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Sample records for e3640 decommissioning aberdeen

  1. Geophysics: Building E5190 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1992-07-01

    Building E5190 is one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek area of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May 1992. A noninvasive geophysical survey, including the complementary technologies of magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar, was conducted around the perimeter as a guide to developing a sampling and monitoring program prior to decommissioning and dismantling the building. The magnetics surveys indicated that multistation, positive magnetic sources are randomly distributed north and west of the building. Two linear trends were noted: one that may outline buried utility lines and another that is produced by a steel-covered trench. The resistivity profiling indicated three conductive zones: one due to increased moisture in a ditch, one associated with buried utility lines, and a third zone associated with the steel-covered trench. Ground-penetrating radar imaging detected two significant anomalies, which were correlated with small-amplitude magnetic anomalies. The objectives of the study -- to detect and locate objects and to characterize a located object were achieved.

  2. Interim progress report -- geophysics: Decommissioning of Buildings E5974 and E5978, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    Buildings E5974 and E5978, located near the mouth of Canal Creek, were among 10 potentially contaminated sites in the Westwood and Canal Creek areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including the complementary technologies of magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar, were conducted around the perimeters of the buildings to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. The magnetic anomalies and the electrically conductive areas around these buildings have a spatial relationship similar to that observed in low-lying sites in the Canal Creek area; they are probably associated with construction fill. Electrically conductive terrain is dominant on the eastern side of the site, and resistive terrain predominates on the west. The smaller magnetic anomalies are not imaged with ground radar or by electrical profiling. The high resistivities in the northwest quadrant are believed to be caused by a natural sand lens. The causes of three magnetic anomalies in the high-resistivity area are unidentified, but they are probably anthropogenic

  3. Geophysics: Building E5190 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground. Interim progress report

    Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1992-07-01

    Building E5190 is one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek area of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May 1992. A noninvasive geophysical survey, including the complementary technologies of magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar, was conducted around the perimeter as a guide to developing a sampling and monitoring program prior to decommissioning and dismantling the building. The magnetics surveys indicated that multistation, positive magnetic sources are randomly distributed north and west of the building. Two linear trends were noted: one that may outline buried utility lines and another that is produced by a steel-covered trench. The resistivity profiling indicated three conductive zones: one due to increased moisture in a ditch, one associated with buried utility lines, and a third zone associated with the steel-covered trench. Ground-penetrating radar imaging detected two significant anomalies, which were correlated with small-amplitude magnetic anomalies. The objectives of the study -- to detect and locate objects and to characterize a located object were achieved.

  4. Environmental geophysics: Buildings E5485, E5487, and E5489 decommissioning - the open-quotes Ghost Townclose quotes complex, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Buildings E5485, E5487, and E5489, referred to informally as the open-quotes Ghost Townclose quotes complex, are potentially contaminated sites in the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, EM-31, EM-61, and ground-penetrating radar, were conducted to assist a sampling and monitoring program prior to decommissioning and dismantling of the buildings. The buildings are located on a marginal wetland bordering the west branch of Canal Creek. The dominant geophysical signature in the open-quotes Ghost Town close quotes complex is a pattern of northeast-southwest and northwest-southeast anomalies that appear to be associated with a trench/pipe/sewer system, documented by the presence of a manhole. Combinations of anomalies suggest that line sources include nonmetallic and ferromagnetic materials in trenches. On the basis of anomaly associations, the sewer lines probably rest in a trench, back-filled with conductive, amphibolitic, crushed rock. Where the sewer lines connect manholes or junctions with other lines, ferromagnetic materials are present. Isolated, unidentified magnetic anomalies litter the area around Building E5487, particularly to the north. Three small magnetic sources are located east of Building E5487

  5. Preliminary assessment of risk from toxic materials that might be mobilized in the decommissioning of Aberdeen Proving Ground Building E5032

    Rosenblatt, D.H.; Brubaker, K.L.

    1991-12-01

    Aberdeen Proving Ground Building E5032 is scheduled for decommissioning, that is, for demolition. Because the building was formerly used for small-scale operations with incendiary and toxic chemical agents, it presents unusual concerns for occupational and public health safety during the demolition. For this reason, an anticipatory risk assessment was conducted, taking into consideration the building`s history, properties of potential residual contaminants (particularly chemical and incendiary agents), and assumptions relating to meteorological conditions and envisioned modes of demolition. Safe maximum levels in concrete floors for the worst case were estimated to be: white phosphorus, 3200 mg/kg; mustard, 94 mg/kg; nerve agent GA (tabun), 6 mg/kg; cyanide, 500 mg/kg; and sulfide, 1400 mg/kg. These values will serve as planning guidance for the activities to follow. It is emphasized that the estimates must be reviewed, and perhaps revised, after sampling and analysis are completed, the demolition methodology is chosen, and dust emissions are measured under operating conditions.

  6. Preliminary assessment of risk from toxic materials that might be mobilized in the decommissioning of Aberdeen Proving Ground Building E5032

    Rosenblatt, D.H.; Brubaker, K.L.

    1991-12-01

    Aberdeen Proving Ground Building E5032 is scheduled for decommissioning, that is, for demolition. Because the building was formerly used for small-scale operations with incendiary and toxic chemical agents, it presents unusual concerns for occupational and public health safety during the demolition. For this reason, an anticipatory risk assessment was conducted, taking into consideration the building's history, properties of potential residual contaminants (particularly chemical and incendiary agents), and assumptions relating to meteorological conditions and envisioned modes of demolition. Safe maximum levels in concrete floors for the worst case were estimated to be: white phosphorus, 3200 mg/kg; mustard, 94 mg/kg; nerve agent GA (tabun), 6 mg/kg; cyanide, 500 mg/kg; and sulfide, 1400 mg/kg. These values will serve as planning guidance for the activities to follow. It is emphasized that the estimates must be reviewed, and perhaps revised, after sampling and analysis are completed, the demolition methodology is chosen, and dust emissions are measured under operating conditions.

  7. Clean-ups at Aberdeen Proving Ground

    The Department of Defense has utilized radiative material in numerous applications over several decades. Aberdeen Proving Ground has been an integral player in the Army's Research, Development, and Testing of items incorporating radionuclides, as well as developing new and innovative applications. As new information becomes available and society progresses, we find that the best management practices used decades, or even sometimes years earlier are inadequate to meet the current demands. Aberdeen Proving Ground is committed to remediating historic disposal sites, and utilizing the best available technology in current operations to prevent future adverse impact. Two projects which are currently ongoing at Aberdeen Proving Ground illustrates these points. The first, the remediation of contaminated metal storage areas, depicts how available technology has provided a means for recycling material whereby preventing the continued stock piling, and allowing for the decommissioning of the areas. The second, the 26Th Street Disposal Site Removal Action, shows how historic methods of disposition were inadequate to meet today's needs

  8. The Aberdeen Impedance Imaging System.

    Kulkarni, V; Hutchison, J M; Mallard, J R

    1989-01-01

    The Aberdeen Impedance Imaging System is designed to reconstruct 2 dimensional images of the average distribution of the amplitude and phase of the complex impedance within a 3 dimensional region. The system uses the four electrode technique in a 16 electrode split-array. The system hardware consists of task-orientated electronic modules for: driving a constant current, multiplexing the current drive, demultiplexing peripheral voltages, differential amplification, phase sensitive detection and low-pass filtration, digitisation with a 14 bit analog to digital converter (ADC), and -control logic for the ADC and multiplexors. A BBC microprocessor (Master series), initiates a controlled sequence for the collection of a number of data sets which are averaged and stored on disk. Image reconstruction is by a process of convolution-backprojection similar to the fan-beam reconstruction of computerised tomography and is also known as Equipotential Backprojection. In imaging impedance changes associated with fracture healing the changes may be large enough to allow retrieval of both the amplitude and phase of the complex impedance. Sequential imaging of these changes would necessitate monitoring electronic and electrode drift by imaging an equivalent region of the contralateral limb. Differential images could be retrieved when the image of the normal limb is the image template. Better characterisation of tissues would necessitate a cleaner retrieval of the quadrature signal. PMID:2742979

  9. Geophysics: Building E5476 decommissiong, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    Building E5476 was one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek and Westwood areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar, were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. The large number of magnetic sources surrounding the building are believed to be contained in construction fill. The smaller anomalies, for the most part, were not imaged with ground radar or by electrical profiling. Large magnetic anomalies near the southwest comer of the building are due to aboveground standpipes and steel-reinforced concrete. Two high-resistivity areas, one projecting northeast from the building and another south of the original structure, may indicate the presence of organic pore fluids in the subsurface. A conductive lineament protruding from the south wall that is enclosed by the southem, high-resistivity feature is not associated with an equivalent magnetic anomaly. Magnetic and electrical anomalies south of the old landfill boundary are probably not associated with the building. The boundary is marked by a band of magnetic anomalies and a conductive zone trending northwest to southeast. The cause of high resistivities in a semicircular area in the southwest comer, within the landfill area, is unexplained

  10. Decommissioning Handbook

    1994-03-01

    The Decommissioning Handbook is a technical guide for the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The decommissioning of a nuclear facility involves the removal of the radioactive and, for practical reasons, hazardous materials to enable the facility to be released and not represent a further risk to human health and the environment. This handbook identifies and technologies and techniques that will accomplish these objectives. The emphasis in this handbook is on characterization; waste treatment; decontamination; dismantling, segmenting, demolition; and remote technologies. Other aspects that are discussed in some detail include the regulations governing decommissioning, worker and environmental protection, and packaging and transportation of the waste materials. The handbook describes in general terms the overall decommissioning project, including planning, cost estimating, and operating practices that would ease preparation of the Decommissioning Plan and the decommissioning itself. The reader is referred to other documents for more detailed information. This Decommissioning Handbook has been prepared by Enserch Environmental Corporation for the US Department of Energy and is a complete restructuring of the original handbook developed in 1980 by Nuclear Energy Services. The significant changes between the two documents are the addition of current and the deletion of obsolete technologies and the addition of chapters on project planning and the Decommissioning Plan, regulatory requirements, characterization, remote technology, and packaging and transportation of the waste materials.

  11. Decommissioning handbook

    The purpose of this paper is to provide information on the Handbook and its application as a resource in decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) work. The nature of the unique hazards contained in nuclear facilities demand a comprehensive step-by-step program to cover their design, licensing, and commissioning or start-up. Similarly, because of residual radioactivity, a termination of operations (decommissioning) also presents hazards that must be addressed from a technological and programmatic standpoint. To meet the needs raised by these issues, the original Decommissioning Handbook was prepared in 1980 by Nuclear Energy Services under contract to the United States Department of Energy (DOE). Its mission was to provide technical guidance on the D and D of both commercial and government-owned nuclear facilities, including characterization, decontamination, dismantling, and disposition (disposal or salvage) of a facility's equipment and structure. In addition, depending on the regulatory requirements for material disposal and/or the wastes generated by decontamination, the management of waste can also be considered as a decommissioning activity. Chapters are Operational and predecommissioning activities; Decommissioning project; Decommissioning plan; Regulations; Final project configuration; Characterization; Waste treatment; Decontamination; Dismantling, segmenting, and demolition; Remote handling equipment; Environmental protection; Packaging and transportation; and Decommissioning cost estimates. Appendices contain a prediction method for estimation of radiactive inventory and a glossary

  12. Decommissioning handbook

    This document is a compilation of information pertinent to the decommissioning of surplus nuclear facilities. This handbook is intended to describe all stages of the decommissioning process including selection of the end product, estimation of the radioactive inventory, estimation of occupational exposures, description of the state-of-the-art in re decontamination, remote csposition of wastes, and estimation of program costs. Presentation of state-of-the-art technology and data related to decommissioning will aid in consistent and efficient program planning and performance. Particular attention is focused on available technology applicable to those decommissioning activities that have not been accomplished before, such as remote segmenting and handling of highly activated 1100 MW(e) light water reactor vessel internals and thick-walled reactor vessels. A summary of available information associated with the planning and estimating of a decommissioning program is also presented. Summarized in particular are the methodologies associated with the calculation and measurement of activated material inventory, distribution, and surface dose level, system contamination inventory and distribution, and work area dose levels. Cost estimating techniques are also presented and the manner in which to account for variations in labor costs as impacting labor-intensive work activities is explained

  13. Decommissioning handbook

    Manion, W.J.; LaGuardia, T.S.

    1980-11-01

    This document is a compilation of information pertinent to the decommissioning of surplus nuclear facilities. This handbook is intended to describe all stages of the decommissioning process including selection of the end product, estimation of the radioactive inventory, estimation of occupational exposures, description of the state-of-the-art in re decontamination, remote csposition of wastes, and estimation of program costs. Presentation of state-of-the-art technology and data related to decommissioning will aid in consistent and efficient program planning and performance. Particular attention is focused on available technology applicable to those decommissioning activities that have not been accomplished before, such as remote segmenting and handling of highly activated 1100 MW(e) light water reactor vessel internals and thick-walled reactor vessels. A summary of available information associated with the planning and estimating of a decommissioning program is also presented. Summarized in particular are the methodologies associated with the calculation and measurement of activated material inventory, distribution, and surface dose level, system contamination inventory and distribution, and work area dose levels. Cost estimating techniques are also presented and the manner in which to account for variations in labor costs as impacting labor-intensive work activities is explained.

  14. Nuclear decommissioning

    Sufficient work has now been done, on a world-wide basis, to justify confidence that full decommissioning of nuclear installations, both plant and reactors, can be carried out safely and efficiently. Projects in several countries should confirm this in the next few years. In the United Kingdom, good progress has been made with the Windscale Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor and supporting development work is finding solutions to resolve uncertainties. Estimates from several sources suggest that decommissioning costs can be kept to an acceptable level. (author)

  15. Decommissioning standards

    EPA has agreed to establish a series of environmental standards for the safe disposal of radioactive waste through participation in the Interagency Review Group on Nuclear Waste Management (IRG). One of the standards required under the IRG is the standard for decommissioning of radioactive contaminated sites, facilities, and materials. This standard is to be proposed by December 1980 and promulgated by December 1981. Several considerations are important in establishing these standards. This study includes discussions of some of these considerations and attempts to evaluate their relative importance. Items covered include: the form of the standards, timing for decommissioning, occupational radiation protection, costs and financial provisions. 4 refs

  16. Unexploded ordnance issues at Aberdeen Proving Ground: Background information

    Rosenblatt, D.H.

    1996-11-01

    This document summarizes currently available information about the presence and significance of unexploded ordnance (UXO) in the two main areas of Aberdeen Proving Ground: Aberdeen Area and Edgewood Area. Known UXO in the land ranges of the Aberdeen Area consists entirely of conventional munitions. The Edgewood Area contains, in addition to conventional munitions, a significant quantity of chemical-munition UXO, which is reflected in the presence of chemical agent decomposition products in Edgewood Area ground-water samples. It may be concluded from current information that the UXO at Aberdeen Proving Ground has not adversely affected the environment through release of toxic substances to the public domain, especially not by water pathways, and is not likely to do so in the near future. Nevertheless, modest but periodic monitoring of groundwater and nearby surface waters would be a prudent policy.

