início do século XX e suas características. Assim, com base em pesquisa bibliográfica e documental desenvolvidas sob a perspectiva da História Cultural, objet [...] ivou-se identificar quais manuais didáticos integraram a cultura dos grupos escolares, analisar a materialidade dos documentos e identificar aspectos característicos da cultura escolar do período, por meio da análise do conteúdo dos textos dos manuais escolares. Abstract in english When investigating the school institutions of Sergipe, the presence and characteristics of textbooks at the beginning of the twentieth century were examined. Thus, based on a literary and documentary search developed from the perspective of Cultural History, the objective was to identify which textb [...] ooks had been integrated into the school institutions, then analyze the materiality of the documents, identifying characteristic features of the school institutions of that period through an analysis of the content of the textbooks.

Crislane Barbosa, Azevedo.

 
 
 
 
141

The reversal of the relation between economic growth and health progress: Sweden in the 19th and 20th centuries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Health progress, as measured by the decline in mortality rates and the increase in life expectancy, is usually conceived as related to economic growth, especially in the long run. In this investigation it is shown that economic growth is positively associated with health progress in Sweden throughout the 19th century. However, the relation becomes weaker as time passes and is completely reversed in the second half of the 20th century, when economic growth negatively affects health progress. The effect of the economy on health occurs mostly at lag 0 in the 19th century and is lagged up to 2 years in the 20th century. No evidence is found for economic effects on mortality at greater lags. These findings are shown to be robustly consistent across a variety of statistical procedures, including linear regression, spectral analysis, cross-correlation, and lag regression models. Models using inflation and unemployment as economic indicators reveal similar results. Evidence for reverse effects of health progress on economic growth is weak, and unobservable in the second half of the 20th century. PMID:18249452

Tapia Granados, José A; Ionides, Edward L

2008-05-01

142

Enhanced 20th century heat transfer to the Arctic simulated in the context of climate variations over the last millennium  

Science.gov (United States)

Oceanic heat transport variations, carried by the northward flowing Atlantic Water, strongly influence Arctic sea-ice distribution, ocean-atmosphere exchanges, and pan-Arctic temperatures. Paleoceanographic reconstructions from marine sediments near Fram Strait have documented a dramatic increase in Atlantic Water temperatures over the 20th century, unprecedented in the last millennium. Here we present results from Earth system model simulations over the last millennium that reproduce and explain reconstructed integrated quantities such as pan-Arctic temperature evolution during the pre-industrial millennium as well as the exceptional Atlantic Water warming in Fram Strait in the 20th century. The associated increase in ocean heat transfer to the Arctic can be traced back to changes in the ocean circulation in the sub-polar North Atlantic. An interplay between a weakening overturning circulation and a strengthening sub-polar gyre as a consequence of 20th century global warming is identified as driving mechanism for the pronounced warming along the Atlantic Water path toward the Arctic. Simulations covering the late Holocene provide a reference frame that allows us to conclude that the changes during the last century are unprecedented in the last 1150 years and that they cannot be explained by internal variability or natural forcing alone.

Jungclaus, J. H.; Lohmann, K.; Zanchettin, D.

2014-07-01

143

Enhanced 20th century heat transfer to the Arctic simulated in the context of climate variations over the last millennium  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Oceanic heat transport variations, carried by the northward flowing Atlantic Water, strongly influence Arctic sea-ice distribution, ocean–atmosphere exchanges, and pan-Arctic temperatures. Paleoceanographic reconstructions from marine sediments near Fram Strait have documented a dramatic increase in Atlantic Water temperatures over the 20th century, unprecedented in the last millennium. Here we present results from Earth system model simulations over the last millennium that reproduce and explain reconstructed integrated quantities such as pan-Arctic temperature evolution during the pre-industrial millennium as well as the exceptional Atlantic Water warming in Fram Strait in the 20th century. The associated increase in ocean heat transfer to the Arctic can be traced back to changes in the ocean circulation in the sub-polar North Atlantic. An interplay between a weakening overturning circulation and a strengthening sub-polar gyre as a consequence of 20th century global warming is identified as driving mechanism for the pronounced warming along the Atlantic Water path toward the Arctic. Simulations covering the late Holocene provide a reference frame that allows us to conclude that the changes during the last century are unprecedented in the last 1150 years and that they cannot be explained by internal variability or natural forcing alone.

J. H. Jungclaus

2014-07-01

144

Evaluation for sustainable agriculture water use from River, Reservoirs and Groundwater in the 20th century  

Science.gov (United States)

High water stress due to economic growth and climate change (ex. global warming) will be falling into 2 billion people to 4 billion people in the future. Agricultural water use accounting for about 70% of global water consumption might continue to increase due to production of foods and biofuels occurred by population growth in the future. In particular, water demand, food and biofuel production have an inextricable link. It is very important to evaluate these relationship for sustainable water use from past to the future. In this study, we focused on the objective to assess the impact of water withdrawal from various sources (stream flow, medium-sized reservoirs and nonrenewable nonlocal blue water) in the 20th century by considering irrigation area and climate change. Irrigation water withdrawal is the most important water use sector accounting for about 90% of total water withdrawal. First, we make the global spatial database of equipped irrigation area change and medium-sized reservoirs capacity. Then, water withdrawal from each sources for 50 years from 1950 to 2000 were simulated in global-scale at a resolution of 1.0 degree x 1.0 degree using an integrated global water resources model (hereafter, the H08 model). The H08 model can simulate both natural or anthropogenic water flow and anthropogenic water withdrawals. For comparison with our results, distribution of agricultural, industrial and domestic water withdrawals from 1950 to 2000 were estimated by distributing the country-based withdrawal data from AQUASTAT with irrigation area, urban population and total population, respectively. Groundwater withdrawal was then estimated by distributing the country-based withdrawal data based on statistical data from WRI, IGRAC and AQUASTAT with the total water withdrawal. As a result, agricultural water withdrawal change from nonrenewable nonlocal blue water during the past 50 years agreed well with the observed groundwater abstraction based on statistical data. In addition, many of the well-known hot spots of groundwater depletion (northeast Pakistan, northeast China, the Ogallala Aquifer, Iran and southeast Spain) appeared in spatial distribution of the change. In conclusion, this study was successful in simulations of global water withdrawals change from nonrenewable nonlocal blue water during the past 50 years using by the H08 model consisting of physical based hydrology. If irrigation areas continue to increasing, groundwater depletion might become more serious.

Yoshikawa, S.; Yamada, H.; Hanasaki, N.; Kanae, S.

2011-12-01

145

[Scientific change in times of political upheaval: Germany in the 20th century].  

Science.gov (United States)

Until recently, the development of the modern sciences has usually been described as a continuous unfolding of constantly expanding and differentiating research institutions on the one hand, and the accumulation of more and better knowledge on the other. The changes that have occurred both in scientific institutions and in the direction and content of research in the course of revolutions or comparable political changes pose significant challenges to such accounts. I would like to propose an interactive approach to this issue. Instead of accepting a linear, deterministic model of scientific change as a result of political upheaval, I suggest that such political changes present an array of challenges to and possibilities for the interruption, redirection, reconstruction or effortful continuation of research. The central claim is that scientific development in times of political upheaval has proceeded in Germany primarily by means of increasing cooperation of scientists with the state, involving a process that I call the technologization of basic research. But this is not always a one-sided affair involving the subordination of science to practical politics or to ideology. Rather, I argue, what occurs is the mobilization or reconstruction of physical, institutional, financial cognitive and/or rhetorical resources. Such mobilizations can proceed in various directions: the state or agencies within it can mobilize scientists as resources in the interest of achieving certain political aims; scientists can convert themselves into such resources (or claim that they are doing so); or both things can happen at once. The approach is exemplified by examining continuities and changes in the situations of the sciences following the major turning points of 20th century German history, symbolized by the dates 1918, 1933, 1945 and 1990. Considered in particular are: scientific changes in Germany following the Nazi takeover and creative innovations by émigré scientists working in different cultural settings; the massive transfer of scientific resources after Nazi Germany's defeat and attempts to carry on and reconstruct science in the two postwar German states; and the massive reorganization of scientific institutions in eastern Germany after unification. The examples come primarily from biology and experimental psychology, but physical sciences and particular branches of technology are considered as well. PMID:11640382

Ash, M G

1995-01-01

146

Business and politics in early 20th century Japan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper by Masato Kimura seeks to clarify the contributions and limitations of Japanese business diplomacy by looking at the business mission to Britain and the US in 1921-22, and the Japanese Economic Mission to Europe and the United States of 1937. The paper argues that Japanese business diplomacy, while of significance particularly in building up international human networks, was insufficiently influential to prevent political and military conflict. Peter von Staden's paper focuses on th...

Kimura, Masato; Von Staden, Peter

2002-01-01

147

The place of complementary education in the reformed educational system of Lithuania at the end of the 20th century  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

At the end of the 20th century the development of educational system in Lithuania was based on differentiation and integration. A foundation for the development of such a system was provided by the Regulations of Lithuanian Education Conception (1992) and General Syllabus Requirements (1997). In those days one of the principles – the principle of continuity – was applied not only to different sectors of education but to different fields of education as well. The mission of the education a...

Survutaite?, Dalia

2006-01-01

148

Svea People in the Land of Babel : Swedish Identity in Canada during the First Half of the 20th Century  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this thesis is to shed light upon the construction of identity within the Swedish- Canadian immigrant group during the first half of the 20th century. The most important sources of ethnic and nationalistic influences this study scrutinizes are the homeland Sweden, Swedish-America, Scandinavian-Canada and the Canadian host society. It also examines the interaction with other social identities, such as gender and religion. Theoretically, this dissertation takes its point of departure...

Ro?nnqvist, Carina

2004-01-01

149

Regional Variability of the 20th century sea level rise from Ocean-Atmosphere Coupled Climate Models  

Science.gov (United States)

Regional Variability of the 20th century sea level rise from Ocean-Atmosphere Coupled Climate Models. R.Chevrier, B. Meyssignac, E. Bourgeois, B. Marzeion and A.Cazenave Over the 20th century, tide gauge records indicate a rise in global mean sea level of 1.7 mm.y-1 (Church and White 2011). This rise is essentially due to the warming of the ocean (which made the ocean water expand and sea level rise by ˜0.6 mm.yr-1) and the melt of mountain glaciers (which added more water to the ocean and made sea level rise by ˜,0.6 mm.yr-1 Gregory et al. 2013). Land water changes and Greenland surface mass balance changes also played a role but of lesser importance ( ˜0.1 mm.yr-1 for the land water storage and ˜0.2 mm.yr-1 for the Greenland mass balance since 1900, Gregory et al. 2013). Each of these different contributors to the 20th century global mean sea level rise had also an impact on the regional sea level changes. This regional signal, which must be added to the global sea level rise to compute the total sea level signal, is essential when we want to assess the impacts of the 20th century sea level rise on coastal areas and low lying islands. In this study we aim to estimate this 20th century regional sea level changes. We use historical runs of the CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5) coupled climate models, which cover the period 1850-2006, to estimate the different contributors to the regional sea level changes since 1900. The ocean warming contribution is directly computed from the Temperature and Salinity outputs of the CMIP5 models while the mountain glaciers and the Greenland contributions are computed from offline models using the surface temperature output of CMIP5 models. Concerning the landwater storage contribution, it is actually mainly of anthropogenic origin over the 20th century (Ngoduc et al. 2005, Meyssignac et Cazenave 2012) so it is not modeled in CMIP5 models. Consequently, we use here estimates of the landwater storage contribution based on 20th century observations from Konikow et al. 2011 and Wada et al. 2012. As a results we present the different contributions to regional sea level changes over the last century. We also show the sum of this contributions and we compare it with sea level observations from tide gauge records and satellite altimetry. This comparison enables to select the models that reproduce best the regional variability in sea level observed over the past decades. The next step is to use these selected models to compute improved sea level projections for 2100.

Chevrier, Robin; Meyssignac, Benoit; Bourgeois, Elsa; Marzeion, Ben; Cazenave, Anny

2014-05-01

150

From the Tallest to (One of) the Fattest: The Enigmatic Fate of the American Population in the 20th Century  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Within the course of the 20th century the American population went through a metamorphosis from being the tallest in the world, to being among the most overweight. The American height advantage over Western and Northern Europeans was between 3 and 9 cm in the middle of the 19th century. Americans were also underweight. However, today, the exact opposite is the case as the Dutch, Swedes, and Norwegians are the tallest, and the Danes, British and Germans – even the East-Germans - are also ...

Komlos, John; Baur, Marieluise

2003-01-01

151

See no evil, hear no evil: the rise and fall of child sexual abuse in the 20th century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This paper examines the development of a medical perspective on child sexual abuse during the course of the 20th century and argues that such a perspective has not served the best interests of sexually abused children. An alternate social perspective is outlined, which would appear to have the poten [...] tial to adequately address the needs of sexually abused children in the 21st century. The paper concludes by arguing that, despite its merits, the social perspective is likely to be of little value unless we can learn to more effectively see and hear the voices of child survivors.

Steven J, Collings.

152

See no evil, hear no evil: the rise and fall of child sexual abuse in the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper examines the development of a medical perspective on child sexual abuse during the course of the 20th century and argues that such a perspective has not served the best interests of sexually abused children. An alternate social perspective is outlined, which would appear to have the potential to adequately address the needs of sexually abused children in the 21st century. The paper concludes by arguing that, despite its merits, the social perspective is likely to be of little value unless we can learn to more effectively see and hear the voices of child survivors.

Steven J Collings

2009-01-01

153

The decline of winter monsoon velocity in the South China Sea through the 20th century: Evidence from the Sr/Ca records in corals  

Science.gov (United States)

A modern massive Porites coral was collected from the Longwan Bay (19??20???N, 110??39???E) on the east coast of the Hainan Island, China. The coral was sectioned vertical to the growth axis into discs of double density-bands representing annual growth. The samples were analyzed for the Sr/Ca ratio by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The history of winter sea-surface temperature (SST) is reconstructed using the Sr/Ca ratio in winter bands of corals. The winter SST at Xisha in the middle of the South China Sea (SCS) is weakly correlated with the instrument-measured winter monsoon velocity (WMV) with a correlation coefficient of 0.19. The winter SST data from corals at Longwan Bay, Hainan, in the northern SCS are moderately correlated with the WMV (r = 0.40). Interestingly we found that the difference of winter SSTs between the two sites (Xisha and Longwan Bay, Hainan) (the X-H index) is significantly negatively correlated with the WMV (r = - 0.73). This negative correlation may be related to the intrusion of the warm Kuroshio Current into the SCS through the Luzon Strait promoted by the strong northeastern monsoon winds in the winter. Using the relationship between our coralline data and observed WMV, the calculated winter monsoon velocity (WMVc) was obtained for 87??years. This data set in combination with the instrument-measured data between 1993 and 1998 generate a record of WMVc for a period of 93??years from 1906 to 1998. The WMVc in the 20th century shows significant interannual and decadal variability with a trend of persistent decline in the whole 20th century at the rate of decrease of - 0.02 (m/s)/a. The lowest wind velocity occurred during the last two decades of the 20th century. The WMVc has decreased significantly by about 30% from the early to the late of 20th century. The 20th century decline of winter monsoon velocity evidenced from the SCS coral records is consistent with the atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) simulations for monsoon response to increasing temperatures. In addition, an obvious decline shift of WMV around 1976 can be seen in both instrumental and proxy records and it coincides with many other Pacific records. This shift is likely to correspond to a Pacific-wide change in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation occurring at the same time. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Liu, Y.; Peng, Z.; Chen, T.; Wei, G.; Sun, W.; Sun, R.; He, J.; Liu, G.; Chou, C.-L.; Zartman, R.E.

2008-01-01

154

Impact of anthropogenic forcing on long-term precipitation trend in Africa in the 20th Century  

Science.gov (United States)

A drying trend over tropical Africa is one of the pronounced climatic changes in the 20th Century. The drying trend is observed not only in the northern part of tropical Africa (NAF) in boreal summer but also in the southern part of tropical Africa (SAF) in austral summer. Hoerling et al. [2006] pointed out that the African drying trend was directly attributable to changes in sea surface temperature (SST) of surrounding oceans. On the other hand, Paeth and Feichter [2006] reported that global warming due to greenhouse gases (GHGs) and increase in anthropogenic aerosols could affect the changes in precipitation in Africa. Here, we investigate impacts of anthropogenic forcings on the drying trends over the NAF and the SAF using the 20th Century simulations performed by a Coupled General Circulation Model, generally known as MIROC [Nozawa et al., 2005]. We looked into the relative contribution of individual anthropogenic forcing factors by analyzing several experiments forced with different combinations of external climate forcing factors. We also diagnosed physical mechanisms of the drying trend using an approximated moisture budget equation shown in Chou et al. [2009]. As a result, the impact of increased aerosols on precipitation was larger than that of global warming in the NAF. Global warming thermodynamically induced a moistening trend over the NAF in boreal summer, but it was cancelled out by a drying trend due to the dynamic effect of global warming. In contrast, the increase in anthropogenic aerosols thermodynamically induced a drying trend due to a tropospheric cooling and dynamically induced an additional drying trend due to an atmospheric local circulation change [Kawase et al., 2010]. On the other hand, global warming and increased black carbon (BC) aerosols controlled the drying trend over the SAF in austral summer. The descending wind anomaly, which caused the drying trend, over the SAF was induced by the ascending wind anomalies over surrounding oceans. The ascending wind anomaly over Indian Ocean was caused by warmed SST of Indian Ocean due to global warming, while that over Atlantic Ocean was caused by the lower-atmospheric heating by the increased BC aerosols. In addition, the increase in BC aerosols changed a surface radiation budget, which brought the additional drying trend over the SAF. References Chou, C., et al. (2009), Evaluating the "rich-get-richer" mechanism in tropical precipitation change under global warming, J. Climate, 22, 1982-2005. Hoerling, M., et al. (2006), Detection and attribution of twentieth-century northern and southern African rainfall change, J. Climate, 19, 3989-4008. Kawase, H., et al. (2010), Physical mechanism of long-term drying trend over tropical North Africa, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L09706, doi:10.1029/2010GL043038. Nozawa, T., et al. (2005), Detecting natural influence on surface air temperature change in the early twentieth century, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L20719, doi:10.1029/2005GL023540. Paeth H., and J. Feichter (2006), Greenhouse-gas versus aerosols forcing and African climate response, Climate Dyn., 26, 35-54.

Kawase, H.; Takemura, T.; Nozawa, T.

2010-12-01

155

20th century acidification and warming as recorded in two alpine lakes in the Tatra Mountains (South Poland, Europe).  

Science.gov (United States)

Sediment profiles of two alpine lakes located in the Tatra Mountains, the Toporowy Staw Nizni (TSN) and the Zielony Staw Gasienicowy (ZSG), were studied for their chronology, lithology, diatom and cladoceran remains. The sediment sequences, 50cm long from TSN and 30cm long from ZSG, were deposited during the last 1000 and 300 years, respectively. Vertical changes in lithology, diatom and Cladocera allow the reconstruction of three periods in the lakes' evolution: mild climatic conditions during Medieval Warm Period (MWP, only in TSN), severe conditions between the end of 14th and 19th centuries, identified as the Little Ice Age (LIA), and 20th century warming. The LIA was recorded in the sediments of both lakes in the form of intensified erosion and lower lake ecosystem productivity, as indicated by organic matter lower content, changes in diatom species composition, and decline in Daphnia. The 20th century was a time of acidification in both lakes. The scale of acidification was assessed based on the decline in diatom-inferred pH (DI-pH). DI-pH dropped by 1.2 pH units during the last century in TSN and by 0.4 pH unit in ZSG. The decline of DI-pH was noted in both lakes, but its intensity was clearly higher in TSN due to the lower acid neutralisation capacity (ANC) of this lake. The lower pH during the final decades of the 20th century was lethal to some water organisms while attracting others, such as Daphnia. The Daphnia population increased after the pH drop, probably due to the high food flexibility of this genus. A similar increase was not observed in ZSG, where planktonivorous fishes were introduced in the 1940s, which effectively limited the crustacean plankton density. PMID:19896170

Gasiorowski, Micha?; Sienkiewicz, Elwira

2010-02-01

156

Effects of breeding activity on durum wheat traits breed in Italy during the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Italy is the first world producer of pasta from durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. and an intense breeding activity has been conducted over the last century to support the long tradition of pasta making. This manuscript reviews the results achieved through the Italian breeding programs over last century. The analysis of data allows to appreciate the selective pressure imposed by the breeders on plant height and phenology to select cultivars well adapted to the Italian semi-arid conditions, where early maturity allows to escape the drought season. The annual genetic gain in terms of yield ranged from 17 to 24.6 kg ha-1 year-1 and it was most clearly associated with a higher kernels number m-2 indicating a larger grain-sink size and a higher number of spikes m-2. Regarding the quality traits, the grain protein concentration showed a decreasing trend over time of release of about 0.02% per year, confirming the negative relationship with grain yield.The progressive incorporation into recent cultivars of favourable alleles (7+8 glutenin subunit composition coding for superior quality subunits reflects the improvement in pasta making quality of the recent genotypes.

Luigi Cattivelli

2011-02-01

157

Effects of breeding activity on durum wheat traits breed in Italy during the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Italy is the first world producer of pasta from durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. and an intense breeding activity has been conducted over the last century to support the long tradition of pasta making. This manuscript reviews the results achieved through the Italian breeding programs over last century. The analysis of data allows to appreciate the selective pressure imposed by the breeders on plant height and phenology to select cultivars well adapted to the Italian semi-arid conditions, where early maturity allows to escape the drought season. The annual genetic gain in terms of yield ranged from 17 to 24.6 kg ha-1 year-1 and it was most clearly associated with a higher kernels number m-2 indicating a larger grain-sink size and a higher number of spikes m-2. Regarding the quality traits, the grain protein concentration showed a decreasing trend over time of release of about 0.02% per year, confirming the negative relationship with grain yield.The progressive incorporation into recent cultivars of favourable alleles (7+8 glutenin subunit composition coding for superior quality subunits reflects the improvement in pasta making quality of the recent genotypes.

Luigi Cattivelli

2007-12-01

158

PHOTOGRAPHY AND MODERNIZATION OF THE PRESS IN BRAZILIAN CAPITAL: The First Fifty Years of the 20th Century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The process which created the conditions for the development of
mass media press in Brazil was consolidated in the first half of the 20th Century with the emergence of newspaper companies based on an industrial form of production, the modernization of the writing style and design, plus the use of photography as a newsy element. There was a strong investment in technology in order to modernize the nation and photography, as a technical image par excellence, started to portray the acceleration of the passage of time that was accentuated by the 1890’s. In the beginning of the 20th century a new technological trend occurred mediated by the photographic apparatus and diffused through the newspaper and illustrated magazines pages that were multiplying in the nation’s capital, Rio de Janeiro1. The press used photography and a series of technological artifacts to acquire the status of a modern entity and multiply the number of readers, changing its forms of production and its auto-referential discourse, starting to be more and more the icon of modernity. The technologies capable of giving a wider dimension to the concept of time and space were decisive in shaping the new symbolic world which emerged since the turn of the century. The world got closer and more visible, the perception of the “other” changed gradually and temporality took on a new dimension. This article traces a panorama of the use of photography by the main newspapers published in the capital of Brazil in the first half of the 20th century, seeking in photography the reflection of the modernizing process that Brazilian society desired and underwent.

Silvana Louzada

2011-02-01

159

North Atlantic 20th century multidecadal variability in coupled climate models: sea surface temperature and ocean overturning circulation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Output from a total of 24 state-of-the-art Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models is analyzed. The models were integrated with observed forcing for the period 1850–2000 as part of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC Fourth Assessment Report. All models show enhanced variability at multi-decadal time scales in the North Atlantic sector similar to the observations, but with a large intermodel spread in amplitudes and frequencies for both the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO and the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC. The models, in general, are able to reproduce the observed geographical patterns of warm and cold episodes, but not the phasing such as the early warming (1930s–1950s and the following colder period (1960s–1980s. This indicates that the observed 20th century extreme in temperatures are due to primarily a fortuitous phasing of intrinsic climate variability and not dominated by external forcing. Most models show a realistic structure in the overturning circulation, where more than half of the available models have a mean overturning transport within the observed estimated range of 13–24 Sverdrup. Associated with a stronger than normal AMOC, the surface temperature is increased and the sea ice extent slightly reduced in the North Atlantic. Individual models show potential for decadal prediction based on the relationship between the AMO and AMOC, but the models strongly disagree both in phasing and strength of the covariability. This makes it difficult to identify common mechanisms and to assess the applicability for predictions.

I. Medhaug

2011-06-01

160

North Atlantic 20th century multidecadal variability in coupled climate models: sea surface temperature and ocean overturning circulation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Output from a total of 24 state-of-the-art Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models is analyzed. The models were integrated with observed forcing for the period 1850–2000 as part of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC Fourth Assessment Report. All models show enhanced variability at multi-decadal time scales in the North Atlantic sector similar to the observations, but with a large intermodel spread in amplitudes and frequencies for both the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO and the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC. The models, in general, are able to reproduce the observed geographical patterns of warm and cold episodes, but not the phasing such as the early warming (1930s–50s and the following colder period (1960s–80s. This indicates that the observed 20th century extreme in temperatures are due to primarily a fortuitous phasing of intrinsic climate variability and not dominated by external forcing. Most models show a realistic structure in the overturning circulation, where more than half of the available models have a mean overturning transport within the observed estimated range of 13–24 Sverdrup. Associated with a stronger than normal AMOC, the surface temperature is increased and the sea ice extent slightly reduced in the North Atlantic. Individual models show potential for decadal prediction based on the relationship between the AMO and AMOC, but the models strongly disagree both in phasing and strength of the covariability. This makes it difficult to identify common mechanisms and to assess the applicability for predictions.

I. Medhaug

2011-02-01

 
 
 
 
161

A obra de Euclides da Cunha e os debates sobre mestiçagem no Brasil no início do século xx: Os sertões e a medicina- antropologia do Museu Nacional / The work of Euclides da Cunha and debates on racial admixture in Brazil in the early 20th century: Os sertões and the field of medicine- anthropology at the Museu Nacional  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho aborda certas interfaces entre a obra de Euclides da Cunha, e Os sertões em particular, e a medicina-antropologia no Brasil no início do século XX. Aponta-se que à obra euclidiana podem ser vinculadas duas vertentes médico-antropológicas que construíram explicações divergentes acerca d [...] as conseqüências da composição racial brasileira, em especial quanto à viabilidade de uma nação mestiça. Uma primeira, cujo expoente foi Raimundo Nina Rodrigues, esteve alinhada com uma perspectiva mais próxima de um fatalismo racial. Uma outra, representada por Edgard Roquette-Pinto, ligado ao Museu Nacional, argumentava que os mestiços não seriam orgânica ou racialmente inviáveis. No texto é analisada sobretudo a interpretação que a medicina-antropologia do Museu Nacional realizou da obra euclidiana. Abstract in english The article addresses certain interfaces between Euclides da Cunha’s work - particularly Os sertões - and medicine-anthropology in Brazil in the early 20th century. Cunha’s work can be tied in with two lines of thought in the field of medicine-anthropology, each of which constructed its own view of [...] the consequences of Brazil’s racial make-up, especially regarding the viability of a mestizo nation. One of these lines, supported by Raimundo Nina Rodrigues, among others, leaned more towards racial fatalism. The other, represented by Edgard Roquette-Pinto of the Museu Nacional, argued that mestizos were neither organically nor racially inviable. The text is concerned above all with the interpretation of Cunha’s work proposed by those in the field of medicine- anthropology at the Museu Nacional.

Ricardo Ventura, Santos.

162

The spatial extent of 20th-century warmth in the context of the past 1200 years.  

Science.gov (United States)

Periods of widespread warmth or cold are identified by positive or negative deviations that are synchronous across a number of temperature-sensitive proxy records drawn from the Northern Hemisphere. The most significant and longest duration feature during the last 1200 years is the geographical extent of warmth in the middle to late 20th century. Positive anomalies during 890 to 1170 and negative anomalies during 1580 to 1850 are consistent with the concepts of a Medieval Warm Period and a Little Ice Age, but comparison with instrumental temperatures shows the spatial extent of recent warmth to be of greater significance than that during the medieval period. PMID:16469924

Osborn, Timothy J; Briffa, Keith R

2006-02-10

163

On modernity in general and on the main obstacles to modernity in Serbia in the 20th century - and afterwards  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work offers, in the first place, a definition of the notion of modernity, then, a reconstruction of historical origins of that wide and long-lasting ideal/spiritual and practical project, and the main theoretical views of the attributes and conditions of its contemporary existence. The analysis of the character of the main socio-historical currents in Serbia during the 20th century - based upon the above mentioned logical theoretical, methodological and historical considerations - reveals the reasons why the project of modernity has never become a basis or, at least a relevant orientation factor for human action/behaviour in the milieu.

Turza Karel

2003-01-01

164

Mapping the refugeeâ??s settlements in Thessaloniki during the first thirty years of the 20th Century.  

Science.gov (United States)

During the Balkan wars and particularly after the national disaster of Asia Minor, Thessaloniki had to lodge many tenths of thousands of refugees. Then the town authorities created settlements for their hosting. These settlements were rapidly transformed to urban quarters of the town leading to an extension of the town to any direction, particularly to the NW and SE directions without any urban planning. These settlements and later on urban quarters were mapped in different Charts of the town during the 20th Century. The study of these maps is the subject of this paper.(in Greeks)

Savvaidis, P.

2013-01-01

165

The ‘Rediscovery’ of Scripture and its Impact on the Romanian Christian Context at the Beginning of the 20th Century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Scripture has always played a crucial role in the renewal of the churches throughout the history of Christianity and this was seen particularly well during the Reformation. This paper offers another example of the enduring power of the Scripture to change lives and renew communities. It looks at the impact of the ‘rediscovery’ of the Bible on the Romanian Christian context at the beginning of the 20th century, by presenting the life and influence of three key Orthodox priests, Dumitru Cornilescu, Dumitru Popescu and Iosif Trifa. Particularly, it explores the foundation, establishment and the theology of the Lord’s Army – a unique renewal movement within the Orthodox Churches.

Corneliu Constantineanu

2011-05-01

166

Changes in consumption of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in the United States during the 20th century123  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: The consumption of omega-3 (n–3) and omega-6 (n–6) essential fatty acids in Western diets is thought to have changed markedly during the 20th century. Objective: We sought to quantify changes in the apparent consumption of essential fatty acids in the United States from 1909 to 1999. Design: We calculated the estimated per capita consumption of food commodities and availability of essential fatty acids from 373 food commodities by using economic disappearance data for each year from 1909 to 1999. Nutrient compositions for 1909 were modeled by using current foods (1909-C) and foods produced by traditional early 20th century practices (1909-T). Results: The estimated per capita consumption of soybean oil increased >1000-fold from 1909 to 1999. The availability of linoleic acid (LA) increased from 2.79% to 7.21% of energy (P < 0.000001), whereas the availability of ?-linolenic acid (ALA) increased from 0.39% to 0.72% of energy by using 1909-C modeling. By using 1909-T modeling, LA was 2.23% of energy, and ALA was 0.35% of energy. The ratio of LA to ALA increased from 6.4 in 1909 to 10.0 in 1999. The 1909-T but not the 1909-C data showed substantial declines in dietary availability (percentage of energy) of n?6 arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Predicted net effects of these dietary changes included declines in tissue n--3 highly unsaturated fatty acid status (36.81%, 1909-T; 31.28%, 1909-C; 22.95%, 1999) and declines in the estimated omega-3 index (8.28, 1909-T; 6.51, 1909-C; 3.84, 1999). Conclusion: The apparent increased consumption of LA, which was primarily from soybean oil, has likely decreased tissue concentrations of EPA and DHA during the 20th century. PMID:21367944

Blasbalg, Tanya L; Hibbeln, Joseph R; Ramsden, Christopher E; Majchrzak, Sharon F; Rawlings, Robert R

2011-01-01

167

Changes in the geodiversity of Dutch peatlands inferred from 19th and 20th century landscape paintings  

Science.gov (United States)

Geodiversity is the natural and cultural range of geological, geomorphological and soil features. We analysed the large database of 19th and early 20th century paintings of Simonis and Buunk (www.Simonis-Buunk.com) to track changes in the geodiversity of Dutch peatlands since pre-photographic times. Peat dominated in two of the eight main landscapes of the Netherlands: the Lowland peats in the Holocene west and the Highland peats in the sandy Pleistocene eastern parts. Painters were mainly attracted by the lowland peats. Since more than thousand years, peat plays a major role in Dutch military security, economy, ecology and cultural life. Natural variety and cultural use resulted in a geodiversity that is unique in Europe. There are more than 100 place names with 'veen' (= peat), and surnames with 'veen' are common. Proof of the exploitation of peat for salt and fuel exists from the Roman times onwards. In the 9th century, peatlands were drained and reclaimed for growing wheat. Already in the 11th century, it was necessary to build dikes to prevent flooding, to control waterlevels to avoid further oxidation, and to convert landuse to grassland. But subsidence continued, and in the 14th century windmills were needed to drain the lands and pump the water out. In the 16th century industrial peat exploitation fuelled the rise of industries and cities. All this draining and digging caused the peat surface to shrink. The few remaining living peats are conserved by nature organisations. Geodiversity and landscape paintings In the peat landscapes, popular painting motives were high water levels, the grasslands of the 'Green Heart', the winding streams and remaining lakes. The paintings of landscapes where peat had been removed, show watermanagement adaptations: wind mills, different water levels, canals made for the transport of fuel, bridges, tow paths and the 'plassen', i.e. the lakes left after peat exploitation. The droogmakerijen (reclaimed lakes), now 2 to 5 m below sealevel, were less inspiring. Examples of geodiversity changes illustrated by the landscape paintings • Peat extraction stopped • Land use changed e.g. the deforestation of the 'Bovenlanden' • Erosion by waves and boats caused the collapse of peat islands in the artificial lakes • Peat polders of the Green Heart were sacrificed for building projects • 90% of the original wind mills were replaced by electrical and motor pumps • Horse traction was replaced by motor vehicles, which made tow paths and high wooden bridges redundant. • Dam burst risk increased and skating scenes disappeared with climate change, References Jungerius, P.D., 2010. Sea level rise and the response of the Dutch people - Adaptive strategies based on geomorphologic principles give sustainable solutions. In: Martini I.P.& Chesworth, W.(eds.) Landscapes and Societies. Springer Verlag.

Jungerius, Pieter Dirk; van den Ancker, Hanneke; Wevers, Nina

2013-04-01

168

L’effet de présence : entre image fixe et image animée, les représentations de la Passion (fin XIXe-début XXe siècle In search of presence: Representations of the Passion between the fixed and moving image (late 19th, early 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Les représentations de la Passion et de la Vie de Jésus ont figuré parmi les premiers titres des débuts du cinéma. A posteriori, la critique des films religieux, notamment dans les années soixante, a été sévère pour ces tentatives jugées plus commerciales que très inspirées. L’intérêt pour le cinéma des premiers temps s’est approfondi dans les dernières décennies et favorise une autre approche de ces productions des années 1895-1920. Restituer l’univers visuel dans lequel ces films ont pris naissance permet de préciser les modalités de représentation des sujets biblique, en lien avec l’historicisme et l’orientalisme. Outre les liens étroits avec la peinture et la photographie, ces premiers films retrouvent certains effets narratifs des jeux de la Passion ou des projections d’images fixes encore abondantes au tournant du XXe siècle. S’attacher à la conception de la figuration contribue à cerner le « désir de voir » et l’effet de présence christique qui se manifestent dans ces premières Passion filmées.Representations of the Passion and the Life of Jesus Christ were a popular topic in early cinema. Retrospective criticism, especially in the 1960’s, was judgmental towards the first religious films, insofar as they were regarded more as commercially driven reenactments than inspired works. Interest in early cinema deepened in recent decades, and has led to a different reading of productions from the period 1895-1920. By restoring the universe of visual references in which these films arose, we are able to relate representations of biblical subjects to movements in historicism and Orientalism. Beyond their close relationship with painting and photography, these early films also reproduced the narrative effects of Passion plays or projections of fixed images that were still widespread at the turn of the 20th century. A focus on figurative conception will help us reconnect with the "need to see" and the effect of christic presence that were manifest in the first filmed Passions.

Isabelle Saint-Martin

2008-06-01

169

Response of the Everglades ridge and slough landscape to climate variability and 20th-century water management.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ridge and slough landscape of the Florida Everglades consists of a mosaic of linear sawgrass ridges separated by deeper-water sloughs with tree islands interspersed throughout the landscape. We used pollen assemblages from transects of sediment cores spanning sawgrass ridges, sloughs, and ridge-slough transition zones to determine the timing of ridge and slough formation and to evaluate the response of components of the ridge and slough landscape to climate variability and 20th-century water management. These pollen data indicate that sawgrass ridges and sloughs have been vegetationally distinct from one another since initiation of the Everglades wetland in mid-Holocene time. Although the position and community composition of sloughs have remained relatively stable throughout their history, modern sawgrass ridges formed on sites that originally were occupied by marshes. Ridge formation and maturation were initiated during intervals of drier climate (the Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age) when the mean position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone shifted southward. During these drier intervals, marsh taxa were more common in sloughs, but they quickly receded when precipitation increased. Comparison with regional climate records suggests that slough vegetation is strongly influenced by North Atlantic Oscillation variability, even under 20th-century water management practices. PMID:19831066

Bernhardt, Christopher E; Willard, Debra A

2009-10-01

170

A review of the History of Spine Surgery in Greece until the Middle of the 20th Century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Spine Surgery began its evolution in the beginning of the 19th century in order to reach nowadays the point of being considered an important subspecialty of Neurosurgery and Orthopaedics. The purpose of this historical review is the search and evaluation of the progress in spine surgery until the middle of the 20th century. This review concerns the inauguration and evolution of this field in Greece. Special references are made to the first achievements of this field, to the pioneers physicians and surgeons (general surgeons, orthopaedic surgeons and neurosurgeons who inaugurated this subspecialty and to clinical and scientific work of that era. Eventually, the progress of medicine and technology who led to the first achievements of this subspecialty are shown and also the difficulties (both social and scientific that the pioneers of this field faced are demonstrated. In Greece, with small exceptions, the new techniques emerged with a certain delay.

Konstantinos Markatos

2014-05-01

171

African tropical rainforest net CO2 fluxes in the 20th century  

Science.gov (United States)

The African humid tropical biome constitutes the second largest rainforest region, significantly impacts global carbon cycling and climate, and has undergone major changes in functioning due to climate and land use change over the past century. We assess changes and trends in CO2 fluxes from 1901-2010 using nine land surface models forced with common driving data, and depict the inter-model variability as the uncertainty in fluxes. The biome is estimated to be a natural (no disturbance) net carbon sink (-0.02 kg C m-2y-1 or -0.04 Pg C y-1, p<0.05) with increasing strength 4x-fold in the second half of the century. The models were in close agreement on net CO2 flux at the beginning of the century (?1901=0.02 kg C m-2y-1), but diverged exponentially throughout the century (?2010=0.03 kg C m-2y-1). The increasing uncertainty is due to differences in sensitivity to increasing atmospheric CO2, but not increasing water stress, despite a decrease in precipitation and increase in air temperature. However, the largest uncertainties were associated with the most extreme drought events of the century. These results highlight the need to constrain modeled CO2 fluxes with increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and extreme climatic events, as the uncertainties will only amplify in the next century.

Fisher, J. B.; Sikka, M.; Sitch, S.; Ciais, P.; Poulter, B.; Galbraith, D.; Lee, J.; Huntingford, C.; Viovy, N.; Zeng, N.; Ahlström, A.; Lomas, M. R.; Levy, P. E.; Frankenberg, C.; Saatchi, S. S.; Malhi, Y.

2013-12-01

172

A representação da deficiência em livros infantis: séculos XIX e XX / The representation of disability in children's literature: 19th and 20th centuries  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente artigo analisa a representação de personagens deficientes em livros britânicos e norte-americanos do século XIX ao início do século XXI. São analisados tanto os assim chamados clássicos infantis quanto livros fora de edição ou não tão disponíveis. Uma das conclusões é que a representação [...] de personagens deficientes geralmente é mais complexa e variada nos livros mais antigos. Além disso, segundo a visão de muitos autores do século XIX e início do século XX, é necessário aceitar infortúnios como uma forma de obediência a Deus, mas também porque, em última análise, eles são considerados um bem. Portanto, em muitos livros, a deficiência e sua cura, quando ocorre, estão associadas com o caráter. Abstract in english This article examines the treatment of disabled characters in British and North-American children's classics and in books that are out-of-print or less available to children from the 19th century to early 20th century. One of the main findings of this article is that the treatment of disabled charac [...] ters is often more complex and varied in the latter than in the former. Moreover, the prevailing view of many 19th century and some early 20th century authors was that one should submit to misfortunes, both as a form of obedience to God's will, and because these seeming misfortunes are ultimately intended for one's own good. Therefore, in many books, disability, where it occurs, and its cure are associated with character.

Ann, Dowker.

173

Flipping Their Fins for a Place to Stand: 19th- and 20th-Century Mermaids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Juxtaposition of Hans Christian Andersen's "The Little Sea Maid" (1837) and Disney's home video "The Little Mermaid" (1989) illustrates how the adolescent princesses have evolved with changing views of women's roles. The mermaid of the twentieth century, part of the world of men, is still in a subservient role. (SLD)

Leadbeater, Bonnie J.; Wilson, Gloria Lodato

1993-01-01

174

20th century global warming favoured enhanced intensity of extreme torrential events - a proglacial sediment record in NW French Alps  

Science.gov (United States)

During the past few yeas, considerable climate changes have been observed at high elevation areas of the European Alps. Additionally, one of the main results of high resolution climate modelling is a trend towards both dryer summer conditions and enhanced risk of extreme floods. This should have particularly dramatic consequences in alpine areas. Indeed, the development of tourism during the 20th century in the Alps and the rise of population density resulted in an increasing potential risk from natural hazards. Among them, torrential floods are some of the most common and widespread ones. They cause both loss of human life and high damage to property and infrastructure and are particularly destructive in mountain areas. For example, in August 2005, an unusual meteorological situation resulted in a series of catastrophic floods in most regions of the European Alps and particularly in the catchment of the Vorz river, downstream of proglacial Lac Blanc (2170 m a.s.l., Belledonne range, NW French Alps). We studied a series of sediment cores from Lac Blanc, spanning the last ca. 250 years. Through a coupled high resolution sedimentological and geochemical approach we documented about 100 flood deposits and measured their thickness. The age of each deposit has been assessed by radiochemical dating and the recognition of historically-known events - major earthquakes and historical atmospheric lead deposition. Furthermore, a detailed study of regional and local historical archives was conducted allowing us to relate the recognised flood deposits to the ones reported by local population. We hence obtained a flood calendar from 1740 to 2005 with the respective intensity of each event assessed by the thickness of the associated deposit. The flood frequency shows an important and punctual increase at the early end of the Little Ice Age (1830 - 1860) as a response to the beginning warming period, which was emphasized by the synchronous local glacier retreat. On the other hand there is no major flood event during the following period (1860 - 1900) characterized by the retreat of the large alpine glaciers. This implies glacial activity modifies the climate-sediment transfer relationship in alpine areas. Our main result is the dramatic rise of flood deposits thickness over the last decades. Among the 100 flood-triggered layers deposited over the last 250 years, the two thickest ones occurred in 1987 and 2005 whereas the flood frequency is among the lowest. The 2005 deposit is two times thicker than any previously reported one. An enhanced intensity of recent extreme torrential events in the present-day context of global climate change seems likely.

Wilhelm, B.; Arnaud, F.; Legaz, A.; Allignol, F.; Enters, D.; Revillon, S.

2009-04-01

175

Modernisation, nationalisation, désislamisation Modernization, Nationalization and de-Islamization : The Transformation of Turkish during the 19th –20th centuries.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Studies concerned with linguistic Reform (or Revolution of Turkish have tended to neglect the role played by religion in the context of the modernization of the Turkish language in the 19th-20th centuries. The debate started very early with various arguments. Religious arguments revolve around the issue of the script and the creation of a modern terminology. The attachment to the ‘Muslim script’ and to the lexical resources provided by the Arabic derivational system (particularly regarding technical terms was extremely strong. The desire to create a scientific vocabulary on a par with the other ‘Islamic languages’ guided a nationalist thinker like Ziya Gökalp. It is only during the 1930s that under the influence of a new republican nationalism, a trend began toward what can be defined as a ‘de-Islamization’. In the language domain, the evolution, which started with the adoption of the Latin script and went on with the elimination of Arabic and Persian elements has become irreversible today, even if some Islamists reject such changes. As for the language of religion, the innovative trend seems to have reached its limits, although the turkicization of the language of prayers continues to be discussed.Le rôle joué par la religion dans le cadre de la modernisation du turc aux XIXe – XXe siècles est un aspect négligé des études sur la Réforme (ou « Révolution » linguistique en Turquie. Le débat, mené avec les arguments les plus divers, commence très tôt. C’est surtout autour de la question de l’alphabet et de la création d’une terminologie moderne que la religion entre en jeu. L’attachement à l’ « alphabet musulman », et, en ce qui concerne les termes techniques, aux ressources lexicales fournies par la dérivation arabe, a été pendant longtemps extrêmement puissant. Le souci de créer un vocabulaire scientifique en accord avec les autres « langues islamiques » a encore pu guider un penseur nationaliste comme Ziya Gökalp. Ce n’est qu’à partir des années 1930 que commence, sous l’influence d’un nouveau nationalisme républicain, une évolution qui peut être qualifiée aussi de « désislamisation ». Dans le domaine de la langue, l’évolution qui a commencé par l’adoption de l’alphabet latin et qui s’est poursuivie avec l’élimination des éléments arabo-persans, est devenue irréversible aujourd’hui, même si certains milieux islamistes s’obstinent à rejeter les innovations. Quant à la langue religieuse, l’innovation semble avoir atteint ses limites - même si la turcisation de la langue de la prière continue à être débattue.

Johann Strauss

2011-12-01

176

Worldwide inequality, living standards and its determinants during the 19th and 20th centuries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this thesis mainly anthropometric indicators are used to investigate several aspects of living standards and inequality in global and historical perspective. Chapter two uses anthropometric information as an indicator for human health and welfare in 156 countries spanning the period 1810-1989. The findings suggest that regional height levels around the world were fairly uniform throughout most of the 19th century, with two exceptions: above-average levels in Anglo-Saxon settlement regions ...

Blum, Matthias

2011-01-01

177

Advancing the industrial aluminum process: 20th century breakthrough inventions and developments  

Science.gov (United States)

In connection with the 125th anniversary of the Hall-Héroult process this year, we will review the most important progress that has been made in the twentieth century. What were the most significant improvements in this period, and which scientists and engineers came up with the ideas for these improvements? In this paper we will try to answer these questions. We will highlight the major technological breakthroughs and mention those people who played important roles in the development of these improvements.

Tarcy, Gary P.; Kvande, Halvor; Tabereaux, Alton

2011-08-01

178

Evolution of National Nobel Prize Shares in the 20th Century  

CERN Document Server

We analyze the evolution of cumulative national shares of Nobel Prizes since 1901, properly taking into account that most prizes were divided among several laureates. We rank by citizenship at the moment of the award, and by country of birth. Surprisingly, graphs of this type have not been published before, even though they powerfully illustrate the century's migration patterns (brain drains and gains) in the sciences and other fields.

Schmidhuber, Juergen

2010-01-01

179

Evaluation of Continental Precipitation in 20th-Century Climate Simulations: The Utility of Multi-Model Statistics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At the request of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), simulations of 20th-century climate have been performed recently with some 20 global coupled ocean-atmosphere models. In view of its central importance for biological and socio-economic systems, model-simulated continental precipitation is evaluated relative to three observational estimates at both global and regional scales. Many models are found to display systematic biases, deviating markedly from the observed spatial variability and amplitude/phase of the seasonal cycle. However, the point-wise ensemble mean of all the models usually shows better statistical agreement with the observations than does any single model. Deficiencies of current models that may be responsible for the simulated precipitation biases as well as possible reasons for the improved estimate afforded by the multi-model ensemble mean are discussed. Implications of these results for water-resource managers also are briefly addressed.

Phillips, T J; Gleckler, P J

2005-11-01

180

Evidence for 20th century climate warming and wetland drying in the North American Prairie Pothole Region  

Science.gov (United States)

The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America is a globally important resource that provides abundant and valuable ecosystem goods and services in the form of biodiversity, groundwater recharge, water purification, flood attenuation, and water and forage for agriculture. Numerous studies have found these wetlands, which number in the millions, to be highly sensitive to climate variability. Here, we compare wetland conditions between two 30-year periods (1946–1975; 1976–2005) using a hindcast simulation approach to determine if recent climate warming in the region has already resulted in changes in wetland condition. Simulations using the WETLANDSCAPE model show that 20th century climate change may have been sufficient to have a significant impact on wetland cover cycling. Modeled wetlands in the PPR's western Canadian prairies show the most dramatic effects: a recent trend toward shorter hydroperiods and less dynamic vegetation cycles, which already may have reduced the productivity of hundreds of wetland-dependent species.

Werner, B. A.; Johnson, W. Carter; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Evidence for 20th century climate warming and wetland drying in the North American Prairie Pothole Region.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of North America is a globally important resource that provides abundant and valuable ecosystem goods and services in the form of biodiversity, groundwater recharge, water purification, flood attenuation, and water and forage for agriculture. Numerous studies have found these wetlands, which number in the millions, to be highly sensitive to climate variability. Here, we compare wetland conditions between two 30-year periods (1946-1975; 1976-2005) using a hindcast simulation approach to determine if recent climate warming in the region has already resulted in changes in wetland condition. Simulations using the WETLANDSCAPE model show that 20th century climate change may have been sufficient to have a significant impact on wetland cover cycling. Modeled wetlands in the PPR's western Canadian prairies show the most dramatic effects: a recent trend toward shorter hydroperiods and less dynamic vegetation cycles, which already may have reduced the productivity of hundreds of wetland-dependent species. PMID:24223283

Werner, Brett A; Johnson, W Carter; Guntenspergen, Glenn R

2013-09-01

182

Borders, laborers, and racialized medicalization Mexican immigration and US public health practices in the 20th century.  

Science.gov (United States)

Throughout the 20th century, US public health and immigration policies intersected with and informed one another in the country's response to Mexican immigration. Three historical episodes illustrate how perceived racial differences influenced disease diagnosis: a 1916 typhus outbreak, the midcentury Bracero Program, and medical deportations that are taking place today. Disease, or just the threat of it, marked Mexicans as foreign, just as much as phenotype, native language, accent, or clothing. A focus on race rendered other factors and structures, such as poor working conditions or structural inequalities in health care, invisible. This attitude had long-term effects on immigration policy, as well as on how Mexicans were received in the United States. PMID:21493932

Molina, Natalia

2011-06-01

183

Connections: can the 20th century coronary heart disease epidemic reveal something about the 1918 influenza lethality?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This essay proposes that the ecologic association shown between the 20th century coronary heart disease epidemic and the 1918 influenza pandemic could shed light on the mechanism associated with the high lethality of the latter. It suggests that an autoimmune interference at the apoB-LDL interface could explain both hypercholesterolemia and inflammation (through interference with the cellular metabolism of arachidonic acid. Autoimmune inflammation, then, would explain the 1950s-60s acute coronary events (coronary thrombosis upon influenza re-infection and the respiratory failure seen among young adults in 1918. This hypothesis also argues that the lethality of the 1918 pandemic may have not depended so much on the 1918 virus as on an immune vulnerability to it, possibly resulting from an earlier priming of cohorts born around 1890 by the 1890 influenza pandemic virus.

M.I Azambuja

2008-01-01

184

Geologic and hydrologic hazards in glacierized basins in North America resulting from 19th and 20th century global warming  

Science.gov (United States)

Alpine glacier retreat resulting from global warming since the close of the Little Ice Age in the 19th and 20th centuries has increased the risk and incidence of some geologic and hydrologic hazards in mountainous alpine regions of North America. Abundant loose debris in recently deglaciated areas at the toe of alpine glaciers provides a ready source of sediment during rainstorms or outburst floods. This sediment can cause debris flows and sedimentation problems in downstream areas. Moraines built during the Little Ice Age can trap and store large volumes of water. These natural dams have no controlled outlets and can fail without warning. Many glacier-dammed lakes have grown in size, while ice dams have shrunk, resulting in greater risks of ice-dam failure. The retreat and thinning of glacier ice has left oversteepened, unstable valley walls and has led to increased incidence of rock and debris avalanches. ?? 1993 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

O'Connor, J. E.; Costa, J. E.

1993-01-01

185

Etnographic Characteristics of Serbian Orthodox Peasants at the Beginning of the 20th Century from Vrlica Region, North Dalmatia, Croatia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is a very small number of Serbs in Dalmatia today. The wars which took place in this area influenced their emigration, mostly to Serbia. They brought along their customs and culture which are slowly being forgotten by their descendants under the influence of modern values. This paper should provide the reader with a glimpse of the most significant ethnological characteristics of Orthodox peasants from the area of Vrlika in North Dalmatia at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century which were passed on to their descendants. The greatest value of this paper lies in the fact that the major source of literature is oral tradition passed on by people born in the rough Dalmatian region

Rastislav Stojsavljevi?

2013-01-01

186

Increase of upper troposphere/lower stratosphere wave baroclinicity during the second half of the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A strengthening of the equatorward temperature gradient in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS, at subtropics and midlatitudes, is consistently reproduced in several modelling studies of the atmospheric response to the increase of greenhouse gas radiative forcing. Some of those studies suggest an increase of the baroclinicity in the UTLS region because of the enhanced meridional temperature gradient.

This study presents observational evidence of an increase of UTLS wave baroclinicity, during the second half of the 20th century. The evidence is given by significant positive trends in the energy of baroclinic normal modes of the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis, and significant positive trends in the eddy available potential energy of the ERA-40 reanalysis as well as in the eddy available potential energy of the JRA-25 reanalysis. Significant positive trends in the frequency of double tropopause events in radiosonde data are also interpreted as a manifestation of an increase of the UTLS wave baroclinicity.

J. M. Castanheira

2009-09-01

187

Estimation of the Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance during 20th and 21st centuries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Results from a regional climate simulation (1970–2006) over the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) reveals that more than 97% of the interannual variability of the modelled Surface Mass Balance (SMB) can be explained by the GrIS summer temperature anomaly and the GrIS annual precipitation anomaly. This multiple regression is then used to empirically estimate the GrIS SMB since 1900 from climatological time series. The projected SMB changes in the 21st century are investigated with the set o...

Fettweis, X.; Hanna, E.; Galle?e, H.; Huybrechts, P.; Erpicum, M.

2008-01-01

188

Low energy electron beam processing in Europe at the end of the 20th century  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Overview of low energy electron beam processing in Europe was presented. The presentation contained the following topics: the early installations, years of growth, stagnation, status 1999 and the future of this technology

189

Genesis of the settlement of Rajac in the area of Suvobor in the 20th century: Fundamental indications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Organization of settlement of attractive mountainous regions of Serbia was always, and still is, very interesting for different solutions especially because of its direct or indirect tourist functions. With slow or sometimes sporadically fast changes the development of settlements has chronologically gone through different stages, especially in those low-mountainous regions that took part in tourism in the last decades of the 20th century. In those regions we can definitely include the vast area of Suvoborski Rajac the most eastern hill-side of well known Podrinjsko-Valjevske Mountains. Mostly bordered with appearance of new structures for accommodation of tourists, already mentioned stages permit chronological recognition of their settlement parts, mostly attributed through the social conditions with socio-economic character of that time period. The first stage (1954-1961 of settlement genesis was marked with construction of new mountain house and initial construction of objects for rest and relaxation. After slow construction of objects of this type in this stage, more intensive construction in the next stage (1962-1972 followed during next period of the development of settlement. It is the time when the region also got its tourist marks since they were represented through operation of other accommodation capacities (three rest homes of closed and semi closed type. In the following two stages (1978-1982 and 1983-1992 of settlement genesis of the region only construction of objects for rest and recreation was evident. It has also shaped the region. With twenty newly constructed objects for rest and recreation, two completely new an one renovated , settlement area of Rajac got its newest physiognomy at the end of the 20th century.

Popovi? Ivan B.

2006-01-01

190

Distribution and dynamics of rural population in Central Eastern Europe in the 20th century.  

Science.gov (United States)

This is an analysis of rural population trends in Central Eastern Europe during the twentieth century. The region is defined as including "Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, the Kaliningrad District, Belarus, Ukraine, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Rumania, Moldavia, Bulgaria and Yugoslavia....For each of them the size of rural population and its density have been evaluated, and then, the dynamics of demographic evolution described. An important part of the analysis has been the comparison of rural population to total population. On the basis of this comparison, structural changes and demographic trends have been defined. Particular attention has been paid to the processes of depopulation as well as their range and intensity in rural areas of Central Eastern Europe." PMID:12320257

Eberhardt, P

1994-01-01

191

Drivers of decadal hiatus periods in the 20th and 21st centuries  

Science.gov (United States)

The latest generation of climate model simulations are used to investigate the occurrence of hiatus periods in global surface air temperature in the past and under two future warming scenarios. Hiatus periods are identified in three categories: (i) those due to volcanic eruptions, (ii) those associated with negative phases of the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO), and (iii) those affected by anthropogenically released aerosols in the mid-twentieth century. The likelihood of future hiatus periods is found to be sensitive to the rate of change of anthropogenic forcing. Under high rates of greenhouse gas emissions there is little chance of a hiatus decade occurring beyond 2030, even in the event of a large volcanic eruption. We further demonstrate that most nonvolcanic hiatuses across Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) models are associated with enhanced cooling in the equatorial Pacific linked to the transition to a negative IPO phase.

Maher, Nicola; Gupta, Alexander Sen; England, Matthew H.

2014-08-01

192

Dead Men Do Tell Tales: The Apotheosis of Celebrities in 20th Century America  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ecological-evolutionary theory (EET argues, and anecdotal evidence suggests, that with the advancement of industrial technology, there is a decline in the scope and influence of theistic ideologies and a corresponding increase in that of secular ideologies, especially hedonism (Nolan and Lenski 2009: Chapter 11. Using a measure we develop, we explore the quantitative dimensions of this cultural shift by examining a sample of more than a century of obituaries published in the New York Times. As suspected, we find a substantial decline in the proportion of obituaries of religious figures and an increase in those of individuals associated with entertainment and sports. We conclude with a discussion of the theoretical import and implications of this trend, and compare it with trends in employment in religious and entertainment and sports occupations over this period.

Timothy J. Bertoni

2012-06-01

193

Transition of wind power utilization technology in the 20th century; 20 seiki ni okeru furyoku riyo gijutsu no hensen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Windmills are one of the oldest prime movers and have been used for more than 700 years in Europe. The transition from low speed windmills for grain grinding and water pumping to high speed wind turbines for electric power generation had occurred at the end of 19{sup th} century. This paper, at first, reviews the windmill technologies and the researchers before 20th century. Then describes the back ground of how the wind power generator has existed and how the four pioneers developed their wind power generator. The historical developments of windmills to wind turbines in this century are studied focusing mainly on Danish activities. Then, the effort of the development of large wind turbine such as Smith-Putnum's first MW machine in U.S.A. and other mammoth machine concept are introduced. The new concept machines such as Savonius and Darrieus wind turbines in 1920s to 1930s are also explained. Finally, the novel technologies of wind turbine covering larger machines, variable speed generators, special wing sections for wind turbines, theoretical analysis method of wind turbine performance, offshore wind turbines, and wind turbine control technologies are stated. (author)

Ushiyama, I. [Ashikaga Inst. of Tech., Tochigi (Japan)

2000-04-01

194

Slovenian facsimile in the19th and in the first half of the 20th century:pre-modern facsimile  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Printers on Slovenian territory did not attempt to print facsimiles until the beginning of the 20th century and neither did they publish anything relevant in this expert field. The development of Slovenian facsimile nevertheless started (outside Slovenia almost a whole century earlier. Its course is outlined against European parallels, providing achievements in the pre-modern era (18129-1959. The analysis focuses on earlier Slovenian facsimiles which have not been well known or had been especially scientifically unexplored. A surprisingly high expert level, both in terms of technology and editing, is revealed by our first facsimiles of the 19th century which were mostly initiated by Jernej Kopitar. In this period medieval materials give way to modern ones (Prešeren’s Poezije, which prevail afterwards. According to the fundamental criteria, upon which the definition of a modern facsimile is based, 12 units have been identified as facsimiles, 4 of them recognised as complete facsimiles meeting all the required criteria of that period.

Mihael Glavan

2004-01-01

195

Development of the Structure of Lithuanian Gardens and Parks from the 16th to the 20th Centuries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The historical development of Lithuanian parks cannot be separated from the historical evolution of our cities and towns and formation of their urbanistic structure. The beginnings of creating garden art in Lithuania, the same as in West Europe, are mentioned in medieval castles and monasteries. A strong influence on the developement of the history of Renaissance gardens was exerted by new models of garden theory, which were formed and formulated by famous European architects, artists, scientists, philosophers. The traditions of antique art were revived, new scientific inventions had an influence on garden art. During the 17th–18th centuries a lot of residences and manors were built, and they played an important role in the urbanisation of the country. In the 17th–18th centuries the tendencies in the Italian art of garden parks in West Europe were taken over by French baroque. In the junction of the 18th and 19th centuries the planning of cities and towns and urbanistic development in the territories of Lithuania and East Europe took place due to bizarre and geometralised influence of the baroque epoch. In the 19th century scenery parks were created next to mansions in Lithuanian towns by famous scenery specialists of that time from West Europe. In the junction of 19th and 20th centuries important geopolitical processes in Lithuania and Europe took place not only in the urbanisation of cities, but also in the planning of parks and their art tendencies. Due to the growth of cities, their urbanised territories and strengthening of social attitude towards a surrounding environment, the boundaries of park art spread into the public areas of cities. At the end of the paper there is a scheme which summarises the development and influence of park structure on city development and formation .Article in Lithuanian

Albinas Mocevi?ius

2011-04-01

196

Lithuanian Novel of 40’s–50’s of the 20th Century: Norms of Writing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Lithuanian literature of early socialistic realism is called normative literature: literary works were written according to certain set rules in order to meet the requirements of Soviet ideology. Comparisons of edits of the novel Po audros – Dideli ?vykiai Naujamiestyje (1947-1948) by J. Dovydaitis, the novel Puodži?nkiemis (1952) by A. Vienuolis and the novella Pik?iurnien? (1953) by I. Simonaityt? reveal the main norms of writing a Lithuanian novel of that period. In ear...

Liulyte?, Jurgita

2006-01-01

197

Polish dermatology in the 19th and the first half of the 20th centuries.  

Science.gov (United States)

The beginnings of Polish dermatology date back to the first half of the 19th century in Kraków. The first textbook of dermatology was written by Ludwik Bierkowski. Later the progress in the development of this field of medicine was due to Franciszek Krzyszta?owicz, Marian Grzybowski, Franciszek Walter, and Jan Alkiewicz. Krzyszta?owicz's most remarkable achievements were related to his studies of the Treponema pallidum of syphilis. Grzybowski's main contribution to international dermatology was the first description in the medical literature of a specific variant of keratoacanthoma, which has since then been called Grzybowski's eruptive keratoacanthoma or generalized eruptive keratoacanthoma - Grzybowski's variant. Alkiewicz described trachyonychia, or twenty-nail dystrophy, a disease that became well established in the dermatological literature; he also described the so-called transverse net in onychomycosis. Walter identified the syphilitic skin and bone lesions in some figures carved in the Veit Stoss's altar in Kraków, thus presenting the famous thesis of the non-American origin of syphilis in Europe. Considering all these achievements, it is the goal of this paper to review Polish contributions to international dermatology. PMID:18173613

Grzybowski, Andrzej

2008-01-01

198

Social disorder and diagnostic order: the US Mental Hygiene Movement, the Midtown Manhattan study and the development of psychiatric epidemiology in the 20th century.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent scholarship regarding psychiatric epidemiology has focused on shifting notions of mental disorders. In psychiatric epidemiology in the last decades of the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st century, mental disorders have been perceived and treated largely as discrete categories denoting an individual's mental functioning as either pathological or normal. In the USA, this grew partly out of evolving modern epidemiological work responding to the State's commitment to measure the national social and economic burdens of psychiatric disorders and subsequently to determine the need for mental health services and to survey these needs over time. Notably absent in these decades have been environmentally oriented approaches to cultivating normal, healthy mental states, approaches initially present after World War II. We focus here on a set of community studies conducted in the 1950s, particularly the Midtown Manhattan study, which grew out of a holistic conception of mental health that depended on social context and had a strong historical affiliation with: the Mental Hygiene Movement and the philosophy of its founder, Adolf Meyer; the epidemiological formation of field studies and population surveys beginning early in the 20th century, often with a health policy agenda; the recognition of increasing chronic disease in the USA; and the radical change in orientation within psychiatry around World War II. We place the Midtown Manhattan study in historical context--a complex narrative of social institutions, professional formation and scientific norms in psychiatry and epidemiology, and social welfare theory that begins during the Progressive era (1890-1920) in the USA. PMID:25031047

March, Dana; Oppenheimer, Gerald M

2014-08-01

199

Variability of sea-ice in the northern Weddell Sea during the 20th century  

Science.gov (United States)

record of winter fast-ice in the South Orkney Islands, northern Weddell Sea, Antarctica, is over a century long and provides the longest observational record of sea-ice variability in the Southern Hemisphere. Here we present analyses of the series of fast-ice formation and breakout dates from 1903 to 2008. We show that over the satellite era (post-1979), the timing of both final autumn formation and complete spring breakout of fast-ice is representative of the regional sea-ice concentrations (SIC) in the northern Weddell Sea, and associated with atmospheric conditions in the Amundsen Sea region to the west of the Antarctic Peninsula. Variation in the fast-ice breakout date is influenced by the intensity of the westerly/north-westerly winds associated with the Southern Annular Mode (SAM). In contrast, the date of ice formation displays correlations with regional oceanic and sea-ice conditions over the previous 18 months, which indicate a preconditioning during the previous summer and winter, and exhibits variability associated with variation in tropical Pacific sea-surface temperature (i.e., the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, ENSO). A reduction in fast-ice duration at the South Orkney Islands around the 1950s was associated with both later formation and earlier breakout. However, there were marked changes in variability (with periodicities of 3-5, 7-9, and 20 years) in each of the series and in their relationships with ENSO and SAM, indicating the need for caution in interpreting changes in ice conditions based on shorter-term satellite series.

Murphy, E. J.; Clarke, A.; Abram, N. J.; Turner, J.

2014-07-01

200

Using the PDSI to Estimate Summer Stream Discharge in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem: Implications for 20th Century Riparian Habitat Variability  

Science.gov (United States)

Small streams at lower elevations in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) create riparian habitat in an otherwise dry environment. Riparian area can be expanded by beaver damming, which increases channel wetted area and local water tables, and allows fine-grained organic-rich sediment to accumulate. However, increases can be countered by severe drought. The loss of riparian area is potentially greatest in small basins dependent on snowpack for base flow, where prolonged severe drought may reduce base flow to zero. Discharge records are often lacking for basins Dust Bowl drought was one of the most severe droughts in the past 300 years; from 1934-1935, average August discharge was reduced by 25-40% with respect to the anomalously wet early 20th century pluvial. Discharge estimates using reconstructed PDSI values for the 2- and 10-year MCA droughts (PDSI = -6 and -5, respectively) indicate that 60% of stream reaches where beaver were active in the late Holocene became ephemeral in these droughts. This analysis is supported by observations during the extreme drought of the 2000s, when ephemeral flow occurred along streams with known historical beaver activity in northern Yellowstone. Model predictions indicate that by 2030-2039 the GYE will endure persistent severe drought (mean annual PDSI = -4 to -6) (Dai, 2011), thus riparian area is likely to decrease in the coming decades. The early 20th century has been suggested to be an ideal reference for riparian habitat restoration despite anomalously wet conditions unlike current or likely future climate. Future efforts to restore riparian habitat by reducing elk browsing and increasing beaver damming will be hampered by reduced flows on small streams.