  17. 1982 international decommissioning symposium

    Sixty-four papers were presented at the following sessions: policy, regulations, and standards; management of decommissioning wastes; decommissioning experience; decommissioning tooling and techniques; radiological concerns; and planning and engineering

  18. Workshop on decommissioning

    A Nordic workshop on decommissioning of nuclear facilities was held at Risoe in Denmark September 13-15, 2005. The workshop was arranged by NKS in cooperation with the company Danish Decommissioning, DD, responsible for decommissioning of nuclear facilities at Risoe. Oral presentations were made within the following areas: International and national recommendations and requirements concerning decommissioning of nuclear facilities Authority experiences of decommissioning cases Decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Denmark Decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Sweden Plans for decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Norway Plans for decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Finland Decommissioning of nuclear facilities in German and the UK Decommissioning of nuclear facilities in the former Soviet Union Results from research and development A list with proposals for future work within NKS has been prepared based on results from group-work and discussions. The list contains strategic, economical and political issues, technical issues and issues regarding competence and communication. (au)

  19. Decommissioning of Ukrainian NPPs

    The decision about the development of 'Decommissioning Concept of Ukrainian NPPs' being on commercial operational stage was approved by NAEK 'Energoatom' Board of Administration by way of the decommissioning activity effective planning. The Concept will be the branch document, containing common approaches formulations on problem decisions according to the units decommissioning with generated resources, and RAW and SNF management strategy during decommissioning

  20. Decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    Present concepts on stages of, designing for and costs of decommissioning, together with criteria for site release, are described. Recent operations and studies and assessments in progress are summarized. Wastes from decommissioning are characterized

  1. Utility planning for decommissioning

    Though the biggest impact on a utility of nuclear power plant decommissioning may occur many years from now, procrastination of efforts to be prepared for that time is unwarranted. Foresight put into action through planning can significantly affect that impact. Financial planning can assure the recovery of decommissioning costs in a manner equitable to customers. Decision-making planning can minimize adverse affects of current decisions on later decommissioning impacts and prepare a utility to be equipped to make later decommissioning decisions. Technological knowledge base planning can support all other planning aspects for decommissioning and prepare a utility for decommissioning decisions. Informed project planning can ward off potentially significant pitfalls during decommissioning and optimize the effectiveness of the actual decommissioning efforts

  2. Genetic characterization of Aberdeen Angus cattle using molecular markers

    Vasconcellos Luciana Pimentel de Mello Klocker

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Aberdeen Angus beef cattle from the Brazilian herd were studied genetically using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP of the kappa-casein - HinfI (CSN3 - HinfI, beta-lactoglobulin - HaeIII (LGB - HaeIII and growth hormone AluI (GH- AluI genes, as well as four microsatellites (TEXAN15, CSFM50, BM1224 and BM7160. The RFLP genotypes were determined using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR followed by digestion with restriction endonucleases and electrophoresis in agarose gels. With the exception of the microsatellite BM7160, which was analyzed in an automatic sequencer, the PCR products were genotyped by silver staining. The allele and genotype frequencies, heterozygosities and gene diversity were estimated. The values for these parameters of variability were comparable to other cattle breeds. The genetic relationship of the Aberdeen Angus to other breeds (Caracu, Canchim, Charolais, Guzerath, Gyr, Nelore, Santa Gertrudis and Simmental was investigated using Nei's genetic distance. Cluster analysis placed the Aberdeen Angus in an isolated group in the Bos taurus breeds branch. This fact is in agreement with the geographic origin of this breed.

  3. Health assessment for Aberdeen Proving Grounds, Aberdeen, Maryland, Region 3. CERCLIS Nos. MD3210021355 and MD10020036. Preliminary report

    1989-01-19

    The Aberdeen Proving Grounds site is located in Aberdeen (Harford County) Maryland. Preliminary on-site groundwater and surface water sampling results have identified various metals, phosphorus, and volatile organic compounds. They include: 1,2-dichloroethylene, chloroform, 1,2-dichloroethane, trichloroethylene, benzene, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, tetrachloroethylene, 1,4-dithiane and 1,2-dichloroethylene. In addition, it has been reported that among the substances disposed of on-site are significant quantities of toxic metals, cyanide compounds, phosphorus, phosgene, napalm, and mustard gas. The site is considered to be of public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the likelihood of human exposure to hazardous substances. Potential environmental pathways include those related to contaminated groundwater, surface water, on-site soils, and volatilization of contaminants in ambient air.

  4. Financial aspects of decommissioning (key aspects of decommissioning costing)

    In this presentation the following aspects of NPPs decommissioning are discussed: Requirements and purpose of decommissioning costing; Decommissioning costing methodologies; Standardised decommissioning cost structure; Input data for cost estimate process; Waste management in cost estimate process; Grading aspects in cost estimating; Cost control in decommissioning projects; Summary of the cost estimation process; Conclusions and recommendations.

  5. Fort St. Vrain decommissioning experiences

    Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCo) is in the process of decommissioning the Fort St Vrain nuclear station, the first large-scale commercial nuclear plant to be decommissioned under the U.S. NRC's decommissioning rule. The experience has included providing for the disposition of spent fuel, choosing a decommissioning alternative, and actively decommissioning the plant from dismantlement and decontamination through final survey

  6. Training for decommissioning

    Plants entering decommissioning face many challenges One of the most important is the challenge of training for decommissioning This is important because: The facility operators and management have spent many years successfully operating the facility; The facility management arrangements are geared to operation; Decommissioning will include non-nuclear specialists and other stakeholders; Other skills are needed to decommission successfully. UKAEA has decommissioned many facilities at its sites in Dounreay, Windscale, Harwell and Winfrith in the UK. We have faced all of the challenges previously described and have developed many training methods for ensuring the challenges are met safely and effectively. We have developed courses for specialised skills such as safety cases which can be deployed to support any decommissioning. (author)

  7. On decommissioning nuclear facilities

    As the number of nuclear power plants commissioned is increasing worldwide, both the responsible goverment agencies and the public are more and more concerned about decommissioning nuclear facilities after they have been shut down for good. IAEA organized a symposium on November 13-17, 1978 which dealt with problems of decommissioning, covering national objectives, technical processes, radiological questions, experience in plant decommissioning, decontamination techniques and remote handling procedures. It turned out that sufficient practical experience and highly developed decommissioning concepts and techniques are now available. Experts feel that also in the future no insoluble technical problems or problems must be expected which could only be solved at inordinately high technical expenditure. The article contains a survey of the present staus of problem solutions. Current work is being dedicated to the dose rates accumulated by decommissioning personnel and to the costs of decommissioning. (orig.)

  8. NPP Krsko decommissioning concept

    At the end of the operational lifetime of a nuclear power plant (NPP) it is necessary to take measures for the decommissioning as stated in different international regulations and also in the national Slovenian law. Based on these requirements Slovenian authorities requested the development of a site specific decommissioning plan for the NPP Krsko. In September 1995, the Nuklearna Elektrarna Krsko (NEK) developed a site specific scope and content for a decommissioning plan including the assumptions for determination of the decommissioning costs. The NEK Decommissioning Plan contains sufficient information to fulfill the decommissioning requirements identified by NRC, IAEA and OECD - NEA regulations. In this paper the activities and results of development of NEK Decommissioning Plan consisting of the development of three decommissioning strategies for the NPP Krsko and selection of the most suitable strategy based on site specific, social, technical, radiological and economic aspects, cost estimates for the strategies including the costs for construction of final disposal facilities for fuel/high level waste (fuel/HLW) and low/intermediate level waste (LLW/ILW) and scheduling of all activities necessary for the decommissioning of the NPP Krsko are presented. (author)

  9. NPP Krsko decommissioning concept

    At the end of the operational lifetime of a nuclear power plant (NPP) it is necessary to take measures for the decommissioning as stated in different international regulations and also in the national Slovenian law. Based on these requirements Slovenian authorities requested the development of a site specific decommissioning plan for the NPP KRSKO. In September 1995, the Nuklearna Elektrarna Krsko (NEK) developed a site specific scope and content for decommissioning plan including the assumptions for determination of the decommissioning costs. The NEK Decommissioning Plan contains sufficient information to fulfill decommissioning requirements identified by NRC, IAEA and OECD - NEA regulations. In this paper the activities and the results of development of NEK Decommissioning Plan consisting of the development of three decommissioning strategies for the NPP Krsko and selection of the most suitable strategy based on site specific, social, technical, radiological and economical aspects, cost estimates for the strategies including the costs for construction of final disposal facilities for fuel/high level waste (fuel/HLW) and low/intermediate level waste (LLW/ILW) and scheduling all activities necessary for the decommissioning of the NPP KRSKO are presented. (author)

  10. Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities

    Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) is of the view that every organisation should focus attention on the decommissioning of nuclear facilities after completion of their useful life. AERB is aware that, internationally there is a growing interest in plant life extension due to economic considerations. Regulatory bodies stipulate upgradation of safety features based on international experience and current safety standards. However, decommissioning becomes a necessity at some time after the extended life of the plant. Nuclear industry has demonstrated that, with modern technological developments, decommissioning of nuclear facilities can be carried out without undue risk to the occupational workers, members of the public and protection of the environment. In view of limited experience in the field of decommissioning, this document is being issued as a safety manual instead of a safety guide. This manual elaborates the various technical and safety considerations in the decommissioning of nuclear facilities including ultimate disposal of radioactive materials/ wastes generated during decommissioning. Details that are required to be furnished to the regulatory body while applying for authorisation for decommissioning and till its completion are enumerated. This manual is issued to assist Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) units in formulating a decommissioning programme. Since the subject of decommissioning of nuclear facilities is a continuously evolving process, AERB is of the view, that provisions of this manual will apply for a period of five years from the date of issue and will be subsequently revised, if necessary

  11. Fort St. Vrain decommissioning

    The first commercial reactor to be decommissioned under the NRC's decommissioning rule is Public Service Company of Colorado's Fort St. Vrain Nuclear Station. The dismantlement and decontamination of this 330 MWe High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) has involved many challenges for PSC, including establishing adequate funding, obtaining required regulatory approvals, selecting a decommissioning alternative, defueling to an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation, arranging for sufficient waste disposal, and managing a large fixed-price decommissioning contract. With physical dismantlement activities about one-third complete, the project is approximately on schedule and within the agreed upon costs

  12. Odin - lessons learnt. Decommissioning

    The article relates briefly to the abandoned natural gas field of Odin on the Norwegian continental shelf. The platform could be seen as the benchmark by which all other decommissioning activity in the North Sea takes place, since it is the first significantly large structure to have been decommissioned in deep water. 1 fig

  13. Decommissioning and jobs

    One aspect of the decommissioning web is its effect on socioeconomics, particularly jobs. What will reactor retirement mean to jobs, especially in rural communities where power plant operations may be the most reliable and dominant source of direct and indirect employment in the area? The problems which any plant closure produces for job security are generally understood, but the decommissioning of nuclear power plants is different because of the residual radioactivity and because of the greater isolation of the power plant sites. For example, what will be the specific employment effects of several possible decommissioning scenarios such as immediate dismantlement and delayed dismantlement? The varying effects of decommissioning on jobs is discussed. It is concluded that the decommissioning of nuclear power plants in some areas such as Wales could bring benefits to the surrounding communities. (author)

  14. International Decommissioning Strategies

    The IAEA has been developing guidance and technical information relating to the decommissioning and decommissioning strategies of nuclear facilities for over 20 years. During this time, the international concept of decommissioning strategies, and its importance, has changed. Three basic decommissioning strategies are envisaged as possibilities for nuclear installations: immediate dismantling, deferred dismantling and entombment. All have advantages and disadvantages, but the International Conference on Safe Decommissioning for Nuclear Activities demonstrated that immediate dismantling is the generally preferred option. However, there are a number of factors that might lead operators to choose one of the other strategies, and each situation has to be examined individually to identify the optimal strategy for that situation. The basic approach of these three strategies is discussed in the paper. (author)

  15. Decommissioning activities in FUGEN

    FUGEN Decommissioning Engineering Center (hereinafter called as 'FUGEN'), JAEA obtained the approval of the decommissioning program for the prototype Advanced Thermal Reactor on February, 2008. FUGEN has been carrying out decommissioning works based on its decommissioning program since then. In the initial stage, the dismantling works were launched in turbine system whose contamination was relatively low level and their various data have been accumulating. And the draining heavy water, tritium decontamination and transferring of heavy water were carried out safely and reasonably. The preparation for introducing the clearance system, and the research and development works for the reactor core dismantling have been progressed steadily as well. Meanwhile, FUGEN has affiliations with local industries and universities for collaboration research, and has exchanged the decommissioning information with domestic and overseas organizations continuously. (author)

  16. Nuclear decommissioning: Funding arrangements

    This statement describes the United Kingdom's approach to funding civil nuclear decommissioning activities and explain proposed changes to the current arrangements. The UK has nuclear operators both in the private and public sectors and the approach to decommissioning funding differs. British Energy (BE), which operates a fleet of AGR power stations and a PWR, is in the private sector. On privatization, a segregated fund was established to cover BE's future decommissioning costs. Money paid into the fund is invested and the accumulated assets used to meet future decommissioning and cleanup costs. The precise amount of money that will be required to cover decommissioning costs is not an exact science. That is why the performance of the segregated fund is reviewed at five yearly intervals, at which stage BE's annual contribution can be adjusted as appropriate. To ensure that the fund is managed effectively and investments are made wisely, the fund is managed by independent trustees jointly appointed by the Government and the company. So far, the fund is performing as expected and it is on target to cover BE's decommissioning costs. Operators in the public sector include British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL) and the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA). BNFL operates the fleet of Magnox power stations, a number of which are in various stages of decommissioning. BNFL also operates Sellafield (reprocessing, MOX and other operations) and Springfields (fuel manufacture). UKAEA is responsible for decommissioning the UK's former research reactor sites at Dounreay, Windscale (Cumbria), Harwell and Winfrith (Dorset). Under current arrangements, taxpayers meet the cost of decommissioning and cleanup at UKAEA sites; taxpayers will also meet the costs associated with the decommissioning of Magnox power stations from 2008 onwards

  17. International decommissioning strategies

    Full text: The IAEA Safety Requirements for decommissioning states that the regulatory body shall establish requirements for the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, including conditions on the end points of decommissioning. One of the main important issues is that the operator shall be responsible for all aspects of safety of the facility during its lifetime and of the decommissioning activities until its completion. A mechanism for providing adequate financial resources shall be established to cover the costs of radioactive waste management and, in particular the cost of decommissioning. It shall be put in place before operation and shall be updated, as necessary. A safety assessment of the proposed decommissioning strategy shall be performed and its implementation shall not begin until approval has been received by the regulatory body. A decommissioning plan shall be prepared for each facility, to show that decommissioning can be accomplished safely. The decommissioning plan shall be reviewed regularly and shall be updated as required to reflect, in particular, changes in the facility or regulatory requirements, advances in technology and, finally, the needs of decommissioning operation. If it is intended to defer decommissioning, it shall be demonstrated in the final decommissioning plan that such an option is safe. Decontamination and dismantling techniques shall be chosen which minimizes waste and appropriate means shall be in place for safe managing any waste that might be generated during the decommissioning process. A quality assurance programme shall be established for the decommissioning process. Before a site may be released for unrestricted use, a survey shall be performed to demonstrate that the end point conditions, as established by regulatory body, have been met. If site cannot be released for unrestricted use, appropriate control shall be maintained to ensure protection of human health and environment. The IAEA Safety Guidance mainly addresses