Persico, L.; Meyer, G. A.

2013-12-01

 
 
 
 
201

Borehole temperatures reveal details of 20th century warming at Bruce Plateau, Antarctic Peninsula  

Science.gov (United States)

Two ice core boreholes of 143.18 m and 447.73 m (bedrock) were drilled during the 2009-2010 austral summer on the Bruce Plateau at a location named LARISSA Site Beta (66°02' S, 64°04' W, 1975.5 m a.s.l.). Both boreholes were logged with thermistors shortly after drilling. The shallow borehole was instrumented for 4 months with a series of resistance thermometers with satellite uplink. Surface temperature proxy data derived from an inversion of the borehole temperature profiles are compared to available multi-decadal records from weather stations and ice cores located along a latitudinal transect of the Antarctic Peninsula to West Antarctica. The LARISSA Site Beta profiles show temperatures decreasing from the surface downward through the upper third of the ice, and warming thereafter to the bed. The average temperature for the most recent year is -14.78°C (measured at 15 m depth, abbreviated T15). A minimum temperature of -15.8°C is measured at 173 m depth, and basal temperature is estimated to be -10.2°C. Current mean annual temperature and the gradient in the lower part of the measured temperature profile have a best fit with an accumulation rate of 1.9×103 kg m-2 a-1 and basal heat flux (q) of 88 mW m-2, if steady-state conditions are assumed. However, the mid-level temperature variations show that recent temperature has varied significantly. Reconstructed surface temperatures (Ts=T15) over the last 200 yr are derived by an inversion technique (Tikhonov and Samarskii, 1990). From this, we find that cold temperatures (minimum Ts=-16.2°C) prevailed from ~1920 to ~1940, followed by a gradual rise of temperature to -14.2°C around 1995, then cooling over the following decade and warming in the last few years. The coldest period was preceded by a relatively warm 19th century at T15?-15°C. To facilitate regional comparisons of the surface temperature history, we use our T15 data and nearby weather station records to refine estimates of lapse rates (altitudinal, adjusted for latitude: ?a(l)). Good temporal and spatial consistency of ?a(l) over the last 35 yr are observed, implying that the climate trends observed here are regional and consistent over a broad altitude range.

Zagorodnov, V.; Nagornov, O.; Scambos, T. A.; Muto, A.; Mosley-Thompson, E.; Pettit, E. C.; Tyuflin, S.

2012-06-01

202

A historical perspective: infection from cadaveric dissection from the 18th to 20th centuries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Today, the study of human anatomy utilizing the ultimate study guide, the cadaver, is relatively safe. In the past, however, human dissection was dangerous. Prior to the germ theory, antibiotics, and the use of gloves, cadavers were often life threatening to dissectors including both the teacher and the student. Medical students who graduated in the United States before 1880 were unlikely to practice antisepsis in the dissecting room. In the present article, we review human cadaveric dissection in Europe and the United States primarily from the 1700s to the early 1900s in regard to its potential for transmission of infection to the dissector. A brief account of the infectious hazards of human cadavers in general and those of cadavers used for dissection in particular is given. PMID:23037893

Shoja, Mohammadali M; Benninger, Brion; Agutter, Paul; Loukas, Marios; Tubbs, R Shane

2013-03-01

203

20th-Century Industrial Black Carbon Emissions Altered Arctic Climate Forcing  

Science.gov (United States)

Black carbon (BC) from biomass and fossil fuel combustion alters chemical and physical properties of the atmosphere and snow albedo, yet little is known about its emission or deposition histories. Measurements of BC, vanillic acid, and non sea-salt sulfur in ice cores indicate that sources and concentrations of BC in Greenland precipitation varied greatly since 1788 as a result of boreal forest fires and industrial activities. Beginning about 1850, industrial emissions resulted in a sevenfold increase in ice-core BC concentrations, with most change occurring in winter. BC concentrations after about 1951 were lower but increasing. At its maximum from 1906 to 1910, estimated surface climate forcing in early summer from BC in Arctic snow was about 3 watts per square meter, which is eight times the typical preindustrial forcing value.

McConnell, Joseph R.; Edwards, Ross; Kok, Gregory L.; Flanner, Mark G.; Zender, Charles S.; Saltzman, Eric S.; Banta, J. Ryan; Pasteris, Daniel R.; Carter, Megan M.; Kahl, Jonathan D. W.

2007-09-01

204

Climate?induced response of commercially important flatfish species during the 20th century  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The consequence of elevated ocean temperatures on commercial fish stocks is addressed using time series of commercial landings (1906–2004) and juvenile survey catch data (1904–2006) collected around Denmark. We analyze (i) whether warm?water sole (Solea solea) has increased relative to Boreal plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) and (ii) whether two related warm?water species (turbot, Psetta maxima and brill, Scophthalmus rhombus) show similar responses to increasing temperature or, alternatively, whether turbot (which has a broader juvenile diet) has been favored. Since the early 1980s, both sole and turbot have constituted an increasing part of the commercial landings and survey catches, as compared with plaice and brill, respectively. These changes in species composition were linked to sea surface temperatures, Northern Hemisphere temperature anomalies (NHA) and the North Atlantic Oscillation. NHA was closely related and explained 43% of the observed variation in sole survey catches relative to the plaice catches and almost 38% of the observed variation in the sole landings relative to the plaice landings. For the less common species, turbot and brill, none of the global change indicators explained more than 15% of the variation, although all showed a positive relationship. Survey catch per unit effort increased significantly for both sole and turbot around the early 1980s, whereas catch per unit effort for plaice and brill remained constant. The results indicate that the abundance of warm?water species is likely to increase with increasing temperature but also that species with similar life histories might react differently according to degree of specialization.

Sparrevohn, Claus Reedtz; Lindegren, Martin

2013-01-01

205

The distribution of an illustrated timeline wall chart and teacher's guide of 20th century physics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The American Physical Society's part of its centennial celebration in March of 1999 decided to develop a timeline wall chart on the history of 20th century physics. This resulted in eleven consecutive posters, which when mounted side by side, create a 23-foot mural. The timeline exhibits and describes the millstones of physics in images and words. The timeline functions as a chronology, a work of art, a permanent open textbook, and a gigantic photo album covering a hundred years in the life of the community of physicists and the existence of the American Physical Society. Each of the eleven posters begins with a brief essay that places a major scientific achievement of the decade in its historical context. Large portraits of the essays' subjects include youthful photographs of Marie Curie, Albert Einstein, and Richard Feynman among others, to help put a face on science. Below the essays, a total of over 130 individual discoveries and inventions, explained in dated text boxes with accompanying images, form the backbone of the timeline. For ease of comprehension, this wealth of material is organized into five color-coded story lines the stretch horizontally across the hundred years of the 20th century. The five story lines are: Cosmic Scale, relate the story of astrophysics and cosmology; Human Scale, refers to the physics of the more familiar distances from the global to the microscopic; Atomic Scale, focuses on the submicroscopic world of atoms, nuclei and quarks; Living World, chronicles the interaction of physics with biology and medicine; Technology, traces the applications of physic to everyday living. Woven into the bottom border of the timeline are period images of significant works of art, architecture, and technological artifacts such as telephones, automobiles, aircraft, computers, and appliances. The last poster, covering the years since 1995, differs from the others. Its essay concerns the prospect for physics into the next century, and is illustrated with pictures of promising award winning high school students who, it is hoped, will be the leading researchers of physics in the decades ahead. Appropriately the last entries in the timeline are not achievements but open questions to be answered in the future.

Schwartz, Brian

2000-12-26

206

Surgical pathology in the 20th century at the Mount Sinai Hospital, New York.  

Science.gov (United States)

How did the education of surgical pathology, and pathology in general, differ at Mount Sinai? Passing the examination of the American Board of Pathology was never the focus of the department. Learning criteria or quoting references was de-emphasized, but mastery of macroscopic pathology was required, supported in both word and action by two brilliant surgical pathologists, Otani and Kaneko, and by two extraordinary medical pathologists, Klemperer and Popper. Meticulous microscopy emphasized pattern rather than reliance on lists of discrete features. Otani developed a regular "problem case" meeting for a community of pathologists, made up of alumni and other interested pathologists, as well as active department members. These monthly sessions provided the highest level of "continuing medical education." Otani and Kaneko unequivocally believed in learning from cases, and Mount Sinai residents were fortunate both in the one-to-one teaching and in the wealth of material, in all systems, that came to surgical pathology. Outstanding pathologists who came from Mount Sinai settled throughout the country and provided the highest level of diagnoses, but, with the exception of Bernard Wagner, Emanuel Rubin, Fiorenzo Paronetto, Richard Horowitz, Michael Gerber, Marc Rosenblum, Bruce Wenig, Jaishree Jagirdar, Swan Thung, Cesar Moran, Hideko Kamino, Philip LeBoit, Alberto Marchevsky, and others, there were relatively few academic leaders. Otani and Kaneko did not have national reputations. Klemperer, although world renowned, was relatively unassuming, and his disciples numbered almost as many nonpathologists as pathologists. Popper did establish a major center for liver pathology, with students coming from around the world, but did not particularly promote general surgical pathology. Can the Mount Sinai approach still be applied? The decline in the numbers of autopsies performed, the demands for rapid turnaround time, the de-emphasis of gross pathology as newer technologies (eg, immunohistochemistry, cytogenetics, molecular pathology) gain place, the increasing tendency to select investigators, including basic scientists, as teaching department chairs and the financial constraints requiring increasing use of nonphysician workers all speak to the relegation of the Otani-Kaneko era to history. Is this a loss to Pathology? It is certainly a style of practice that has been lost. However, there is no reason to bemoan the state of Pathology in the beginning years of the 21st century. Pathology practice is outstanding at many medical centers throughout the world, including at Mount Sinai under the very able and creative leadership of Alan Schiller, who has presided over great enhancements of the department in both anatomic and clinical pathology, including significant advances in the study of diseases by molecular methods. Surgical Pathology at Mount Sinai has been led by James Strauchen, a renowned hematopathologist recruited by Schiller's predecessor, Jerome Kleinerman, and is currently directed by Ira Bleiweiss, a student of Kaneko. Other techniques and technologies have, to a degree, compensated for some of the changes since the Otani-Kaneko years and it is almost certain that advances in molecular pathology will allow for increasing sophistication in establishing diagnoses, and likely even grading and staging, probably even on blood, rather than tissue, samples. The science of Pathology will advance, as the art declines. Those who learned at Mount Sinai during the Otani-Kaneko years will, however, very likely tell you that they were privileged to have learned Pathology there and, especially, to have learned a distinct philosophy of Pathology under the guidance of caring, thoughtful, and especially gifted pathologists. PMID:19007103

Geller, Stephen A

2008-08-01

207

From the tallest to (one of) the fattest: the enigmatic fate of the American population in the 20th century.  

Science.gov (United States)

Within the course of the 20th century the American population went through a virtual metamorphosis from being the tallest in the world, to being among the most overweight. The American height advantage over Western and Northern Europeans was between 3 and 9 cm in mid-19th century, and Americans tended to be underweight. However, today, the exact opposite is the case as the Dutch, Swedes, and Norwegians are the tallest, and the Danes, British and Germans--even the East-Germans--are also taller, towering over the Americans by as much as 3-7 cm. Americans also have shorter lives. The hypothesis is worth considering that this adverse development is related to the greater social inequality, an inferior health care system, and fewer social safety nets in the United States than in Western and Northern Europe, in spite of higher per capita income. The Western and Northern European welfare states, with cradle to grave health and unemployment insurance currently seems to provide a more propitious environment for the biological standard of living than its US counterpart. PMID:15463993

Komlos, John; Baur, Marieluise

2004-03-01

208

Reconstructing 20th century global hydrography: a contribution to the Global Terrestrial Network- Hydrology (GTN-H  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a new reconstruction of the 20th Century global hydrography using fully coupled water balance and transport model in a flexible modeling framework. The modeling framework allows a high level of configurability both in terms of input forcings and model structure. Spatial and temporal trends in hydrological cycle components are assessed under "pre-industrial" conditions (without modern-day human activities and contemporary conditions (incorporating the effects of irrigation and reservoir operations. The two sets of simulations allow the isolation of the trends arising from variations in the climate input driver alone and from human interventions. Our findings confirm that the expansion of irrigation and the construction has significantly and gradually impacted hydrological components in individual river basins. Variations in the volume of water entering the oceans, however, are governed by variations in the climate signal alone with human activities playing secondary role. Globally, we do find a significant trend in the terrestrial discharge over the last century.

The largest impact of human intervention on the hydrological cycle arises from the operation of reservoirs that drastically changes the seasonal pattern of horizontal water transport in the river system and thereby directly and indirectly affects a number of processes.

D. Wisser

2009-03-01

209

Reconstructing 20th century global hydrography: a contribution to the Global Terrestrial Network- Hydrology (GTN-H  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a new reconstruction of the 20th century global hydrography using fully coupled water balance and transport model in a flexible modeling framework. The modeling framework allows a high level of configurability both in terms of input forcings and model structure. Spatial and temporal trends in hydrological cycle components are assessed under "pre-industrial" conditions (without modern-day human activities and contemporary conditions (incorporating the effects of irrigation and reservoir operations. The two sets of simulations allow the isolation of the trends arising from variations in the climate input driver alone and from human interventions. The sensitivity of the results to variations in input data was tested by using three global gridded datasets of precipitation.

Our findings confirm that the expansion of irrigation and the construction of reservoirs has significantly and gradually impacted hydrological components in individual river basins. Variations in the volume of water entering the oceans annually, however, are governed primarily by variations in the climate signal alone with human activities playing a minor role. Globally, we do not find a significant trend in the terrestrial discharge over the last century.

The largest impact of human intervention on the hydrological cycle arises from the operation of reservoirs that drastically changes the seasonal pattern of horizontal water transport in the river system and thereby directly and indirectly affects a number of processes such as ability to decompose organic matter or the cycling of nutrients in the river system.

D. Wisser

2010-01-01

210

Response of the ice cap Hardangerjøkulen in southern Norway to the 20th and 21st century climates  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Glacier mass balance changes lead to geometry changes and vice versa. To include this interdependence in the response of glaciers to climate change, models should include an interactive scheme coupling mass balance and ice dynamics. In this study, we couple a spatially distributed mass balance model to a two-dimensional ice-flow model and apply this coupled model to the ice cap Hardangerjøkulen in southern Norway. The available glacio-meteorological records, mass balance and glacier length change measurements were utilized for model calibration and validation. Driven with meteorological data from nearby synoptic weather stations, the coupled model realistically simulated the observed mass balance and glacier length changes during the 20th century. The mean climate for the period 1961–1990, computed from local meteorological data, was used as a basis to prescribe climate projections for the 21st century at Hardangerjøkulen. For a projected temperature increase of 3°C from 1961–1990 to 2071–2100, the modelled net mass balance soon becomes negative at all altitudes and Hardangerjøkulen disappears around the year 2100. The projected changes in the other meteorological variables could at most partly compensate for the effect of the projected warming.

R. H. Giesen

2009-11-01

211

Geopolitical perspectives in Spain: from the Iberismo of the 19th century to the Hispanoamericanismo of the 20th  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The changes which took place in the balance of power in Europe in the last thirty years of the 19th century, together with the process of colonial expansion and partition, led Spanish geographers to see the need to combine the territorial projects and interests of Spain and Portugal with the aim of defending what remained of their colonial empires, coveted by English-speaking countries. This gave new life to a school of thought known as "Iberismo", which now extended to include France in the formula of a "triple alliance of the South" based on the common interests of Latin countries. The failure of both attempts at rapprochement gave rise to these ideas being transferred, by the beginning of the 20th century, to the Spanish-speaking countries of America. Iberismo was to become "Hispano-Americanismo", and the defence of strategic and material interests was to begin with a reaffirmation of the moral and spiritual qualities of peoples sharing common roots and a common language. Ideas and arguments along these lines were then developed on both sides of the Atlantic, crossing boundaries into other spheres of intellectual activity.

José Antonio Rodríguez-Esteban

1998-06-01

212

Carbon profile of the managed forest sector in Canada in the 20th century: sink or source?  

Science.gov (United States)

Canada contains 10% of global forests and has been one of the world's largest harvested wood products (HWP) producers. Therefore, Canada's managed forest sector, the managed forest area and HWP, has the potential to significantly increase or reduce atmospheric greenhouse gases. Using the most comprehensive carbon balance analysis to date, this study shows Canada's managed forest area and resulting HWP were a sink of 7510 and 849 teragrams carbon (TgC), respectively, in the period 1901-2010, exceeding Canada's fossil fuel-based emissions over this period (7333 TgC). If Canadian HWP were not produced and used for residential construction, and instead more energy intensive materials were used, there would have been an additional 790 TgC fossil fuel-based emissions. Because the forest carbon increases in the 20th century were mainly due to younger growing forests that resulted from disturbances in the 19th century, and future increases in forest carbon stocks appear uncertain, in coming decades most of the mitigation contribution from Canadian forests will likely accrue from wood substitution that reduces fossil fuel-based emissions and stores carbon, so long as those forests are managed sustainably. PMID:25075978

Chen, Jiaxin; Colombo, Stephen J; Ter-Mikaelian, Michael T; Heath, Linda S

2014-08-19

213

From Natural Science to Philosophical Cosmology. On Function and Transformation of Metaphysics in 20th and 21st Century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since the 19th century many philosophers have argued, that metaphysics will have no more function at all. But the concept of metaphysics has many aspects. It must not only be understood as a system, based on everlasting principles. In the following article it is used in the sense of a philosophical cosmology. The startingpoint are the sciences, which exclude by their method the observer in his subjectivity; their view of the world must remain incomplete. Philosophical cosmology therefore has the task to complete the scientific interpretation of reality by other perspectives and to connect them with one another. The unity of reality as well as that of human experience forbids a side by side of different “Sprachspiele”. A philosophical cosmology therefore develops an interpretation of reality which embraces the scientific view of the world as well as the observer in his subjectivity and those relations, which are determined by it. Already Leibniz has tried to integrate both perspectives; in the 20th century, under new conditions, especially Whitehead has developed a philosopical cosmology. For a modern concept of metaphysics it is characteristic, that it is not a system, but a permanent process, in which all relevant experiences of man in a certain epoch are synthesized.

Regine Kather

2004-06-01

214

La Historia del Derecho y la Historiografía jurídica alemana del siglo XX The History of Law and the German Juridical Historiography in the 20th Century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La escuela histórico-jurídica alemana del siglo XX ha contribuido de un modo significativo en la ampliación del objeto de estudio al incorporar en las investigaciones histórico-jurídicas temas específicos del Derecho público. Desde esta perspectiva la escuela histórica jurídica alemana es parte de la revolución científica del siglo XX.The German history-law school in the 20th century has contributed in a significant way to broaden the subject matter when it incorporated specific topics regarding Public Law in the historical-juridical research. From this perspective, the German history and law school is part of the scientific revolution of the 20th century.

Patricio Hernán Carvajal Aravena

2010-01-01

215

Enhanced 20th century heat transfer to the Arctic simulated in the context of climate variations over the last millennium  

Science.gov (United States)

Paleoceanographic reconstructions have revealed recent changes in oceanic heat transport into the Arctic that are unprecedented over the past 2000 to 3000 years [Spielhagen et al., 2011; Dylmer et al., 2013]. The 20th century increase in heat transport is related to intensified Atlantic Water advection and manifests itself in terms of changes in foraminiferal assemblages and geochemical tracers. Here we present results from an ensemble of three simulations covering the last millennium (850 - 2005 CE). The experiments were conducted in the framework of PMIP3/CMIP5 using the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model for paleo applications (MPI-ESM-P). The model features the same grids (ECHAM6: T63/L47, MPIOM:1.5°/L40) as the standard CMIP5 model (MPI-ESM-LR [Jungclaus et al., 2013]) but does not include dynamic vegetation. External forcings are applied following the PMIP3 protocol [Schmidt et al., 2011]. Combining forced simulations over pre-industrial times with those over the last 150 years enables us to put changes observed in the modern period in context with a period where only natural forcing agents were active. Additional long unperturbed control simulations serve to discriminate between forced and internally-generated variability. For the northward oceanic heat transports in the northern North Atlantic and in the Nordic Seas all simulations show pronounced multi-centennial variations and an unprecedented increase in the 20th century. The changes in heat transport can be traced back to changes in the gyre circulation in the subpolar North Atlantic with some local amplification. We investigate the reason for the changes in ocean circulation and atmospheric variability modes and discuss the implications for the role of ocean lateral transports for Arctic amplification of global climate change. Dylmer, C.V. et al. [2013], Northward advection of Atlantic water in the eastern Nordic Seas over the last 3000yr., Clim. Past., 9, 1505-1518. Jungclaus, J.H. et al. [2013], Characteristics of the ocean simulations in MPIOM, the ocean component of the MPI earth system model, J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., 5, 422-446. Schmidt, G.A. et al. [2011], Climate forcing reconstructions fort he use in PMIP simulations of the last millennium, Geosci. Model. Dev., 4, 33-45. Spielhagen, R.F., et al. [2011], Enhanced modern heat transfer to the Arctic by warm Atlantic Water. Science, 331, 450-453.

Jungclaus, J. H.; Zanchettin, D.; Chamarro, E. M.; Lohmann, K.

2013-12-01

216

Migrations from the Gora region at the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper I will analyze economic and political migration in the Gora region at the end of the 20th and in the first decade of the 21st century. It is my intent to consider and explain their cause and their intensity and scope. In short, I view the socioeconomic and political dimension of these migrations from an ethnological and anthropological point of view. The economic and political migrations from the Gora region at the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century represent the continuation of earlier migrations, albeit more intensive and larger in scope (whole families are migrating. There migrations can be viewed as the effects of political changes in Kosovo, as well as the socioeconomic crisis of the 1990’s. There are no fixed boundaries between these types of migrations, and the only truly stand out examples are the cases in which people migrated for safety reasons. A certain type of migration can be identified based on the terminology used by the interlocutors. I have encountered the terms “banishment” and “displacement” in the narrative discourse of my interlocutors. These terms are used to describe the migrations from Gora during the 1999 war, as well as immediately after. The differences between economic and political migrants can be gouged from other factors such as going to Gora during vacations and holidays as well as investing money into real-estate in the region. Individuals who emigrated from Gora because they feared for their and the loves of their families go to Gora rarely (to attend funerals for example and are not currently thinking of investing unlike those who had left Gora as economic migrants. There are no differences when it comes to where people migrate to for different reasons. Places of migration can, however, be indicative of the form of migration in the sense of whether people migrated to a foreign country or not. One can turn into the other due to the changing of state borders. Thus migrations from Gora to cities and towns in Serbia became international after Kosovo declared independence. In this context, migrations from Gora to Serbia can be defined twofold, both at the level of the individual and at the level of the community. This leads to the conclusion that, in the case of migrations which are the focus of this paper, one needs to be careful not only of their typology, but also their conceptualization as well as the positions from which a certain migration is conceptualized. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177027: Multietnicitet, multikulturalnost, migracije - savremeni procesi

?or?evi?-Crnobrnja Jadranka

2014-01-01

217

Siglo XX. Cien años de miseria y esplendor / The 20th Century: 100 years of misfortune and splendor  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El siglo XX ha sido uno de los períodos de la Historia más intensos y Convulsivos que le ha tocado vivir a la humanidad. Siglo de paradojas y de contrastes, se inició con optimismo, fue testigo del apocalipsis de dos guerras mundiales y terminó con un progreso científico inimaginable que nos condujo [...] a una nueva civilización, que aún no podemos intuir. En él ocurrieron grandes acontecimientos que moldearon nuestro tiempo y proyectaron sus resultados hacia un futuro inmediato. Unos fueron providenciales para entender la vida del hombre, combatir las enfermedades y prolongar la vida y otros de innegable importancia social para la humanidad. Unos saberes se fundamentaron en otros. La filosofía se adentro en la matemática, como la ciencia en la filosofía, mientras la política y la economía ejercían tan decisivo influjo en nuestro modo de sentir y de vivir, que la cultura y la sociedad se conmovieron hasta sus cimientos. En esa centuria, se gestó además, la mayor revolución tecnológica de todos los tiempos, tan trascendental como inimaginable, que con el alunizaje pusieron al hombre en el camino hacia las estrellas y con ella se creó la sociedad de la información, cuyo máximo símbolo: internet, emergió como un nuevo demiurgo. Sin embargo ha sido el siglo XX hasta ahora, con todo su infortunio y esplendor, paradojas y contrastes, creación y destrucción, el más trascendental de toda la historia y lega al futuro un horizonte promisor en la búsqueda de un renovado significado de vida y un anhelo de convivencia pacífica para toda la humanidad. Abstract in english The 20th century has been one of the most intense and convulsive periods in the History of humanity. A century of paradoxes and contrasts, it began with optimism, it witnessed the apocalypse of two world wars, and finished with unimaginable scientific progress that gave us a new civilization that we [...] cannot yet grasp. In this century, significant events happened that shaped our time and projected their results toward an immediate future. Some of these were providential in understanding man 's life, fighting against illnesses and prolonging life, and others were of undeniable social importance for humanity. Some knowledge was based on the work of others. Philosophy was embedded in mathematics, as was science in philosophy, while politics and the economy exercised so decisive an influence in our way of feeling and living that culture and society were affected to the core. Within that century the biggest technological revolution of all the time was also created, as transcendent as it was unimaginable, which put mankind on the road to the stars with the moon landing and in the process created the information society whose signature symbol, the internet, emerged as a new demiurge. However, the 20th century, with all its misfortune and splendor, paradoxes and contrasts, creation and destruction, was the most transcendent in the whole of history and it bequeaths to the future a promising horizon in the search for a renovated meaning of life and a yearning for peaceful coexistence for the whole humanity.

Eliéxer, Urdaneta-Carruyo.

2005-02-01

218

The application of foraminifera to reconstruct the rate of 20th century sea level rise, Morbihan Golfe, Brittany, France  

Science.gov (United States)

Foraminiferal assemblages preserved within salt-marsh sediment can provide an accurate and precise means to reconstruct relative sea level due to a strong relationship with elevation, which can be quantified using a transfer function. We collected a set of surface samples from two salt marshes in the Morbihan Golfe, France to determine foraminiferal distribution patterns. Dominant taxa included Jadammina macrescens, Trochammina inflata, Haplophragmoides spp. and Miliammina fusca. We developed a foraminifera-based transfer function using a modern training set of 36 samples and 23 species. The strong relationship between observed and predicted values (r 2jack = 0.7) indicated that foraminiferal distribution is primarily controlled by elevation with respect to the tidal frame and precise reconstructions of former sea level are possible (RMSEP jack = 0.07 m). The application of the transfer function to a short salt-marsh core (0.32 m) allowed the reconstruction of former sea levels, which were placed in a chronological framework using short-lived radionuclides ( 210Pb and 137Cs). The agreement between the foraminifera-based sea level curve and the Brest tide-gauge record confirms the reliability of transfer function estimates and the validity of this methodology to extend sea level reconstructions back into the pre-instrumental period. Both instrumental and microfossil records suggest an acceleration of sea level rise during the 20th century.

Rossi, Veronica; Horton, Benjamin P.; Corbett, D. Reide; Leorri, Eduardo; Perez-Belmonte, Lucia; Douglas, Bruce C.

2011-01-01

219

Time with or without death: Researching death in Serbian ethnology during the second half of the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Topics of ethnological research, as well as scientific discourse in general often represent the mirror of social reality. This paper researches the ways in which dealing with death and current ethnological approaches in Serbian ethnology during the second half of the 20th century, reflect the Zeitgeist. The intensity and the quality of interests for this important anthropological theme varied during the researched period, wherefore it is possible to differentiate two types of works and authors: those who write about funeral rituals, and those who 'read' them. From 1980s until nowadays there are three subgroups of contributions to this theme that reflect critical moments of the contemporary Serbian history. The issues raised in this paper are the following: The way in which state/society regards death the way in which it structures death, the way in which it gives meaning to death, as well as the usage of death for political purpose and the constant effort of civilization to repress it into oblivion.

Pavi?evi? Aleksandra

2008-01-01

220

Key role of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation in 20th century drought and wet periods over the Great Plains  

Science.gov (United States)

The Great Plains of North America are susceptible to multi-year droughts, such as the 1930s ‘Dust Bowl’. The droughts have been linked to SST variability in the Pacific and Atlantic basins. This observationally rooted analysis shows the SST influence in multi-year droughts and wet episodes over the Great Plains to be significantly more extensive than previously indicated. The remarkable statistical reconstruction of the major hydroclimate episodes attests to the extent of the SST influence in nature, and facilitated evaluation of the basin contributions. We find the Atlantic SSTs to be especially influential in forcing multi-year droughts; often, more than the Pacific ones. The Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), in particular, contributed the most in two of the four reconstructed episodes (Dust Bowl Spring, 1980s fall wetness), accounting for almost half the precipitation signal in each case. The AMO influence on continental precipitation was provided circulation context from analysis of NOAA's 20th Century Atmospheric Reanalysis. A hypothesis for how the AMO atmospheric circulation anomalies are generated from AMO SSTs is proposed to advance discussion of the influence pathways of the mid-to-high latitude SST anomalies. Our analysis suggests that the La Nina-US Drought paradigm, operative on interannual time scales, has been conferred excessive relevance on decadal time scales in the recent literature.

Nigam, Sumant; Guan, Bin; Ruiz-Barradas, Alfredo

2011-08-01

 
 
 
 
221

Variations in the intensity of the global seismic process in the 20th and the beginning of 21st centuries  

Science.gov (United States)

The variations in the intensity of the global seismic process during the 20th and beginning of the 21st centuries are analyzed. It is established that the evolution of the global seismic process is marked by a trend of a certain quasi-periodicity in the release of seismic energy. The analysis of the lithospheric seismicity during 113 years has shown that this time interval accommodated three periods of seismic activation separated by two periods of relative seismic quiescence. The global seismicity of the Earth is strongly dominated by the contributions of the earthquakes in the Pacific seismic belt. A considerable effect is also provided by the northeastern margin of the Indian Ocean. The horizontal displacements of the lithospheric plates are probably responsible for the accumulation of stresses in the potential sources of the earthquakes at the interplate contacts and in the orogenic areas inside the continents. The revealed clustering of the earthquakes with M ? 8.3 in the narrow time intervals is probably due to the fact that the strongest seismic event that occurs at the beginning of each activation is a trigger which simultaneously causes the relaxation of a few dozen mature potential sources within 10-15 years. This interval of seismic activation is followed by a relatively quiet period of 30-35 years, when the energy for the next activation is accumulated in a series of high-magnitude sources.

Lutikov, A. I.; Rogozhin, E. A.

2014-07-01

222

Predicting U.S. food demand in the 20th century: a new look at system dynamics  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper describes a new methodology for predicting the behavior of macroeconomic variables. The approach is based on System Dynamics and Fuzzy Inductive Reasoning. A four- layer pseudo-hierarchical model is proposed. The bottom layer makes predications about population dynamics, age distributions among the populace, as well as demographics. The second layer makes predications about the general state of the economy, including such variables as inflation and unemployment. The third layer makes predictions about the demand for certain goods or services, such as milk products, used cars, mobile telephones, or internet services. The fourth and top layer makes predictions about the supply of such goods and services, both in terms of their prices. Each layer can be influenced by control variables the values of which are only determined at higher levels. In this sense, the model is not strictly hierarchical. For example, the demand for goods at level three depends on the prices of these goods, which are only determined at level four. Yet, the prices are themselves influenced by the expected demand. The methodology is exemplified by means of a macroeconomic model that makes predictions about US food demand during the 20th century.

Moorthy, Mukund; Cellier, Francois E.; LaFrance, Jeffrey T.

1998-08-01

223

Kharkov Locomotive Plant in the Late 19th – the 20s of the 20th Century and Tractor Industry Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article is devoted to the study of the history of Kharkov Locomotive Plant (KLP from the moment of its establishment till the start of implementing tractor industry. The author highlights the special role of KLP in the formation of tractor building as a separate industry in USSR. The article includes some organizational, technical, economic and general political analysis of tractor industry, as well as some statistical indicators of the plant’s activity at the beginning of the 20th century. The article is based on archival documents that reveal the activity of KLP and Southern Machine-Building Trust in that period. The plant was seriously damaged during the First World War and the Civil War, and during these periods of foreign intervention, the revival of KLP activity was extremely difficult and slow due to many reasons. Only with the introduction of NEP there was a real possibility to restart the production activity. Thus, in 1925 and 1926 operational years KLP came to its prewar levels. The revival of the plant contributed to the creation of new industries including tractor construction. The author concluded that the selection of KLP as one of the first companies that manufacture tractors in Ukraine was justified and quite successful. The subsequent retooling of KLP production with the imported equipment and instruments in the period of 1927–1930 created new possibilities. This allowed releasing “Communar” as the first Soviet crawler tractor.

KRIVOKON A.G.