  18. Research reactor decommissioning

    Full text: Of the ∼ 800 research reactors constructed worldwide to date, ∼50% have been shut down and are at various stages of decommissioning. Many reached the end of their design lives or were shut down due to strategic, economic or regulatory considerations. 27% of those in operation are over 40 years old and will need to be decommissioned soon. Decommissioning normally takes the facility permanently out of service and subjects it to progressive hazard reduction, dismantling and decontamination in a safe, secure economically viable way, using best practicable means to meet the best practicable environmental option, such that the risks and doses to workers and the general public are maintained as low as reasonably practicable. Whilst most decommissioning techniques are well established there are still some challenging and important issues that need resolution. Perhaps the most challenging issue is radioactive waste management and storage. It is vitally important that all local and national waste classification, transportation, storage and end point requirements are known, as the adopted strategy will be heavily influenced by these factors. Other equally important but softer issues include the requirement for early decommissioning plans, adequate funding/cost estimates and the involvement of all relevant stakeholders. A comprehensive decommissioning plan should be produced up front that encompasses an early radiological characterisation survey of the facility/site. An appropriate funding mechanism needs to be assured. Whilst regular revisions of the decommissioning cost study should help to determine required funds, it is important to validate these cost estimates by benchmarking other decommissioning projects and accumulated experience. The use of appropriate 'stakeholder dialogue' methods by the facility operator to inform and communicate with all interested parties, such as government and non-government organisations, regulators, trades unions, anti

  19. Safety Assessment for Decommissioning

    In the past few decades, international guidance has been developed on methods for assessing the safety of predisposal and disposal facilities for radioactive waste. More recently, it has been recognized that there is also a need for specific guidance on safety assessment in the context of decommissioning nuclear facilities. The importance of safety during decommissioning was highlighted at the International Conference on Safe Decommissioning for Nuclear Activities held in Berlin in 2002 and at the First Review Meeting of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management in 2003. At its June 2004 meeting, the Board of Governors of the IAEA approved the International Action Plan on Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities (GOV/2004/40), which called on the IAEA to: ''establish a forum for the sharing and exchange of national information and experience on the application of safety assessment in the context of decommissioning and provide a means to convey this information to other interested parties, also drawing on the work of other international organizations in this area''. In response, in November 2004, the IAEA launched the international project Evaluation and Demonstration of Safety for Decommissioning of Facilities Using Radioactive Material (DeSa) with the following objectives: -To develop a harmonized approach to safety assessment and to define the elements of safety assessment for decommissioning, including the application of a graded approach; -To investigate the practical applicability of the methodology and performance of safety assessments for the decommissioning of various types of facility through a selected number of test cases; -To investigate approaches for the review of safety assessments for decommissioning activities and the development of a regulatory approach for reviewing safety assessments for decommissioning activities and as a basis for regulatory decision making; -To provide a forum

  20. Decommissioning: an insurance perspective

    The nuclear insurance pools, through American Nuclear Insurers (ANI) and the Mutual Atomic Energy Liability Underwriters (MAELU), have been providing third-party nuclear liability insurance to the nuclear industry since 1957. Third-party liability and property damage coverage resulting from the nuclear hazard are provided by separate insurance policies issued by the nuclear insurance pools. A liability insurer's view of decommissioning is addressed by discussing the following: insurer's perspective of potential nuclear liability; insurance claim experience and trends; objectives and accomplishments of ANI/MAELU's involvement with facility decommissioning; and important nuclear liability considerations for facility decommissioning

  1. Decommissioning nuclear facilities

    Nuclear facilities present a number of problems at the end of their working lives. They require dismantling and removal but public and environmental protection remain a priority. The principles and strategies are outlined. Experience of decommissioning in France and the U.K. had touched every major stage of the fuel cycle by the early 1990's. Decommissioning projects attempt to restrict waste production and proliferation as waste treatment and disposal are costly. It is concluded that technical means exist to deal with present civil plant and costs are now predictable. Strategies for decommissioning and future financial provisions are important. (UK)

  2. Decommissioning and Decontamination

    The objectives of SCK-CEN's decommissioning and decontamination programme are (1) to develop, test and optimise the technologies and procedures for decommissioning and decontamination of nuclear installations in order to minimise the waste arising and the distributed dose; (2) to optimise the environmental impact; (3) to reduce the cost of the end-of-life of the installation; (4) to make these new techniques available to the industry; (5) to share skills and competences. The programme and achievements in 1999 are summarised

  3. Decommissioning Russian Research Facilities

    Gosatomnadzor of Russia is conducting the safety regulation and inspection activity related to nuclear and radiation safety of nuclear research facilities (RR), including research reactors, critical assemblies and sub-critical assemblies. Most of the Russian RR were built and put in operation more than 30 years ago. The problems of ageing equipment and strengthening of safety requirements in time, the lack of further experimental programmes and financial resources, have created a condition when some of the RR were forced to take decisions on their decommissioning. The result of these problems was reflected in reducing the number of RR from 113 in 1998 to 81 in the current year. At present, seven RR are already under decommissioning or pending it. Last year, the Ministry of Atomic Energy took the decision to finally shut down two remaining actual research reactors in the Physics and Power Engineering Institute in Obninsk: AM-1, the first reactor in the world built for peaceful purposes, graphite-type reactor, and the fast liquid metal reactor BR-10, and to start their preparation for decommissioning. It is not enough just to declare the decommissioning of a RR: it is also vital to find financial resources for that purpose. For this reason, due to lack of financing, the MR reactor at the Kurchatov Institute has been pending decommissioning since 1992 and still is. The other example of long-lasting decommissioning is TVR, a heavy water reactor at the Institute of Theoretical Physics in Moscow (ITEF). The reason is also poor financing. Another example discussed in the paper concerns on-site disposal of a RR located above the Arctic Pole Circle, owned by the Norilsk Mining Company. Furthermore, the experience of the plutonium reactor decommissioning at the Joint Institute of Nuclear Research is also discussed. As shown, the Russian Federation has had good experiences in the decommissioning of nuclear research facilities. (author)

  4. Geophysical study of the Building 103 Dump, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.

    1992-12-01

    The Building 103 Dump is one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek and Westwood areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, resistivity, ground-penetrating radar, and seismic refraction, were conducted. These surveys indicate that much of the area is free of debris. However, prominent magnetic and resistivity anomalies occur along well-defined lineaments, suggestive of a dendritic stream pattern. Prior to the onset of dumping, the site was described as a ``sand pit,`` which suggests that headward erosion of Canal Creek tributaries cut into the surficial aquifer. Contaminants dumped into the landfill would have direct access to the surficial aquifer and thus to Canal Creek. Seismic refraction profiling indicates 6--12 ft of fill material now rests on the former land surface. Only the northern third of the former landfill was geophysically surveyed.

  5. Decommissioning of commercial reactor

    Yui, Kohei [Japan Atomic Power Co., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    In the case of nuclear reactors, the diversion is often difficult as they are highly purposive, the disassembling is not easy as they are robust, and attention is required to handle the equipment containing radioactive substances. Decommissioning is defined as all the measures taken from the state that facilities become unused to the state of becoming green field. In Japan, already 40 years have elapsed since the effort for nuclear power was begun, and in this paper, the present state and future subjects of the decommissioning of nuclear power stations are summarized at the opportunity that the stop of commercial operation of Tokai Nuclear Power Station was decided recently. In the Tokai Nuclear Power Station, 166 MWe graphite-moderated, carbon dioxide-cooled reactor called improved Calder Hall type is installed, which started the operation in 1966. The circumstances of the decision to stop its operation are explained. The basic policy of the decommissioning of commercial nuclear power stations has been already published by the Advisory Committee for Energy. The state of the decommissioning in various foreign countries is reported. In Japan, the state of green field was realized in 1996 in the decommissioning of the JPDR in Japan Atomic Energy Research institute, and the decommissioning of the atomic powered ship ``Mutsu`` was completed. (K.I.)

  6. The decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    This file includes five parts: the first part is devoted to the strategies of the different operators and includes the following files: the decommissioning of nuclear facilities Asn point of view, decommissioning of secret nuclear facilities, decommissioning at the civil Cea strategy and programs, EDF de-construction strategy, Areva strategy for decommissioning of nuclear facilities; the second one concerns the stakes of dismantling and includes the articles as follow: complete cleanup of buildings structures in nuclear facilities, decommissioning of nuclear facilities and safety assessment, decommissioning wastes management issues, securing the financing of long-term decommissioning and waste management costs, organizational and human factors in decommissioning projects, training for the decommissioning professions: the example of the Grenoble University master degree; the third part is devoted to the management of dismantling work sites and includes the different articles as follow: decommissioning progress at S.I.C.N. plant, example of decommissioning work site in Cea Grenoble: Siloette reactor decommissioning, matters related to decommissioning sites, decommissioning of french nuclear installations: the viewpoint of a specialist company, specificities of inspections during decommissioning: the Asn inspector point of view; the fourth part is in relation with the international approach and includes as follow: IAEA role in establishing a global safety regime on decommissioning, towards harmonization of nuclear safety practices in Europe: W.E.N.R.A. and the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, EPA superfund program policy for decontamination and decommissioning, progress with remediation at Sellafield, progress and experiences from the decommissioning of the Eurochemic reprocessing plant in Belgium, activities of I.R.S.N. and its daughter company Risk-audit I.r.s.n./G.r.s. international in the field of decommissioning of nuclear facilities in eastern countries

  7. Decommissioning of research reactors

    Research reactors of WWR-S type were built in countries under Soviet influence in '60, last century and consequently reached their service life. Decommissioning implies removal of all radioactive components, processing, conditioning and final disposal in full safety of all sources on site of radiological pollution. The WWR-S reactor at Bucuresti-Magurele was put into function in 1957 and operated until 1997 when it was stopped and put into conservation in view of decommissioning. Presented are three decommissioning variants: 1. Reactor shut-down for a long period (30-50 years) what would entail a substantial decrease of contamination with lower costs in dismantling, mechanical, chemical and physical processing followed by final disposal of the radioactive wastes. The drawback of this solution is the life prolongation of a non-productive nuclear unit requiring funds for personnel, control, maintenance, etc; 2. Decommissioning in a single stage what implies large funds for a immediate investment; 3. Extending the operation on a series of stages rather phased in time to allow a more convenient flow of funds and also to gather technical solutions, better than the present ones. This latter option seems to be optimal for the case of the WWR-S Research at Bucharest-Magurele Reactor. Equipment and technologies should be developed in order to ensure the technical background of the first operations of decommissioning: equipment for scarification, dismantling, dismemberment in a highly radioactive environment; cutting-to-pieces and disassembling technologies; decontamination modern technologies. Concomitantly, nuclear safety and quality assurance regulations and programmes, specific to decommissioning projects should be implemented, as well as a modern, coherent and reliable system of data acquisition, recording and storing. Also the impact of decommissioning must be thoroughly evaluated. The national team of specialists will be assisted by IAEA experts to ensure the

  8. Decommissioning plan - decommissioning project for KRR 1 and 2 (revised)

    This report is the revised Decommissioning Plan for the license of TRIGA research reactor decommissioning project according to Atomic Energy Act No. 31 and No. 36. The decommissioning plan includes the TRIGA reactor facilities, project management, decommissioning method, decontamination and dismantling activity, treatment, packaging, transportation and disposal of radioactive wastes. the report also explained the radiation protection plan and radiation safety management during the decommissioning period, and expressed the quality assurance system during the period and the site restoration after decommissioning. The first decommissioning plan was made by Hyundai Engineering Co, who is the design service company, was submitted to the Ministry of Science and Technology, and then was reviewed by the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety. The first decommissioning plan was revised including answers for the questions arising from review process

  9. Financial aspects of decommissioning

    European Commission adopted recently two proposals of Directives designed to pave the way for a Community approach to the safety of nuclear power plants and the processing of radioactive waste. Nuclear safety cannot be guaranteed without making available adequate financial resources. With regard, in particular, to the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, the Directive defines the Community rules for the establishment, management and use of decommissioning funds allocated to a body with legal personality separate from that of the nuclear operator. In order to comply with the acquis communautaire, Romanian Government issued the Emergency Ordinance no. 11/2003 which set up the National Agency for Radioactive Waste (ANDRAD) and soon will be established the financial mechanism for raising the necessary funds. Societatea Nationala 'Nuclearelectrica' S.A. operates, through one of its branches, Cernavoda NPP Unit 1 and has to prepare its decommissioning strategy and to analyze the options to assure the financing for covering the future costs. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the financial systems' mechanisms to the satisfaction of the nuclear operator obligations, according to the disbursement schedule foreseen by decommissioning projects . The availability of cash to pay for all the decommissioning expenditure must be foreseen by setting up assets and establishing a suitable financing plan. The different practices of assets management shall be presented in this paper on the basis of the international experience. Some calculation samples shall be given as an illustration. (author)

  10. Decommissioning in western Europe

    This report gives an overview of the situation in Western Europe. The original aim was to focus on organisational and human issues with regard to nuclear reactor decommissioning, but very few articles were found. This is in sharp contrast to the substantial literature on technical issues. While most of the reports on decommissioning have a technical focus, several provide information on regulatory issues, strategies and 'state of the art'. The importance of the human and organizational perspective is however discovered, when reading between the lines of the technical publications, and especially when project managers summarize lessons learned. The results are to a large extent based on studies of articles and reports, mainly collected from the INIS database. Decommissioning of nuclear facilities started already in the sixties, but then mainly research and experimental facilities were concerned. Until now about 70 reactors have been shutdown world-wide. Over the years there have been plenty of conferences for exchanging experiences mostly about technical matters. Waste Management is a big issue. In the 2000s there will be a wave of decommissioning when an increasing amount of reactors will reach the end of their calculated lifetime (40 years, a figure now being challenged by both life-extension and pre-shutdown projects). Several reactors have been shut-down for economical reasons. Shutdown and decommissioning is however not identical. A long period of time can sometimes pass before an owner decides to decommission and dismantle a facility. The conditions will also differ depending on the strategy, 'immediate dismantling' or 'safe enclosure'. If immediate dismantling is chosen the site can reach 'green-field status' in less than ten years. 'Safe enclosure', however, seems to be the most common strategy. There are several pathways, but in general a safe store is constructed, enabling the active parts to remain in safe and waterproof conditions for a longer period of

  11. Decommissioning funding: ethics, implementation, uncertainties

    This status report on Decommissioning Funding: Ethics, Implementation, Uncertainties also draws on the experience of the NEA Working Party on Decommissioning and Dismantling (WPDD). The report offers, in a concise form, an overview of relevant considerations on decommissioning funding mechanisms with regard to ethics, implementation and uncertainties. Underlying ethical principles found in international agreements are identified, and factors influencing the accumulation and management of funds for decommissioning nuclear facilities are discussed together with the main sources of uncertainties of funding systems. (authors)

  12. Decommissioning Peach Bottom Unit 1

    Decommissioning activities are described for Peach Bottom Unit No. 1, a 40 mw(e) HTGR demonstration plant owned and operated by the Philadelphia Electric Company. Radiological aspects of decommission are discussed. The application of advance planning and effective health physics techniques used during the Peach Bottom decommission program demonstrated the feasibility of decommissioning a nuclear facility economically at low personnel exposure levels and with a negligible environmental impact

  13. Decommissioning licensing procedure

    Decommissioning or closure of a nuclear power plant, defined as the fact that takes place from the moment that the plant stops producing for the purpose it was built, is causing preocupation. So this specialist meeting on Regulatory Review seems to be the right place for presenting and discusing the need of considering the decommissioning in the safety analysis report. The main goal of this paper related to the licensing procedure is to suggest the need of a new chapter in the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (P.S.A.R.) dealing with the decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. Therefore, after a brief introduction the problem is exposed from the point of view of nuclear safety and finally a format of the new chapter is proposed. (author)

  14. Site decommissioning management plan

    Fauver, D.N.; Austin, J.H.; Johnson, T.C.; Weber, M.F.; Cardile, F.P.; Martin, D.E.; Caniano, R.J.; Kinneman, J.D.

    1993-10-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has identified 48 sites contaminated with radioactive material that require special attention to ensure timely decommissioning. While none of these sites represent an immediate threat to public health and safety they have contamination that exceeds existing NRC criteria for unrestricted use. All of these sites require some degree of remediation, and several involve regulatory issues that must be addressed by the Commission before they can be released for unrestricted use and the applicable licenses terminated. This report contains the NRC staff`s strategy for addressing the technical, legal, and policy issues affecting the timely decommissioning of the 48 sites and describes the status of decommissioning activities at the sites.

  15. Tunney's Pasture decommissioning project

    AECL's Tunney's Pasture facility located in Ottawa was used for research, production and worldwide shipping of radioisotopes. After 30 years of operation, it was shut down in 1984, and decommissioned in two phases. During the first phase, which began in 1985 and lasted until 1987, staff moving to the new Kanata facility, now the property of Nordion International, removed the bulk of the equipment. After a three year period of storage under surveillance, AECL in 1990 initiated the second phase of decommissioning, which was completed in August 1993. In January 1994, the AECB unconditionally released the facility for unrestricted use. The paper provides an overview of the second phase of decommissioning, and a summary of a few lessons learned. 4 figs

  16. Site decommissioning management plan

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has identified 48 sites contaminated with radioactive material that require special attention to ensure timely decommissioning. While none of these sites represent an immediate threat to public health and safety they have contamination that exceeds existing NRC criteria for unrestricted use. All of these sites require some degree of remediation, and several involve regulatory issues that must be addressed by the Commission before they can be released for unrestricted use and the applicable licenses terminated. This report contains the NRC staff's strategy for addressing the technical, legal, and policy issues affecting the timely decommissioning of the 48 sites and describes the status of decommissioning activities at the sites

  17. Preparation for Ignalina NPP decommissioning

    Latest developments of atomic energy in Lithuania, works done to prepare Ignalina NPP for final shutdown and decommissioning are described. Information on decommissioning program for Ignalina NPP unit 1, decommissioning method, stages and funding is presented. Other topics: radiation protection, radioactive waste management and disposal. Key facts related to nuclear energy in Lithuania are listed

  18. Platform decommissioning costs

    There are over 6500 platforms worldwide contributing to the offshore oil and gas production industry. In the North Sea there are around 500 platforms in place. There are many factors to be considered in planning for platform decommissioning and the evaluation of options for removal and disposal. The environmental impact, technical feasibility, safety and cost factors all have to be considered. This presentation considers what information is available about the overall decommissioning costs for the North Sea and the costs of different removal and disposal options for individual platforms. 2 figs., 1 tab

  19. Planning of MZFR decommissioning

    The concept chosen for decommissioning the MZFR reactor of plant components followed by the safe enclosure of the reactor building for about 30 years. It is intended that after lifting of the controlled areas the auxiliary building will be reused within the framework of KfK research projects. A decommissioning will be carried out in steps, the scope of licensing will be broken down into partial licences. It is expected that the last partial licence for safe enclosure will be granted in 1988. (orig.)

  20. Decommissioning of IFEC

    The IFEC nuclear fuel fabrication plant operated in Italy for more then thirty years and has now been successfully decommissioned. The rules and regulations relating to Quality Assurance established during the fabrication of Cirene reactor fuel have been adhered to during the decommissioning phase. The use of personnel with large experience in the nuclear field has resulted in vast majority of cares of material and apparatus to be reutilized in conventional activities without the need of calling on the assistance of external firms. The whole decontamination process was successfully completed on time and in particular the quantity of contaminated wastes was kept to eminimun

  1. Vinca nuclear decommissioning program

    In this paper a preliminary program for the nuclear decommissioning in The Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences is presented. Proposed Projects and Activities, planned to be done in the next 10 years within the frames of the Program, should improve nuclear and radiation safety and should solve the main problems that have arisen in the previous period. Project of removal of irradiated spent nuclear fuel from the RA reactor, as a first step in all possible decommissioning strategies and the main activity in the first two-three years of the Program realization, is considered in more details. (author)

  2. Depleted uranium risk assessment at Aberdeen Proving Ground

    The Environmental Science Group at Los Alamos and the Test and Evaluation Command (TECOM) are assessing the risk of depleted uranium (DU) testing at Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG). Conceptual and mathematical models of DU transfer through the APG ecosystem have been developed in order to show the mechanisms by which DU migrates or remains unavailable to different flora and fauna and to humans. The models incorporate actual rates of DU transfer between different ecosystem components as much as possible. Availability of data on DU transport through different pathways is scarce and constrains some of the transfer rates that can be used. Estimates of transfer rates were derived from literature sources and used in the mass-transfer models when actual transfer rates were unavailable. Objectives for this risk assessment are (1) to assess if DU transports away from impact areas; (2) to estimate how much, if any, DU migrates into Chesapeake Bay; (3) to determine if there are appreciable risks to the ecosystems due to DU testing; (4) to estimate the risk to human health as a result of DU testing

  3. An air quality survey and emissions inventory at Aberdeen Harbour

    Marr, I. L.; Rosser, D. P.; Meneses, C. A.

    A network of 10 stations, with passive sampling for VOCs (including benzene), NO 2, and SO 2, over 2-week periods, grab sampling for CO, and 48-h pumped sampling for PM 10, was set up to make an air quality survey for 12 months around Aberdeen Harbour. Benzene, CO, SO 2 and PM 10 were always well below the AQS target values. However, NO 2 frequently showed a pronounced gradient across the harbour reaching its highest concentrations at the city end, indicating that the road traffic was the principal source of the pollution. This was backed up by the predominance of aromatics in the VOCs in the city centre, derived from petrol engined vehicles, compared to the predominance of alkanes and alkenes around the docks, derived from diesel engined heavy trucks and possibly ships. Black carbon on the PM 10 filters also showed a gradient with highest levels in the city centre. It is proposed that for such surveys in future, NO 2 and black carbon would be the two most informative parameters. This emissions inventory has shown first, that trucks contribute very little to the total, and second, that the ro-ro ferries are the major contributors as they burn light fuel oil while the oil platform supply vessels burn low-sulphur marine gas oil with around 0.1% S. When the whole picture of the emissions from the city is considered, the emissions from the harbour constitute only a small part.

  4. Environmental geophysics at Beach Point, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    McGinnis, L.D.; Daudt, C.R.; Thompson, M.D.; Miller, S.F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Reclamation Engineering and Geosciences Section; Mandell, W.A. [Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc., Washington, DC (United States); Wrobel, J. [Dept. of Defense, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)

    1994-07-01

    Geophysical studies at Beach Point Peninsula, in the Edgewood area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, provide diagnostic signatures of the hydrogeologic framework and possible contaminant pathways. These studies permit construction of the most reasonable scenario linking dense, nonaqueous-phase liquid contaminants introduced at the surface with their pathway through the surficial aquifer. Subsurface geology and contaminant presence were identified by drilling, outcrop mapping, and groundwater sampling and analyses. Suspected sources of near-surface contaminants were defined by magnetic and conductivity measurements. Negative conductivity anomalies may be associated with unlined trenches. Positive magnetic and conductivity anomalies outline suspected tanks and pipes. The anomalies of greatest concern are those spatially associated with a concrete slab that formerly supported a mobile clothing impregnating plant. Resistivity and conductivity profiling and depth soundings were used to identify an electrical anomaly extending through the surficial aquifer to the basal pleistocene unconformity, which was mapped by using seismic reflection methods. The anomaly may be representative of a contaminant plume connected to surficial sources. Major activities in the area included liquid rocket fuel tests, rocket fuel fire suppression tests, pyrotechnic material and smoke generator tests, and the use of solvents at a mobile clothing impregnating plant.

  5. Decontamination and decommissioning

    The project scope of work included the complete decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of the Westinghouse ARD Fuel Laboratories at the Cheswick Site in the shortest possible time. This has been accomplished in the following four phases: (1) preparation of documents and necessary paperwork; packaging and shipping of all special nuclear materials in an acceptable form to a reprocessing agency; (2) decontamination of all facilities, glove boxes and equipment; loading of generated waste into bins, barrels and strong wooden boxes; (3) shipping of all bins, barrels and boxes containing waste to the designated burial site; removal of all utility services from the laboratories; and (4) final survey of remaining facilities and certification for nonrestricted use; preparation of final report. These four phases of work were conducted in accordance with applicable regulations for D and D of research facilities and applicable regulations for packaging, transportation, and burial and storage of radioactive materials. The final result is that the Advanced Fuel Laboratories now meet requirements of ANSI 13.12 and can be released for unrestricted use. The four principal documents utilized in the D and D of the Cheswick Site were: (1) Plan for Fully Decontaminating and Decommissioning, Revision 3; (2) Environmental Assessment for Decontaminating and Decommissioning the Westinghouse Advanced Reactors Division Plutonium Fuel Laboratories, Cheswick, Pa.; (3) WARD-386, Quality Assurance Program Description for Decontaminating and Decommissioning Activities; and (4) Health Physics, Fire Control, and Site Emergency Manual. These documents are provided as Attachments 1, 2, 3 and 4

  6. Particle-accelerator decommissioning

    Generic considerations involved in decommissioning particle accelerators are examined. There are presently several hundred accelerators operating in the United States that can produce material containing nonnegligible residual radioactivity. Residual radioactivity after final shutdown is generally short-lived induced activity and is localized in hot spots around the beam line. The decommissioning options addressed are mothballing, entombment, dismantlement with interim storage, and dismantlement with disposal. The recycle of components or entire accelerators following dismantlement is a definite possibility and has occurred in the past. Accelerator components can be recycled either immediately at accelerator shutdown or following a period of storage, depending on the nature of induced activation. Considerations of cost, radioactive waste, and radiological health are presented for four prototypic accelerators. Prototypes considered range from small accelerators having minimal amounts of radioactive mmaterial to a very large accelerator having massive components containing nonnegligible amounts of induced activation. Archival information on past decommissionings is presented, and recommendations concerning regulations and accelerator design that will aid in the decommissioning of an accelerator are given

  7. CNEA decommissioning program

    Full text: According to chapter I, Art. 2.e of the National Law Nr. 24804 ruling nuclear activities in Argentina, CNEA is responsible for determining the procedure for decommissioning Nuclear Power Plants and any other relevant radioactive facilities'. The implementation the Nuclear Law, states that CNEA is responsible for deactivation and decommissioning of all relevant radioactive facilities in the country, at end of life. Consequently CNEA have created the D and D Branch in order to perform this activity. It is important point out that none of the 28 nuclear installations in Argentina is undergoing decommissioning. Nevertheless planning stages prior decommissioning have been started with the criterion of prioritising those that will probably generate the greatest volume of radioactive waste. Decommissioning plan for research reactors and Atucha I Nuclear Power Plant, radiological characterization, decontamination and treatment of miscellaneous equipment and components of the Atucha I Nuclear Power Plant and old installations are being carry out. The main task is to get the technical capability of the steps which must be followed. In order to accomplish this objective the main activities are: a) Coordinates the training of personnel and organizes the experience and technical knowledge already existing in CNEA and members of the Argentinean nuclear sector; b) Coordinates a R and D program on D and D technologies; c) Establishes close links with the operators of nuclear facilities, whose participation both in planning and in actual D and D work is considered extremely important; d)Preliminary planning and radiological characterization of significant nuclear installations. This paper summarizes general aspects of the activities which are currently in progress. (author)

  8. Decommissioning of offshore installations

    Oeen, Sigrun; Iversen, Per Erik; Stokke, Reidunn; Nielsen, Frantz; Henriksen, Thor; Natvig, Henning; Dretvik, Oeystein; Martinsen, Finn; Bakke, Gunnstein

    2010-07-01

    New legislation on the handling and storage of radioactive substances came into force 1 January 2011. This version of the report is updated to reflect this new regulation and will therefore in some chapters differ from the Norwegian version (see NEI-NO--1660). The Ministry of the Environment commissioned the Climate and Pollution Agency to examine the environmental impacts associated with the decommissioning of offshore installations (demolition and recycling). This has involved an assessment of the volumes and types of waste material and of decommissioning capacity in Norway now and in the future. This report also presents proposals for measures and instruments to address environmental and other concerns that arise in connection with the decommissioning of offshore installations. At present, Norway has four decommissioning facilities for offshore installations, three of which are currently involved in decommissioning projects. Waste treatment plants of this kind are required to hold permits under the Pollution Control Act. The permit system allows the pollution control authority to tailor the requirements in a specific permit by evaluating conditions and limits for releases of pollutants on a case-to-case basis, and the Act also provides for requirements to be tightened up in line with the development of best available techniques (BAT). The environmental risks posed by decommissioning facilities are much the same as those from process industries and other waste treatment plants that are regulated by means of individual permits. Strict requirements are intended to ensure that environmental and health concerns are taken into account. The review of the four Norwegian decommissioning facilities in connection with this report shows that the degree to which requirements need to be tightened up varies from one facility to another. The permit for the Vats yard is newest and contains the strictest conditions. The Climate and Pollution Agency recommends a number of measures

  9. High resolution seismic reflection profiling at Aberdeen Proving Grounds, Maryland

    The effectiveness of shallow high resolution seismic reflection (i.e., resolution potential) to image geologic interfaces between about 70 and 750 ft at the Aberdeen Proving Grounds, Maryland (APG), appears to vary locally with the geometric complexity of the unconsolidated sediments that overlay crystalline bedrock. The bedrock surface (which represents the primary geologic target of this study) was imaged at each of three test areas on walkaway noise tests and CDP (common depth point) stacked data. Proven high resolution techniques were used to design and acquire data on this survey. Feasibility of the technique and minimum acquisition requirements were determined through evaluation and correlation of walkaway noise tests, CDP survey lines, and a downhole velocity check shot survey. Data processing and analysis revealed several critical attributes of shallow seismic data from APG that need careful consideration and compensation on reflection data sets. This survey determined: (1) the feasibility of the technique, (2) the resolution potential (both horizontal and vertical) of the technique, (3) the optimum source for this site, (4) the optimum acquisition geometries, (5) general processing flow, and (6) a basic idea of the acoustic variability across this site. Source testing involved an accelerated weight drop, land air gun, downhole black powder charge, sledge hammer/plate, and high frequency vibrator. Shallow seismic reflection profiles provided for a more detailed picture of the geometric complexity and variability of the distinct clay sequences (aquatards), previously inferred from drilling to be present, based on sparse drill holes and basewide conceptual models. The seismic data also reveal a clear explanation for the difficulties previously noted in correlating individual, borehole-identified sand or clay units over even short distances

  10. Environmental geophysics at J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Daudt, C.R.; McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.