2014-06-01

224

Composition of `Marbrite Fauquez' 20th-century opalescent glass: results of historical study and laboratory analyses  

Science.gov (United States)

Belgian Marbrite Fauquez opalescent glass is an innovative material developed at the take-off of the 20th century. S.A. Verreries de Fauquez produced this from 1922 onwards. Low maintenance requirements and appropriate properties in terms of hygienic aspects make these mass coloured glass plates popular as finishes for bathrooms, kitchens, hospitals, store fronts, decorative façade cladding,... Since production of Marbrite stopped in the 1960s, replacement of its applications in the framework of restoration procedures is almost impossible. Limited knowledge of the composition and production results in the lack of a proper conservation strategy. In order to improve the existing knowledge a historical research was conducted. Archive records including patents, literature, building specifications, plans, journals, advertisements, interviews with former directors of the glassworks, etc. were considered and evaluated. Onsite lifted samples of Marbrite glass were submitted to a laboratory investigation using optical and scanning electron microscopy. The results revealed crucial information about the original formula and components. This paper discusses the composition of Marbrite, a peculiar Belgian opalescent glass. This interdisciplinary research - a cooperation between the Vrije Universiteit Brussel and Royal Institute for Cultural Heritage - aims to improve the knowledge of Marbrite glass in order to develop repair and renovation techniques.

Dekeyser, L.; Wouters, H. J. M.; Ligovich, G.; Verdonck, A.; De Clercq, H.

225

Natural movement of Belgrade population in the second half of the 20th century and beginning of the 21st century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper analyzes the process of natural growth movements of the City of Belgrade in the second half of the 20th and beginning of the 21st centuries. The time level of the analysis was determined by the available data on vital statistics (1961-2005, while the spatial level was determined by the administrative distribution of the City into districts during the 2002 census. It has been established that the natural growth rates for the City of Belgrade were stable until the beginning of the 1980s, though with small oscillations. Then a decrease began until 1992, when the number of deaths exceeded the number of births, with a tendency of negative growth. From then on, the population of Belgrade increased in the last decade of the 20th and beginning of the 21st centuries, only due to the migration component. Although the increase of Belgrade population has never mainly depended on natural growth, it was concluded in the paper that the effects of the ceased natural replacement would yet be shown.

Tucovi? Olgica

2007-01-01

226

The paradigms of Romanian language and literature curricula in the second half of the 19th century and the 20th century.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article is the synthesis of research focused on the history of the Romanian mother tongue language and literature curricula of the second half of the 19th century and the 20th century1. The curricula I analysed comprise a history with complex syncopated rhythms, periods of re-constitution and recrystallisation alternating with periods of deconstruction and repression. The changes of rhythm are the result of the dialogue between the institutional policies of the Ministry of Education and the language, literature and education sciences. This dialogue was a positive and constructive one in the periods of socio-cultural and economic evolution of the country and absent or extremely tense during the communistperiod. The article presents a history of the curricular projects for the study of the Romanian mother tongue language and literature2 by middle and secondary school pupils.

Pamfil, A.

2007-10-01

227

History at the Mercy of Politicians and Ideologies: Germany, England, and the Netherlands in the 19th and 20th Centuries  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper analyses and compares developments in history teaching in Germany, England, and the Netherlands in the 19th and 20th centuries. The development of history teaching in the three countries shows striking similarities. National politics have always used history education for purposes which did not necessarily tally with distanced critical…

Wilschut, Arie H. J.

2010-01-01

228

The historical and ethnographic sources about everyday life of the Karelian peasant woman (the end of the 19th to the beginning of the 20th century)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article contains basic thematics groups of sources both published and archival from second half of the 19th to beginning of the 20th century. It allows analyse legal and sociocultural state of the karelian peasant woman in and out her family.

Litvin J. V.

2012-01-01

229

The historical and ethnographic sources about everyday life of the Karelian peasant woman (the end of the 19th to the beginning of the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article contains basic thematics groups of sources both published and archival from second half of the 19th to beginning of the 20th century. It allows analyse legal and sociocultural state of the karelian peasant woman in and out her family.

Litvin J. V.

2012-12-01

230

Changes in Vascular Plant Biodiversity in the Netherlands in the 20th Century Explained by their Climatic and other Environmental Characteristics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the Netherlands nation-wide databases are available with about 10 million records of occurrences of vascular plant species in the 20th century on a scale of approximately 1 km{sup 2}. These data were analysed with a view to identifying relationships between changes in botanical biodiversity and climatic and other environmental factors. Prior to analysis the data were corrected for several major forms of survey bias. The records were broken down into three periods: 1902-1949, 1975-1984 and 1985-1999. Using multiple regression analysis, differences between successive periods were related to plant functional characteristics as explanatory variables. Between the periods 1902-1949 and 1975-1984 there were small but significant increases in the presence of both thermophilic ('warm') and psychrophilic ('cold') species. However, in the final decades of the 20th century there was a marked increase in thermophilic species only, coinciding with the marked increase in ambient temperature observed during this period, evidence at least of a rapid response of Dutch flora to climate change. Urbanisation was also examined as an alternative explanation for the increase in thermophilic plant species and was found to explain only 50% of the increased presence of such species in the final decades of the 20th century. Besides temperature-related effects, the most important change during the 20th century was a strong decline in oligotrophic and a marked increase in eutrophic plant species.

Tamis, W.L.M.; Van der Meijden, R.; Udo de Haes, H.A. [Nationaal Herbarium Nederland/Leiden University Branch, P.O. Box 9514, 2300, RA, Leiden (Netherlands); Van ' t Zelfde, M. [Institute of Environmental Sciences, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9518, 2300, RA, Leiden (Netherlands)

2005-09-01

231

Educating about Social Issues in the 20th and 21st Centuries: A Critical Annotated Bibliography. Research in Curriculum and Instruction. Volume 1  

Science.gov (United States)

Educating About Social Issues in the 20th and 21st Centuries: A Critical Annotated Bibliography, is comprised of critical essays accompanied by annotated bibliographies on a host of programs, models, strategies and concerns vis-a-vis teaching and learning about social issues facing society. The primary goal of the book is to provide undergraduate…

Totten, Samuel, Ed.; Pedersen, Jon, Ed.

2012-01-01

232

[The Rockefeller Foundation, the Carlsberg Foundation and Danish medical biology in the interwar years. Effects on research and education throughout the 20th century].  

Science.gov (United States)

Three large scientific institutes were built in Copenhagen, Denmark, between 1928 and 1938 supported by the Rockefeller Foundation in New York. The three institutes were: the Rockefeller Institute of Copenhagen, Juliane Mariesvej, the Biological Institute of the Carlsberg Foundation, and the Institute of Human Genetics, both on Tagensvej (The Carlsberg Foundation in Copenhagen participated in the financing of the two first ones.) In the same period the Rockefeller Foundation supported the construction of a cyclotron at Niels Bohr's Institute of Theoretical Physics. These institutes in Copenhagen sent many co-workers both to the Rockefeller University in New York and to other places in the world for further education supported by stipends from the Rockefeller Foundation. The scientific nucleus around which these activities crystallized included: the physiologist (and Nobel Prize winner) Aug. Krogh, the physicist (and Nobel Prize winner) Niels Bohr, the chemist S.P.L. Sorensen, the geneticist W. Johannsen, the plant physiologist Peter Boysen Jensen, and the cell culturist Albert Fischer. The international co-operation between the two foundations began early in the 20th century and it can be traced in Danish medical/biological science through the rest of that century. PMID:11639166

Rasmussen, L

1999-01-01

233

Sediment accumulation in San Leandro Bay, Alameda County, California, during the 20th century : a preliminary report  

Science.gov (United States)

Major changes made in the configuration of San Leandro Bay, Alameda County, California, during the 20th century have caused rapid sedimentation within parts of the Bay. Opening of the Oakland tidal channel and removal of 97% of the marshlands formerly surrounding the Bay have decreased tidal velocities and volumes. Marshland removal has decreased the tidal prism by about 25%. Comparison of bathymetric surveys indicates that sedimentation in the vicinity of the San Leandro Bay channel averaged 0.7 cm/annum between 1856 and 1984. Lead-210 data collected at four shallow water sites east of the San Leandro Bay channel indicated that sedimentation rates have averaged between 0.06 and 0.28 cm/annum. Because bioturbation of bottom sediments cannot be discounted, better definition of this range in sedimentation rates would required measuring the activity of lead-210 on incoming sediments. In addition to sediment deposited in the vicinity of the San Leandro Bay channel and open, shallow areas to the east, 850,740 cu m of sediment was deposited between 1948 and 1983 in an area dredged at the mouth of San Leandro Creek. All available data indicate that between 1 ,213,000 and 1,364,000 cu m of sediment was deposited in San Leandro Bay between 1948 and 1983. Sediment yield data from an adjacent drainage basin, when combined with inventories of lead-210 and cesium-137, indicate that most of the sediment deposited in San Leandro Bay is coming from resuspension of bottom sediments or from erosion of marshes or shorelines of San Leandro or San Francisco Bay. (Author 's abstract)

Nolan, K. M.; Fuller, C. C.

1986-01-01

234

Tropical Atlantic influence on Pacific variability and mean state in the 20th century in observations and CMIP5  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper investigates the influence of the tropical Atlantic on the tropical Pacific interannual variability and mean state in the 20th century. It is demonstrated that observational datasets show a significant time-delayed impact of the tropical Atlantic on tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures, leading to an anticorrelation between the tropical Atlantic and the eastern Pacific if the Atlantic is leading by about 10 months. This result is robust across different sea surface temperature reconstructions. There is no robust correlation between the tropical Atlantic and the eastern Pacific when the Pacific is leading, although in recent decades a positive correlation between the two basins is more dominant. An analysis of the surface pressure response to the tropical Atlantic indicates an atmospheric bridge and a modification of the Walker Circulation as the likely trigger for the teleconnection, and this result is consistent with recent observational and modelling results for the recent decades. 16 out of the 45 analyzed World Climate Research Program's Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) models show lead-lag correlations broadly similar to the observed, whereas the majority of the models show either too strong correlations when the Pacific is leading or very weak correlations for all lags. The atmospheric bridge mechanism seems also valid in the selected CMIP5 models. In these models a stronger warming of the tropical Atlantic compared to the global mean is associated with a La Nina-like mean state change in the tropical Pacific. However, the ensemble mean of these models still shows a weakly El Nino-like trend, which is associated with a relatively weak Atlantic warming compared to the global mean and the observations

Kucharski, Fred; Syed, Faisal S.; Buran, Ahmad; Farah, Ikram; Gohar, Ali

2014-05-01

235

19th-20th century rainfall patterns reconstructed from sediment provenance in a Santa Barbara Basin box core  

Science.gov (United States)

Rainfall patterns in Southern California directly affect the availability of water resources and induce hazards in this highly populated and water stressed region. Extreme weather consists of heavy rainfall events in winter associated with atmospheric rivers, and drought conditions when winter rains do not arrive. Water availability has a significant societal impact in Southern California. Here we reconstruct 19th-20th century precipitation history of river catchments draining into Santa Barbara Basin (SBB) through a combination of high-resolution elemental and mineralogical analyses. The deep center of the SBB features suboxic bottom waters and high sedimentation rates resulting in minimal bioturbation of annual sedimentation, which enables high-resolution paleoclimate research. Scanning XRF analysis at a 200 ?m resolution of box core SPR0901-04BC from SBB was used to determine annual changes in sediment composition. Samples at 1 cm resolution from the same box core were analyzed for a more extensive suite of elements by ICP-MS, while mineralogy in each sample was determined from whole rock and clay fraction (<2 ?m) analysis using X-ray defraction. Elements associated with siliciclastic sediment increase in relative abundance during wet years when significant river runoff events (floods) occurred. The relative proportions of these elements differ between flood events, possibly reflecting differences in temporal and/or spatial rainfall patterns that vary the response of each river catchment draining into SBB. Watershed sediment from the Santa Ynez Mountain streams and Ventura and Santa Clara River catchments derives mostly from Cenozoic sedimentary units, except the Santa Clara River catchment, which contains metamorphic and igneous units. As river runoff is responsible for a significant portion of the terrigenous input into SBB, and is primarily the result of precipitation events, characteristic mineralogy and elemental signatures are a direct recorder of catchment precipitation, and therefore storms and/or atmospheric rivers.

Napier, T.; Hendy, I. L.; Schimmelmann, A.

2013-12-01

236

Coral-based history of lead and lead isotopes of the surface Indian Ocean since the mid-20th century  

Science.gov (United States)

Anthropogenic lead (Pb) from industrial activities has greatly altered the distribution of Pb in the present-day oceans, but no continuous temporal Pb evolution record is available for the Indian Ocean despite rapidly emerging industries around the region. Here, we present the coral-inferred annual history of Pb concentration and isotope ratios in the surface Indian Ocean since the mid-20th century (1945-2010). We analyzed Pb in corals from the Chagos Archipelago, western Sumatra and Strait of Singapore - which represent the central Indian Ocean via nearshore sites. Overall, coral Pb/Ca increased in the mid-1970s at all the sites. However, coral Pb isotope ratios evolve distinctively at each site, suggesting Pb contamination arises from different sources in each case. The major source of Pb in the Chagos coral appears to be India's Pb emission from leaded gasoline combustion and coal burning, whereas Pb in western Sumatra seems to be largely affected by Indonesia's gasoline Pb emission with additional Pb inputs from other sources. Pb in the Strait of Singapore has complex sources and its isotopic composition does not reflect Pb from leaded gasoline combustion. Higher 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb ratios found at this site may reflect the contribution of Pb from coals and ores from southern China, Indonesia, and Australia, and local Pb sources in the Strait of Singapore. It is also possible that the Pb isotope ratios of Singapore seawater were elevated through isotope exchange with natural fluvial particles considering its delta setting.

Lee, Jong-Mi; Boyle, Edward A.; Suci Nurhati, Intan; Pfeiffer, Miriam; Meltzner, Aron J.; Suwargadi, Bambang

2014-07-01

237

Between autonomy of music and the composer’s autonomy. Notes on modernisms and traditionalisms in Slovenian music of the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this article is to examine the relations between the old and the new in the context of 20th-century Slovenian music. The question about the old and the new is seen not only as a question of different facets of an age-old opposition, but also as a complex issue of the epistemological contextualization of those different facets. Centered on the main historiographical entries – the avant-garde, modernity, traditionalism, and post-modernity –, the outline of the 20th-century Slovenian musical culture endeavors to point out what is a common problem of the Western musical heritage from the past century: the problem of defining constituents of the old and the new within different epistemological contexts.

Stefanija Leon

2006-01-01

238

Catolicismo y condición femenina: representaciones de género sobre la maternidad y la domesticidad en la prensa del suroeste bonaerense argentino a principios del siglo XX / Catholicism and the Female Condition: Gender Representations of Motherhood and Domesticity in the Southwest Argentinean Buenos Aires Press in the Early 20th Century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En el presente artículo se identifican y describen los significados atribuidos a la maternidad y a la domesticidad analizando las representaciones de género en el discurso de la prensa confesional que aparece en Bahía Blanca y circula por su zona de influencia en las tres primeras décadas del siglo [...] XX. Se sostiene que los(as) católicos(as) que escriben en la prensa comparten el concepto de diferencia sexual dominante y abordan el problema de la condición femenina centrándose en las nociones de domesticidad y maternidad, que aluden al papel de reproducción material y biológica de la sociedad en el marco de la división sexual del trabajo. Sin embargo, algunos de ellos las reformulan frente a las transformaciones de la época que impactan sobre la familia, como resultado de lo cual expresan ideas que, si bien no tienen en sí mismas la intención de subvertir las relaciones de género, avalan ciertas mutaciones de signo moderno. Abstract in english This paper identifies and describes the meanings ascribed to motherhood and domesticity by analyzing gender representations in the discourse of the confessional press that appears in Bahía Blanca and travels through its zone of influence during the first three decades of the 20th century. It is argu [...] ed that Catholic men and women who write in the press share the concept of dominant sexual difference and address the problem of the female condition by focusing on the notions of domesticity and motherhood, which refer to the role of the biological and material reproduction of society in the context of the sexual division of labor. However, some of them reformulate them in response to the epochal changes that have impacted the family, as a result of which they express ideas which, while not in themselves intended to subvert gender relations, endorse certain modern mutations.

Lucía, Bracamonte.

239

Medicina, educação e psiquiatria para a infância: o Pavilhão-Escola Bourneville no início do século XX / Médicine, éducation et psychiatrie de l'enfance: le Pavillon-École Bourneville au début du XXe siècle / Child medicine, education and psychiatry: the Bourneville Pavilion-School in the early 20th century / Medicina, educación y psiquiatría para la infancia: el Pabellón Escuela Bourneville en el inicio del siglo XX  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho analisa a criação do Pavilhão-Escola Bourneville do Hospício Nacional de Alienados no início do século XX, primeira instituição brasileira para a assistência a crianças anormais. Destaca o conhecimento então produzido sobre os diagnósticos relativos à infância e sobre o método médico-p [...] edagógico empregado no Pavilhão. Busca-se assim perceber as vias pelas quais a criança se constituiu em objeto da ciência psiquiátrica e das políticas públicas a ela relacionada naquele período. Abstract in spanish Este artículo tiene como objetivo analizar la creación del Pabellón Escuela Bourneville del Hospicio Nacional en el principio del siglo XX, primera institución brasileña para asistencia de los niños anormales. Se destaca el conocimiento producido sobre diagnósticos relativos a la infancia y el métod [...] o médico-pedagógico usado en el pabellón. Se busca con ello comprender las formas en las que el niño se constituyó en objeto de la ciencia psiquiátrica y de las políticas públicas en aquel período. Abstract in english This paper has the objective of analyzing the first Brazilian institution for working with abnormal children, the Bourneville Pavilion-School, at the National Asylum, which operated during the early 20th century. The knowledge at the time regarding diagnoses of children is summarized, together with [...] the medical-pedagogical methods applied at that institution. The manner in which children became the object of psychiatric science and public policies during that period is also treated.

Renata Prudencio da, Silva.

240

Medicina, educação e psiquiatria para a infância: o Pavilhão-Escola Bourneville no início do século XX / Médicine, éducation et psychiatrie de l'enfance: le Pavillon-École Bourneville au début du XXe siècle / Child medicine, education and psychiatry: the Bourneville Pavilion-School in the early 20th century / Medicina, educación y psiquiatría para la infancia: el Pabellón Escuela Bourneville en el inicio del siglo XX  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho analisa a criação do Pavilhão-Escola Bourneville do Hospício Nacional de Alienados no início do século XX, primeira instituição brasileira para a assistência a crianças anormais. Destaca o conhecimento então produzido sobre os diagnósticos relativos à infância e sobre o método médico-p [...] edagógico empregado no Pavilhão. Busca-se assim perceber as vias pelas quais a criança se constituiu em objeto da ciência psiquiátrica e das políticas públicas a ela relacionada naquele período. Abstract in spanish Este artículo tiene como objetivo analizar la creación del Pabellón Escuela Bourneville del Hospicio Nacional en el principio del siglo XX, primera institución brasileña para asistencia de los niños anormales. Se destaca el conocimiento producido sobre diagnósticos relativos a la infancia y el métod [...] o médico-pedagógico usado en el pabellón. Se busca con ello comprender las formas en las que el niño se constituyó en objeto de la ciencia psiquiátrica y de las políticas públicas en aquel período. Abstract in english This paper has the objective of analyzing the first Brazilian institution for working with abnormal children, the Bourneville Pavilion-School, at the National Asylum, which operated during the early 20th century. The knowledge at the time regarding diagnoses of children is summarized, together with [...] the medical-pedagogical methods applied at that institution. The manner in which children became the object of psychiatric science and public policies during that period is also treated.

Renata Prudencio da, Silva.

2009-03-01

 
 
 
 
241

Extension of the SIM Hydrometeorological Reanalysis Over the Entire 20th Century by Combination of Observations and Statistical Downscaling  

Science.gov (United States)

The SAFRAN-ISBA-MODCOU (SIM) system is a combination of three different components: an atmospheric analysis system (SAFRAN) providing the atmospheric forcing for a land surface model (ISBA) that computes surface water and energy budgets and a hydrological model (MODCOU) that provides river flows and level of several aquifers. The variables generated by the SIM chain constitute the SIM reanalysis and the current version only covers the 1958-2012 period. However, long climate datasets are required for evaluation and verification of climate hindcasts/forecasts and to isolate the contribution of natural decadal variability from that of anthropogenic forcing to climate variations. The aim of this work is to extend of the fine-mesh SIM reanalysis to the entire 20th century, especially focusing on temperature and rainfall over France, but also soil wetness and river flows. This extension will first allow a detailed investigation of the influence of decadal variability on France at very fine spatial scales and will provide crucial information for climate model evaluation. Before 1958, the density of available observations from Météo-France necessary to force SAFRAN (rainfall, snow, wind, temperature, humidity, cloudiness) is much lower than today, and not sufficient to produce a correct SIM reanalysis. That's why is has been decided to use the available atmospheric observations over the past decades combined to a statistical downscaling algorithm to overcome the lack of observations. The DSCLIM software package implemented by the CERFACS and using a weather typing based statistical methodology will be used as statistical downscaling method to reconstruct the atmospheric variables necessary to force the ISBA-MODCOU hydrological component. The first stage of this work was to estimate and compare the bias and strengths of the two approaches in their ability to reconstruct the past decades. In this sense, SIM hydro-meteorological experiments were performed for some recent years, with a number of observations artificially reduced to a number similar to years 1910, 1930 and 1950. Concurrently, the same recent years have been downscaled by DSCLIM and used to force ISBA-MODCOU. Afterwards, some additional experiments with some modified parameters in the DSCLIM algorithm have been performed in order to adapt the methodology to the study case, and thus trying to improve its performances. Several configurations of the DSCLIM algorithm were applied to the entire century, using the NOAA20CR reanalysis as large-scale predictor. The reconstructed atmospheric variables are compared to the available observations over the entire century to estimate the ability of the statistical downscaling method to reproduce a correct interannual to multidecadal variability. Finally, a novel method is tested: available observations over past decades are introduced in the DSCLIM algorithm, in order to obtain a reconstructed dataset as realistic as possible.

Minvielle, M.; Céron, J.; Page, C.

2013-12-01

242

Climatic changes between 20th century and pre-industrial times over South America in regional model simulations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two simulations with a regional climate model are analyzed for climatic changes between the late 20th century and a pre-industrial period over central and southern South America. The model simulations have been forced with large-scale boundary data from the global simulation performed with a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model. The regional simulations have been carried out on a 0.44° × 0.44° grid (approx. 50 km × 50 km horizontal resolution. The differences in the external forcings are related to a changed greenhouse gas content of the atmosphere, being higher in the present-day simulation.

For validation purposes the climate model is analyzed using a five year long simulation between 1993 and 1997 forced with re-analysis data. The climate model reproduces the main climatic features reasonably well, especially when comparing model output co-located with observational station data. However, the comparison between observed and simulated climate is hampered by the sparse meteorological station network in South America.

The present-day simulation is compared with the pre-industrial simulation for atmospheric fields of near-surface temperatures, precipitation, sea level pressure and zonal wind. Higher temperatures in the present-day simulation are evident over entire South America, mostly pronounced over the southern region of the Andes Mountains and the Parana basin. During southern winter the higher temperatures prevail over the entire continent, with largest differences over the central Andes Mountains and the Amazonian basin.

Precipitation differences show a more heterogeneous pattern, especially over tropical regions. This might be explained by changes in convective processes acting on small scales. During southern summer wetter conditions are evident over the Amazonian and Parana basin in the present-day simulation. Precipitation increases are evident over Patagonia together with decreases to the north along the western slope of the Andes Mountains. During southern winter also a dipole pattern along the Andes Mountains with wetter conditions over the southern parts and drier conditions over the central parts is evident. An interesting feature relates to precipitation changes with changing sign within a few 10th of kilometers along the southern parts of the Andes mountain chain. This pattern can be explained by changes in large-scale circulation related to latitudinal changes of the extratropical southern hemispheric westerlies.

S. Wagner

2011-09-01

243

Transcendence of avant-garde negativity as a determinant of the social position of European music in the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Starting with Adorno’s negative dialectic and his consideration of musical material as the crucial theoretical notion that implies the negative dialectic core, we examine in this study the deconstructive potential of materialization of some musical antinomies of the 20th century. We follow this materialization from the aspect of transcendence of the antinomy considered as a certain musical ‘unit’ of negativity. This process is investigated here in reference to the concepts of musical material and the dual determination of music and musical-aesthetic experience, as well as to the musically concrete levels regarding musical substance and language of the avant-garde and post modernity, as representatives of a further possible antinomy: respectively, between the phenomenological and the hermeneutical. Functioning within all these levels individually, the process of transcendence brings about consequences which in our view can be considered as general criteria affecting the social position of European music of the 20th century.

Veselinovi?-Hofman Mirjana

2006-01-01

244

ON ETREPRENUERSHIP AT MAIN CLAY PITS AND BRICKYARDS OF CENTRAL CROATIA AT THE END OF 19TH AND BEGINNING OF 20TH CENTURIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In central Croatia at the beginning of 20th century, clay pits were mostly managed by individual entrepreneurs, and less by joint stock companies and municipal or district local authorities. Majority of clay pit met the local and regional requirements i.e. demands, and quality products were exported. Exploitation of brickwork clay was carried out from open pits, while potter's, stove-maker's and porcelain clays were exploited from mining shafts and tunnels. From the clay raw material, annual production of minor brickyards amounted to 200-300,000 bricks, and that of major ones was 1-2,000,000 pieces of bricks or roofing-tiles. The number of workers in brickyards and cement works was growing in the first decade of 20th century, while that of potter's and stove-maker's crafts was decreasing. Pottery became a secondary trade in the majority of Croatian and Slavonian counties.

Berislav Šebe?i?

2003-12-01

245

The Ambivalence of a Port-City. The Jews of Trieste from the 19th to the 20th Century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article stems from a key question: was Habsburg Trieste truly a cosmopolitan and tolerant city? Building upon the interpretative category of "port Jews", established by David Sorkin and Lois C. Dubin, this study examines the social, economic and political behaviour of the Triestine Jews in the nineteenth- and early twentieth-centuries, and conducts a comparison with the other religious minorities present in the Adriatic port during this period: Greeks, Protestants, Serbians and Armenians. The picture which emerges allows for the proposition of a new interpretative model, that of the "port-merchant." The second part of the article focuses on the second half of the nineteenth-century, when the model of Trieste as a tolerant city was challenged by the nationalist fights between Italians and Slovenians, and by the political antisemitism. The city lost its capacity to include the 'Other', and was rapidly transformed into a genuine breeding-ground of Italian racism.

Tullia Catalan

2011-10-01

246

Height as an indicator of economic status in the Polish territories under Russian rule at the turn of the 19th to 20th century.  

Science.gov (United States)

Height is regarded as one of the indicators of environmental stress at population level, being an excellent barometer of standard of living. The aim of this study was to describe diversity in height among populations living in different regions of the Kingdom of Poland in terms of the economic factors in the second half of the 19th and early 20th century. This study examines the height of adult inhabitants from five guberniyas (provinces) of the Kingdom of Poland (?om?a, Warsaw, Radom, Kalisz and P?ock) collected in the years 1897-1914 (N = 732 men, N = 569 women). Differences in average height of male and female inhabitants across the five guberniyas were examined using ANOVA and the Fisher's LSD (Least Significant Difference) test of multiple comparisons. Statistically significant differences in the height between the guberniyas were observed. Diversity in the economic development in the studied guberniyas of the Kingdom of Poland translated into differences in the height of their inhabitants. Moreover, an increase in mean height over time was noted. PMID:24041152

Czapla, Zbigniew; Liczbi?ska, Gra?yna

2014-09-01

247

Sedimentary organic biomarkers suggest detrimental effects of PAHs on estuarine microbial biomass during the 20th century in San Francisco Bay, CA, USA  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydrocarbon contaminants are ubiquitous in urban aquatic ecosystems, and the ability of some microbial strains to degrade certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is well established. However, detrimental effects of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination on nondegrader microbial populations and photosynthetic organisms have not often been considered. In the current study, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) biomarkers in the sediment record were used to assess historical impacts of petroleum contamination on microbial and/or algal biomass in South San Francisco Bay, CA, USA. Profiles of saturated, branched, and monounsaturated fatty acids had similar concentrations and patterns downcore. Total PAHs in a sediment core were on average greater than 20× higher above ?200 cm than below, which corresponds roughly to the year 1900. Isomer ratios were consistent with a predominant petroleum combustion source for PAHs. Several individual PAHs exceeded sediment quality screening values. Negative correlations between petroleum contaminants and microbial and algal biomarkers – along with high trans/cis ratios of unsaturated FA, and principle component analysis of the PAH and fatty acid records – suggest a negative impacts of petroleum contamination, appearing early in the 20th century, on microbial and/or algal ecology at the site.

Nilsen, Elena B.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Fuller, Christopher C.; Jaffe, Bruce E.

2014-01-01

248

Between fantasy and allusion. SOCIAL FICTION as a crypto-politic trend in the Polish literature in 70s and 80s of the 20th Century  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article focuses on Polish science fiction of the 70’s and 80’s in the 20th century. It seeks to present the way the writers used artistic strategies for creating the parable of the Polish political reality. The analyses of the vision of the presented world refer to the works by Janusz A. Zajdel, Wiktor ?wikiewicz, Marek Oramus and Edmund Wnuk-Lipi?ski.

Mazurkiewicz, Adam

2011-01-01

249

AN ANALYSIS OF THE DIFFERENTIATION STRATEGIES OF RURAL FOUNDRIES IN THE BEGINNING OF THE 20TH CENTURY IN THE PROVINCE OF QUEBEC  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The business model and strategic position of Quebec's rural foundries at the beginning of the 20th century is virtually unknown. Inferences have been made based on pictorial and oral data sources. This data reveals that successful rural foundries were, in essence, confined to producing and selling agricultural tools to local farmers on an as-needed basis, because large urban foundries were already mass-producing domestic and industrial objects. In contrast, use of detailed accounting records ...

Lisa Baillargeon; Patrice Gélinas

2009-01-01

250

Ancient versus modern health patterns: biological and socioeconomic status differences and similarities between a Hellenistic and a 20th century human burial population from Greece  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present research offers the rare opportunity to compare the human remains of an ancient (3rd-1st century BC) population from the North Cemetery of Demetrias, Thessaly, and a modern (late 19th-late 20th century AD) one, the Athens Collection, from various cemeteries in Athens, Greece. Its main purpose is to explore the biological similarities and differences between the two populations and among the subsets within each one of them, as these are defined by biosocial parameters, namely se...

Vanna, V.

2011-01-01

251

The demarcation between Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina in the Una region from the 17th to the 20th century according to original cartographic material  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article presents the latest scientific research results regarding the presentation of what are nowadays Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina territories on geographic maps from the 17th to the 20th century. The focus is set on twenty maps that point to the most important tendencies. Particular attention is paid to wars and international treaties which regulated the demarcation of Una watercourse up to its confluence to the Sava as a centuries-old border between the Habsburg and the Ottoman empires.

Mithad Kozli?i?

2011-06-01

252

A Comparison of 20th Century and Holocene Historical Lake Areas and Implications for Reconstruction of Holocene Moisture Balance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Low lake stands during the Holocene document a period of drier than modern conditions in the upper Midwest after 8000 cal yr B.P. Here, we seek to compare the magnitudes and spatial extent of these mid-Holocene water-level changes with the changes that occurred during the 1930s Dust Bowl drought. The comparison allows us to consider the potential range of hydrologic conditions in the mid-continent, and to detect similarities or differences between the two periods as a way to learn more about the climatic controls on the mid-Holocene moisture-balance. (How good an analog is the 1930s drought for the mid-Holocene aridity?) Each lake record, however, is unique and comparisons among lakes have been hindered by local hydrologic influences and sedimentary processes. We therefore test the simple methodological assumption that the stratigraphic records of small lakes may be used in concert to produce valid and meaningful maps of Holocene moisture balance. First we confirm that broad regional trends in lake area reflect long-term moisture balance patterns by studying the 1930s aerial photography. Second, we confirm that regionally coherent patterns of sedimentary change related to past water levels can be detected for the mid-Holocene via GPR profiles. Changes in open water surface area in response to the 1930's drought are quantified and mapped for over 300 small (1km sq. or less) lakes of northern and central Minnesota in order to determine if small basins responded to drought with explainable regional coherency. A map of percent area change (between AD 1930 and 2003) reveals that coherent trends in surface area response reflect the gradient of moisture balance change over the same period. We found a trend in percent surface area change from east to west with western lakes completely drying out (>100% change), a wider variability of responses in central Minnesota, and eastern lakes undergoing almost no change (<10%). GPR profiles were collected on two east-west transects for a subset of the lakes included in the historical aerial photo analysis. Interpretation of the GPR profiles reveals that the apparent frequency of erosional events increased towards the west, mimicking the behavior of modern drought response. However, unlike the modern drought response, we detect some large magnitude lake area changes throughout Minnesota during the Holocene. The preservation of well defined packages of lake strata appears to increase eastward, with thicker units between unconformities, but we find low elevation unconformities throughout the state. Taken together, we observe that an east-west gradient of lake area variability has remained in place throughout the Holocene, even if the magnitude of some water level changes was much larger in the past than during the 20th century. The influence of basin morphometry on the clarity of the lake level signal is, however, significant and records are commonly complicated by the evolution of the sedimentary basins from more complex, in some cases multi-basinal forms, to less complex flat-bottom forms.

Plank, C. P.; Ferreira, M.; Shuman, B.; Ito, E.