    1994-11-01

    Geophysical data collected at J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, were used in the characterization of the natural hydrogeologic framework of the J-Field area and in the identification of buried disturbances (trenches and other evidences of contamination). Seismic refraction and reflection data and electrical resistivity data have aided in the characterization of the leaky confining unit at the base of the surficial aquifer (designated Unit B of the Tertiary Talbot Formation). Excellent reflectors have been observed for both upper and lower surfaces of Unit B that correspond to stratigraphic units observed in boreholes and on gamma logs. Elevation maps of both surfaces and an isopach map of Unit B, created from reflection data at the toxic burning pits site, show a thickening of Unit B to the east. Abnormally low seismic compressional-wave velocities suggest that Unit B consists of gassy sediments whose gases are not being flushed by upward or downward moving groundwater. The presence of gases suggests that Unit B serves as an efficient aquitard that should not be penetrated by drilling or other activities. Electromagnetic, total-intensity magnetic, and ground-penetrating radar surveys have aided in delineating the limits of two buried trenches, the VX burning pit and the liquid smoke disposal pit, both located at the toxic burning pits site. The techniques have also aided in determining the extent of several other disturbed areas where soils and materials were pushed out of disposal pits during trenching activities. Surveys conducted from the Prototype Building west to the Gunpowder River did not reveal any buried trenches.

  11. Decommissioning and decontamination studies

    The decommissioning of retired Hanford facilities requires careful consideration of environmentally-related factors. Applicable ecology programs have been designed to: develop the technology associated with burial ground stabilization, thereby minimizing biotic access and transport of radioactive wastes and, characterize present 300 Area burial grounds to ascertain the potential biotic transport of waste materials away from managed facilities. Results are reported from studies on the role of plants, small mammals, and ants as potential transport vectors of radionuclides from radioactive waste burial grounds

  12. Fort St. Vrain decommissioning project

    Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCo), owner of the Fort St. Vrain nuclear generating station, achieved its final decommissioning goal on August 5, 1997 when the Nuclear Regulatory Commission terminated the Part 50 reactor license. PSCo pioneered and completed the world's first successful decommissioning of a commercial nuclear power plant after many years of operation. In August 1989, PSCo decided to permanently shutdown the reactor and proceed with its decommissioning. The decision to proceed with early dismantlement as the appropriate decommissioning method proved wise for all stake holders - present and future - by mitigating potential environmental impacts and reducing financial risks to company shareholders, customers, employees, neighboring communities and regulators. We believe that PSCo's decommissioning process set an exemplary standard for the world's nuclear industry and provided leadership, innovation, advancement and distinguished contributions to other decommissioning efforts throughout the world. (author)

  13. Decommissioning of nuclear submarines

    The intention of this Report is to set out in simple terms the options open to the Ministry of Defence in disposing of nuclear submarines, and the extent of the problem. To this end oral evidence was taken from United Kingdom Nirex Limited (Nirex) and from the Ministry of Defence, and written evidence was taken from MoD, Nirex, the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority and Rolls-Royce and Associates Limited. The immediate problem is what to do with the nuclear submarine, DREADNOUGHT. Since decommissioning in 1982, the submarine has been lying at Rosyth Naval Base on the Firth of Forth. Upon decommissioning, the highly radioactive reactor core with the uranium fuel was removed and transported to the Sellafield reprocessing plant. The remaining radioactive part is the reactor compartment and it is the size of this, not its level of radioactivity which makes it hard to deal with. By the year 2000 a further seven nuclear submarines will have been decommissioned. There are three main options for disposing of the reactor compartments; dumping at sea, land burial in a shallow trench and land burial in a deep repository. Dumping at sea is the option favoured by the Ministry of Defence and Government, but shallow land burial remains an option. Deep burial is not an option which is available immediately as there will not be a repository ready until 2005. (author)

  14. Tokai-1 decommissioning project

    Tokai-1 (GCR, Gas Cooled Reactor) nuclear power plant of JAPC (the Japan Atomic Power Company) started commercial operation in 1966 as the first commercial nuclear power plant in Japan. The unit had helped introduction and establishment of the construction and operation technologies regarding nuclear power plant at early stage in Japan by its construction and operating experiences. However, The Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC), the operator and owner of Tokai-1, decided to cease its operation permanently because of a fulfillment of its mission and economical reason. The unit was finally shut down in March 1998 after about 32 year operation. It took about three years for removal of all spent fuels from the site, and then decommissioning started in 2001. JAPC, always on the forefront of the nation's nuclear power generation, is now grappling Japan's first decommissioning of a commercial nuclear power plant, striving to establish effective, advanced decommissioning. The decommissioning for Tokai-1 was scheduled as 20 years project. At the beginning, the reactor was started to be in a static condition ('safe storage period'). While the reactor had been safely stored, the phased decommissioning works started from non-radioactive or low radioactive equipment toward high radioactive equipment. First five years of the project, JAPC concentrated to drain and clean spent fuel cartridge cooling pond and to remove conventional equipments such as turbine, feed water pump and fuel charge machine as planed and budgeted. From 2006, the project came into a new phase. JAPC has been trying to remove four Steam Raising Units (SRUs). The SRUs are huge component (750ton, φ6.3m, H24.7m) of the Gas Cooling Reactor (GCR) and inside of the SRUs are radioactively contaminated. Major concerns are workers safety and minimizing contamination areas during SRU removal. Therefore, JAPC is developing and introducing Jack-down method and remote control multi-functional dismantling system. This

  15. Shivers Junior/Senior High School: Aberdeen School District in Mississippi. Case Study in Sustainable Design.

    Zimmerman, David

    Design information, floor plan, photos, and energy use data are presented of a combined 45,000 square foot junior/senior high school in Mississippi's Aberdeen School District, built in 1956, and retrofitted over time to improve its usability. Exterior and interior photos are presented showing classrooms, the cafeteria, and gymnasium. Data are…

  16. Decommissioning of Radiotherapy Facilities

    Radiotherapy units containing high activity sealed radioactive sources of 60Co or 137Cs are mainly use for medical, research or calibration applications. After several half-lives of decay, the radionuclide source has to be changed or the unit is decommissioned if no longer required. Before starting a decommissioning project it is very important to look for documents relating to any sources held or installed in equipment. In general this should be no problem because the recommended working life of such sealed radioactive sources is limited to 10 or a maximum of 15 years. These time periods are short in comparison with other facilities like research laboratories or small reactors. These documents (source certificates) will be very helpful to plan the decommissioning because they say everything about the original activity of the source at a reference date, the type of the source and the manufacturer. The next step may be to contact the machine supplier or the source manufacturer, but be aware that neither may still be in existence or may have changed their type of business. In such cases, it is recommended to contact national or international sealed source manufacturers or suppliers for help. Sometimes it is also helpful to contact colleagues in other hospitals or research centres to ask for information about specialists in this topic. In general it is not useful, and even very dangerous, to try to decommission such a unit without expert help It is essential to have specialist tools and shielded containers to recover the source out of the unit. It is strongly recommended to invite the source removal specialist for a site visit to review the situation before starting any decommissioning process. A further problem can occur, if the source must be transported to a national storage centre or even an international storage facility, as the source must be packaged to meet international transport requirements. The end state of such a project should be an empty room where the

  17. BNFL decommissioning strategy and techniques

    This paper provides an overview of the range of reactor decommissioning projects being managed by BNFL, both on its own sites and for other client organizations in the UK and abroad. It also describes the decommissioning strategies and techniques that have been developed by BNFL and adopted in order to carry out this work

  18. ORNL decontamination and decommissioning program

    A program has been initiated at ORNL to decontaminate and decommission surplus or abandoned nuclear facilities. Program planning and technical studies have been performed by UCC-ND Engineering. A feasibility study for decommissioning the Metal Recovery Facility, a fuel reprocessing pilot plant, has been completed

  19. Workshop on decommissioning; Seminarium om avveckling

    Broden, K. (ed.)

    2005-12-15

    A Nordic workshop on decommissioning of nuclear facilities was held at Risoe in Denmark September 13-15, 2005. The workshop was arranged by NKS in cooperation with the company Danish Decommissioning, DD, responsible for decommissioning of nuclear facilities at Risoe. Oral presentations were made within the following areas: International and national recommendations and requirements concerning decommissioning of nuclear facilities Authority experiences of decommissioning cases Decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Denmark Decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Sweden Plans for decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Norway Plans for decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Finland Decommissioning of nuclear facilities in German and the UK Decommissioning of nuclear facilities in the former Soviet Union Results from research and development A list with proposals for future work within NKS has been prepared based on results from group-work and discussions. The list contains strategic, economical and political issues, technical issues and issues regarding competence and communication. (au)

  20. Decommissioning policy in Sweden

    In Sweden the nuclear power program is, according to a parliamentary decision, limited to twelve power producing reactors. The last reactor shall be taken out of service no later than the year 2010. As a result of the Chernobyl accident the program for taking the reactors out of service will be accelerated. This report is the first approach by the Swedish authorities to formulate a decommissioning policy. It is not the final policy document but it discusses the principal questions from the special Swedish viewpoint. (orig.)

  1. Decommissioning Funding: Ethics, Implementation, Uncertainties

    This status report on decommissioning funding: ethics, implementation, uncertainties is based on a review of recent literature and materials presented at NEA meetings in 2003 and 2004, and particularly at a topical session organised in November 2004 on funding issues associated with the decommissioning of nuclear power facilities. The report also draws on the experience of the NEA Working Party on Decommissioning and Dismantling (WPDD). This report offers, in a concise form, an overview of relevant considerations on decommissioning funding mechanisms with regard to ethics, implementation and uncertainties. Underlying ethical principles found in international agreements are identified, and factors influencing the accumulation and management of funds for decommissioning nuclear facilities are discussed together with the main sources of uncertainties of funding systems

  2. Financing nuclear power plant decommissioning

    Much is at stake in developing a financial strategy for decommissioning nuclear power plants. Since decommissioning experience is limited to relatively small reactors, will the costs associated with larger reactors be significantly higher. Certainly the decommissioning issue intersects with other critical issues that will help to determine the future of commercial nuclear power in the US. The author examines briefly the basic concepts and terms related to decommissioning expenses, namely: (1) segregated fund; (2) non-segregated fund; (3) external method; and (4) internal method. He concludes that state regulatory commissions have turned increasingly to the external funding method because of increasing costs and related problems associated with nuclear power, changing conditions and uncertainties concerned with utility restructuring, and recent changes in federal tax laws related to decommissioning. Further, this trend is likely to continue if financial assurance remains a primary concern of regulators to protect this public interest

  3. Managing the Unexpected in Decommissioning

    This publication explores the implications of decommissioning in the light of unexpected events and the trade-off between activities to reduce them and factors militating against any such extra work. It classifies and sets out some instances where unexpected findings in a decommissioning programme led to a need to either stop, or reconsider the work, re-think the options, or move forward on a different path. It provides practical guidance in planning and management of decommissioning taking into account unexpected events. This guidance includes an evaluation of the experience and lessons learned in tackling decommissioning that is often neglected. Thus it will enable future decommissioning teams to adopt the relevant lessons to reduce additional costs, time delays and radiation exposures

  4. Decommissioning of VHTRC

    JAERI modified the Semi-Homogeneous Experimental Critical Assembly (SHE) which had been used for reactor physical experiments of graphite moderated reactor since January 1961 to the Very High Temperature Reactor Critical Assembly (VHTRC) in 1985 in order to carry out nuclear safety evaluation etc. for the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). Since HTTR, which was constructed in the Oarai Research Establishment, achieved criticality in November 1998, JAERI decided to decommissioning VHTRC in 1999. The decommissioning project is planned to perform in two stages. At the first stage sampling and analysis were carried out for comparison of calculated results. Following these activities, reactor instruments, reactor control system and reactor itself were dismantled. The first stage was completed in FY2000. At the second stage, radiation shielding blocks and reactor building will be dismantled completely to green field conditions. These activities will be carried out after the clearance level is legislated in Japan. The first stage activities, which are the site characterization, radioactive inventory evaluation, surface contamination measurements for releasing the control room and the machine room from radiation controlled area to unrestricted area, neutron activation estimation on the basis of theoretical calculations, sampling and analyses of reactor components, and dismantling of reactor etc., are described in this report. (author)

  5. Criteria for decommissioning

    In this paper the authors describe three risk acceptability criteria as parts of a strategy to clean up decommissioned facilities, related to both the status quo and to a variety of alternative technical clean-up options. The acceptability of risk is a consideration that must enter into any decision to establish when a site is properly decommissioned. To do so, both the corporate and public aspects of the acceptability issue must be considered. The reasons for discussion the acceptability of risk are to: Legitimize the process for making cleanup decisions; Determine who is at risk, who benefits, and who bears the costs of site cleanup, for each specific cleanup option, including the do nothing option; Establish those factors that, taken as a whole, determine measures of acceptability; Determine chemical-specific aggregate and individual risk levels; and Establish levels for cleanup. The choice of these reasons is pragmatic. The method consistent with these factors is risk-risk-effectiveness: the level of cleanup must be consistent with the foreseeable use of the site and budget constraints. Natural background contamination is the level below which further cleanup is generally inefficient. Case-by-case departures from natural background are to be considered depending on demonstrated risk. For example, a hot spot is obviously a prima facie exception, but should be rebuttable. Rebuttability means that, through consensus, the ''hot spot'' is shown not to be associated with exposure