2005-12-01

253

Hydrologic drought of water year 2011 compared to four major drought periods of the 20th century in Oklahoma  

Science.gov (United States)

Water year 2011 (October 1, 2010, through September 30, 2011) was a year of hydrologic drought (based on streamflow) in Oklahoma and the second-driest year to date (based on precipitation) since 1925. Drought conditions worsened substantially in the summer, with the highest monthly average temperature record for all States being broken by Oklahoma in July (89.1 degrees Fahrenheit), June being the second hottest and August being the hottest on record for those months for the State since 1895. Drought conditions continued into the fall, with all of the State continuing to be in severe to exceptional drought through the end of September. In addition to effects on streamflow and reservoirs, the 2011 drought increased damage from wildfires, led to declarations of states of emergency, water-use restrictions, and outdoor burning bans; caused at least $2 billion of losses in the agricultural sector and higher prices for food and other agricultural products; caused losses of tourism and wildlife; reduced hydropower generation; and lowered groundwater levels in State aquifers. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, conducted an investigation to compare the severity of the 2011 drought with four previous major hydrologic drought periods during the 20th century – water years 1929–41, 1952–56, 1961–72, and 1976–81. The period of water years 1925–2011 was selected as the period of record because few continuous record streamflow-gaging stations existed before 1925, and gaps in time existed where no streamflow-gaging stations were operated before 1925. In water year 2011, statewide annual precipitation was the 2d lowest, statewide annual streamflow was 16th lowest, and statewide annual runoff was 42d lowest of those 87 years of record. Annual area-averaged precipitation totals by the nine National Weather Service climate divisions from water year 2011 were compared to those during four previous major hydrologic drought periods to show how precipitation deficits in Oklahoma varied by region. The nine climate divisions in Oklahoma had precipitation in water year 2011 ranging from 43 to 76 percent of normal annual precipitation, with the Northeast Climate Division having the closest to normal precipitation and the Southwest Climate Division having the greatest percentage of annual deficit. Based on precipitation amounts, water year 2011 ranked as the second driest of the 1925–2011 period, being exceeded only in one year of the 1952 to 1956 drought period. Regional streamflow patterns for water year 2011 indicate that streamflow in the Arkansas-White-Red water resources region, which includes all of Oklahoma, was relatively large, being only the 26th lowest since 1930, primarily because of normal or above-normal streamflow in the northern part of the region. Twelve long-term streamflow-gaging stations with periods of record ranging from 67 to 83 years were selected to show how streamflow deficits varied by region in Oklahoma. Statewide, streamflow in water year 2011 was greater than streamflows measured in years during the drought periods of 1929–41, 1952–56, 1961–72, and 1976–81. The hydrologic drought worsened going from the northeast toward the southwest in Oklahoma, ranging from 140 percent (above normal streamflow) in the northeast, to 13 percent of normal streamflow in southwestern Oklahoma. The relatively low streamflow in 2011 resulted in 83.3 percent of the statewide conservation storage being available at the end of the water year in major reservoirs, similar to conservation storage in the preceding severe drought year of 2006. The ranking of streamflow as the 16th smallest for the 1925–2011 period, despite precipitation being ranked the 2d smallest, may have been caused, in part, by the relatively large streamflow in northeastern Oklahoma during water year 2011.

Shivers, Molly J.; Andrews, William J.

2013-01-01

254

AMERICAN MULTI-DWELLING ARCHITECTURE OF THE SECOND HALF OF THE 19TH CENTURY AND FIRST HALF OF THE 20TH CENTURY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available At the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century, the evolution of American multiple-dwelling architecture was marked by the passage from the standard construction of single-family standalone homes and row houses to a new housing typology which corresponded to all of the new urban planning rules and requirements of the contemporary way of life in cities. New York was the first American city to face the problem of dense settlement in limited spaces. The »U, E, H« ground plan designs were developed and were most commonly used during the period when the Building Zone Resolution adopted in 1916 by New York City was in force. The Building Zone Resolution introduced another novelty into New York town planning, i.e. the setting back of exterior walls above a determined height. Consequently, this gave rise to buildings with stepped profiles and many more storeys. The solutions developed by the New York residential architecture were adopted by other cities and further developed in line with specific local influences. Chicago is the most interesting of these cities; between 1924 and 1929 several quality housing complexes were built there which strongly deviated from the then housing construction in New York by the consistent ground plan designs of structures and apartment designs.

Sr?an Na?

2013-01-01

255

Etnographic Characteristics of Serbian Orthodox Peasants at the Beginning of the 20th Century from Vrlica Region, North Dalmatia, Croatia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is a very small number of Serbs in Dalmatia today. The wars which took place in this area influenced their emigration, mostly to Serbia. They brought along their customs and culture which are slowly being forgotten by their descendants under the influence of modern values. This paper should provide the reader with a glimpse of the most significant ethnological characteristics of Orthodox peasants from the area of Vrlika in North Dalmatia at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th ...

Rastislav Stojsavljevi?; Jovan Plavša; Milka Bubalo Živkovi?; Tamara Luki?; Bojan Djer?an; Vuk Gara?a; Nemanja Tomi?

2013-01-01

256

The 20th century retreat of ice caps in Iceland derived from airborne SAR : W-Vatnajökull and N-Myrdalsjökull  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We present observations of the long-term recession of surging outlets of Icelandic ice caps in response to 20th century climate. In August 1998, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data, covering the western part of Vatnajokull and the northern part of Myrdalsjokull in southern Iceland, were acquired with the Danish airborne EMISAR radar system. Polarimetric and interferometric SAR data reveal the margins of the present ice caps as well as a series of terminal moraines in the fore field. These moraines date back to the maximum Neoglacial extent at the end of the 19th century and the outermost allow reconstruction of the margin at that time. The data offer a unique opportunity to estimate the area decrease of these ice caps in the 20th century. The influence of the fluctuations of the surge type outlets, constituting most of W-Vatnajokull area and a good part of N-Myrdalsjokull area, is minimal, since they had all recently surged in 1998 as was presumably the case when the outermost moraines were formed. The major contributor to the area decrease is therefore climate changes in the 20th century even though the glacier retreat has been interrupted by short-lived surges. Moraines associated with most of the surges in W-Vatnajokull in the 20th century are observed in the SAR data including the most recent surges in the 1990s. Interestingly no push moraines were observed in front of the surge advance, but the moraines appear when the glaciers start retreating. We estimate that the collective decrease of the outlets of western Vatnajokull since maximum Neoglacial extent of each outlet, is log km(2) (6.7%) corresponding to an average retreat of 850 in over a 130 km long margin. In the same period the outlet Slettjokull, in N-Myrdalsjokull, has decreased by 33 km(2) (20%) corresponding to an average retreat of 1500 in over a 20 kin long margin. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Dall, JØrgen

2005-01-01

257

Infancia y salud mental pública en España: siglo XX y actualidad / Children and mental health in spain: 20th century and today  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este trabajo aborda una revisión histórica de la infancia en nuestro país en su vertiente educativa, social y sanitaria, profundizando en la historia y características particulares de la atención pública a la salud mental de nuestros menores. Como en cualquier reflexión histórica, en este trabajo su [...] byace una concepción teórica sobre el fenómeno estudiado, considerando que una asistencia digna al menor es fundamental para la prevención en la salud mental del adulto. Pese a los diferentes aspectos mejorables como el desigual desarrollo autonómico, la insuficiente dotación presupuestaria o la falta de implementación efectiva de los proyectos legales, se puede concluir que la situación de práctica desprotección del niño con trastorno mental a principios del siglo XX ha dado paso a una red asistencial que proporciona atención integral y gratuita a toda la población. Abstract in english This work deals with a historical review of children in our country in its educational, social and sanitary side, deeper into the history and characteristics of the public attention to the mental health of our children. As in any historical reflection in this work underlyes a theoretical conception [...] on the phenomenon under study, whereas a worthy assistance to minors is essential for prevention in mental health of the adult. Despite the different areas for improvement (unequal regional development, insufficient staffing budget, lack of effective implementation of law...), one can conclude that the situation of practical vulnerability of children with mental disorder in the early 20th century has given way to a health care network that gives a comprehensive and free care to the entire population.

Pilar, López Fraile; Sergio, Herrera López.

258

Infancia y salud mental pública en España: siglo XX y actualidad / Children and mental health in spain: 20th century and today  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este trabajo aborda una revisión histórica de la infancia en nuestro país en su vertiente educativa, social y sanitaria, profundizando en la historia y características particulares de la atención pública a la salud mental de nuestros menores. Como en cualquier reflexión histórica, en este trabajo su [...] byace una concepción teórica sobre el fenómeno estudiado, considerando que una asistencia digna al menor es fundamental para la prevención en la salud mental del adulto. Pese a los diferentes aspectos mejorables como el desigual desarrollo autonómico, la insuficiente dotación presupuestaria o la falta de implementación efectiva de los proyectos legales, se puede concluir que la situación de práctica desprotección del niño con trastorno mental a principios del siglo XX ha dado paso a una red asistencial que proporciona atención integral y gratuita a toda la población. Abstract in english This work deals with a historical review of children in our country in its educational, social and sanitary side, deeper into the history and characteristics of the public attention to the mental health of our children. As in any historical reflection in this work underlyes a theoretical conception [...] on the phenomenon under study, whereas a worthy assistance to minors is essential for prevention in mental health of the adult. Despite the different areas for improvement (unequal regional development, insufficient staffing budget, lack of effective implementation of law...), one can conclude that the situation of practical vulnerability of children with mental disorder in the early 20th century has given way to a health care network that gives a comprehensive and free care to the entire population.

Pilar, López Fraile; Sergio, Herrera López.

2013-03-01

259

Quantifying the role of fire in the Earth system - Part 2: Impact on the net carbon balance of global terrestrial ecosystems for the 20th century  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fire is the primary terrestrial ecosystem disturbance agent on a global scale. It affects carbon balance of global terrestrial ecosystems by emitting carbon to atmosphere directly and immediately from biomass burning (i.e., fire direct effect), and by changing net ecosystem productivity and land-use carbon loss in post-fire regions due to biomass burning and fire-induced vegetation mortality (i.e., fire indirect effect). Here, we provide the first quantitative assessment about the impact of fire on the net carbon balance of global terrestrial ecosystems for the 20th century, and investigate the roles of fire direct and indirect effects. This study is done by quantifying the difference between the 20th century fire-on and fire-off simulations with NCAR community land model CLM4.5 as the model platform. Results show that fire decreases net carbon gain of the global terrestrial ecosystems by 1.0 Pg C yr-1 average across the 20th century, as a results of fire direct effect (1.9 Pg C yr-1) partly offset by indirect effect (-0.9 Pg C yr-1). Fire generally decreases the average carbon gains of terrestrial ecosystems in post-fire regions, which are significant over tropical savannas and part of forests in North America and the east of Asia. The general decrease of carbon gains in post-fire regions is because fire direct and indirect effects have similar spatial patterns and the former (to decrease carbon gain) is generally stronger. Moreover, the effect of fire on net carbon balance significantly declines prior to ~1970 with trend of 8 Tg C yr-1 due to increasing fire indirect effect and increases afterward with trend of 18 Tg C yr-1 due to increasing fire direct effect.

Li, Fang; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Levis, Samuel

2014-03-07

260

Natural stones and types of tombstones in National cemetery in Martin from half of the 19th to half of the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available About 500 tombstones from National cemetery in Martin were carried out. The cemetery represents section through sepulchral architecture in the 19th and 20th centuries and records history of natural stones use and tombstone evolution. From c. 1850, classicistic steles were produced from Gerecse marble and Banská Bystrica sandstone. Historicist steles of Silesian marble were imported from 1870s. End of 1880s years, variability of tombstone appearance began to grow. Outlined text, carved text fields, ornaments and new typefaces were emerged. In 90s years Carrara marble is imported. Real variousness of tombstone face is typical for first 20 years of the 20th century, when hard natural stones (Silesian granite, Swedish dolerite, and Norwegian larvikite are widely used. Besides them domestic Cenozoic conglomerates, Banská Bystrica sandstone and Bohemian Ho?ice sandstone were utilized. From 20s years to half of the century, variability of natural stones decreased at the expense of Swedish dolerite. Variety of tombstone shapes grew from decorated secession steles, through geometric functionalistic compositions, to simple tabular tombstones.

Daniel Pivko

2013-12-01

 
 
 
 
261

20th Century sea-level change along the eastern US : unravelling the contributions from steric changes, Greenland ice sheet mass balance and Late Pleistocene glacial loading.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We have considered the influence of ocean temperature and salinity changes, mass changes of the Greenland ice sheet (GIS) and the isostatic response of the solid earth to the most recent glacial cycle on 20th century sea-level change along the US east coast with the intention of better understanding the observed signal as well as determining the potential of the tide gauge data for constraining the recent (past 50–100 yr) mass balance of the GIS and earth viscosity structure. Our results sh...

Wake, L. M.; Milne, G. A.; Leuliette, E.

2006-01-01

262

Mudança em dois períodos do século XX: inter-relacionando análises em tempo aparente / Linguistic change in two periods of the 20th century: interrelating apparent time analyses  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese À luz da sociolinguística variacionista, tomo os conectores E, AÍ, DAÍ e ENTÃO como variantes da variável dependente "sequenciação retroativo-propulsora". Os dados são oriundos das seguintes fontes: (i) As vinhas da ira, romance escrito por John Steinbeck em 1939, cuja tradução brasileira, datada de [...] 1940, apresenta marcas da fala de classes populares do Rio Grande do Sul; (ii) 48 entrevistas provenientes do Banco de Dados VARSUL de Florianópolis, que foram coletadas ao longo da última década do século XX. Tenho por objetivos: (i) buscar indícios de mudança em tempo real; (ii) buscar indícios de mudança em tempo aparente através do controle da variável social idade; (iii) inter-relacionar os resultados referentes à variável idade nos dois períodos de tempo considerados. Obtive indícios de mudança em tempo real e de mudança em tempo aparente. Além disso, fiz uma inter-relação entre os resultados referentes à variável idade no final da primeira metade do século XX e no final da segunda metade do século XX. Baseada nessa inter-relação, consegui traçar um panorama mais detalhado das mudanças possivelmente sofridas por E, AÍ, DAÍ e ENTÃO ao longo do século XX. Abstract in english Under the light of Labovian Sociolinguistics, I take the Brazilian Portuguese connectors E, AÍ, DAÍ, and ENTÃO as variants of the dependent variable "retroactive-propeller sequenciation". The data come from the following sources: (i) "The grapes of wrath", an novel written by John Steinbeck in 1939, [...] the 1940 Brazilian Portuguese translation of which is marked by spoken language traits of the working classes from Rio Grande do Sul (RS), the most southern Brazil State; (ii) 48 interviews from the VARSUL Data Base of Florianópolis (the capital of Santa Catarina State), which were collected during the last decade of the 20th century. My goal are: (i) to seek evidence of change in real time, (ii) to seek evidence of change in apparent time by controlling the social variable 'age', (iii) to interrelate the results regarding the variable 'age' in both periods of time. The results present evidences of change in both real time and apparent time. Moreover, I set up an inter-relationship between the results regarding the variable 'age' at the end of the first half of the 20th century and at the end of the second half of the 20th century. Based on this inter-relationship, I was able to trace a more detailed picture of the changes the connectors E, AÍ, DAÍ, and ENTÃO possibly underwent throughout the 20th century.

Maria Alice, Tavares.

263

In memory of Professor Leonor Michaelis in Nagoya: great contributions to biochemistry in Japan in the first half of the 20th century.  

Science.gov (United States)

Leonor Michaelis spent the years of 1922-1926 as Professor of Biochemistry of the Aichi Medical College (now Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya University) in Nagoya, Japan. Michaelis succeeded in gathering many bright young biochemists from all over Japan into his laboratory, and made tremendous contributions to the promotion of biochemistry in Japan. Michaelis was invited to many places in Japan to present lectures over those years. Kunio Yagi, who was Professor of Biochemistry at Nagoya University in the second half of the 20th century, succeeded in crystallizing the "Michaelis" enzyme-substrate complex. Historically, Michelis has had an enormous impact on biochemistry in Japan. PMID:23628780

Nagatsu, Toshiharu Toshi

2013-09-01

264

The Devil is free: Some religious imaginary features of people from Pácora in the first half of the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This essay shows the use of exempla in Pácora (Caldas around the Devil’s role during the first decades of the 20th century. The author takes into account the oral tradition and holds interviews for offering his own understanding about Devil’s apparitions and beliefs within a religious and secular community context. The interpretation helps to understand this phenomenon under the Catholic Church impact and influence, within an isolated and closed community context, and that is part of the inhabitants’ everyday life and imaginary.

Alberto Isaza Gil.

2010-12-01

265

Mudança em dois períodos do século XX: inter-relacionando análises em tempo aparente / Linguistic change in two periods of the 20th century: interrelating apparent time analyses  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese À luz da sociolinguística variacionista, tomo os conectores E, AÍ, DAÍ e ENTÃO como variantes da variável dependente "sequenciação retroativo-propulsora". Os dados são oriundos das seguintes fontes: (i) As vinhas da ira, romance escrito por John Steinbeck em 1939, cuja tradução brasileira, datada de [...] 1940, apresenta marcas da fala de classes populares do Rio Grande do Sul; (ii) 48 entrevistas provenientes do Banco de Dados VARSUL de Florianópolis, que foram coletadas ao longo da última década do século XX. Tenho por objetivos: (i) buscar indícios de mudança em tempo real; (ii) buscar indícios de mudança em tempo aparente através do controle da variável social idade; (iii) inter-relacionar os resultados referentes à variável idade nos dois períodos de tempo considerados. Obtive indícios de mudança em tempo real e de mudança em tempo aparente. Além disso, fiz uma inter-relação entre os resultados referentes à variável idade no final da primeira metade do século XX e no final da segunda metade do século XX. Baseada nessa inter-relação, consegui traçar um panorama mais detalhado das mudanças possivelmente sofridas por E, AÍ, DAÍ e ENTÃO ao longo do século XX. Abstract in english Under the light of Labovian Sociolinguistics, I take the Brazilian Portuguese connectors E, AÍ, DAÍ, and ENTÃO as variants of the dependent variable "retroactive-propeller sequenciation". The data come from the following sources: (i) "The grapes of wrath", an novel written by John Steinbeck in 1939, [...] the 1940 Brazilian Portuguese translation of which is marked by spoken language traits of the working classes from Rio Grande do Sul (RS), the most southern Brazil State; (ii) 48 interviews from the VARSUL Data Base of Florianópolis (the capital of Santa Catarina State), which were collected during the last decade of the 20th century. My goal are: (i) to seek evidence of change in real time, (ii) to seek evidence of change in apparent time by controlling the social variable 'age', (iii) to interrelate the results regarding the variable 'age' in both periods of time. The results present evidences of change in both real time and apparent time. Moreover, I set up an inter-relationship between the results regarding the variable 'age' at the end of the first half of the 20th century and at the end of the second half of the 20th century. Based on this inter-relationship, I was able to trace a more detailed picture of the changes the connectors E, AÍ, DAÍ, and ENTÃO possibly underwent throughout the 20th century.

Maria Alice, Tavares.

2011-12-01

266

Tree-ring stable carbon isotope-based May-July temperature reconstruction over Nanwutai, China, for the past century and its record of 20th century warming  

Science.gov (United States)

Growth anomaly of trees in some regions was detected under current episode of rapid warming. This raises a dilemma for temperature reconstructions by using tree-ring width which is believed to be the most important proxy on inter-annual temperature reconstruction during the past millenniums. Here we employed the tree-ring ?13C to reconstruct temperature variations for exploring their potential on capturing signals of rapid warming, and to test how its difference with the tree-ring width based reconstruction. In this study the mean May-July temperature (TM-J) was reconstructed over the past century by tree-ring ?13C of Chinese pine trees growing in the Nanwutai region. The explained variance of the reconstruction was 43.3% (42.1% after adjusting the degrees of freedom). Compared to a ring-width temperature reconstruction (May-July) from the same site, the tree-ring ?13C-based temperature reconstruction offered two distinct advantages: 1) it captured a wider range of temperature variability, i.e., at least May-July, even over a longer part of the year, January-September; and 2) the reconstruction preserved more low-frequency climate information than that of ring width did. The 20th century warming was well represented in the Nanwutai tree-ring ?13C temperature reconstruction, which implied that stable carbon isotope of tree rings potentially represents temperature variations during historical episodes of rapid warming. A spatial correlation analysis showed that our temperature reconstruction represented climate variations over the entire Loess Plateau in north-central China. Significant positive correlations (p < 0.1) were found between the temperature reconstruction and ENSO, as well as SSTs in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. The reconstruction showed the periodicities of 22.78-, 4.16-, 3.45-3.97- and 2.04-2.83-year quasi-cycles at a 95% confidence level. Our results suggested that temperature variability in the Nanwutai region may be linked to Pacific and Indian Ocean SST variations and solar activity.

Liu, Yu; Wang, Yanchao; Li, Qiang; Song, Huiming; Linderhlom, Hans W.; Leavitt, Steven W.; Wang, Ruiyuan; An, Zhisheng

2014-06-01

267

FACTORS WHICH DETERMINED MORTALITY OF NEWBORNS AND INFANTS IN THE FIRST AND LAST DECADE OF THE 20TH CENTURY IN SERBIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The risk of dying is the highest in newborns and infants. This is one of the most vulnerable periods in development because newborns and infants are exposed to the influence of many risk factors, such as genetics, family or socioeconomic environmental factors. Annual statistics for the first decade of the 20th century showed that one quarter of liveborns died during the first year of life. Data also showed a higher mortality of small children in the country compared to urban areas. Poor food hygiene was the major cause of newborns’ death, both at birth and during the first few months. The last decade of the 20th century was particularly interesting and important to perceive mortality of newborns and infants, because of significant political and socioeconomic disturbances after international sanctions against Serbia and bombing in 1999. Sudden rise of mortality rate of newborns and infants was noticed in all parts of Serbia in 1992 and 1993. It has constantly been decreasing ever since.

Biljana Stojanovi?

2014-06-01

268

Development and Restoration of Sacral Objects in Vilnius at the End of the 19th and the Beginning of the 20th Century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available At the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century, due to the initiative of Russian government and Orthodox Church, several grand churches were built in Vilnius. The development and restoration of Catholic sacral objects were practically restricted until the end of Russian rule in 1915, but at the beginning of the 20th century, this restriction was slightly defused. The Catholic community of Vilnius seized this opportunity and began an action of sav-ing sacral objects. The churches of St. Ann and St. Michel and the interior of St. Peter and Paul’s church were restored. The development of new churches in Vilnius was enabled after revolution-ary events in 1905–1907 when tsarist authorities were forced to make some abatements for the people of the enslaved country. A small Catholic church in the actual Gerosios Vilties street and the church of St. Kasimir in Naujoji Vilnia were built, the construction of Blessed Virgin Mary church was started in Žv?rynas and a modern church of Holy Heart of Jesus was not completed. Article in Lithuanian

Henryka Ilgiewicz

2011-04-01

269

Fsiles de novela: paleontologa y literatura en la argentina de fines del siglo XIX y principios del siglo / Fossils as fictional characters: Argentine paleontology and literature in the late 19th century and the beginnings of the 20th century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La literatura argentina de la segunda mitad del siglo XIX y comienzos del siglo XX refiri la presencia de mamferos fsiles cenozoicos en las pampas. Gliptodontes y megaterios devinieron en personajes de los textos de Eduardo Ladislao Holmberg, William Henry Hudson, Eduarda y Lucio Victorio Mansilla, [...] Leopoldo Lugones, Geoffroy Franois Daireux, Horacio Quiroga, Hugo Wast, Ezequiel Martnez Estrada, Leopoldo Marechal y Manuel Mujica Lainez. Estos autores contextualizaron a los vertebrados fsiles en escenas humorsticas o realistas, como iconos de la grandeza de la Pampa y la nacin o parodia de estereotipos culturales locales. Abstract in english Argentine literature from the second half of the 19th century and the early 20th century referred to the presence of Cenozoic fossil mammals in the pampas. Glyptodons and megatheriums became characters in the texts of Eduardo Ladislao Holmberg, William Henry Hudson, Eduarda y Lucio Victorio Mansilla [...] , Leopoldo Lugones, Geoffroy Franois Daireux, Horacio Quiroga, Hugo Wast, Ezequiel Martnez Estrada, Leopoldo Marechal and Manuel Mujica Lainez. These authors contextualize the fossil vertebrates in humoristic or realistic scenes, as icons of the greatness of the nation and the Pampa, or as a parody of local cultural stereotypes.

Eduardo G., Ottone.

2011-09-01

270

Documentary evidence for changing climatic and anthropogenic influences on the Bermejo Wetland in Mendoza, Argentina, during the 16th–20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper examines the processes underlying changes to the once-extensive Bermejo Wetland, east of the city of Mendoza, Argentina (32°55' S, 68°51' W. Historical documents and maps from the 16th to 20th century are used to reconstruct environmental shifts. Historical documents indicate periods of increased snowfall in the adjacent Andes mountains, as well as high flow volumes in the Mendoza River. Data from georeferenced maps, the first from 1802 and the last from 1903, reflect the changes in the surface area of the wetland. The combined data sets show pulses of growth and retraction, in which major expansions coincided with more intense snowstorms and increased flow in the Mendoza River, which in turn influenced socio-economic activities. The wetland became progressively drier during the 19th century, before drying up completely around 1930, due in part to the construction of drainages and channels.

F. Rojas

2012-05-01

271

?Czech-Slovene? musicians?: On the question of national identity in Slovene music at the turn of the 19th to the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article, the author observes and discusses the questions of national identity in the context of Czech and Slovenian music at the turn of the 19th to the 20th century. The Italian and German influences dominating Slovenian music in the past began from the mid 19th century onward to be replaced by predominantly Czech elements as the consequence of the numerous Czech musical immigration in Slovenia. Many of Czech musicians were naturalized in Slovenia and can therefore be included among Slovenian musicians. Although they actively supported the building of a Slovenian national style, they did not feel the need for the repeated ?esthetic evaluation of traditional frames.

Vajs Jernej

2007-01-01

272

Trace elements in South America aerosol during 20th century inferred from a Nevado Illimani ice core, Eastern Bolivian Andes (6350 m a.s.l.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 137 m ice core drilled in 1999 from Eastern Bolivian Andes at the summit of Nevado Illimani (16° 37' S, 67° 46' W, 6350 m a.s.l. was analyzed at high temporal resolution, allowing a characterization of trace elements in Andean aerosol trapped in the ice during the 20th century. The upper 50 m of the ice core were dated by multi-proxy analysis of stable isotopes (d18O and d2H, 137Cs and Ca+2 content, electrical conductivity, and insoluble microparticle content, together with reference historical horizons from atmospheric nuclear tests and known volcanic eruptions. This 50 m section corresponds to a record of environmental variations spanning about 80 years from 1919 to 1999. It was cut in 744 sub-samples under laminar flow in a clean bench, which were analyzed by Ion Chromatography for major ionic concentration, by a particle counter for insoluble aerosol content, and by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS for the concentration of 45 chemical species from Li to U. This paper focuses on results of trace element concentrations measured by ICP-MS. The high temporal resolution used in the analyses allowed classifying samples as belonging to dry or wet seasons. During wet season elemental concentrations are low and samples show high crustal enrichment factors. During dry seasons the situation is opposite, with high elemental concentrations and low crustal enrichments. For example, with salt lakes as main sources in the region, average Li concentration during the 20th century is 0.035 and 0.90 ng g?1 for wet and dry seasons, respectively. Illimani average seasonal concentration ranges cover the spectrum of elemental concentration measurements at another Andean ice core site (Sajama for most soil-related elements. Regional crustal dust load in the deposits was found to be overwhelming during dry season, obfuscating the contribution of biomass burning material. Marked temporal trends from the onset of 20th century to more recent years were identified for the concentrations of several trace species of anthropic origin, especially for Cu, As, Zn, Cd, Co, Ni and Cr. Among these elements, Cu shows average wet season crustal enrichment factors above 103, while the others range between 102 to about 5×102. P and K show moderate average wet season enrichment factors, suggesting an impact of natural biogenic emissions from the Amazon Basin. Pb has multiple anthropic sources in the region, from mining activities in the beginning of 20th century to automotive fuel after 1950's. From the large number of samples analyzed from Illimani, it was possible to derive an effective chemical characterization of the deposited background Andean soil dust aerosol during 20th century.

J.-D. Taupin

2003-05-01

273

Trace elements in South America aerosol during 20th century inferred from a Nevado Illimani ice core, Eastern Bolivian Andes (6350 m asl  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 137 m ice core drilled in 1999 from Eastern Bolivian Andes at the summit of Nevado Illimani (16º 37' S, 67º 46' W, 6350 m asl was analyzed at high temporal resolution, allowing a characterization of trace elements in Andean aerosol trapped in the ice during the 20th century. The upper 50 m of the ice core were dated by multi-proxy analysis of stable isotopes (d18O and d2H, 137Cs and Ca+2 content, electrical conductivity, and insoluble microparticle content, together with reference historical horizons from atmospheric nuclear tests and known volcanic eruptions. This 50 m section corresponds to a record of environmental variations spanning about 80 years from 1919 to 1999. It was cut in 744 sub-samples under laminar flow in a clean bench, which were analyzed by Ion Chromatography for major ionic concentration, by a particle counter for insoluble aerosol content, and by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS for the concentration of 45 chemical species from Li to U. This paper focuses on results of trace element concentrations measured by ICP-MS. The high temporal resolution used in the analyses allowed classifying samples as belonging to dry or wet seasons. During wet season elemental concentrations are low and samples show high crustal enrichment factors. During dry seasons the situation is opposite, with high elemental concentrations and low crustal enrichments. For example, with salt lakes as main sources in the region, average Li concentration during the 20th century is 0.035 and 0.90 ng g-1 for wet and dry seasons, respectively. Illimani average seasonal concentration ranges cover the spectrum of elemental concentration measurements at another Andean ice core site (Sajama for most soil-related elements. Regional crustal dust load in the deposits was found to be overwhelming during dry season, obfuscating the contribution of biomass burning material. Marked temporal trends from the onset of 20th century to more recent years were identified for the concentrations of several trace species of anthropic origin, especially for Cu, As, Zn, Cd, Co, Ni and Cr. Among these elements, Cu shows average wet season crustal enrichment factors above 103, while the others range between 102 to about 5x102. P and K show moderate average wet season enrichment factors, suggesting an impact of natural biogenic emissions from the Amazon Basin. Pb has multiple anthropic sources in the region, from mining activities in the beginning of 20th century to automotive fuel after 1950s. From the large number of samples analyzed from Illimani, it was possible to derive an effective chemical characterization of the deposited background Andean soil dust aerosol during 20th century.

A. Correia

2003-01-01

274

São Paulo e a Ideologia Higienista entre os séculos XIX e XX: a utopia da civilidade / Hygienism in Sao Paulo between 19th and 20th centuries: the civilizing utopia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese No contexto da modernidade, situamos o período entre o final do Século XIX e início do XX, em São Paulo, mais precisamente nos primórdios da República, quando houve um processo de higiene e limpeza social, associado à pobreza e, ao mesmo tempo, a um desejo utópico de uma cidade limpa e saudável, com [...] o ideologia elitista. Abstract in english In this paper, we analyze, within the context of modernity, the period between the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century in São Paulo. More precisely, the early days of the Republic, when a process of hygiene and 'social cleansing' took place, which was associated with povert [...] y, and, at the same time, with a utopian desire for a clean and healthy city as an ideology of elites.

Afonso Soares de, Oliveira Sobrinho.

2013-04-01

275

São Paulo e a Ideologia Higienista entre os séculos XIX e XX: a utopia da civilidade / Hygienism in Sao Paulo between 19th and 20th centuries: the civilizing utopia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese No contexto da modernidade, situamos o período entre o final do Século XIX e início do XX, em São Paulo, mais precisamente nos primórdios da República, quando houve um processo de higiene e limpeza social, associado à pobreza e, ao mesmo tempo, a um desejo utópico de uma cidade limpa e saudável, com [...] o ideologia elitista. Abstract in english In this paper, we analyze, within the context of modernity, the period between the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century in São Paulo. More precisely, the early days of the Republic, when a process of hygiene and 'social cleansing' took place, which was associated with povert [...] y, and, at the same time, with a utopian desire for a clean and healthy city as an ideology of elites.

Afonso Soares de, Oliveira Sobrinho.

276

[The surname of Adamkiewicz in the medical terminology in the last three decades of the 20th century].  

Science.gov (United States)

Nearly eighty years after his death, Albert Adamkiewicz (1850-1921) has still been persisting in both the history of medicine owing to his work and in the medical terminology owing to eponymy: since his flourishing period toward the end of the XIXth century, the surname Adamkiewicz has entered the language of science as a proper-name constituent of anatomical, pathological, neurological, surgical as well as orthopaedic terms, combing with the appellatives stain, corpuscle or demilune, reaction or test, serum, syndrome as well as artery. Estimation of the actual vitality of particular eponymous terms compared with non-eponymous synonyms had to be the aim of the presented search in the scientific literature a century after. In contrast with the inert non-periodical (encyclopaedic) literature, periodicals have revealed all the eponymous terms fallen in oblivion except the 'Adamkiewicz artery' that has only recently been introduced in encyclopaedias although constantly preferred in periodicals of the period under investigation (appearing in 75% articles) over the most frequent non-eponymous synonym 'arteria radicularis magna / great(er) radicular artery' (scarcely 11% articles). Thanks to the 'artery' - joining furthermore several synonyms to appear nearly in 86% articles altogether - the surname Adamkiewicz persists in the living language of science; that is why its bearer ought to be remembered and mentioned even on the threshold of the XXIst century. PMID:12094809

Cech, P

2001-01-01

277

The 20th-Century Topographic Survey as Source Data for Long-Term Landscape Studies at Local and Regional Scales  

Science.gov (United States)

Historical topographic maps are the only systematically collected data resource covering the entire nation for long-term landscape change studies over the 20th century for geographical and environmental research. The paper discusses aspects of the historical U.S. Geological Survey topographic maps that present constraints on the design of a database for such studies. Problems involved in this approach include locating the required maps, understanding land feature classification differences between topographic vs. land use/land cover maps, the approximation of error between different map editions of the same area, and the identification of true changes on the landscape between time periods. Suggested approaches to these issues are illustrated using an example of such a study by the author.

Varanka, Dalia

2006-01-01

278

[German psychiatry in the 20th century. Life course of the psychiatrist Johannes Suckow (1896-1994)].  

Science.gov (United States)

Johannes Suckow's biography reflects the history of German psychiatry in the first two thirds of the twentieth century in an exemplary way. Above all, he became distinctly influenced by Emil Kraepelin and Karl Bonhoeffer. During World War II he worked for a short time under Carl Schneider at a research department concerned with the "Euthanasia program". Eventually he built up the Department of Psychiatry and Neurology at the Dresden Medical School to run it for eight years. We examine Suckow's social background and motives and show why he failed to stand up for his humanistic convictions under the Nazi regime. PMID:11068512

Lienert, M

2000-01-01

279

[Amand Valeur and Raymond Delaby: the work of two "Béhaliens" pharmacists in organic chemistry in the 20th century].  

Science.gov (United States)

At the end of the 19th century, Auguste Béhal, student of Wurtz and Friedel, imposes the atomic theory, in the French higher education. Béhal then will teach and direct the work of many students called Béhaliens. Among the latter, one finds Amand Valeur and Raymond Delaby which are originating in the same birthplace as Béhal: Lens. These two chemist-pharmacists, as Béhal, will teach or carry out their research in the same place as them professor: the Ecole supérieure de pharmacie. Their work illustrates well the concerns of the researchers of the time. Moreover, they are polyvalent chemists: organic, inorganic, medicinal, etc. PMID:19824346

Leclercq, Loïc

2009-04-01

280

Changes in the relationships between climate and silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) growth during the 20th century in the Tuscan Apennine Alps (Middle Italy)  

Science.gov (United States)

In the Tuscan Apennine Alps, recent research has shown that similarity in trends of monthly climate variables (i.e., temperature and rainfall) is non-stationary amongst sites during the 20th century even between sites that differ little in elevation and at a relatively short distance from each other (D'Aprile et al., 2010; D'Aprile et al., 2011). Moreover, the level of correlation between series of monthly climate variables varies irregularly from highly positive to negative over time. We hypothesised that those changing climate conditions, even at the local level, could cause different tree-ring growth responses in silver fir amongst sites. The hypothesis was tested by dendroclimatological analysis, which was applied to study stands in silver fir forests close to the meteorological stations where climate analysis has been made. Results show that the influences of both monthly mean temperature and monthly rainfall on silver fir growth vary greatly during the 20th century in the Tuscan Apennine Alps, and the ways that they change differ with month and amongst sites. Within sites, differences in the relationships between climate variables and silver fir tree-ring growth appear small in spite of different elevation of the study stands. These results contribute a changing point in forest planning and management especially in consideration of the need to adapt forest management and interventions to changing climate conditions and mitigate the impacts on silver fir forests. Moreover, they introduce climate variability as a key parameter in sustainable forest management for biodiversity conservation, socially responsible uses, nature conservation, and survival of the only conifer tree species typical of mountain mixed forest ecosystems in the Apennine Alps.

D'Aprile, F.; Tapper, N.; Baker, P.; Bartolozzi, L.; Bottacci, A.

2012-04-01

 
 
 
 
281

The role of deep processes in late 20th century subsidence of New Orleans and coastal areas of southern Louisiana and Mississippi  

Science.gov (United States)

Geodetic leveling observations from Biloxi, MS, to New Orleans, LA, and water level gauge measurements in the New Orleans-Lake Pontchartrain area were analyzed to infer late 20th century vertical motions. These data were used to test the validity of previous subsidence rate measurements and the models that predict the location and causes of subsidence. Water gauges attached to bridge foundations and benchmarks affixed to deep rods that penetrate Holocene strata subsided as much as 0.8 m locally between 1955 and 1995. The observed deep-seated subsidence far exceeds model predictions and demonstrates that shallow processes such as compaction and consolidation of Holocene sediments are inadequate by themselves to explain late 20th century subsidence. Deep-seated subsidence occurring east and north of the normal faults marking the Gulf of Mexico basin margin can be explained by local groundwater withdrawal, and regional tectonic loading of the lithosphere by the modern Mississippi River delta (MRD). Sharp changes in subsidence coincide with strands of the basin margin normal faults. Displacements are consistent with activity and show motions consonant with fault creep. Deep subsidence of the region to the south, including New Orleans, can be explained by a combination of groundwater withdrawal from shallow upper Pleistocene aquifers, the aforementioned lithospheric loading, and perhaps, nongroundwater-related faulting. Subsidence due to groundwater extraction from aquifers ˜160 to 200 m deep dominated urbanized areas and is likely responsible for helping to lower local flood protection structures and bridges by as much as ˜0.8 m.

Dokka, Roy K.

2011-06-01

282

The Welfare Culture. Poetics of Comfort in Architecture of the 19th and 20th-centuries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AbstractArchitectural history of the last two centuries shows that welfare, far from being a purely technical issue – a balance between weather and the physiological human constants – is a culturally constructed idea concerning diverse factors, such as the relationship between space and human body or the ways of conceiving nature in architecture. However, the notion of comfort has not received the historiographical attention it deserves, hence the need for a new perspective, aesthetic and multidisciplinary in nature. Such a view is discussed in this article through a brief and partial history of comfort that addresses the different meanings assigned to the concept over the past two centuries, in accordance with a kind of 'poetics': the longstanding poetics of fire, linked the regenerative comfort; the poetics of hygiene and habitat, developed during modernity as a scientifistic dogma and as an aesthetic alibi, and, finally, the poetics of atmospheres, which accounts for contemporary concerns about perception, memory and sociability. From this historical review we can conclude that welfare is not an objectifiable concept, nor an idea synthesized in the technician or scientist test tubes, but a complex notion consisting of several intertwined layers: physiological, constructive, aesthetic, existential, social. The history of comfort is, thus, a sort of small version of the history of culture.Key wordscomfort, architecture, hygiene, habitat, atmosphere

Eduardo Prieto González

2013-10-01

283

From family planning to population policy: A paradigm shift in Serbian demography at the end of the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper traces changes in the dominant paradigm of Serbian demography that took palace in the context of major socio-political changes during the late twentieth century. The changes are traced both in the realm of research and social policy. It is argued that demographic transition theory remained the main explanatory model but that its modified version which gives precedence to ideational vs. structural variables gained the dominant status. In the realm of social policy the ideology of family planning was replaced by population policy ideology. It is further argued that alarming discourses and sharp rhetoric about population problems did not result in formulation of a system of specific measures of population policy. Thus, the author claims, demographic discourses that at the time saturated public spaces were constitutive for - gender and national -identity politics and not inconsequential for social policy.

Drezgi? Rada

2008-01-01

284

Simulating urban networks through multiscalar space-time dynamics (Europe and United States, 17th -20th centuries)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Simpop2 is a generic multi-agent model designed for simulating any system of cities. From an evolutionary theory built upon the observation of networks of cities in different parts of the world and over long time periods, it has been possible to identify stylized facts that characterize their main features and properties. This paper presents data oriented simulations of two kinds of systems: in early settled countries (Europe, 1300-2000) and in countries more recently settled (United States 1...

Bretagnolle, Anne; Pumain, Denise

2010-01-01

285

Lo Spedale di Poveri, the hospital for the poor in Milan: 15th to 20th century.  

Science.gov (United States)

The construction of the Hospital for the Poor was begun in Milan in 1451 at the instigation of Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan. In contrast to what had happened during the Dark Ages of the Medieval period, the new hospital was extraordinary both in construction and in medical organization. Wards for the patients were separated according to diseases, infective and noninfective, and according to sex. Each patient had his or her own bed and was fed adequately and kept warm. Patients were no longer treated by astrologers or monks but rather by doctors who had studied medicine at the University of Pavia. Each ward had its own doctor and surgeon, and from 1558 on, there was a doctor on duty in the hospital 24 hours a day. The hospital had its own pharmacy and drug reference book. The Hospital for the Poor, or Cà Granda (Big House), or the Ospedale Maggiore, as it was variously called from the 15th to the 19th centuries, became a training ground for anatomic and clinical studies. It was only in 1929 that a Faculty of Medicine was set up at Ospedale Maggiore. PMID:15458583

Villani, Roberto; Tomei, Giustino

2004-10-01

286

A historical approach to scorpion studies with special reference to the 20 th and 21st centuries  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This work provides historical context about scorpion studies from the end of the 19 th century to the present day. The content is mainly addressed to non-zoologists, working in research fields that embrace scorpion biology, notably to those working with venoms and toxins. The historical aspects desc [...] ribed include academic professional scholars who worked on scorpion classification and general distribution patterns; and to a lesser extent, on studies of ecology and natural history. The aim is not to provide an exhaustive description of all scholars who in one way or another became involved with scorpions, but rather of those who greatly contributed during a given period to the research of these organisms. No critical analysis of the work of previous researchers is undertaken, but some comments are proposed to bring clarification on ‘who’s who’. Since a global consensus in relation to classification and/or distribution patterns has not been reached among modern experts, these different approaches are also presented without judgment. Consequently, distinct approaches remain open for discussion.

Wilson R, Lourenço.

2014-03-11

287

Exílio massivo, inclusão e exclusão política no século XX / Exils massifs, inclusion et exclusion politique au XXe siècle / Mass exile and political inclusion and exclusion in 20th century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english Due to the strategies implemented by post-Independence Ibero-American states to curtail political participation, exile was mainly reserved as a privilege for ostracized members of the elite, who drew on their support networks in the process. The late 19th and early 20th centuries witnessed a process [...] of "mass exile", expressed by a growing number of exiles from different social classes, excluded due to their participation in politics and public spheres. The expansion of institutional exclusion spawned solidarity networks and increasing attention by the international community towards politics in the exiles' home countries. Old domestic political issues found a transnational echo, based on a growing concern over human rights violations and political persecution. This process produced a radical transformation in the structure, impact, and functioning of political exile from Ibero-American countries.

Luis, Roniger.

288

Reconstructing the population dynamics of sprat (Sprattus sprattus balticus) in the Baltic Sea in the 20th century  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Long time-series of population dynamics are increasingly needed in order to understand human impacts on marine ecosystems and support their sustainable management. In this study, the estimates of sprat (Sprattus sprattus balticus) biomass in the Baltic Sea were extended back from the beginning of ICES stock assessments in 1974 to the early 1900s. The analyses identified peaks in sprat spawner biomass in the beginning of the 1930s, 1960s, and 1970s at ?900 kt. Only a half of that biomass was estimated for the late 1930s, for the period from the late 1940s to the mid-1950s, and for the mid-1960s. For the 1900s, fisheries landings suggest a relatively high biomass, similar to the early 1930s. The exploitation rate of sprat was low until the development of pelagic fisheries in the 1960s. Spatially resolved analyses from the 1960s onwards demonstrate changes in the distribution of sprat biomass over time. The average body weight of sprat by age in the 1950s to 1970s was higher than at present, but lower than during the 1980s to 1990s. The results of this study facilitate new analyses of the effects of climate, predation, and anthropogenic drivers on sprat, and contribute to setting long-term management strategies for the Baltic Sea.

Eero, Margit

2012-01-01

289

Cajal-Retzius cells: update on structural and functional properties of these mystic neurons that bridged the 20th century.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cajal-Retzius cells (CRc) represent a mostly transient neuronal cell type localized in the uppermost layer of the developing neocortex. The observation that CRc are a major source of the extracellular matrix protein reelin, which is essential for the laminar development of the cerebral cortex, attracted the interest in this unique cell type. In this review we will (i) describe the morphological and molecular properties of neocortical CRc, with a special emphasize on the question which markers can be used to identify CRc, (ii) summarize reports that identified the different developmental origins of CRc, (iii) discuss the fate of CRc, including recent evidence for apoptotic cell death and a possible persistence of some CRc, (iv) provide a detailed description of the electrical membrane properties and transmitter receptors of CRc, and (v) address the role of CRc in early neuronal circuits and cortical development. Finally, we speculate whether CRc may provide a link between early network activity and the structural maturation of neocortical circuits. PMID:24931764

Kirischuk, S; Luhmann, H J; Kilb, W

2014-09-01

290

Understanding the drivers for the 20th century change of hydrogen peroxide in Antarctic ice-cores  

Science.gov (United States)

Observations and model simulations of an Antarctic ice-core record of hydrogen peroxide during the last ˜150 years are analyzed. The observations indicate a relative increase in hydrogen peroxide by approximately 50% since 1900, with most of the change since the early 1970s. Using two model simulations spanning 1850 to present, we show that the modeled relative change in annual-mean surface hydrogen peroxide parallels the equivalent signal from the ice core record. In addition, we show that this relative change can be explained by the relative changes in tropospheric ozone concentration and mostly in ozone photolysis rates (J(O1D)). The simulated signal is therefore intimately related to the changes in stratospheric ozone associated with increases in chlorofluorocarbons; this is further demonstrated using total ozone column observations and the associated observed change in ice-core hydrogen peroxide.

Lamarque, Jean-François; McConnell, J. R.; Shindell, D. T.; Orlando, J. J.; Tyndall, G. S.

2011-02-01

291

PUBLICATIONS OF MYKOLAS BIRZISKA IN VILNIUS PRESS AT THE BEGINNING OF THE 20TH CENTURY: FEATURES OF THE INTELLECTUAL BIOGRAPHY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mykolas Birziska (1882–1962 was a prominent Lithuanian scholar and politic, a signatory of the Act of Independence (1918, a member of Lithuanian Council (1917–1920, director of the first Lithuanian Gymnasium of Vytautas the Great in Vilnius (1915–1922, professor and rector of Kaunas and Vilnius universities. This articles deals with his early journalistic activities and editorship in the press in Vilnius before the outbreak of the First World War, and seeks to analyze the formation of his intellectual and political attitudes. In 1905, being a member of the Party of Lithuanian Social Democrats, Birziska began his journalistic career in socialist press. In 1906 heedited a party newspaper “Echo” in Polish language, where his specific interest in cooperation between different nationalities first became vivid. At the same time he began contributing to theliberal and antinationalist newspaper of the Polish krajovtsy movement “Gazeta Wileñska” (edited by Michal Römer, that argued for the political equality and tolerant cultural coexistence of allthe national groups in Lithuania. After the closure of “Gazeta Wileñska”, Birziska in 1907–1908 cooperated with another liberal daily in Russian language “Severo-Zapadnyj Golos”. Writing in threelanguages and simultaneously contributing to Lithuanian, Polish, and Russian press, Birziska exercised a specific role of a publicist as a mediator between different cultural groups in the multinational city. Professional analysis of the national conflicts, the principals of cultural tolerance and liberal antinationalist outlooks became the dominant features of his trilingual journalistic texts. Consequently, Birziska seeked to realize these intellectual attitudes working at the Lithuanian daily “Vilniaus zinios” in 1908 and especially editing the journal “Visuomene” (1910–1911 for the Lithuanian leftist intelligentsia. Birziska’s journalistic activities and his early intellectual biography carried features of specific cultural liberalism that was characteristic to the entire group of multinational intelligentsia in Vilnius before the First World War (Michal Römer, Tadeusz Wróblewski, Anton and Ivan Luckievich, Uriah Katzenelenbogen, and others.

Kvietkauskas, Mindaugas

2006-12-01

292

Interpretaciones sobre el desarrollo económico de México en el siglo XX / Interpretations on the economic development of México in the 20th century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se analiza la relevancia de profundizar en la investigación histórica en México en el siglo XX, desde una perspectiva de historia económica, pues a inicios del siglo XXI estamos en condiciones de emprender un balance desapasionado de las luces y sombras del desarrollo económico mexicano y así lograr [...] una comprensión de las tendencias generales de la economía en el largo plazo. Asimismo se sugieren algunas hipótesis de interpretación y un breve estado de la cuestión. El autor enfatiza la reflexión y discusión sobre la historia económica reciente, que es, paradójicamente la menos estudiada. Abstract in english The relevancy is analyzed of penetrating into the historical investigation into Mexico into the 20th century, from a perspective of economic history, since to beginnings of the 21st century we are in conditions to undertake a lacking in passion balance sheet of the lights and shades of the economic [...] Mexican and like that development to achieve a comprehension of the general trends of the economy in the long term. Are suggested some hypothesis of interpretation and a brief condition of the question. Likewise the author emphasizes the reflection and discussion on the economic recent history, which is paradoxically the least studied.

Leonardo, Lomelí Vanegas.

2012-12-01

293

Establishment and evolution of the radiation risk concept for the man and human population in the 20th century  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concept of radiation risk (RR) is the main basis for human protection from the harmful effect of ionizing radiation. It concerns the expected unfavorable health effects upon the irradiated person and probably upon his/her progeny. The early period of the history of RR evaluation was grounded on the assessment of acute skin reactions (erythema, epilation, dermatitis, ulceration) and on the measures (erythema dose) taken to diminish them. The second period covers the appraisal, based on estimation of different somatic effects and expected heredity ( genetic effects). They could be avoided if irradiation does not exceed the maximum permissible dose - the concept of zero RR. The current (third) period estimates both irradiation effects: deterministic effects that have a dose-related threshold and stochastic non-threshold effects. The ultimate goal of radiation protection is to exclude all deterministic effects and to diminish probability of stochastic effects (carcinogenesis and heredity effects) down to an acceptable level. Seven postulates describe the modern concept of RR for the man and human population: globalization irreversibility, accumulation, non-threshold harm, stochastic, non-specificity and acceptance of the risk

294

Changes in mercury and cadmium concentrations and the feeding behaviour of beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) near Somerset Island, Canada, during the 20th century.  

Science.gov (United States)

Beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) continues to be an important food species for Arctic communities, despite concerns about its high mercury (Hg) content. We investigated whether Hg and cadmium (Cd) concentrations had changed during the 20th century in beluga near Somerset Island in the central Canadian Arctic, using well-preserved teeth collected from historical sites (dating to the late 19th century and 1926-1947) and during subsistence hunts in the late 1990s. Mercury concentrations in both historical and modern teeth were correlated with animal age, but 1990s beluga exhibited a significantly more rapid accumulation with age than late 19th century animals, indicating that Hg concentrations or bioavailability in their food chain had increased during the last century. The geometric mean tooth Hg concentration in modern 30 year old animals was 7.7 times higher than in the late 19th century, which corresponds to threefold higher concentrations in muktuk and muscle. Teeth from 1926 to 1947 were similar in Hg content to the late 19th century, suggesting that the increase had occurred sometime after the 1940s. In contrast, tooth Cd was not correlated with animal age and decreased during the last 100 years, indicating that anthropogenic Cd was negligible in this population. Late 19th century beluga displayed a greater range of prey selection (tooth delta15N values: 15.6-20.5 per thousand) than modern animals (delta15N: 17.2-21.1 per thousand). To prevent this difference from confounding the temporal Hg comparison, the Hg-age relationships discussed above were based on historical animals, which overlapped isotopically with the modern group. Tooth delta13C also changed to isotopically more depleted values in modern animals, with the most likely explanation being a significant shift to more pelagic-based feeding. Industrial Hg pollution is a plausible explanation for the recent Hg increase. However, without further investigation of the relationship between the range exploitation of modern beluga and their possible exposure to regional marine food chains with (naturally) higher Hg contents than their historical counterparts, we cannot unequivocally conclude that the increase was anthropogenically driven. PMID:16227077

Outridge, P M; Hobson, K A; Savelle, J M

2005-11-01

295

Changes in mercury and cadmium concentrations and the feeding behaviour of beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) near Somerset Island, Canada, during the 20th century  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) continues to be an important food species for Arctic communities, despite concerns about its high mercury (Hg) content. We investigated whether Hg and cadmium (Cd) concentrations had changed during the 20th century in beluga near Somerset Island in the central Canadian Arctic, using well-preserved teeth collected from historical sites (dating to the late 19th century and 1926-1947) and during subsistence hunts in the late 1990s. Mercury concentrations in both historical and modern teeth were correlated with animal age, but 1990s beluga exhibited a significantly more rapid accumulation with age than late 19th century animals, indicating that Hg concentrations or bioavailability in their food chain had increased during the last century. The geometric mean tooth Hg concentration in modern 30 year old animals was 7.7 times higher than in the late 19th century, which corresponds to threefold higher concentrations in muktuk and muscle. Teeth from 1926 to 1947 were similar in Hg content to the late 19th century, suggesting that the increase had occurred sometime after the 1940s. In contrast, tooth Cd was not correlated with animal age and decreased during the last 100 years, indicating that anthropogenic Cd was negligible in this population. Late 19th century beluga displayed a greater range of prey selection (tooth ? 15N values: 15.6-20.5%o) than modern animals (? 15N: 17.2-21.1%o). To prevent this difference from confo). To prevent this difference from confounding the temporal Hg comparison, the Hg-age relationships discussed above were based on historical animals, which overlapped isotopically with the modern group. Tooth ? 13C also changed to isotopically more depleted values in modern animals, with the most likely explanation being a significant shift to more pelagic-based feeding. Industrial Hg pollution is a plausible explanation for the recent Hg increase. However, without further investigation of the relationship between the range exploitation of modern beluga and their possible exposure to regional marine food chains with (naturally) higher Hg contents than their historical counterparts, we cannot unequivocally conclude that the increase was anthropogenically driven

296

Late 20th Century Deep-seated Vertical Motions in New Orleans and implications for Gulf Coast Subsidence  

Science.gov (United States)

Subsidence of the Mississippi River delta and adjoining coastal areas is widely thought to be dominated by compaction of Holocene sediments. Current public policies regarding hurricane protection and ecosystems restoration are founded on this interpretation. To test this hypothesis, monuments that penetrate the entire Holocene section were measured using geodetic leveling and water gauges attached to bridge foundations. Results show that the entire sampling area subsided between 1955 and 1995 in amounts unanticipated by previous models. Subsidence due to processes originating below the Holocene section locally exceeded 0.9 m between 1955 and 1995. The maxima of deep subsidence occurred in the urbanized and industrialized sections of eastern New Orleans. Subsidence decreased away from urbanized areas and north of the belt of active basin margin normal faults; this decrease in subsidence continued to the north and east along the Mississippi coast. These independent measurements provide insights into the complexity and causes of modern landscape change in the region. Modern subsidence is clearly not dominated solely by shallow processes such as natural compaction, Deep subsidence occurring east and north of the basin margin faults can be explained by regional tectonic loading of the lithosphere by the modern Mississippi River delta and local groundwater withdrawal. Sharp, local changes in subsidence coincide with strands of the basin margin normal fault system. Deep subsidence of the New Orleans area can be explained by a combination of groundwater withdrawal from shallow upper Pleistocene aquifers, the aforementioned lithospheric loading, and non-groundwater-related faulting. Subsidence due to groundwater extraction from aquifers ~160 to 200 m deep dominated the urbanized areas from ~1960 to the early 1990s and is likely responsible for lowering flood protection structures and bridges in the area by as much as ~0.8 m.

Dokka, R. K.

2010-12-01

297

Variability of extreme rainfall over La Plata Basin and Amazon Basin in South America in model simulations of the 20th century and projections under global warming  

Science.gov (United States)

The two largest river basins in South America are Amazon Basin (AMB) in the tropical region and La Plata Basin (LPB) in subtropical and extratropical regions. Extreme droughts have occurred during this decade in Amazonia region which have affected the transportation, fishing activities with impacts in the local population, and also affecting the forest. Droughts or floods over LPB have impacts on agriculture, hydroelectricity power and social life. Therefore, monthly wet and dry extremes in these two regions have a profound effect on the economy and society. Observed rainfall over Amazon Basin (AMB) and La Plata Basin (LPB) is analyzed in monthly timescale using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), from 1979 to 1999. This period is taken to compare GPCP data with HADCM3 simulations (Hadley Centre) of the 20th century and to analyze reanalyses data which have the contribution of satellite information after 1979. HADCM3 projections using SRES A2 scenario is analyzed in two periods: 2000 to 2020 and 2079 to 2099 to study the extremes frequency in a near future and in a longer timescale. Extreme, severe and moderate cases are identified in the northern and southern sectors of LPB and in the western and eastern sectors of AMB. The main objective is to analyze changes in the frequency of cases, considering the global warming and the associated mechanisms. In the observations for the 20th century, the number of extreme rainy cases is higher than the number of dry cases in both sectors of LPB and AMB. The model simulates this variability in the two sectors of LPB and in the west sector of AMB. In the near future 2000 to 2020 the frequency of wet and dry extremes does not change much in LPB and in the western sector of AMB, but the wet cases increase in the eastern AMB. However, in the period of 2079 to 2099 the projections indicate increase of wet cases in LPB and increase of dry cases in AMB. The influence of large scale features related to Sea Surface Temperature Anomalies, Walker and Hadley circulations, teleconnections, as well as the regional features related to humidity flux are discussed. The extreme droughts of 2005 and 2010 in Amazonia are show to be related to these features.

Cavalcanti, I. F.

2011-12-01

298

Evidence from firn air for recent decreases in non-methane hydrocarbons and a 20th century increase in nitrogen oxides in the northern hemisphere  

Science.gov (United States)

The atmospheric evolution of eight non-methane hydrocarbons (ethane, acetylene, propane, n-butane, isobutane, n-pentane, isopentane and benzene) and five alkyl nitrates (2-propyl, 2-butyl, 3-methyl-2-butyl and the sum of 2+3-pentyl nitrates) are reconstructed for the latter half of the 20th century based on Arctic firn air measurements. The reconstructed trends of the non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) show increasing concentrations from 1950 to a maximum in 1980 before declining towards the end of last century. These observations provide direct evidence that NMHCs in the northern hemisphere have declined substantially during the period 1980-2001. Benzene concentrations show a smaller increase between 1950 and 1980 than the other NMHCs indicating that additional sources of benzene, other than fossil fuel combustion, were likely important contributors to the benzene budget prior to and during this period. The declining benzene concentrations from 1980 to 2001 would suggest that biomass burning is unlikely to be important in the benzene budget as biomass burning emissions were reportedly increasing over the same period. Methyl and ethyl nitrate show growth patterns in the firn that suggested perturbation by in-situ production from an unidentified mechanism. However, the higher alkyl nitrates show evidence for increasing concentrations from 1950 to maxima in the mid 1990s before decreasing slightly toward the end of the last century. The differing atmospheric evolution of the alkyl nitrates relative to their parent hydrocarbons indicate an increase in their production efficiency per hydrocarbon molecule. Using a steady state analysis of hydrocarbon oxidation and alkyl nitrate production and loss we show that reactive nitrogen oxide (NOx) concentrations in the northern hemisphere have likely increased considerably between 1950 and 2001.

Worton, David R.; Sturges, William T.; Reeves, Claire E.; Newland, Mike J.; Penkett, Stuart A.; Atlas, Elliot; Stroud, Verity; Johnson, Kristen; Schmidbauer, Norbert; Solberg, Sverre; Schwander, Jakob; Barnola, Jean-Marc

2012-07-01

299

Loss of genetic diversity among ocelots in the United States during the 20th century linked to human induced population reductions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) in the United States currently exhibit low levels of genetic diversity. One hypothesis for this observation is that habitat fragmentation, resulting from human induced changes in the landscape during the 20(th) century, created island populations with highly reduced gene flow and increased genetic drift and inbreeding. In an effort to investigate this, we used a portion of the mitochondrial control region and 11 autosomal microsatellite loci to examine historical levels of genetic diversity and infer temporal changes in ocelot populations between 1853 and 2005. Levels of genetic diversity were higher in historical ocelot populations than in extant populations from Texas. The earliest documented loss of mitochondrial haplotype diversity occurred at Laguna Atascosa National Wildlife Refuge. The second extant population inhabiting private lands in Willacy County retained higher levels of genetic diversity through the 1990s, but subsequently lost diversity over the next decade. A similar pattern was observed for autosomal microsatellite loci. This supports the argument that low levels of genetic diversity in Texas are related to human induced population reductions and fragmentation, both of which threaten the remaining ocelots in the United States. At this time, the best means of mitigating the continued erosion of genetic variation are translocation of individuals either from larger populations in Mexico to Texas, or between the Texas populations. PMID:24586737

Janecka, Jan E; Tewes, Michael E; Laack, Linda; Caso, Arturo; Grassman, Lon I; Honeycutt, Rodney L

2014-01-01

300

Between Egyptian "national purity" and "local flexibility": prostitution in al-Mahalla al-Kubra in the first half of the 20th century.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article traces prostitution in al-Mahalla in the first half of the 20th century as a regulated urban practice until the trade was outlawed in Egypt in 1949. Studying prostitution during this period of exceptionally rapid growth and transformation not only provides a window on a particular type of illicit sexuality and public morality in a colonial context, it also gives us a hint as to gender relations and inter-communal relations on the invisible marginalized part of a provincial local community, and how it was socially transformed. I argue that the regulation of prostitution in Egypt in 1882 and 1905 created a sphere for a power contest between the colonial state and the local community, between nationalist discourse and the local way of life, and between public morality and private space. While nationalist discourse constructed one virtuous nation, the local community accepted the licensed prostitution quarter, and resisted secret prostitution. The people of the town actively and continually shifted boundaries on what was public and what was private, what was the state's responsibility and what was communal liability. PMID:21850793

Hammad, Hanan

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

La parasitología y la entomología en la narrativa latinoamericana del siglo XX / Parasitology and entomology in the 20th century Latin American narrative  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english In the present reviev of twelve pieces produced by distinguished 20th century Latin American writers Jorge Luis Borges from Argentina, Jorge Amado and João Ubaldo Ribeiro from Brazil, José Donoso from Chile, Gabriel García Márquez from Colombia, Alejo Carpentier from Cuba, Miguel Angel Asturias from [...] Guatemala, Octavio Paz from Mexico, Mario Vargas Llosa from Perú, Horacio Quiroga and Mario Benedetti from Uruguay and Arturo Uslar-Pietri from Venezuela ­ paragraphs or parts of paragraphs in which parasitological or entomological situations of the most varied hues are referred to or described, have been extracted in a selective form. Sometimes in these descriptions appear, local or regional expressions, without ignoring colorful folkloric representations. For a easier interpretation these or part of these paragraph sentences have been arranged by thematic similarities. In a varied and kaleidoscopic vision, it will be possible to find protozooses (malaria, Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, amibiasis), helminthiases (ascariasis, hydatidosis, trichinosis, schistosomiasis, cysticercosis, onchocerciasis), parasitoses produced by arthropods (pediculosis, scabies, tungiasis, myiasis), passing progressivelly to hemaphagous arthropods (mosquitoes, gnats, horse flies, bedbugs, ticks), venomous arthropods (Latrodectus spiders, scorpions, wasps, bees), mechanical vectors (flies and cockroaches), culminating with a conjuction of bucolic arthropods (butterflies, crickets, grasshoppers cicadas, ants, centipedes, beetles, glowworms, dragonflies).

Hugo, Schenone.

2000-07-01

302

La parasitología y la entomología en la narrativa latinoamericana del siglo XX Parasitology and entomology in the 20th century Latin American narrative  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present reviev of twelve pieces produced by distinguished 20th century Latin American writers Jorge Luis Borges from Argentina, Jorge Amado and João Ubaldo Ribeiro from Brazil, José Donoso from Chile, Gabriel García Márquez from Colombia, Alejo Carpentier from Cuba, Miguel Angel Asturias from Guatemala, Octavio Paz from Mexico, Mario Vargas Llosa from Perú, Horacio Quiroga and Mario Benedetti from Uruguay and Arturo Uslar-Pietri from Venezuela ­ paragraphs or parts of paragraphs in which parasitological or entomological situations of the most varied hues are referred to or described, have been extracted in a selective form. Sometimes in these descriptions appear, local or regional expressions, without ignoring colorful folkloric representations. For a easier interpretation these or part of these paragraph sentences have been arranged by thematic similarities. In a varied and kaleidoscopic vision, it will be possible to find protozooses (malaria, Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, amibiasis, helminthiases (ascariasis, hydatidosis, trichinosis, schistosomiasis, cysticercosis, onchocerciasis, parasitoses produced by arthropods (pediculosis, scabies, tungiasis, myiasis, passing progressivelly to hemaphagous arthropods (mosquitoes, gnats, horse flies, bedbugs, ticks, venomous arthropods (Latrodectus spiders, scorpions, wasps, bees, mechanical vectors (flies and cockroaches, culminating with a conjuction of bucolic arthropods (butterflies, crickets, grasshoppers cicadas, ants, centipedes, beetles, glowworms, dragonflies.

Hugo Schenone

2000-07-01

303

Energy feedbacks of northern high-latitude ecosystems to the climate system due to reduced snow cover during 20th century warming  

Science.gov (United States)

The warming associated with changes in snow cover in northern high-latitude terrestrial regions represents an important energy feedback to the climate system. Here, we simulate snow cover-climate feedbacks (i.e. changes in snow cover on atmospheric heating) across the Pan-arctic over two distinct warming periods during the 20th century, 1910-1940 and 1970-2000. We offer evidence that increases in snow cover-climate feedbacks during 1970-2000 were nearly three times larger than during 1910-1940 because the recent snow-cover change occurred in spring, when radiation load is highest, rather than in autumn. Based on linear regression analysis, we also detected a greater sensitivity of snow cover-climate feedbacks to temperature trends during the more recent time period. Pan-arctic vegetation types differed substantially in snow cover-climate feedbacks. Those with a high seasonal contrast in albedo, such as tundra, showed much larger changes in atmospheric heating than did those with a low seasonal contrast in albedo, such as forests, even if the changes in snow-cover duration were similar across the vegetation types. These changes in energy exchange warrant careful consideration in studies of climate change, particularly with respect to associated shifts in vegetation between forests, grasslands, and tundra. ?? 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Euskirchen, E. S.; Mcguire, A. D.; Chapin, F. S.

2007-01-01

304

Hyperdisease in the late Pleistocene: validation of an early 20th century hypothesis  

Science.gov (United States)

The hypothesis of disease-related large mammal extinction has new support. A unique pathologic zone of resorption was first noticed in a Hiscock Mammut americanum metacarpal. The pathognomonic zone of resorption was present in fifty-nine (52%) of 113 skeletons with feet available for examination. Metacarpals and metatarsals were most commonly affected. Associated rib periosteal reaction is highly suggestive of tuberculosis and the foot lesions were identical to that documented in Bison as pathognomonic for tuberculosis. Recognizing that only a portion of animals infected by infectious tuberculosis develop bone involvement, the high frequency of the pathology in M. americanum suggests that tuberculosis was not simply endemic, but actually pandemic, a hyperdisease. Pandemic tuberculosis was one of several probable factors contributing to mastodon extinction.