  6. Funding Decommissioning - UK Experience

    'Funding' started with CEGB and SSEB (state-owned electric utilities) in 1976 using the internal un-segregated fund route (i.e unfunded). This continued until privatisation of electricity industry (excluding nuclear) in 1990. Assets bought with the internal un-segregated fund were mostly transferred into non-nuclear private utilities. New state-owned Nuclear Electric (England and Wales) was given a 'Fossil Fuel Levy', a consumer charge of 10% on retail bills, amounting to c. BP 1 bn. annually. This allowed Nuclear Electric to trade legally (A reserve of BP 2.5 bn. was available from Government if company ran out of money). By 1996 the newer nuclear stations (AGRS plus PWR) were privatised as British Energy. British Energy started an external segregated fund, the Nuclear Decommissioning Fund, with a starting endowment of c. BP 225 m. - and BE made annual contributions of British Pound 16 m. into the Fund. Assumptions were that BE had 70 to accumulate cash and could get a 3.5% average annual real return. Older stations (Magnox) were left in private sector and went to BNFL in 1997. Magnox inherited the surplus cash in BE - mostly unspent Fossil Fuel Levy receipts - of c. BP 2.6 bn. Government gave an 'Undertaking' to pay BP 3.8 bn. (escalating at 4.5% real annually) for Magnox liabilities, should Magnox Electric run out of cash. BNFL inherited the BP 2.6 bn. and by 2000 had a 'Nuclear Liabilities Investment Portfolio' of c. BP 4 bn. This was a quasi-segregated internal fund for liabilities in general. [Note: overall UK nuclear liabilities in civilian sector were running at c. BP 48 bn. by now]. BE started profitable and paid BP 100 m. annually in dividends to private investors for several years. BE ran into severe financial problems after 2001 and Government organised restructuring aid, now approved by European Commission. Terms include: - BE now to contribute BP 20 m. a year into an expanded Nuclear Liabilities Fund; - A bond issue of BP 275 m. to go to Fund; - 65

  7. Evaluation of Nuclear Facility Decommissioning Projects program

    The objective of the Evaluation of Nuclear Facility Decommissioning Projects (ENFDP) program is to provide the NRC licensing staff with data which will allow an assessment of radiation exposure during decommissioning and the implementation of ALARA techniques. The data will also provide information to determine the funding level necessary to ensure timely and safe decommissioning operations. Actual decommissioning costs, methods and radiation exposures are compared with those estimated by the Battelle-PNL and ORNL NUREGs on decommissioning. Exposure reduction techniques applied to decommissioning activities to meet ALARA objectives are described. The lessons learned concerning various decommissioning methods are evaluated

  8. Planning for decommissioning of Hifar

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) has operated the 10MW HIFAR research reactor since 1958. In addition to its role in research, the reactor provides radioisotopes for medical and industrial use and is a major supplier of NTD silicon for the semi-conductor industry. It is anticipated that HIFAR will finally shut down operations in December 2006. Although ANSTO has successfully decommissioned MOATA and undertaken other smaller decommissioning projects the proposed HIFAR decommissioning project will be the largest ever undertaken by ANSTO. ANSTO faces a number of challenges in HIFAR's final year of operation. These include: the establishment of a modern decommissioning strategy in the absence of a long-term nuclear waste repository management facility or waste acceptance criteria for the material generated by the decommissioning; the impact of the impeding closure of the facility on staff morale and retention of key staff; and to meet the our customer's needs up to the final closure. These challenges are compounded by competition for skilled resources required to commission the new research reactor (OPAL) and the need to continue to supply radioisotopes. Important 'lessons in progress' that will be discussed in this paper include staffing the decommissioning team, maintenance of a strong safety culture during final stages of operation, working towards regulatory approval for decommissioning and strategies for knowledge retention. (author)

  9. Technologies for nuclear plant decommissioning

    After the commercial operation of a nuclear power plant has been shutdown, the plant enters a decommissioning phase where it is dismantled and removed. The Tokai Power Station was shutdown at the end of March 1998, followed by 'Fugen' and a light water reactor. The number of decommissioned plants in Japan is likely to increase in the future. Based on experience gained from the construction and maintenance of nuclear plants, Fuji Electric has developed techniques essential for decommissioning work. This paper describes recent technologies developed in this field, such as remote dismantling techniques for the reactor core and treatment and disposal techniques for the dismantled waste. (author)

  10. Progress of JPDR decommissioning project

    The Japan Power Demonstration Reactor (JPDR) decommissioning project is progressively achieving its final goal; the project will be finished by March 1996 to release the JPDR's site into unrestricted use in a green field condition. The new techniques which developed or improved in R and D, the first phase of this program, have been successfully applied to the actual dismantling activities. Some decommissioning wastes have been managed as the first case of onsite shallow land burial based on the new regulatory frame of radioactive waste management. The experiences and the data obtained from the JPDR dismantling activities are expected to contribute to future decommissioning of commercial nuclear power plants. (author)

  11. Calculating Program for Decommissioning Work Productivity based on Decommissioning Activity Experience Data

    KAERI is performing research to calculate a coefficient for decommissioning work unit productivity to calculate the estimated time decommissioning work and estimated cost based on decommissioning activity experience data for KRR-2. KAERI used to calculate the decommissioning cost and manage decommissioning activity experience data through systems such as the decommissioning information management system (DECOMMIS), Decommissioning Facility Characterization DB System (DEFACS), decommissioning work-unit productivity calculation system (DEWOCS). In particular, KAERI used to based data for calculating the decommissioning cost with the form of a code work breakdown structure (WBS) based on decommissioning activity experience data for KRR-2.. Defined WBS code used to each system for calculate decommissioning cost. In this paper, we developed a program that can calculate the decommissioning cost using the decommissioning experience of KRR-2, UCP, and other countries through the mapping of a similar target facility between NPP and KRR-2. This paper is organized as follows. Chapter 2 discusses the decommissioning work productivity calculation method, and the mapping method of the decommissioning target facility will be described in the calculating program for decommissioning work productivity. At KAERI, research on various decommissioning methodologies of domestic NPPs will be conducted in the near future. In particular, It is difficult to determine the cost of decommissioning because such as NPP facility have the number of variables, such as the material of the target facility decommissioning, size, radiographic conditions exist

  12. Calculating Program for Decommissioning Work Productivity based on Decommissioning Activity Experience Data

    Song, Chan-Ho; Park, Seung-Kook; Park, Hee-Seong; Moon, Jei-kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    KAERI is performing research to calculate a coefficient for decommissioning work unit productivity to calculate the estimated time decommissioning work and estimated cost based on decommissioning activity experience data for KRR-2. KAERI used to calculate the decommissioning cost and manage decommissioning activity experience data through systems such as the decommissioning information management system (DECOMMIS), Decommissioning Facility Characterization DB System (DEFACS), decommissioning work-unit productivity calculation system (DEWOCS). In particular, KAERI used to based data for calculating the decommissioning cost with the form of a code work breakdown structure (WBS) based on decommissioning activity experience data for KRR-2.. Defined WBS code used to each system for calculate decommissioning cost. In this paper, we developed a program that can calculate the decommissioning cost using the decommissioning experience of KRR-2, UCP, and other countries through the mapping of a similar target facility between NPP and KRR-2. This paper is organized as follows. Chapter 2 discusses the decommissioning work productivity calculation method, and the mapping method of the decommissioning target facility will be described in the calculating program for decommissioning work productivity. At KAERI, research on various decommissioning methodologies of domestic NPPs will be conducted in the near future. In particular, It is difficult to determine the cost of decommissioning because such as NPP facility have the number of variables, such as the material of the target facility decommissioning, size, radiographic conditions exist.

  13. Decontamination & decommissioning focus area

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    In January 1994, the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM) formally introduced its new approach to managing DOE`s environmental research and technology development activities. The goal of the new approach is to conduct research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE, utilizing the best talent in the Department and in the national science community. To facilitate this solutions-oriented approach, the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50, formerly the Office of Technology Development) formed five Focus AReas to stimulate the required basic research, development, and demonstration efforts to seek new, innovative cleanup methods. In February 1995, EM-50 selected the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to lead implementation of one of these Focus Areas: the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D & D) Focus Area.

  14. Decommissioning Cost Assessment

    The future costs for dismantling, decommissioning and handling of associated radioactive waste of nuclear installations represents substantial liabilities. It is the generations that benefits from the use of nuclear installations that shall carry the financial burden. Nuclear waste programmes have occasionally encountered set-backs related to the trust from society. This has resulted in delayed, redirected or halted activities, which has the common denominator of costs increases. In modern democratic countries, information sharing, knowledge transfer and open communication about costs for the management of radioactive waste are prerequisites for the task to develop modern methods for public participation and thus to develop well-founded and justified confidence for further development of nuclear energy. Nuclear and radiation safety Authorities have a clear role to provide unbiased information on any health, safety, financial and environmental related issues. This task requires a good understanding of the values and opinion of the public, and especially those of the younger generation

  15. Power Plant decommissioning

    Mažeika Jonas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available On a first attempt, the determination of 14C and 36Cl activity concentrations in basic operational waste (spent ion-exchange resins and perlite mixture, in decommissioning waste (construction concrete, sand, stainless steel and serpentinite and irradiated graphite from the Ignalina NPP has been performed. The samples for measurement of the specific activity of 14C and 36Cl were obtained from the selected places, where the highest values of the dose rate and the activity concentrations of gamma emitters were found. The performed study of the total 14C and 36Cl activity concentrations was based on estimated chemical forms of 14C (inorganic and organic compounds and 36Cl as Cl- ion. The tested methods used in this study were found to be suitable for estimation of activity concentrations of measured radionuclides.

  16. Analysis of cosmic-ray-muon induced spallation neutrons in Aberdeen Tunnel experiment in Hong Kong

    Cui, Kexi; 崔科晰

    2014-01-01

    The muon-induced radioactive isotopes, especially neutrons, are dangerous background component for rare-event detection in underground experiments, like neutrino-less double-beta decay and dark matter search. Understanding these cosmogenic backgrounds is crucial for these experiments. An underground experiment aiming at measuring the cosmic-ray muons' flux and their neutron production yield in liquid scintillator through spallation process is being carried out in the Aberdeen Tunnel laborator...

  17. Remedial investigation report for J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Volume 3: Ecological risk assessment

    The Environmental Management Division of the U.S. Army Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation (RI) and feasibility study (FS) of the J-Field area at APG, pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. As part of that activity, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted an ecological risk assessment (ERA) of the J-Field site. This report presents the results of that assessment

  18. Improvising innovation in UK urban district heating: The convergence of social and environmental agendas in Aberdeen

    Research on district heating has focused on technical-economic appraisal of its contribution to energy and carbon saving in urban centres. There is however lack of analysis of political and social processes which govern its actual take up. This paper examines these processes through a case study of Aberdeen, Scotland. Interviews and documentary analysis are used to examine the 2002 development of Aberdeen Heat and Power (AHP), an independent energy services company (ESCo). Technical-economic feasibility was a necessary component of appraisal, but not sufficient to govern decision-making. In the UK centralised energy market, DH investment is unattractive to commercial investors, and local authorities lack capacity and expertise in energy provision. In Aberdeen, the politics of fuel poverty converged with climate politics, creating an a-typical willingness to innovate through improvisation. The welfare priority resulted in creation of a non-profit locally-owned ESCo, using cost- rather than market-based heat tariffs. AHP has developed three combined heat and power energy centres and heat networks, supplying 34 MWh/pa of heat. Carbon savings are estimated to be 45% in comparison with electric heating, and heating costs are reduced by a similar amount. The conclusion outlines potential policy improvements. - Highlights: • UK policy proposes district heating for urban low carbon heat. • Technical and economic feasibility are insufficient to drive take-up. • In Aberdeen convergence of social and environmental goals gave impetus to improvisation. • The resulting non-profit ESCo has three CHP and district heat networks, supplying 34 MWh of heat pa. • Carbon and cost savings are 45% in comparison with electric heating

  19. Remedial investigation report for J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Volume 3: Ecological risk assessment

    Hlohowskyj, I.; Hayse, J.; Kuperman, R.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R.

    2000-02-25

    The Environmental Management Division of the U.S. Army Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation (RI) and feasibility study (FS) of the J-Field area at APG, pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. As part of that activity, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted an ecological risk assessment (ERA) of the J-Field site. This report presents the results of that assessment.

  20. DECOM experience with decommissioning costing

    The OMEGA code has been used in numerous Slovak and international decommissioning planning and costing projects and in IAEA R and D projects and is continuously updated and upgraded. The next goal for the DECOM costing activities is to develop an universal and user-friendly ISDC costing tool accessible via internet - eOMEGA taking over the advantages of the long-term experience of DECOM and being in line with up-to date trends in decommissioning costing. DECOM members participate in international expert groups for further improvement of costing methodologies, such as the uncertainties, cost practices and cost peer reviews in decommissioning costing. DECOM members participate also in IAEA projects, expert missions and training courses related to decommissioning costing and planning. (authors)

  1. Decommissioning of the Loviisa NPP

    Imatran Voima Oy has revised the decommissioning plan for the Loviisa Nuclear Power Plant (Loviisa 1 and Loviisa 2) by the end of the year 1998. The thermal power of the power plant has been increased to 2x1500 MWth, and the life time has been designed to be extended to 45 years in the decommissioning plan. The decommissioning of the power plant is designed to begin in 2022 and it will be finished in 2048. The plan is based on immediate dismantlement (i.e. DECON) after the shut down of the power plant. Experienced plant personnel will still be available to lead the decommissioning work. Only the radioactive plant systems, components and structures will be dismantled and disposed of. Decommissioning wastes will be disposed into the underground disposal tunnels situating at the site in the depth of about 110 m. These tunnels are already partly ready for power plant wastes. The big and heavy reactor components, e.g. pressure vessels and steam generators, will be disposed of as such, without cutting them into smaller parts. This saves time and radiation doses. The total volume of decommissioning wastes is 14 800 m3, when packed in boxes. The manpower needed for decommissioning is about 2 800 manyears. The collective radiation dose for personnel is estimated to be about 9.2 manSv. The cost estimate of the decommissioning is about 1 117 million FIM. The spent fuel will be stored at the plant for 20 years after the shut down of the power plant. After that it will be transported from the site to the encapsulation plant for final disposal. (orig.)