Rothschild, Bruce M.; Laub, Richard

2006-11-01

305

Studies in the History of Early 20th Century Delinquency Prevention. A Rand Note.  

Science.gov (United States)

An overview is presented of select research performed under a project entitled "Education, Delinquency Prevention, and the Search for Youth Policy: An Historical Inquiry." This overview contains two discrete essays that synthesize the main findings of seven key writers in the field of juvenile delinquency between 1900 and 1930 and examine state…

Schlossman, Steven

306

Upwelling signals in radiocarbon from early 20th-century Peruvian bay scallop ( Argopecten purpuratus) shells  

Science.gov (United States)

We quantified ? 14C, ?18O, and ?13C cycles along ontogeny within four bay scallop ( Argopecten purpuratus) shells collected from Callao Bay, Salaverry, and Sechura Bay, Peru following the 1907-1908 non-El Niño years and the 1925-1926 El Niño. ? 14C and ?13C generally covary; ? 14C and ?18O vary inversely. Simultaneous decreases in ? 14C and increases in ?18O in non-El Niño shells are followed by constant ? 14C and gradually decreasing ?18O, which we interpret as evidence for discrete marine upwelling events followed by warming of the initially cold upwelled water. Upwelling changes from El Niño events are detectable with difficulty in mollusk shell ? 14C.

Jones, Kevin B.; Hodgins, Gregory W. L.; Etayo-Cadavid, Miguel F.; Andrus, C. Fred T.

2009-11-01

307

Interannual-to-decadal variability of the stratosphere during the 20th century: ensemble simulations with a chemistry-climate model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Interannual-to-decadal variability in stratospheric ozone and climate have a number of common sources, such as variations in solar irradiance, stratospheric aerosol loading due to volcanic eruptions, El Niño Southern Oscillation variability and the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO. Currently available data records as well as model simulations addressing stratospheric chemical climate variability mostly cover only the past few decades, which is often insufficient to address natural interannual-to-decadal variability. Here we make use of recently reconstructed and re-evaluated data products to force and validate transient ensemble model simulations (nine members across the twentieth century computed by means of the chemistry-climate model SOCOL (SOlar Climate Ozone Links. The forcings include sea surface temperatures, sea ice, solar irradiance, stratospheric aerosols, QBO, changes in land properties, greenhouse gases, ozone depleting substances, and emissions of carbon monoxides, and nitrogen oxides. The transient simulations are in good agreement with observations, reconstructions and reanalyses and allow quantification of interannual-to-decadal variability during the 20th century. All ensemble members are able to capture the low-frequency variability in tropical and mid-latitude total ozone as well as in the strength of the subtropical jet, suggesting a realistic response to external forcings in this area. The region of the northern polar vortex exhibits a large internal variability that is found in the frequency, seasonality, and strength of major warmings as well as in the strength of the modeled polar vortex. Results from process-oriented analysis, such as correlation between the vertical Eliassen Palm flux (EP flux component and polar variables as well as stratospheric ozone trends, are of comparable magnitude to those observed and are consistent in all analysed ensemble members. Yet, trend estimates of the vertical EP flux component vary greatly among ensemble members precluding any robust conclusions. This suggests that internal variability in models must be accounted for in order to quantify the atmospheric model response in wave energy upon external forcings.

A. M. Fischer

2008-12-01

308

Interannual-to-decadal variability of the stratosphere during the 20th century: ensemble simulations with a chemistry-climate model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Interannual-to-decadal variability in stratospheric ozone and climate have a number of common sources, such as variations in solar irradiance, stratospheric aerosol loading due to volcanic eruptions, El Niño Southern Oscillation variability and the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO. Currently available data records as well as model simulations addressing stratospheric chemical climate variability mostly cover only the past few decades, which is often insufficient to address natural interannual-to-decadal variability. Here we make use of recently reconstructed and re-evaluated data products to force and validate transient ensemble model simulations (nine members across the twentieth century computed by means of the chemistry-climate model SOCOL. The forcings included sea surface temperatures, sea ice, solar irradiance, stratospheric aerosols, QBO, changes in land properties, greenhouse gases, ozone depleting substances, and emissions of carbon monoxides, and nitrogen oxides. The transient simulations are in good agreement with observations, reconstructions and reanalyses and allow quantification of interannual-to-decadal variability during the 20th century. All ensemble members are able to capture the low-frequency variability in tropical and mid-latitudinal total ozone as well as in the strength of the subtropical jet, suggesting a realistic response to external forcings in this area. The region of the northern polar vortex exhibits a large internal model variability that is found in the frequency, seasonality, and strength of major warmings as well as in the strength of the modeled polar vortex. Results from process-oriented analysis, such as correlation between the vertical Eliassen Palm flux (EP flux component and polar variables as well as stratospheric ozone trends, are of comparable magnitude to those observed and are consistent in all analysed ensemble members. Yet, trend estimates of the vertical EP flux component vary greatly among ensemble members precluding any robust conclusions. This suggests that internal variability in models must be accounted for in order to quantify the atmospheric model response in wave energy upon external forcings.

A. M. Fischer

2008-07-01

309

Continuidades e rupturas no papel da mulher brasileira no século XX / Continuities and changes in the role of brazilian woman in the 20th century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O século XX, em muitas sociedades, caracteriza-se por movimento de constantes alterações em valores, práticas e papéis; contudo, a literatura tem evidenciado também continuidades em todos esses aspectos. O presente artigo tem como objetivo analisar as mudanças e continuidades no papel da mulher, pri [...] ncipalmente no contexto familiar brasileiro, com base em dados de pesquisas realizadas na região sudeste. Os dados são provenientes de entrevistas realizadas com homens e mulheres de diversas faixas etárias, nascidos a partir do final do século XIX até meados dos anos 70. Os resultados enfatizam a nova forma de a mulher ser considerada. A imagem de ser frágil e necessitado de proteção, sob o domínio dos sentimentos, atuando na intimidade e presa aos cuidados com a prole, ganha outros contornos, fazendo dela um ser em construção, na busca de seu desenvolvimento e realização de potencialidades. Os caminhos traçados pela evolução marcam, contudo, continuidades ao lado de rupturas. Abstract in english In many societies, the 20th century is characterized by constant changes in values, practices, and roles. However, the literature has shown the existence of continuities in all of them. The purpose of this article is to analyze changes and continuities in the role of woman, especially in the family [...] context, based on research data collected in the Southeast of Brazil. Data were obtained from interviews carried out with men and women who were born from the end of 19th century until 70's. The results emphasize the new role of woman nowadays. The image of being a fragile, sentimental and caring about her children is replaced by one of a woman in development who seeks to fulfill her potentialities. However, the pathways tracked by the evolution of the role of woman mark both continuities and discontinuities.

Zélia Maria Mendes, Biasoli-Alves.

2000-12-01

310

In memoriam: a tribute to dr. Owen H. Wangensteen, the greatest teacher of surgery during the 20th century (1898-1981).  

Science.gov (United States)

My philosophy regarding teaching has been formulated primarily by my close personal relationship with my beloved mentor, Dr. Owen Wangensteen, Professor and Chairman of the Department of Surgery at the University of Minnesota, who is recognized as the greatest teacher of surgery during this last century. By 1930, he had become Chairman of the Department of Surgery of the University of Minnesota Health Sciences Center, a position he held for 37[1/2] years. He transformed the University of Minnesota into a great center for surgery and attracted a group of brilliant young surgeons to do research on impossible problems. His lifelong recognition of the relevance of basic science and the insight to be derived from research in the training of young surgeons created the milieu and opportunities for great surgical achievements. During the period of almost 40 years in which he served as Chairman of the Department of Surgery, he became the greatest surgical educator of the 20th century. The future academic careers for his residents were indeed impressive: 38 became the department chairs; 31 accepted positions as division heads of their departments; 72 were directors of training programs; 110 became full professors; and 18 had appointments as associate professors. In this favorable environment uncluttered by the cobwebs of tradition, significant developments in surgery were forthcoming: open heart surgery; the heart-lung machine; cardiac pacemaker; conservative management of intestinal obstruction; heart, pancreatic, and intestinal transplantation and metabolic surgery for weight loss as well as elevated blood cholesterol; and revolutionary advances in wound repair. PMID:17275843

Edlich, Richard F

2007-04-01

311

[Russland an der Ostsee : imperiale Strategien der Macht und kulturelle Wahrnehmungsmuster (16. bis 20. Jahrhundert) = Russia on the Baltic : imperial strategies of power and cultural patterns of perception (16th-20th centuries). Hrsg. von Kartsen Br  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Arvustus: Russland an der Ostsee : imperiale Strategien der Macht und kulturelle Wahrnehmungsmuster (16. bis 20. Jahrhundert) = Russia on the Baltic : imperial strategies of power and cultural patterns of perception (16th-20th centuries). (Quellen und Studien zur Baltischen Geschichte, 22). Hrsg. von Kartsen Brüggemann und Bradley Woodworth. Böhlau Verlag. Wien u.a. 2012.

Laur, Mati, 1955-

2013-01-01

312

Cambios demográficos y epidemiológicos en Colombia durante el siglo XX / Demographic and epidemiologic changes in Colombia during the 20th. century: facts and explanations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción. Las actividades de investigación, docencia, planificación y administración en salud requieren disponer de un panorama demográfico y epidemiológico actualizado, que dé cuenta de los cambios y tendencias. Objetivo. Describir los principales cambios demográfico-epidemiológicos de Colombia [...] en el siglo XX, así como las proyecciones a corto plazo. Materiales y métodos. Estudio descriptivo, longitudinal, con información secundaria. Resultados. La población pasará de 4'737.588 habitantes en 1905 a 53 millones en 2015. De una verdadera pirámide presente hasta 1951, la distribución de la población pasó a una figura deformada (entre 0 y 14 años no existe diferencia apreciable). Entre 1905 y 1938, la natalidad era de 43% y, a finales de 2005, será de 22%. La mortalidad pasó de 23% entre 1905 y 1912 a 6% entre 1985 y 1993, pero subirá a 8,3% en 2010. La mortalidad infantil también estaba reduciéndose en el decenio de 1930, pero su nivel todavía era muy alto, y apenas a comienzos del decenio de 1960 empezó a caer acentuadamente. En 1938, la población en cabeceras municipales era de 31% y en 2000 de 72%. La mortalidad por causas cambió significativamente después de 1950. Las enfermedades infecciosas-parasitarias y perinatales, principales causas de muerte hasta finales del decenio de 1960 a 1969, perdieron importancia frente a enfermedades degenerativas, accidentes y homicidios, que ahora predominan. Conclusión. Nuestra actual densidad de población es relativamente baja. Más importante que el cambio demográfico cuantitativo es su gran velocidad. El envejecimiento de la población trae serias implicaciones para el país. Las profundas modificaciones en la familia colombiana plantean retos en todos los campos sociales. Los cambios demográficos y epidemiológicos (estructura y nivel de morbimortalidad) requieren un análisis profundo, y no deben aceptarse sin reparo las explicaciones fáciles que con frecuencia se proponen desde enfoques económicos "desarrollistas". Abstract in english Introduction. Research, education, organization and administration activities in health need an updated panoramic view of demographic and epidemiologic changes and tendencies. Objectives. To describe the main changes in demography and epidemiology during the 20th century in Colombia and to comment o [...] n the causative models used by some authors. Materials and methods. A descriptive and longitudinal study. Second hand information from various sources was used. The final section of the review includes a discussion on the interpretation of data given by the original authors. Results. In 1905-2005, population increased from 4.737.588 inhabitants to 48.864,013. The age distribution of the population showed dramatic changes: the true pyramid, as seen in 1951, changed into a distorted figure (no apparent differences between 0 and 14 years of age). Both children and youngsters lost representation on age structure, while adult and older individuals gain representation. During 1905-1938, the birth rate was 43% and by the end of 2005 it will be 22%. Mortality dropped a 75%, falling from 23% in 1905-1912 to 6% in 1885-1993, but it rose a 33% after 1993, and will reach 8,3% in 2010. In 1938, the urban population was 31% and in 2002, 72%. Mortality discriminated by cause changed in a significant manner during the second half of the 20th century. Infectious-parasitic and perinatal diseases, the main cause of death by the end of the 1960-1969 decade, lost importance on behalf of degenerative diseases, accidents and homicides which are now the most frequent. Conclusions. Our present population density is relatively low. The demographic change has been profound but the velocity has been more important. The aging of population has serious implications for the country. These notable modifications in Colombian families raise challenges in all social fields. The demographic and epidemiological changes (structure and level of morbimortality) requi

Jaime, Carmona-Fonseca.

313

Why does FGOALS-gl reproduce a weak Medieval Warm Period but a reasonable Little Ice Age and 20th century warming?  

Science.gov (United States)

To understand the strengths and limitations of a low-resolution version of Flexible Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land-Sea-ice (FGOALS-gl) to simulate the climate of the last millennium, the energy balance, climate sensitivity and absorption feedback of the model are analyzed. Simulation of last-millennium climate was carried out by driving the model with natural (solar radiation and volcanic eruptions) and anthropogenic (greenhouse gases and aerosols) forcing agents. The model feedback factors for (model sensitivity to) different forcings were calculated. The results show that the system feedback factor is about 2.5 (W m-2) K-1 in the pre-industrial period, while 1.9 (W m-2) K-1 in the industrial era. Thus, the model’s sensitivity to natural forcing is weak, which explains why it reproduces a weak Medieval Warm Period. The relatively reasonable simulation of the Little Ice Age is caused by both the specified radiative forcing and unforced linear cold drift. The model sensitivity in the industrial era is higher than that of the pre-industrial period. A negative net cloud radiative feedback operates during whole-millennial simulation and reduces the model’s sensitivity to specified forcing. The negative net cloud radiative forcing feedback under natural forcing in the period prior to 1850 is due to the underestimation (overestimation) of the response of cloudiness (in-cloud water path). In the industrial era, the strong tropospheric temperature response enlarges the effective radius of ice clouds and reduces the fractional ice content within cloud, resulting in a weak negative net cloud feedback in the industrial period. The water vapor feedback in the industrial era is also stronger than that in the pre-industrial period. Both are in favor of higher model sensitivity and thus a reasonable simulation of the 20th century global warming.

Guo, Zhun; Zhou, Tianjun

2013-11-01

314

Environmental changes in Chaohu Lake (southeast, China) since the mid 20th century : The interactive impacts of nutrients, hydrology and climate  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Chaohu Lake, the fifth largest freshwater lake in the Yangtze floodplain, is faced with multiple stresses from anthropogenic disturbances and climate change. To explore the ecological changes in Chaohu Lake since the mid 20th century, we examined diatoms, geochemical indicators and particle size in Pb-210-dated sediment core from the lake. Diatom succession revealed that the lake had switched to a eutrophic state since the late 1970s. Redundancy analysis using limnological data, hydrological and meteorological variables showed that sedimentary total phosphorus (TP) and total organic carbon (TOC), annual mean temperature, annual mean wind velocity, and water-level amplitude (WLA) were five significant factors influencing diatom succession. Diatom assemblages from 1950 till 1978 were driven by WLA and wind. The establishment of Chaohu Dam baffled hydrological connectivity between the lake and the Yangtze River in 1962, and reducing water exchange-induced flow. Meanwhile, weak wind velocity reduced the wind-induced flow in the 1960s. Due to the weak hydrodynamic intensity, the dominant species (Aulacoseira granulata, a species with high sinking rate) became less important during this period. From 1979 till 2006, diatom assemblages were mainly driven by TP, TOC and temperature, which were highly correlative. Increasing nutrient loading promoted the blooms of eutrophic species (e.g., Cyclostephanos dubius). In addition, rising temperature would indirectly influence diatom assemblages by mediating nutrient release process. As a consequence, multiple stresses in concert have caused the lake switch to a further eutrophic state indicated by prominent increases in more eutrophic species (e.g., Stephanodiscus parvus) since 2000. This study provided information on complex trajectories of aquatic ecosystem shifts driven by increasing nutrient loading, hydrological alteration and climate warming in the Yangtze floodplain lake. (C) 2012 Published by Elsevier GmbH.

Chen, Xu; Yang, Xiangdong

2013-01-01

315

Construction and Operation of Railway Bridges and Ferries in the Lower Volga Streamflow (End of 19th – First Half of 20th Century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article deals with the history of operation of Russia’s first railway ferry and the process of bridge construction across the lower Volga streamflows at Ryazan-Ural (now Volga railway line in Saratov, Stalingrad (Volgograd and Astrakhan. River railway ferries “Saratovskaya pereprava” and “Saratovsky ledokol” were built in 1894 in England and water crafts “Vtoraya pereprava” (1909 and “Stalin” (1926 were floated out in Volga in Nizhny Novgorod, from the Sormov plant. As a rule, the organization of transportations by means of steam locomotives and waggons through Volga during the first half of the 20th century preceded the construction of capital metal railway bridges, such as Astrakhan (1909 and Saratov (1935, and also a combined railway-automobile bridge through the Volga (Stalingrad Hydro-Electric Power Station (1961. The article is devoted not only to the technical features of ferries, bridges, but their efficient use in peace time and war time. So, the carrying capacity of the Saratov railway ferry increased in more than three times from 1907 to 1916. The Ryazan-Ural railway ferries were actively used by new Bolshevist regime. After the railroad construction on the left bank of Volga in autumn and winter of 1941, railway ferries “Stalin” and “Saratovskaya pereprava” were used for the carriage of military trains and population evacuation from the western bank of Volga. The author describes one of the most heroic and tragic facts in the history of Stalingrad battle using the example of the special operation railway ferry flooding and its consequent reconstruction.

OPALEV M.N.

2014-06-01

316

Lovro Stepišnik and the development of travelling librarianship in Slovenia at the turn of the 19th to the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: Travelling library service is a field of librarianship which has not been thoroughly explored yet either in Slovenia or abroad. The most interesting question is who the beginner was and how the idea of a travelling library service has been introduced to Slovenia.Methodology/approach: The analysis of primary and secondary resources served to represent the life and work of Lovro Stepišnik as well as a short introduction to the history of travelling librarianship in Slovenia at the turn of the 19th to the 20th century.Results: The findings show that the hypothesis on Lovro Stepišnik as the first travelling librarian in Slovenia could be confirmed. After establishing the library together with the Reading society in the year 1863, either Stepišnik or his assistant, delivered baskets of books to rural readers. At the same time, some initiatives on private travelling libraries based on American and European practices emerged. The aim of the first travelling libraries was to stimulate reading and literacy among rural population, especially in the areas without reading societies and on the borders with German speaking population,in order to stimulate national consciousness and the use of the Slovenian language.Research limitation: The research was limited to the selected primary resources of selected serial publication in the Slovenian language. Some difficulties due to the variety of terms and archaic expressions were identified.Originality/practical implications: The short study should stimulate the research in the development of travelling libraries in Slovenia.

Polona Vozel

2011-01-01

317

Surface and thickness variations of Brenva Glacier tongue (Mont Blanc, Italian Alps) in the second half of the 20th century by historical maps and aerial photogrammetry comparisons  

Science.gov (United States)

Aim of this contribution is the evaluation of volumetric and surface variations of Brenva Glacier (Mont Blanc, Italian Alps) during the second half of the 20th century, by GIS-based processing of maps and aerial photogrammetry technique. Brenva Glacier is a typical debris covered glacier, located in a valley on the S-E side of the Mont Blanc. The glacier covers a surface of 7 kmq and shows a length of 7,6 km at maximum. The glacier snout reaches 1415 m a.s.l., which is the lowest glacier terminus of the Italian Alps. To evaluate glacier variations different historical maps were used: 1) The 1959 Map, at the scale 1:5.000, by EIRA (Ente Italiano Rilievi Aerofotogrammetrici, Firenze), from terrestrial photogrammetric survey, published in the Bollettino del Comitato Glaciologico Italiano, 2, n. 19, 1971. 2) The 1971 Map, at the scale 1:5.000, from aerial photogrammetry (Alifoto, Torino) published in the Bollettino del Comitato Glaciologico Italiano, 2, n. 20, 1972. 3) The 1988 Map, at the scale 1:10.000, (Region Aosta Valley, Regional Technical Map) from 1983 aerial photogrammetric survey. 4) The 1999 Map, at the scale 1:10.000, (Region Aosta Valley, Regional Technical Map) from 1991 aerial photogrammetry survey. For the same purpose the following aereal photographs were used: 1) The 1975 image, CGR (Italian General Company aerial Surveys) flight RAVDA (Administrative Autonomous Region Aosta Valley), at the scale 1:17.000. 2) The 1991 image, CGR (Italian General Company aerial Surveys) flight RAVDA (Administrative Autonomous Region Aosta Valley), at the scale 1:17.000. Aerial imageries have been acquired over a long period from 1975 to 1991. The black and white images were scanned at suitable resolution if compared with the imagery scale and several models, representing the glacier tongue area, oriented using the inner and outer orientation parameters delivered with the images, were produced. The digital photogrammetric system, after orientation and matching, produces a digital surface model with a degree of accuracy varing among the glacier and the surrounding area. Comparison with available cartography may be performed if digital ortophoto is being generated from the photogrammetric processing in a well defined reference system. Accuracy in volumetric changes estimations is nevertheless of fundamental importance being derived from the comparison of different metodologies with related single accuracies. By using GIS sofware the maps and ortophotos were managed after digitalisation; Digital Elevation Models were produced and their comparison allowed: 1) to quantify surface and volume variations 2) to elaborate thematic maps about ice thickness and debris areal distribution variations 4) to elaborate topographic longitudinal and transverse profiles to underline glacier changes The preliminary results about volumetric and thickness variations obtained from maps are the following: a) 1959-1971: the glacier tongue increased in volume of about 15 millions mc of ice that correspond to an increase in thickness of about 20 m of ice with maximum values of about 40-50 m. b)1971-1983: the glacier tongue increased in volume of about 18 millions mc of ice that is to say a mean increase in thickness of a little more than 20 m of ice. In the same time the glacier advanced of about 200 m (Italian Glaciological Committee data), probably this advancing phase was related to the ablation reduction caused by the emispheric climate cooling occurred during the second half of the 20th century. It influenced the mass balance trend of a large number of glaciers in the North Emisphere between the 70s and the 80s of the 20 th century c)1983-1991: for this period a negative volumetric variation of about 8 millions mc of ice was calculated equal to a thickness decreasing of about 10 m of ice. The managing of orthopotos by GIS software to obtain DEMs is in progress and its results will confirm or add arguments to discuss them. The final results will allow to compare Brenva recent evolution to that of some other italian debris covered glaciers such as Mia

D Agata, C.; Zanutta, A.; Muzzu Martis, D.; Mancini, F.; Smiraglia, C.

2003-04-01

318

O comércio internacional de peles silvestres na Amazônia brasileira no século XX / The international trade in wild animals skins from the Brazilian Amazon in the 20th Century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Durante o século XX, o comércio internacional de peles foi responsável pelo abate de milhões de mamíferos e répteis na Amazônia. Negociadas no regime de comércio fluvial e aviamento, as peles seguiam dos portos e seringais, localizados no interior, para as casas aviadoras e exportadoras de Manaus e [...] Belém, de onde eram exportadas principalmente para os Estados Unidos, a Europa e o sul brasileiro. Neste artigo, analisamos documentos fiscais inéditos liberados pelo extinto império econômico do aviamento - a empresa J. G. Araujo -, bem como periódicos da Associação Comercial do Amazonas e os registros portuários da Manáos Harbour Ltd. O comércio internacional de peles silvestres intensificou-se imediatamente após a crise da borracha (1912) e atingiu seu auge entre 1935 e 1946, com o pico durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial. O segundo pico ocorreu na década de 1960, principal e ironicamente logo após a publicação da Lei de Proteção à Fauna (1967). Ao longo do período que antecedeu a aprovação da Convenção sobre o Comércio Internacional de Espécies Ameaçadas (CITES), em 1973-1975, não houve depreciação significativa no preço ou na demanda internacional por peles silvestres, sugerindo um esforço de caça constante e intenso por quase meio século. Abstract in english Throughout the 20th century, an international trade in animal hides resulted in the slaughter of millions of mammals and reptiles in the Amazon. Animal hides were purchased from extractivists through a network of traveling river merchants in a regime of debt peonage known as aviamento, carried from [...] trade posts in the hinterlands to warehouses in Manaus and Belém, and then exported to the United States, Europe and southern Brazil. Here we analyze previously unpublished shipping invoices from the famous merchant empire of J. G. Araujo as well as public port registries and commercial statistics from Manaus (Manáos Harbour Ltd., Associação Comercial do Amazonas). The international trade in Amazonian animal hides intensified immediately after the 1912 crash in rubber prices and spiked between 1935 and 1946, with a peak during World War II. The second spike occurred in the 1960s, mainly after the passage of Brazil's 1967 "Wild Animal Protection Law" intended to halt this trade. Throughout the period leading up to the adoption of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) in 1973-1975, there was no significant depreciation in the price or international demand for animal skins, suggesting constant and intense hunting effort for nearly half a century.

André Pinassi, Antunes; Glenn Harvey, Shepard Junior; Eduardo Martins, Venticinque.

319

O comércio internacional de peles silvestres na Amazônia brasileira no século XX / The international trade in wild animals skins from the Brazilian Amazon in the 20th Century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Durante o século XX, o comércio internacional de peles foi responsável pelo abate de milhões de mamíferos e répteis na Amazônia. Negociadas no regime de comércio fluvial e aviamento, as peles seguiam dos portos e seringais, localizados no interior, para as casas aviadoras e exportadoras de Manaus e [...] Belém, de onde eram exportadas principalmente para os Estados Unidos, a Europa e o sul brasileiro. Neste artigo, analisamos documentos fiscais inéditos liberados pelo extinto império econômico do aviamento - a empresa J. G. Araujo -, bem como periódicos da Associação Comercial do Amazonas e os registros portuários da Manáos Harbour Ltd. O comércio internacional de peles silvestres intensificou-se imediatamente após a crise da borracha (1912) e atingiu seu auge entre 1935 e 1946, com o pico durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial. O segundo pico ocorreu na década de 1960, principal e ironicamente logo após a publicação da Lei de Proteção à Fauna (1967). Ao longo do período que antecedeu a aprovação da Convenção sobre o Comércio Internacional de Espécies Ameaçadas (CITES), em 1973-1975, não houve depreciação significativa no preço ou na demanda internacional por peles silvestres, sugerindo um esforço de caça constante e intenso por quase meio século. Abstract in english Throughout the 20th century, an international trade in animal hides resulted in the slaughter of millions of mammals and reptiles in the Amazon. Animal hides were purchased from extractivists through a network of traveling river merchants in a regime of debt peonage known as aviamento, carried from [...] trade posts in the hinterlands to warehouses in Manaus and Belém, and then exported to the United States, Europe and southern Brazil. Here we analyze previously unpublished shipping invoices from the famous merchant empire of J. G. Araujo as well as public port registries and commercial statistics from Manaus (Manáos Harbour Ltd., Associação Comercial do Amazonas). The international trade in Amazonian animal hides intensified immediately after the 1912 crash in rubber prices and spiked between 1935 and 1946, with a peak during World War II. The second spike occurred in the 1960s, mainly after the passage of Brazil's 1967 "Wild Animal Protection Law" intended to halt this trade. Throughout the period leading up to the adoption of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) in 1973-1975, there was no significant depreciation in the price or international demand for animal skins, suggesting constant and intense hunting effort for nearly half a century.

André Pinassi, Antunes; Glenn Harvey, Shepard Junior; Eduardo Martins, Venticinque.

2014-08-01

320

Trends Of Stroke Epidemiology At The End Of 20TH Century During The Who MONICA Prophylactic Program And At The Begining Of 21ST Century In Novi Sad  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available At the Collaborating Center of the WHO MONICA project in Novi Sad, where the only MONICA population in former Yugoslavia was located, the research results of Stroke epidemiology during favorable social, political and economic circumstances in our country show a decrease of the incidence and mortality from stroke, and indicate that prophylactic measures performed during the first ten years were successful at completing of their mission, e. i. in the period 1983 – 1992 morbidity and mortality from stroke dropped by about 20%. The main activities dealt with recording the incidence and mortality of stroke and analysis of population samples during intervention program. The results of Stroke epidemiology since 1993 and later show that with the war in the neighboring countries, decrease of general life standard of population, and economic sanctions imposed by United Nations, this beneficial trend has reversed and rates have increased continually. The results of the WHO MONICA project in Novi Sad Collaborating Center are undergoing the final analyses and tests of hypotheses, and they are published in the most reputable world medical journals. Unfortunately, the main risk factors in population age 20 years and over in the first decade of XXI century in Vojvodina are still physical inactivity, hypertension, smoking, overweight, and obesity, the same that were at the beginning of the WHO MONICA program, at the end of XX century in Novi Sad. Such, much worse health reality among younger, requires integrated strategic approach supported by policy, capacity building, surveillance and propagation of medical care

Milorad Zikic

2011-10-01

 
 
 
 
321

[Education on medical anthropology and intercultural health in Mexico: from the 20th century cultural indigenism to the 21st century interculturality].  

Science.gov (United States)

The study of the health/disease/healthcare process from the socio-medical aspect is the field of the medical anthropology. In Mexico, this medical specialty had its origins at the end of the 19th century. Since then, many educational reforms occurred associated to the political processes and the recognition and better understanding of Mexican pluricultural society; allowing expansion, diversification and consolidation of medical anthropology as an specialty. This review presents the historical evolution of the academic courses on this field, the educators that influenced its consolidation, and the current situation of the available academic programs on medical anthropology. The diversity of specialties from those health sciences that are associated to medical anthropology is emphasized. PMID:21072457

Campos-Navarro, Roberto

2010-03-01

322

Migration in the Swiss Alps and Swiss Jura from the Middle Ages to the mid-20th century: a brief review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aims at retracing the important phases of migrations in the alpine regions and the Jura from the Middle Ages up to the middle of the 20th century. Migration has always functioned as a necessary complement to the resources of the inhabitants of the upland regions and it increases when the economic disparity with the lowlands becomes more marked. A striking characteristic of such migration is the great diversity that can be observed, since not only the destinations of the migrants varied from community to community, but also different forms of mobility coexisted within the same territory. Migration might be seasonal, pluriannual, lifelong or even definitive. It is also notable that the various types of migration can be observed to be part of a plurisecular tradition, apart from some significant exceptions, such as the emigration of the Walser, enforced migrations and the new types of migration as from the second half of the nineteenth century. The mobility of part of the population was also a consequence of modifications deriving from changes in the prevalent type of production (animal husbandry instead of the cultivation of cereals, as well as from demographic factors. In addition to these factors one can observe the role played by political institutions throughout the period under study: seigneurial power in the Middle Ages, the communal and cantonal instances until the second half of the nineteenth century, and afterwards the federal authorities.Cette contribution vise à montrer les grandes phases des mouvements migratoires du Moyen Age au milieu du XXe siècle dans les mondes alpin et jurassien suisses. La migration a toujours été une complémentarité nécessaire aux ressources de la montagne, et elle s'amplifie lorsque les disparités économiques avec le plat pays s'accroissent. Elle se caractérise par une forte diversité, puisque non seulement les destinations et les aires d'établissement des migrants peuvent varier fortement d'une commune à l'autre, mais aussi parce qu'au sein d'un même territoire ont toujours coexisté des formes différentes de mobilité, saisonnières, pluriannuelles, viagères ou définitives. Un aspect remarquable de ces types de migration est qu’ils s'inscrivent dans une très longue tradition pluriséculaire, avec quelques exceptions notables, ainsi les migrations des Walser, les migrations forcées et les nouvelles formes de la migration dès la seconde moitié du XIXe siècle. La mobilité est imposée aussi par les modifications des formes prévalantes de production (élevage plutôt qu'emblavures, de même que par les facteurs démographiques. A ces facteurs s'ajoute celui du rôle des institutions politiques tout au long de la période étudiée, seigneuriales au Moyen Age, communales et cantonales jusque dans la seconde moitié du XIXe siècle, puis fédérales.

Anne-Lise Head-König

2011-05-01

323

As influências da psicanálise na educação brasileira no início do século XX The influences of psychoanalysis on Brazilian education in the beginning of the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O presente artigo tem por objetivo discutir, a partir de um vértice histórico, a relação entre educação e psicanálise no Brasil. Partindo de um estudo qualitativo, fundamentado na análise bibliográfica relativa à produção psicanalítica dedicada à educação produzida no país nas primeiras décadas do século XX, são discutidas as contribuições da psicanálise na transformação das práticas educacionais. Os resultados indicam que a psicanálise esteve presente na educação de duas formas: inicialmente, pela divulgação de informações teóricas relativas aos conceitos psicanalíticos e às características do desenvolvimento emocional da criança, por intermédio de livros e cursos destinados a educadores, e, posteriormente, através da criação de uma prática de assistência ao escolar com problemas de aprendizagem ou comportamento, desenvolvida em clínicas de orientação infantil, que consistia na avaliação da criança e na orientação de pais e professores. Conclui-se que a psicanálise, enquanto fundamento teórico e prático, forneceu elementos que contribuíram para a sustentação dos pressupostos filosóficos da "Escola Nova", que surgiu, a partir da década de 1920, como alternativa ao ensino tradicional.The present article aims at discussing, from a historical point of view, the relationship between education and psychoanalysis in Brazil. Starting from a qualitative study, based on the bibliographical analysis relative to the psychoanalytic production dedicated to education produced in this country in the first decades of the 20th century, the contributions of psychoanalysis in the transformation of the educational practices are discussed. The results show that psychoanalysis was present in education in two ways: firstly by turning public the theoretical information related to psychoanalytic concepts and to the characteristics of child emotional development, through books and courses designed for educators and, afterwards, through the creation of an assistance practice to scholars with learning or behavior problems, developed in child orientation clinics, which consisted on child evaluation and parents and teachers orientation. We conclude that psychoanalysis, while a theoretical and practical fundament, supplied elements which contributed to the support of the philosophic presumptions of a new educational model that came up as from 1920 as an alternative to traditional teaching.