  2. Decommissioning challenges - an industrial reality

    Sellafield Limited has undergone many transformations in previous years. The Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) has managed the site from April 2005, and a new Parent Body Organisation (PBO) is soon to be announced. In addition, it is an exciting time for the nuclear industry following the announcement of the UK government support new reactor builds. Should the site be selected for new build, the impact on Sellafield, its decommissioning program and economic impact on the local area can only be speculated at the current time. Every past, present and future decommissioning project at the Sellafield Limited site offers complex challenges, as each facility is unique. Specialist skills and experience must be engaged at pre-planned phases to result in a safe, efficient and successful decommissioning project. This paper provides an overview of a small selection of decommissioning projects, including examples of stakeholder engagement, plant and equipment dismantling using remote handling equipment and the application of innovative techniques and technologies. In addition, the final section provides a summary upon how future technologies required by the decommissioning projects are being assessed and developed. (authors)

  3. An outsider's view of decommissioning

    The decommissioning of nuclear facilities is not just a technical or even a financial issue. Presenting decommissioning as a technically difficult task overcome by superhuman effort on the part of the industry will not gain much credit amongst sophisticated consumers who now require that any complex technology will work and work safely. Any engineering problems are surmountable given the money to find the solution. Some of the financial aspects of decommissioning are worrying, however, given their open-ended nature. The cost of waste disposal is one of these. Despite a lapse of fifty years since the start-up of its first reactor, the United Kingdom is unlikely to have available a repository for the disposal of intermediate level waste until about 2020. Waste disposal is a large consideration in decommissioning and the industry's forecasts of cost in this area lack credibility in the light of a poor track record in financial prediction. Financial engineering in the form of the segregated fund set up in March 1996 to cover the decommissioning of nuclear power stations in the United Kingdom is likely to provide only short term reassurance in the light of doubts about a credible future for nuclear power. This lack of confidence over the wider problems of nuclear power creates particular problems for decommissioning which go beyond technical difficulties and complicate financial considerations. (UK)

  4. Money Related Decommissioning and Funding Decision Making

    'Money makes the world go round', as the song says. It definitely influences decommissioning decision-making and financial assurance for future decommissioning. This paper will address two money-related decommissioning topics. The first is the evaluation of whether to continue or to halt decommissioning activities at Fermi 1. The second is maintaining adequacy of financial assurance for future decommissioning of operating plants. Decommissioning costs considerable money and costs are often higher than originally estimated. If costs increase significantly and decommissioning is not well funded, decommissioning activities may be deferred. Several decommissioning projects have been deferred when decision-makers determined future spending is preferable than current spending, or when costs have risen significantly. Decommissioning activity timing is being reevaluated for the Fermi 1 project. Assumptions for waste cost-escalation significantly impact the decision being made this year on the Fermi 1 decommissioning project. They also have a major impact on the estimated costs for decommissioning currently operating plants. Adequately funding full decommissioning during plant operation will ensure that the users who receive the benefit pay the full price of the nuclear-generated electricity. Funding throughout operation also will better ensure that money is available following shutdown to allow decommissioning to be conducted without need for additional funds

  5. Current international issues in decommissioning

    In 1999, the Italian Environmental Protection authorities (ANPA at that time) hosted in Rome a Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) meeting on the Regulatory Aspects of Decommissioning. This 'stock-taking' conference heard views from regulatory authorities, the decommissioning industry, waste management organisations and other relevant industrial sectors (e.g. the scrap metal industry) regarding the issues and aspects of decommissioning that should be further addressed, particularly at an international level. From this conference, six issues of relevance were identified which, since that time, have been addressed within the framework of the NEA. These issues are: - Decommissioning policies and strategies; - Waste management and materials reuse considerations; - Authorised release of sites and facilities; - Securing long-term funding and responsibility; - Framework for safety regulation of decommissioning; - Research and development in decommissioning. The NEA has focused on the international aspects of these issues, and on the roles of national governments in addressing the national and international aspects of these issues. This paper will present an overview of the NEA's findings in these areas. Realizing that these issues are important to the work of other international organisations, the NEA has tried to assess and use as appropriate the work of others in discussing these issues. As such, a brief review of relevant work at other international organisations will be presented. Based on its work, and in order to further advance these issues, the NEA is planning a second workshop on the Regulatory Aspects of Decommissioning, which will again be hosted by the Italian authorities in Rome, and will be held during the second half of 2004. (author)

  6. The Tokai NPP decommissioning technique

    Tokai power station was closed down in March 1998 and started decommissioning from December 2001 as a pioneer of NPP decommissioning. This article presented current state of Tokai NPP decommissioning technique. As the second stage of decommissioning works, removal works of steam raising unit (four units of heat exchangers) were started from 2006 by jacking down method with decommissioning data accumulated. Each heat exchanger was divided into top head, seven 'tears' of shell and bottom head. Each 'tear' was out and separated into a cylinder, and then divided into two by remote-operated cutting equipment with manipulators for gas cutting and motor disk cutting under monitoring works by fixed and mobile cameras. Divided 'tear' was further cut into center baffle plate, heat transfer tubes and fine pieces of shell. Cutting works would produce radioactive fine particles, which were filtered by temporary ventilation equipment with exhaust fan and filters. Appropriate works using existing technique combined and their rationalization were important at this stage. (T. Tanaka)

  7. Costs of Decommissioning Nuclear Power Plants

    While refurbishments for the long-term operation of nuclear power plants and for the lifetime extension of such plants have been widely pursued in recent years, the number of plants to be decommissioned is nonetheless expected to increase in future, particularly in the United States and Europe. It is thus important to understand the costs of decommissioning so as to develop coherent and cost-effective strategies, realistic cost estimates based on decommissioning plans from the outset of operations and mechanisms to ensure that future decommissioning expenses can be adequately covered. This study presents the results of an NEA review of the costs of decommissioning nuclear power plants and of overall funding practices adopted across NEA member countries. The study is based on the results of this NEA questionnaire, on actual decommissioning costs or estimates, and on plans for the establishment and management of decommissioning funds. Case studies are included to provide insight into decommissioning practices in a number of countries. (authors)

  8. Phenix Decommissioning Project - Overview

    The first heading of your manuscript must be 'Introduction'. Phenix is the only remaining French fast breeder reactor after the shutdown of Superphenix (1999) and Rapsodie (1983). Phenix is located inside the Marcoule nuclear site along the Rhone river near Bagnols-sur-Ceze in southeastern France. Phenix is one of the facilities belonging the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) on the Marcoule site. It is a fast breeder reactor (FBR) developed at the end of the 1960's. that has been in operation since 1973 and was connected to the power grid in 1974. It is a second generation prototype developed while the first generation FBR, Rapsodie, was still in operation. Phenix is a 250 electrical MW power plant. During the first 20 years of operation, its main aim was to demonstrate the viability of sodium-cooled FBRs. Since the 1991 radioactive waste management act, Phenix has become an irradiation tool for the actinide transmutation program. To extend its operating life for 6 additional cycles, it was necessary to refurbish the plant; this involved major work performed from 1999 to 2003 at a total cost of about 250 M??. Today, with a realistic expectation, the final shutdown is planned for the beginning of 2009. The main objective of the Phenix dismantling project is to eliminate all the process equipment and clean all the building to remove all the radioactive zones. To reach this objective, three main hazards must be eliminated: Fuel (criticality hazard), Sodium, Radioactive equipment. The complexity of decommissioning a facility such as Phenix is increased by: - the lack of storage facility for high radioactive material, - the decision to treat all the radioactive sodium and sodium waste inside the plant, - the very high irradiation of the core structures due to the presence of cobalt alloys. On the other hand, Phenix plant is still under operating with a qualified staff and the radioactivity coming from structural activation is well known. After the final shutdown

  9. The Italian decommissioning industry

    Full text: Italy's step out from nuclear activities in 1987 deeply affected an industry that, in the previous years, had managed to grow up in quality and technology levels to meet the nuclear standards. Only a few companies were able to partially retain their skills through activities abroad. The decommissioning program represents a new challenge for the Italian industry at large and will require a consistent effort to properly qualify the potential suppliers. On the other side, a program with such implications in terms of investments and so depending from social aspects cannot be effectively implemented without a significant involvement of the local industry. Essential conditions for the success are a reliable program, as well as a careful supply management scheme, which must facilitate aggregation of skills spread among different subjects. 'Human Resources: Maintaining a Nuclear Culture in Italy' Bruno Panella Politecnico di Torino, Giuseppe Forasassi, Universita di Pisa, Inter-University Consortium for the Nuclear Technological Research (CIRTEN). After a brief history of the nuclear engineering education in Italy within the international and national nuclear energy scenario, the present situation, with reference to the Italian universities, is shown. In order to maintain a nuclear culture in Italy the solution, exploited with different peculiarities in each University, is to carry out high quality research activities in reciprocal collaboration (mostly within the CIRTEN inter university Consortium) as well as with the Industry and research Organisations and to collaborate actively in establishing a stable network and a synergy of teaching activities in Europe in the field of Nuclear Engineering Education. The aim is to maintain at a high level and as updated as possible the Italian educational offer in nuclear engineering and also to attract the best students for the enrolment. (author)

  10. Decommissioning: a problem or a challenge?

    Mele Irena

    2004-01-01

    With the ageing of nuclear facilities or the reduced interest in their further operation, a new set of problems, related to the decommissioning of these facilities, has come into forefront. In many cases it turns out that the preparations for decommissioning have come too late, and that financial resources for covering decommissioning activities have not been provided. To avoid such problems, future liailities should be thoroughly estimated in drawing up the decommissioning and waste manageme...

  11. Fort St. Vrain decommissioning experience

    Nuclear plant decommissioning represents a significant expenditure of time and resources for nuclear utilities. Public Service Company of Colorado (PSC) is in the process of completing the decommissioning of the Fort St. Vrain (FSV) Nuclear Station, the first large-scale commercial nuclear plant to be decommissioned under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) 1988 decommissioning rule. PSC's experience has included dispositioning spent fuel, choosing a decommissioning alternative, and actively decommissioning the plant from dismantlement and decontamination through final survey. When the plant was prematurely shut down in August 1989, PSC's initial task was to find a storage location for FSV's spent fuel. PSC had a contract with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to ship FSV spent fuel to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), and all previously removed spent fuel had been shipped there. However, Idaho legally blocked further FSV spent-fuel shipments to INEL, and PSC decided to license and build an on-site, passively cooled independent spent-fuel storage installation (ISFSI). By June 1992, all FSV spent fuel was transferred from the reactor building to the ISFSI. PSC has been able to use low-level radioactive waste (LLWR) disposal facilities in the Northwest Compact, and disposal costs are within estimates. Industrial and radiological safety have been emphasized throughout the project, and performance in these areas has been outstanding. PSC has obtained NRC Aprilproval of a final survey plan that allows for many of the plant's components and systems to remain in place, and final survey activities are nearing completion. PSC is in the process of repowering the facility with natural gas-fired combustion turbines and heat recovery boilers. The first combustion turbine was placed in service Ap 30, 1996

  12. 77 FR 41107 - Decommissioning Planning During Operations

    2012-07-12

    ... Decommissioning Planning Rule (DPR) (June 17, 2011, 76 FR 33512). The DPR applies to the operational phase of a..., ``Decommissioning Planning During Operations'' (December 13, 2011, 76 FR 77431). The NRC received more than 100..., Decommissioning and Uranium Recovery Licensing Directorate, Division of Waste Management and...

  13. Platform decommissioning. Environmental challenges and practical solutions

    The publication gives a short introduction of platform decommissioning, followed by an overview of what to be decommissioned and removed. This will be followed by some of the vital technologies and methods within decommissioning, abandonment of wells, removal and handling of remains that is reuse and scrapping. A final presentation with a view of current research and developments is given. 3 figs

  14. Development of decommissioning system engineering technology

    In the decommissioning planning stage, it is important to select the optimized decommissioning process considering the cost and safety. Especially the selection of the optimized decommissioning process is necessary because it affects to improve worker's safety and decommissioning work efficiency. The decommissioning process evaluation technology can provide the optimized decommissioning process as constructing various decommissioning scenarios and it can help to prevent the potential accidents as delivering the exact work procedures to workers and to help workers to perform decommissioning work skillfully. It's necessary to measure the radioactive contamination in the highly contaminated facilities such as hot-cells or glove-boxes to be decommissioned for decommissioning planning. These facilities are very high radiation level, so it is difficult to approach. In this case the detector system is preferable to separate the sensor and electronics, which have to locate in the facility outside to avoid the electric noise and worker's radiation exposure. In this project, we developed the remote detection system for radiation measurement and signal transmission in the high radiation area. In order to minimize worker's exposure when decommissioning highly activated nuclear facilities, it is necessary to develop the remote handling tool to perform the dismantling work remotely. Especially, since cutting, measuring, and decontamination works should be performed remotely in the highly activated area, the remote handling tool for conducting these works should be developed. Therefore, the multi-purpose dismantling machine that can measuring dose, facility cutting, and remote handling for maintenance and decommissioning of highly activated facility should be needed

  15. Decommissioning Experience: Chalk River, Canada

    Full text: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited has reported that work has continued on the decommissioning of old structures on the Chalk River laboratory site. An environmental assessment was approved in 2006 for the decommissioning of the NRX reactor fuel bays (A and B). The regulator approved two work packages for the removal of water and the wooden structure over the bays. The A bays were cleaned as far as possible and were emptied in 2007. Decontamination work will continue. Sections of the B bays were filled with sand and other parts filled with water. NRX is currently in storage (i.e. a dormant state) with surveillance. (author)

  16. Decommissioning of uranium conversion plant

    Since about 20 years have passed after the construction of the uranium conversion plant, most equipments installed have worn out. Liquid wastes stored in lagoons which were generated during the operation of this plant are needed to be treated safely. Therefore, the decommissioning project on the uranium conversion plant was started from 2001. This study is a preliminary step for the decommissioning of the uranium conversion plant. It was reviewed on the plant status overall, especially facility descriptions and operational histories for the installations located inside and outside of the plant and methods of decontamination and of dismantling to the contamination conditions. And some proper options on each main object was proposed

  17. Basic Research about Calculation of the Decommissioning Unit Cost based on The KRR-2 Decommissioning Project

    The KAERI be used to calculate the decommissioning cost and manage the data of decommissioning activity experience through systems such as the decommissioning information management system (DECOMMIS), Decommissioning Facility Characterization DB System (DEFACS), decommissioning work-unit productivity calculation system (DEWOCS). Some country such as Japan and The United States have the information for decommissioning experience of the NPP and publish reports on decommissioning cost analysis. These reports as valuable data be used to compare with the decommissioning unit cost. In particular, need a method to estimate the decommissioning cost of the NPP because there is no decommissioning experience of NPP in case of Korea. makes possible to predict the more precise prediction about the decommissioning unit cost. But still, there are many differences on calculation for the decommissioning unit cost in domestic and foreign country. Typically, it is difficult to compare with data because published not detailed reports. Therefore, field of estimation for decommissioning cost have to use a unified framework in order to the decommissioning cost be provided to exact of the decommissioning cost

  18. Basic Research about Calculation of the Decommissioning Unit Cost based on The KRR-2 Decommissioning Project

    Song, Chan-Ho; Park, Hee-Seong; Ha, Jea-Hyun; Jin, Hyung-Gon; Park, Seung-Kook [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The KAERI be used to calculate the decommissioning cost and manage the data of decommissioning activity experience through systems such as the decommissioning information management system (DECOMMIS), Decommissioning Facility Characterization DB System (DEFACS), decommissioning work-unit productivity calculation system (DEWOCS). Some country such as Japan and The United States have the information for decommissioning experience of the NPP and publish reports on decommissioning cost analysis. These reports as valuable data be used to compare with the decommissioning unit cost. In particular, need a method to estimate the decommissioning cost of the NPP because there is no decommissioning experience of NPP in case of Korea. makes possible to predict the more precise prediction about the decommissioning unit cost. But still, there are many differences on calculation for the decommissioning unit cost in domestic and foreign country. Typically, it is difficult to compare with data because published not detailed reports. Therefore, field of estimation for decommissioning cost have to use a unified framework in order to the decommissioning cost be provided to exact of the decommissioning cost.