Jorge Luís Ferreira Abrão

2006-08-01

324

Paul Hamilton Wood (1907-1962: El máximo exponente de la cardiología clínica Británica del siglo XX Paul Hamilton Wood: The foremost British clinical cardiologist of the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the United Kingdom, during the mid-20th century, Paul Wood appears as the new leader of European cardiology. He introduced rigorous bed-side diagnostic methods and the confirmation of these clinical findings by cardiac catheterization, in an effort to demonstrate the pathophysiological causes of cardiac disease. In his search for the correct diagnosis, his comments, which could be caustic, both impressed and offended many. He had a strong commanding personality and was intensely honest in his appreciations. His showmanship and diagnostic ability became renown. In 1950, the publishing of the first edition of his textbook "Diseases of the Heart and Circulation" brought him worldwide recognition. In this book, Wood introduces his personal fresh style of narrative and his physiologic approach to cardiology. His intense professional activity, teaching, lecturing and preparing the third edition of his book, plus the fact that he was a heavy smoker, must have been the factors that lead to a myocardial infarction and death at the early age of 54. As Paul Dudley White and Ignacio Chávez in America, Paul Wood in Europe will be remembered as the emblematic figure leading the transition of cardiology into the modern era.

Juan D Humphreys

2012-01-01

325

The shift to the subject in 20th century philosophy of science: A liberating move? / Die skuif na die subjek in die 20ste eeuse wetenskapsfilosofie: 'n Bevrydende verskuiwing?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english During the 20th century, the 'subject' of knowledge (i.e. the individual scientist or a scientific community) was attributed an increasingly relevant role in (the philosophy of) science. Anchoring scientific knowledge to the subject (rather than to the object, as in early positivism) was proposed as [...] a 'liberating' move, leading to a less authoritarian and rationalistic view of science. This article provides a reformational point of view on the topic. A historical documentation of the shift to the subject is provided by visiting the philosophies of Popper, Kuhn, Collins and others. It is argued that the promise of a more libertarian or emancipating conception of science was challenged by several problems. In particular, the conflict between an individual and a communal understanding of the subject is highlighted. Furthermore, it is argued that the roots of the phenomenon in most cases remain hidden. An interpretation of the shift and the sketch of an alternative approach conclude the article.

Renato, Coletto.

2014-01-01

326

Carbon cycling in extratropical terrestrial ecosystems of the Northern Hemisphere during the 20th century: A modeling analysis of the influences of soil thermal dynamics  

Science.gov (United States)

There is substantial evidence that soil thermal dynamics are changing in terrestrial ecosystems of the Northern Hemisphere and that these dynamics have implications for the exchange of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. To date, large-scale biogeochemical models have been slow to incorporate the effects of soil thermal dynamics on processes that affect carbon exchange with the atmosphere. In this study we incorporated a soil thermal module (STM), appropriate to both permafrost and non-permafrost soils, into a large-scale ecosystem model, version 5.0 of the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM). We then compared observed regional and seasonal patterns of atmospheric CO2 to simulations of carbon dynamics for terrestrial ecosystems north of 30??N between TEM 5.0 and an earlier version of TEM (version 4.2) that lacked a STM. The timing of the draw-down of atmospheric CO2 at the start of the growing season and the degree of draw-down during the growing season were substantially improved by the consideration of soil thermal dynamics. Both versions of TEM indicate that climate variability and change promoted the loss of carbon from temperate ecosystems during the first half of the 20th century, and promoted carbon storage during the second half of the century. The results of the simulations by TEM suggest that land-use change in temperate latitudes (30-60??N) plays a stronger role than climate change in driving trends for increased uptake of carbon in extratropical terrestrial ecosystems (30-90??N) during the recent decades. In the 1980s the TEM 5.0 simulation estimated that extratropical terrestrial ecosystems stored 0.55 Pg C yr-1. with 0.24 Pg C yr-1 in North America and 0.31 Pg C yr-1 in northern Eurasia. From 1990 through 1995 the model simulated that these ecosystems stored 0.90 Pg C yr-1, with 0.27 Pg C yr-1 stored in North America and 0.63 Pg C yr-1 stored in northern Eurasia. Thus, in comparison to the 1980s, simulated net carbon storage in the 1990s was enhanced by an additional 0.35 Pg C yr-1 in extratropical terrestrial ecosystems, with most of the additional storage in northern Eurasia. The carbon storage simulated by TEM 5.0 in the 1980s and 1990s was lower than estimates based on other methodologies, including estimates by atmospheric inversion models and remote sensing and inventory analyses. This suggests that other issues besides the role of soil thermal dynamics may be responsible, in part, for the temporal and spatial dynamics of carbon storage of extratropical terrestrial ecosystems. In conclusion, the consideration of soil thermal dynamics and terrestrial cryospheric processes in modeling the global carbon cycle has helped to reduce biases in the simulation of the seasonality of carbon dynamics of extratropical terrestrial ecosystems. This progress should lead to an enhanced ability to clarify the role of other issues that influence carbon dynamics in terrestrial regions that experience seasonal freezing and thawing of soil.

Zhuang, Q.; McGuire, A.D.; Melillo, J.M.; Clein, J.S.; Dargaville, R.J.; Kicklighter, D.W.; Myneni, R.B.; Dong, J.; Romanovsky, V.E.; Harden, J.; Hobbie, J.E.

2003-01-01

327

The place occupied by early measurement (20th minute) of the thyroid uptake of sup(99m)Tc pertechnetate in thyroid pathology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The place occupied by early measurement (20th minute) of the thyroid uptake of sup(99m)Tc pertechnetate is situated for different types of thyroid condition (hypo-, normo- and hyperthyroidism). The use of technetium is simple in practice because only the cervical and crural radioactivity measurements are required. Like all simplified methods it involves risks of errors but lends itself to systematic routine use. The practical advantages of this isotope, which in view of its short half-life appears with iodine 123 as the nearly ideal tracer for thyroid exploration at present are outlined. The thyroid gland can be studied both functionally and scintigraphically at the cost of minimum irradiation, which is a great advantage. The fact that a number of data may be obtained in less than an hour (including scintigraphy) is a particularly valuable asset. However the method has its limits. For example a diagnosis of hyper or hypothyroidism based on the technetium uptake at the 20th minute alone is out of the question. A zero uptake may be observed in the presence of Basedow's disease or conversely a high uptake in hypo- or euthyroid cases. Discrimination is satisfactory between hyper and euthyroid but not between eu- and hypothyroid subjects. Technological progress however promises a routine use of 123 I and 99mTc together, the two isotopes serving to explore two different phases of the thyroid metabolism

328

Historia de la salud publica en México: siglos XIX y XX / History of public health in Mexico: 19th and 20th centuries  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese A evolução da saúde pública mexicana foi gradual. Nos séculos XIX e XX desenvolveu-se paralelamente às mudanças políticas e sociais do país. Na primeira metade do século XIX o cuidado com os doentes dependia parcialmente da caridade religiosa. Depois, instituiu-se a beneficiência pública, consolidad [...] a pelo presidente Benito Juárez (1856), forma de atendimento continuada por Porfirio Díaz (1880-1910). A partir da Revolução (1910-1917) surgiu o princípio de assistência pública como obrigação do Estado para com a sociedade. Atualmente, a assistência à saúde, e a seguridade social conjugam-se em um conceito de medicina institucional que compreende a investigação, o ensino e os serviços prestados à sociedade. Este trabalho é uma análise do desenvolvimento da saúde pública mexicana nos dois últimos séculos. Faz referência às doenças e seu controle, ao aparecimento das instituições e à evolução do conceito de saúde pública na história mexicana. Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english During the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, its growth accompanied the country’s political and social changes. In the early half of the nineteenth century, care for the sick depended in part on religious charity. So-called public beneficial care was later introduced and consolidated under preside [...] nt Benito Juárez (1856) and then continued under Porfirio Díaz (1880-1910). The Mexican Revolution (1910-1917) brought the notion that public-health assistance is the State’s social responsibility. Health care and social security are now both part of so-called "institutional medicine," which also encompasses research and teaching on public health. This analysis of public-health care in Mexico examines the question of diseases and their control, the emergence of institutions, and the development of the concept of public health.

Ana Cecilia, Rodríguez de Romo; Martha Eugenia, Rodríguez Pérez.

329

Historia de la salud publica en México: siglos XIX y XX History of public health in Mexico: 19th and 20th centuries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A evolução da saúde pública mexicana foi gradual. Nos séculos XIX e XX desenvolveu-se paralelamente às mudanças políticas e sociais do país. Na primeira metade do século XIX o cuidado com os doentes dependia parcialmente da caridade religiosa. Depois, instituiu-se a beneficiência pública, consolidada pelo presidente Benito Juárez (1856, forma de atendimento continuada por Porfirio Díaz (1880-1910. A partir da Revolução (1910-1917 surgiu o princípio de assistência pública como obrigação do Estado para com a sociedade. Atualmente, a assistência à saúde, e a seguridade social conjugam-se em um conceito de medicina institucional que compreende a investigação, o ensino e os serviços prestados à sociedade. Este trabalho é uma análise do desenvolvimento da saúde pública mexicana nos dois últimos séculos. Faz referência às doenças e seu controle, ao aparecimento das instituições e à evolução do conceito de saúde pública na história mexicana.During the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, its growth accompanied the country’s political and social changes. In the early half of the nineteenth century, care for the sick depended in part on religious charity. So-called public beneficial care was later introduced and consolidated under president Benito Juárez (1856 and then continued under Porfirio Díaz (1880-1910. The Mexican Revolution (1910-1917 brought the notion that public-health assistance is the State’s social responsibility. Health care and social security are now both part of so-called "institutional medicine," which also encompasses research and teaching on public health. This analysis of public-health care in Mexico examines the question of diseases and their control, the emergence of institutions, and the development of the concept of public health.

Ana Cecilia Rodríguez de Romo

1998-10-01

330

How unusual was late 20th century El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO? Assessing evidence from tree-ring, coral, ice-core and documentary palaeoarchives, A.D. 1525-2002  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Multiple proxy records (tree-ring, coral, ice and documentary were examined to isolate ENSO signals associated with both phases of the phenomenon for the period A.D. 1525-2002. To avoid making large-scale inferences from single proxy analysis, regional signals were aggregated into a network of high-resolution records, revealing large-scale trends in the frequency, magnitude and duration of pre-instrumental ENSO using novel applications of percentile analysis. Here we use the newly introduced coupled ocean-atmosphere ENSO index (CEI as a baseline for the calibration of proxy records. The reconstruction revealed 83 extreme or very strong ENSO episodes since A.D. 1525, expanding considerably on existing ENSO event chronologies. Significantly, excerpts of the most comprehensive list of La Niña events complied to date are presented, indicating peak activity during the 16th to mid 17th and 20th centuries. Although extreme events are seen throughout the 478-year reconstruction, 43% of the extreme ENSO events noted since A.D. 1525 occur during the 20th century, with an obvious bias towards enhanced El Niño conditions in recent decades. Of the total number of extreme event years reconstructed, 30% of all reconstructed ENSO event years occur post-1940 alone suggesting that recent ENSO variability appears anomalous in the context of the past five centuries.

J. L. Gergis

2006-01-01

331

As contribuições de Charcot e de Marsden para o desenvolvimento dos distúrbios do movimento nos séculos XIX e XX Contributions of Charcot and Marsden to the development of movement disorders in the 19th and 20th centuries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Charcot contribuiu significativamente no século XIX na descrição de várias enfermidades neurológicas, em particular na área dos distúrbios do movimento. Charcot contribuiu de forma exponencial na descrição clínica minuciosa da doença de Parkinson, além de introduzir o primeiro tratamento farmacológico. Na área das hipercinesias realizou estudos sobre a síndrome de Tourette, o diagnóstico diferencial dos tremores, das coréias e o estudo inicial sobre startle. Marsden, recentemente falecido, destacou-se no século XX com inúmeras publicações na área dos movimentos anormais.São contribuições seminais os estudos sobre a doença de Parkinson, distonias, mioclonias , tremor essencial, a descrição das síndromes " Painful Legs Moving Toes ", "Gait Ignition Failure" e o "Tremor Primário da Escrita". As contribuições de Charcot no século XIX e de Marsden no século XX na área dos distúrbios do movimento permitem concluir que ambos foram as figuras mais representativas desta área nos últimos dois séculos.Charcot described many neurological diseases in the 19th century, particularly in movement disorders.Charcot contributed in the clinical description of Parkinson's disease, and introduced its first pharmacological treatment. He also studied the hyperkinesias, e.g. of Tourette syndrome, differential diagnosis of tremors, dystonias, choreas and startle disease. Marsden, who died recently, was an exponent in the study of Movement Disorders, with many publications in this field in the 20th century. His most important contributions are definitions and classifications of movement disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, dystonia, myoclonus, essential tremor, the description of the syndromes "Painful Legs Moving Toes", "Gait Ignition Failure" and "Primary Writing Tremor". The contributions of Charcot in the 19th century and Marsden in the 20th century to the movement disorders allow us to conclude that both of them were the most representative icons in this field in the past two centuries.

Hélio A.G. Teive

2001-09-01

332

As contribuições de Charcot e de Marsden para o desenvolvimento dos distúrbios do movimento nos séculos XIX e XX / Contributions of Charcot and Marsden to the development of movement disorders in the 19th and 20th centuries  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Charcot contribuiu significativamente no século XIX na descrição de várias enfermidades neurológicas, em particular na área dos distúrbios do movimento. Charcot contribuiu de forma exponencial na descrição clínica minuciosa da doença de Parkinson, além de introduzir o primeiro tratamento farmacológi [...] co. Na área das hipercinesias realizou estudos sobre a síndrome de Tourette, o diagnóstico diferencial dos tremores, das coréias e o estudo inicial sobre startle. Marsden, recentemente falecido, destacou-se no século XX com inúmeras publicações na área dos movimentos anormais.São contribuições seminais os estudos sobre a doença de Parkinson, distonias, mioclonias , tremor essencial, a descrição das síndromes " Painful Legs Moving Toes ", "Gait Ignition Failure" e o "Tremor Primário da Escrita". As contribuições de Charcot no século XIX e de Marsden no século XX na área dos distúrbios do movimento permitem concluir que ambos foram as figuras mais representativas desta área nos últimos dois séculos. Abstract in english Charcot described many neurological diseases in the 19th century, particularly in movement disorders.Charcot contributed in the clinical description of Parkinson's disease, and introduced its first pharmacological treatment. He also studied the hyperkinesias, e.g. of Tourette syndrome, differential [...] diagnosis of tremors, dystonias, choreas and startle disease. Marsden, who died recently, was an exponent in the study of Movement Disorders, with many publications in this field in the 20th century. His most important contributions are definitions and classifications of movement disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, dystonia, myoclonus, essential tremor, the description of the syndromes "Painful Legs Moving Toes", "Gait Ignition Failure" and "Primary Writing Tremor". The contributions of Charcot in the 19th century and Marsden in the 20th century to the movement disorders allow us to conclude that both of them were the most representative icons in this field in the past two centuries.

Hélio A.G., Teive; Jorge A.A., Zavala; Fábio M., Iwamoto; Daniel, Sá; Hipólito, Carraro Júnior; Lineu Cesar, Werneck.

333

The Problem of Financial Accounting Measurement in Italian Accounting Thought between the 19th and the 20th Century From “Exchange Value” to “Historical Cost”  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main subject of the paper is the theory of accounting measurement as observed in its historical development. More notably, the research concerns theoretical concepts of such discipline, as developed by the Italian doctrine in a very specific age, that is, between the second half of the nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth century, i.e. from the theorization of the “exchange value rule” to the theorization of the “historical cost principle”. As it was impossible t...

Gonnella, Enrico

2010-01-01

334

Narrativas e imágenes del turismo en Petrópolis, Brasil, a principios del siglo XX Narratives and Images of Tourism in Petrópolis, Brazil, At the beginning of the 20th Century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este trabajo es un análisis histórico de los inicios del turismo organizado en la ciudad de Petrópolis a través de los textos e imágenes publicadas a principios del siglo XX. El objetivo general del trabajo fue analizar a través de una perspectiva histórica la forma en que se originó la construcción de la llamada "naturaleza turística" de Petrópolis, El objetivo específico, pretendió comprender e identificar las principales narrativas e imágenes que sustentan esa construcción cultural, destacando su origen entre los años 1900 y 1930. El estudio fue realizado a través de la bibliografía técnico-científica existente; y también se utilizó la investigación documental e iconográfica, que incluía narrativas e imágenes del turismo en Petrópolis en sus inicios. Se pretendió no sólo insertar a Petrópolis en una posible cronología histórica del turismo brasileño, sino también sensibilizar a los investigadores del área sobre la necesidad de invertir en estudios empíricos de naturaleza histórica en el campo del turismo en los diferentes municipios brasileños, así como en Brasil como un todo.This paper is an historical analysis of the early organized tourism in the city of Petrópolis through the narratives and images produced at the beginning of the 20th century. As a general objective, this paper intended to analyze how the construction of the so-called "tourist nature" of Petrópolis originated, by means of a historical perspective. The specific objective was to understand and identify the main narratives and images which support this cultural construction, emphasizing its origins between 1900 and 1930. The study was developed with the resource of the existing technical and scientific literature as well as documentary and iconographic research which depicted narratives and images of tourism in Petrópolis at the outset of its organization. The aim of this work was not only to propose the insertion of Petrópolis in a possible chronology of Brazilian tourism, but also to provoke and sensitize researchers of the field to the need of investments in empirical researches of historical nature in the field of tourism in the different Brazilian cities, as well as in Brazil as a whole.

André Barcelos Damasceno Daibert

2011-02-01

335

Narrativas e imágenes del turismo en Petrópolis, Brasil, a principios del siglo XX / Narratives and Images of Tourism in Petrópolis, Brazil, At the beginning of the 20th Century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este trabajo es un análisis histórico de los inicios del turismo organizado en la ciudad de Petrópolis a través de los textos e imágenes publicadas a principios del siglo XX. El objetivo general del trabajo fue analizar a través de una perspectiva histórica la forma en que se originó la construcción [...] de la llamada "naturaleza turística" de Petrópolis, El objetivo específico, pretendió comprender e identificar las principales narrativas e imágenes que sustentan esa construcción cultural, destacando su origen entre los años 1900 y 1930. El estudio fue realizado a través de la bibliografía técnico-científica existente; y también se utilizó la investigación documental e iconográfica, que incluía narrativas e imágenes del turismo en Petrópolis en sus inicios. Se pretendió no sólo insertar a Petrópolis en una posible cronología histórica del turismo brasileño, sino también sensibilizar a los investigadores del área sobre la necesidad de invertir en estudios empíricos de naturaleza histórica en el campo del turismo en los diferentes municipios brasileños, así como en Brasil como un todo. Abstract in english This paper is an historical analysis of the early organized tourism in the city of Petrópolis through the narratives and images produced at the beginning of the 20th century. As a general objective, this paper intended to analyze how the construction of the so-called "tourist nature" of Petrópolis o [...] riginated, by means of a historical perspective. The specific objective was to understand and identify the main narratives and images which support this cultural construction, emphasizing its origins between 1900 and 1930. The study was developed with the resource of the existing technical and scientific literature as well as documentary and iconographic research which depicted narratives and images of tourism in Petrópolis at the outset of its organization. The aim of this work was not only to propose the insertion of Petrópolis in a possible chronology of Brazilian tourism, but also to provoke and sensitize researchers of the field to the need of investments in empirical researches of historical nature in the field of tourism in the different Brazilian cities, as well as in Brazil as a whole.

André Barcelos Damasceno, Daibert.

2011-02-01

336

Narrativas e imágenes del turismo en Petrópolis, Brasil, a principios del siglo XX / Narratives and Images of Tourism in Petrópolis, Brazil, At the beginning of the 20th Century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este trabajo es un análisis histórico de los inicios del turismo organizado en la ciudad de Petrópolis a través de los textos e imágenes publicadas a principios del siglo XX. El objetivo general del trabajo fue analizar a través de una perspectiva histórica la forma en que se originó la construcción [...] de la llamada "naturaleza turística" de Petrópolis, El objetivo específico, pretendió comprender e identificar las principales narrativas e imágenes que sustentan esa construcción cultural, destacando su origen entre los años 1900 y 1930. El estudio fue realizado a través de la bibliografía técnico-científica existente; y también se utilizó la investigación documental e iconográfica, que incluía narrativas e imágenes del turismo en Petrópolis en sus inicios. Se pretendió no sólo insertar a Petrópolis en una posible cronología histórica del turismo brasileño, sino también sensibilizar a los investigadores del área sobre la necesidad de invertir en estudios empíricos de naturaleza histórica en el campo del turismo en los diferentes municipios brasileños, así como en Brasil como un todo. Abstract in english This paper is an historical analysis of the early organized tourism in the city of Petrópolis through the narratives and images produced at the beginning of the 20th century. As a general objective, this paper intended to analyze how the construction of the so-called "tourist nature" of Petrópolis o [...] riginated, by means of a historical perspective. The specific objective was to understand and identify the main narratives and images which support this cultural construction, emphasizing its origins between 1900 and 1930. The study was developed with the resource of the existing technical and scientific literature as well as documentary and iconographic research which depicted narratives and images of tourism in Petrópolis at the outset of its organization. The aim of this work was not only to propose the insertion of Petrópolis in a possible chronology of Brazilian tourism, but also to provoke and sensitize researchers of the field to the need of investments in empirical researches of historical nature in the field of tourism in the different Brazilian cities, as well as in Brazil as a whole.

André Barcelos Damasceno, Daibert.

337

A reconstruction of the Cape (South African) fur seal harvest 1653-1899 and a comparison with the 20th-century harvest  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The Cape fur seal was an abundant resource in southern Africa, when first discovered by itinerant sailing vessels in the late 16th century. Seals were slaughtered indiscriminately by the sailors for skins, meat and oil for three centuries from around 1600 to 1899. Government controls over the sealin [...] g industry were first introduced as late as 1893, by which time at least 23 seal colonies had become extinct and the seal population had been significantly reduced. This paper reconstructs the historical seal harvest from the time of arrival of the first settlers in 1652 up to 1899. These data are then compared with modern harvest data from 1900 to 2000, illustrating the marked increase in the harvest from about 1950, and the concomitant recovery of the seal population to a level of around 1.5-2 million animals.

Jeremy, David; Lance, van Sittert.

338

Notas para una historia de la desnutrición en la Iberoamérica del siglo XX / Notes for a history of the malnutrition in the Latin America of the 20th century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El trabajo analiza los principales determinantes y las características de la desnutrición en América Latina durante la segunda mitad del siglo XX. En primer lugar, se explican las bases del problema moderno del hambre y la desnutrición, tanto en su dimensión fisiológica como social, al destacarse su [...] condición de calamidad social y de expresión biológica del subdesarrollo y de las desigualdades sociales. En segundo lugar, a partir de testimonios contemporáneos, se exponen las principales características de la desnutrición que ha afectado a la población iberoamericana, y las causas que la explican. Por último, a modo de conclusión, se subrayan las consecuencias negativas de no haber aprovechado la oportunidad que conllevaba el reto de superar los factores condicionantes de la malnutrición por defecto, y haber finalizado el siglo XX con un panorama epidemiológico nutricional donde los problemas del hambre y la desnutrición conviven con fenómenos como los de la obesidad de la pobreza. Abstract in english The work analyzes the principal determinants and the characteristics of the malnutrition in Latin America during the second half of the 20th century. First, are explained the bases of the modern problem of the hunger and the malnutrition (undernourishment), so much in his physiological as social dim [...] ension, on having been outlined his condition of social calamity and of biological expression of the underdevelopment and of the social inequalities. Secondly, from contemporary testimonies, there are exposed the principal characteristics of the malnutrition that has affected the Latin-American population, and the causes that explain it. Finally, like conclusion, are underlined the negative consequences of not having taken advantage of the opportunity that was carrying the challenge of overcoming the determining factors of the malnutrition (undernourishment), and to have finished the 20th century with an epidemiological nutritional panorama where the problems of the hunger and the malnutrition coexist with phenomena as those of the obesity of the poverty.

J., Bernabeu-Mestre.

339

Notas para una historia de la desnutrición en la Iberoamérica del siglo XX Notes for a history of the malnutrition in the Latin America of the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El trabajo analiza los principales determinantes y las características de la desnutrición en América Latina durante la segunda mitad del siglo XX. En primer lugar, se explican las bases del problema moderno del hambre y la desnutrición, tanto en su dimensión fisiológica como social, al destacarse su condición de calamidad social y de expresión biológica del subdesarrollo y de las desigualdades sociales. En segundo lugar, a partir de testimonios contemporáneos, se exponen las principales características de la desnutrición que ha afectado a la población iberoamericana, y las causas que la explican. Por último, a modo de conclusión, se subrayan las consecuencias negativas de no haber aprovechado la oportunidad que conllevaba el reto de superar los factores condicionantes de la malnutrición por defecto, y haber finalizado el siglo XX con un panorama epidemiológico nutricional donde los problemas del hambre y la desnutrición conviven con fenómenos como los de la obesidad de la pobreza.The work analyzes the principal determinants and the characteristics of the malnutrition in Latin America during the second half of the 20th century. First, are explained the bases of the modern problem of the hunger and the malnutrition (undernourishment, so much in his physiological as social dimension, on having been outlined his condition of social calamity and of biological expression of the underdevelopment and of the social inequalities. Secondly, from contemporary testimonies, there are exposed the principal characteristics of the malnutrition that has affected the Latin-American population, and the causes that explain it. Finally, like conclusion, are underlined the negative consequences of not having taken advantage of the opportunity that was carrying the challenge of overcoming the determining factors of the malnutrition (undernourishment, and to have finished the 20th century with an epidemiological nutritional panorama where the problems of the hunger and the malnutrition coexist with phenomena as those of the obesity of the poverty.

J. Bernabeu-Mestre

2010-10-01

340

Temporal variability of total cloud cover at a Mediterranean megacity in the 20th century: Evidence from visual observations and climate models  

Science.gov (United States)

Cloud cover is one of the major factors that determine the radiation budget and the climate system of the Earth. Moreover, the response of clouds has always been an important source of uncertainty in global climate models. Visual surface observations of clouds have been conducted at the National Observatory of Athens (NOA) since the mid 19th century. The historical archive of cloud reports at NOA since 1860 has been digitized and updated, spanning now a period of one and a half century. Mean monthly values of total cloud cover were derived by averaging subdaily observations of cloud cover (3 observations/day). Changes in observational practice (e.g. from 1/10 to 1/8 units) were considered, however, subjective measures of cloud cover from trained observers introduces some kind of uncertainty in the time series. Data before 1884 were considered unreliable, so the analysis was restricted to the series from 1884 to 2012. The time series of total cloud cover at NOA is validated and correlated with historical time series of other (physically related) variables such as the total sunshine duration as well as DTR (Diurnal Temperature Range) which are independently measured. Trend analysis was performed on the mean annual and seasonal series of total cloud cover from 1884-2012. The mean annual values show a marked temporal variability with sub periods of decreasing and increasing tendencies, however, the overall linear trend is positive and statistically significant (p validation of these parameters against the historical archive of NOA will be performed.

Founda, Dimitra; Giannakopoulos, Christos; Pierros, Fragiskos

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
341

Improved forecast of the maximum relative numbers of 11-year sunspot cycles at the end of the 20th and beginning of the 21st century  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Theoretical and statistical proof is presented that parameter K in the equation R=Kf0T0 (R - relative sunspot number, f0 - number of originated sunspot groups, T0 - average lifetime of sunspot groups) is not a constant, but that it is approximately directly proportional to average lifetime T0 of sunspot groups. Therefore, in fact R approx. f0T02. As a result the earlier forecasts of the maxima of 11-year cycles Nos 22 to 26 were corrected. The principal result of the earlier forecast was proved, i.e., that in the first half of the 21st century solar activity should be abnormally high. The 11-year cycles should display maximum relative numbers of 200 to 300. The importance of studying the consequences which these abnormally high solar activity would have on the Earth is emphasized. (author)

342

Teatro chileno y anarquismo (desde comienzos de siglo XX hasta el período dictatorial) / Chilean Theatre and Anarchism (from the beginning of 20th century to the dictatorship)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este estudio analiza la relación entre el pensamiento anarquista y el teatro en Chile desde comienzos de siglo hasta el período de la dictadura militar. Comienza con un recorte teórico del concepto de anarquismo dentro del marco histórico chileno, para posteriormente analizar, de manera cronológica, [...] producciones teatrales específicas del período anteriormente citado. Abstract in english This study analyzes the relationship between anarchist thinking and theatre in Chile from the beginning of the century up to the time of the military dictatorship. It begins with a theoretical highlight of the concept of anarchism in Chilean history and later chronologically analyzes theater plays t [...] hat are specific to the abovementioned period.

Sara, Rojo.

343

Generalized War and the National Security Doctrine. German Military Thought in Latin America during the last third of the 20th century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper analyzes the concept of generalized war, which played a key role in the development of the National Security Doctrine –implemented in Latin America during the last third of the twentieth century–. The interpretation of generalized war by theorists of National Security Doctrine mixed different previous ideas: absolute war –from Von Clausewitz-, total war –from Ludendorff- and atomic war -from Cold War times-. The confusing nature of such concepts could have distorted the development of the very concept of generalised war. And it is likely that the influence of two relevant German authors -Von Clausewitz and Ludendorff- in building the concept this study focuses on was more important than what can be thought at first sight. The theoretical misconceptions, along with the excessive enthusiasm that war generated among classical theorists and the forced interpretation of political and social realities, gave way to a justification of the excesses of the National Security regimes.

Pedro Rivas-Nieto

2012-12-01

344

A noção de modelo na virada do século XIX para o século XX / The notion of model at the turn of the 20th century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo descreve o modo pelo qual a noção de modelo começou a ingressar na ciência, em particular na física, no final do século XIX. Este é talvez o primeiro domínio científico a fazer uso explícito e consciente dessa noção, para o qual o uso de modelos significou o abandono de toda e qualquer t [...] entativa de representar fielmente os fenômenos naturais. Em questão, estava a representação dos fenômenos elétricos e magnéticos por meio de analogias. Abstract in english This article describes the way in which the idea of model began to be discussed in science, in particular in physics, towards the end of the 19th century. Physics is perhaps the first scientific domain that explicitly and consciously made use of models in a way that was understood to involve abandon [...] ing any attempt faithfully to represent natural phenomena. The representation of electromagnetic phenomena by means of analogies was in question.

Tatiana, Roque; Antonio Augusto Passos, Videira.

2013-06-01

345

A noção de modelo na virada do século XIX para o século XX / The notion of model at the turn of the 20th century  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo descreve o modo pelo qual a noção de modelo começou a ingressar na ciência, em particular na física, no final do século XIX. Este é talvez o primeiro domínio científico a fazer uso explícito e consciente dessa noção, para o qual o uso de modelos significou o abandono de toda e qualquer t [...] entativa de representar fielmente os fenômenos naturais. Em questão, estava a representação dos fenômenos elétricos e magnéticos por meio de analogias. Abstract in english This article describes the way in which the idea of model began to be discussed in science, in particular in physics, towards the end of the 19th century. Physics is perhaps the first scientific domain that explicitly and consciously made use of models in a way that was understood to involve abandon [...] ing any attempt faithfully to represent natural phenomena. The representation of electromagnetic phenomena by means of analogies was in question.

Tatiana, Roque; Antonio Augusto Passos, Videira.

346

The Impact of New Media on 20th-Century Astronomy: From Individual Records to Catalogs, Data Centers, Information Hubs and so-called `Virtual Observatories'  

Science.gov (United States)

Astronomy is largely a virtual science. Most of our knowledge of the universe is derived from photons reaching us from the outer space. And because of the finite speed of light, we do not observe the objects the way they are, but the way they were when the photons we are collecting actually left them. What we have thus in our data files is nothing other than a huge and complex virtuality of prior stages, differenciated as a function of the distance in space and time of the various sources. Thus the job of astronomers is to work on that space-time mosaicked virtual universe in order to figure out what is exactly the real universe and to understand the place and rôle of man in it. As a result of the huge amount of data accumulated, but also by necessity for their extensive international collaborations, astronomers have been pioneering the development of distributed resources, electronic communications and networks coupled to advanced methodologies and technologies often much before they become of common world-wide usage. This talk will offer a few comments on the impact and changing sociology of astronomy information handling over the past century, drifting from individual measurements or records to catalogs and data centers, and moving now from information hubs to those advanced digital research facilities called `virtual observatories'.

Heck, André

347

A joint analysis of sea-level and meteorological data over the past 19th and 20th century on the Charente-Maritime French Atlantic coast  

Science.gov (United States)

A systematic survey of the historical French archives was initiated in 2004 to search for ancient sea level observations. Long term sea-level records are invaluable to study trends in sea level components in the context of climate change due to global warming. A large amount of records have been discovered, notably on the Charente-Maritime French Atlantic coast: fort Enet (1859-1873) and fort Boyard (1873-1909), a few kilometres apart. These two historical data sets include meteorological observations in addition to the sea-level heights: sea-level pressure, air temperature, wind direction and speed, and sometimes daily indications on the local climatic conditions. Sea-level heights were measured with a "Chazallon" type of float tide gauge and whereas the sea-level pressures were measured with a "Fortin" mercury barometer. The historical data sets are now in computer-accessible form. They were manually checked for consistency, and compared to nearby data sets (e.g. Brest, Hadley centre Sea Level Pressure data set HadSLP2). We will present the data sets, the composite time series that were built for the period 1859-1909, and the joint sea level and meteorological data analysis which proved worthwhile. The pressure data were indeed of particular interest (7 observations per day, from 6.00am to 9.00pm between 1859 and 1909). First, examining the inverse barometer (IB) effect was d