  19. Initial building investigations at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland: Objectives and methodology

    Brubaker, K.L.; Dougherty, J.M.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1994-12-01

    As part of an environmental-contamination source-definition program at Aberdeen Proving Ground, detailed internal and external inspections of 23 potentially contaminated buildings are being conducted to describe and characterize the state of each building as it currently exists and to identify areas potentially contaminated with toxic or other hazardous substances. In addition, a detailed geophysical investigation is being conducted in the vicinity of each target building to locate and identify subsurface structures, associated with former building operations, that are potential sources of contamination. This report describes the objectives of the initial building inspections, including the geophysical investigations, and discusses the methodology that has been developed to achieve these objectives.

  20. Methods of power reactor decommissioning cost recovery

    This paper analyzes rate-regulatory tax, accounting and cost recovery factors, and these analyses lead to the following overall conclusions in connection with decommissioning cost recovery. 1) The internal use of accumulated decommissioning funds is strongly recommended because it results in the lowest net ratepayer cost of decommissioning, and 2) The most equitable decommissioning cost recovery method is based on current costs and on the prompt and continuous maintenance of the purchasing power of accumulated funds. Finally, it is noted that the cost recovery approach recommended for decommissioning would have similar advantage if applied to spent fuel cost recovery as well

  1. Decommissioning of nuclear reactor systems

    The decision-making process involving the decommissioning of the British graphite-moderated, gas-cooled Magnox power stations is complex. There are timing, engineering, waste disposal, cost and lost generation capacity factors and the ultimate uptake of radiation dose to consider and, bearing on all of these, the overall decision of when and how to proceed with decommissioning may be heavily weighed by political and public tolerance dimensions. These factors and dimensions are briefly reviewed with reference to the ageing Magnox nuclear power stations, of which Berkeley and Hunterston A are now closed down and undergoing the first stages of decommissioning and Trawsfynydd, although still considered as available capacity, has had both reactors closed down since February 1991 and is awaiting substantiation and acceptance of a revised reactor pressure vessel safety case. Although the other first-generation Magnox power station at Hinkley Point, Bradwell, Dungeness and Sizewell are operational, it is most doubtful that these stations will be able to eke out a generating function for much longer. It is concluded that the British nuclear industry has adopted a policy of deferred decommissioning, that is delaying the process of complete dismantlement of the radioactive components and assemblies for at least one hundred years following close-down of the plant. (Author)

  2. Decommissioning study of Forsmark NPP

    By Swedish law it is the obligation of the nuclear power utilities to satisfactorily demonstrate how a nuclear power plant can be safely decommissioned and dismantled when it is no longer in service as well as calculate the estimated cost of decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (SKB) has been commissioned by the Swedish nuclear power utilities to meet the requirements of current legislation by studying and reporting on suitable technologies and by estimating the costs of decommissioning and dismantling of the Swedish nuclear power plants. The present report is an overview, containing the necessary information to meet the above needs, for the Forsmark NPP. Information is given for the plant about the inventory of materials and radioactivity at the time for final shutdown. A feasible technique for dismantling is presented and the waste management is described and the resulting waste quantities are estimated. Finally a schedule for the decommissioning phase is given and the costs associated are estimated as a basis for funding

  3. Decommissioning Study of Oskarshamn NPP

    By Swedish law it is the obligation of the nuclear power utilities to satisfactorily demonstrate how a nuclear power plant can be safely decommissioned and dismantled when it is no longer in service as well as calculate the estimated cost of decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (SKB) has been commissioned by the Swedish nuclear power utilities to meet the requirements of current legislation by studying and reporting on suitable technologies and by estimating the costs of decommissioning and dismantling of the Swedish nuclear power plants. The present report is an overview, containing the necessary information to meet the above needs, for Oskarshamn NPP. Information is given for the plant about the inventory of materials and radioactivity at the time for final shutdown. A feasible technique for dismantling is presented and the waste management is described and the resulting waste quantities are estimated. Finally a schedule for the decommissioning phase is given and the costs associated are estimated as a basis for funding

  4. Decommissioning study of Forsmark NPP

    Anunti, Aake; Larsson, Helena; Edelborg, Mathias [Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB, Vaesteraas (Sweden)

    2013-06-15

    By Swedish law it is the obligation of the nuclear power utilities to satisfactorily demonstrate how a nuclear power plant can be safely decommissioned and dismantled when it is no longer in service as well as calculate the estimated cost of decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (SKB) has been commissioned by the Swedish nuclear power utilities to meet the requirements of current legislation by studying and reporting on suitable technologies and by estimating the costs of decommissioning and dismantling of the Swedish nuclear power plants. The present report is an overview, containing the necessary information to meet the above needs, for the Forsmark NPP. Information is given for the plant about the inventory of materials and radioactivity at the time for final shutdown. A feasible technique for dismantling is presented and the waste management is described and the resulting waste quantities are estimated. Finally a schedule for the decommissioning phase is given and the costs associated are estimated as a basis for funding.

  5. Decommissioning Study of Oskarshamn NPP

    Larsson, Helena; Anunti, Aake; Edelborg, Mathias [Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB, Vaesteraas (Sweden)

    2013-06-15

    By Swedish law it is the obligation of the nuclear power utilities to satisfactorily demonstrate how a nuclear power plant can be safely decommissioned and dismantled when it is no longer in service as well as calculate the estimated cost of decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (SKB) has been commissioned by the Swedish nuclear power utilities to meet the requirements of current legislation by studying and reporting on suitable technologies and by estimating the costs of decommissioning and dismantling of the Swedish nuclear power plants. The present report is an overview, containing the necessary information to meet the above needs, for Oskarshamn NPP. Information is given for the plant about the inventory of materials and radioactivity at the time for final shutdown. A feasible technique for dismantling is presented and the waste management is described and the resulting waste quantities are estimated. Finally a schedule for the decommissioning phase is given and the costs associated are estimated as a basis for funding.

  6. 76 FR 35511 - Decommissioning Planning

    2011-06-17

    ... the January 27, 1988 (53 FR 24018), rule on planning for decommissioning require licensees to provide... regulations in 1997 as Subpart E of 10 CFR part 20 (62 FR 39058; July 21, 1997). This set of requirements is... contamination and the amount of funds set aside and expended on cleanup. (62 FR 39082; July 21, 1997)....

  7. Reactor decommissioning experience and perspectives

    This paper first describes the existing market context and available techniques, then reviews the contribution of past and present operations and research before discussing the future orientations necessary to develop the means (cutting tools, decontamination processes, telemanipulation and waste conditioning) required to improve the cost effectiveness of decommissioning nuclear power plants. (author)

  8. A Decommissioning Information Management System

    Park, S. K.; Hong, S. B.; Chung, U. S.; Park, J. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    In 1996, it was determined that research reactors, the KRR-1 and the KRR-2, would be shut down and dismantled. A project for the decommissioning of these reactors was launched in January 1997 with the goal of a completion by 2008. The total budget of the project was 19.4 million US dollars, including the cost for the waste disposal and for the technology development. The work scopes during the decommissioning project were the dismantling of all the facilities and the removal of all the radioactive materials from the reactor site. After the removal of the entire radioactivity, the site and buildings will be released for an unconditional use. A separate project for the decommissioning of the uranium conversion plant was initiated in 2001. The plant was constructed for the development of the fuel manufacturing technologies and the localization of nuclear fuels in Korea. It was shut downed in 1993 and finally it was concluded in 2000 that the plant would be decommissioned. The project will be completed by 2008 and the total budget was 9.2 million US dollars. During this project, all vessels and equipment will be dismantled and the building surface will be decontaminated to be utilized as general laboratories.

  9. Options for Steam Generator Decommissioning

    Selecting the best option for decommissioning steam generators is a key consideration in preparing for decommissioning PWR nuclear power plants. Steam Generators represent a discrete waste stream of large, complex items that can lend themselves to a variety of options for handling, treatment, recycling and disposal. Studsvik has significant experience in processing full size Steam Generators at its metal recycling facility in Sweden, and this paper will introduce the Studsvik steam generator treatment concept and the results achieved to date across a number of projects. The paper will outline the important parameters needed at an early stage to assess options and to help consider the balance between off-site and on-site treatment solutions, and the role of prior decontamination techniques. The paper also outlines the use of feasibility studies and demonstration projects that have been used to help customers prepare for decommissioning. The paper discusses physical, radiological and operational history data, Pro and Contra factors for on- and off-site treatment, the role of chemical decontamination prior to treatment, planning for off-site shipments as well as Studsvik experience This paper has an original focus upon the coming challenges of steam generator decommissioning and potential external treatment capacity constraints in the medium term. It also focuses on the potential during operations or initial shut-down to develop robust plans for steam generator management. (authors)

  10. Decommissioning: a problem or a challenge?

    Mele Irena

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available With the ageing of nuclear facilities or the reduced interest in their further operation, a new set of problems, related to the decommissioning of these facilities, has come into forefront. In many cases it turns out that the preparations for decommissioning have come too late, and that financial resources for covering decommissioning activities have not been provided. To avoid such problems, future liailities should be thoroughly estimated in drawing up the decommissioning and waste management programme for each nuclear facility in time, and financial provisions for implementing such programme should be provided. In this paper a presentation of current decommissioning experience in Slovenia is given. The main problems and difficulties in decommissioning of the Žirovski Vrh Uranium Mine are exposed and the lesson learned from this case is presented. The preparation of the decommissioning programme for the Nuclear Power Plant Krško is also described, and the situation at the TRIGA research reactor is briefly discussed.

  11. Assessment of foreign decommissioning technology with potential application to US decommissioning needs

    This study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to identify and technically assess foreign decommissioning technology developments that may represent significant improvements over decommissioning technology currently available or under development in the United States. Technology need areas for nuclear power reactor decommissioning operations were identified and prioritized using the results of past light water reactor (LWR) decommissioning studies to quantitatively evaluate the potential for reducing cost and decommissioning worker radiation dose for each major decommissioning activity. Based on these identified needs, current foreign decommissioning technologies of potential interest to the US were identified through personal contacts and the collection and review of an extensive body of decommissioning literature. These technologies were then assessed qualitatively to evaluate their uniqueness, potential for a significant reduction in decommissioning costs and/or worker radiation dose, development status, and other factors affecting their value and applicability to US needs

  12. Nuclear decommissioning in Italy

    in the oil market, both in terms of barrel cost and in terms of security of supplies, and the severe black-outs that have plagued also Italy (the major one in September 2003 lasting in some areas for about 24 hours), have started a widespread discussion about energy alternatives and strategic energy plans. In this frame an increasing number of politicians and scientists are calling for a reconsideration of nuclear energy as a viable option also for Italy in a new energy mix. It is clear that public acceptance of nuclear energy is strictly connected not only to the demonstration of high safety standards of future plants, but also to the solution of radioactive waste disposal and of plant decommissioning. This is the link that could make the SOGIN mission even more strategic for the country

  13. Ecological survey of M-Field, Edgewood Area Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Downs, J.L.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Fitzner, R.E.; Rogers, L.E.

    1991-12-01

    An ecological survey was conducted on M-Field, at the Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. M-Field is used routinely to test army smokes and obscurants, including brass flakes, carbon fibers, and fog oils. The field has been used for testing purposes for the past 40 years, but little documented history is available. Under current environmental regulations, the test field must be assessed periodically to document the presence or potential use of the area by threatened and endangered species. The M-Field area is approximately 370 acres and is part of the US Army`s Edgewood Area at Aberdeen Proving Ground in Harford County, Maryland. The grass-covered field is primarily lowlands with elevations from about 1.0 to 8 m above sea level, and several buildings and structures are present on the field. The ecological assessment of M-Field was conducted in three stages, beginning with a preliminary site visit in May to assess sampling requirements. Two field site visits were made June 3--7, and August 12--15, 1991, to identify the biota existing on the site. Data were gathered on vegetation, small mammals, invertebrates, birds, large mammals, amphibians, and reptiles.

  14. Ecological survey of M-Field, Edgewood Area Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Downs, J.L.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Fitzner, R.E.; Rogers, L.E.

    1991-12-01

    An ecological survey was conducted on M-Field, at the Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. M-Field is used routinely to test army smokes and obscurants, including brass flakes, carbon fibers, and fog oils. The field has been used for testing purposes for the past 40 years, but little documented history is available. Under current environmental regulations, the test field must be assessed periodically to document the presence or potential use of the area by threatened and endangered species. The M-Field area is approximately 370 acres and is part of the US Army's Edgewood Area at Aberdeen Proving Ground in Harford County, Maryland. The grass-covered field is primarily lowlands with elevations from about 1.0 to 8 m above sea level, and several buildings and structures are present on the field. The ecological assessment of M-Field was conducted in three stages, beginning with a preliminary site visit in May to assess sampling requirements. Two field site visits were made June 3--7, and August 12--15, 1991, to identify the biota existing on the site. Data were gathered on vegetation, small mammals, invertebrates, birds, large mammals, amphibians, and reptiles.

  15. Molecular Signature of the Ebola Virus Associated with the Fishermen Community Outbreak in Aberdeen, Sierra Leone, in February 2015

    Gruber, Cesare E. M.; Carletti, Fabrizio; Meschi, Silvia; Castilletti, Concetta; Vairo, Francesco; Biava, Mirella; Minosse, Claudia; Strada, Gino; Portella, Gina; Miccio, Rossella; Minardi, Valeria; Rolla, Luca; Kamara, Abdul; Chillemi, Giovanni; Desideri, Alessandro; Di Caro, Antonino; Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of Ebola virus from a health worker linked to a cluster of cases occurring in the fishing community of Aberdeen, Sierra Leone (February 2015), which were characterized by unusually severe presentation. The sequence, clustering in the SL subclade 3.2.4, harbors mutations potentially relevant for pathogenesis. PMID:26404609

  16. Considerations about the European Decommissioning Academy (EDA)

    According to analyses presented at EC meeting focused on decommissioning organized at 11.9.2012 in Brussels, it was stated that at least 500 new international experts for decommissioning will be needed in Europe up to 2025, which means about 35 per year.Having in mind the actual EHRO-N report from 2013 focused on operation of nuclear facilities and an assumption that the ratio between nuclear experts, nuclearized and nuclear aware people is comparable also for decommissioning (16:74:10), as well as the fact that the special study branch for decommissioning in the European countries almost does not exist, this European Decommissioning Academy (EDA) could be helpful in the overbridging this gap.For the first run of the EDA scheduled on 2014 we would like to focus on VVER decommissioning issues because this reactor type is the most distributed design in the world and many of these units are actually in decommissioning process or will be decommissioned in the near future in Europe.A graduate of the European Decommissioning Academy (EDA) should have at least bachelor level from technical or natural science Universities or Colleges and at least one year working experiences in the area of NPP decommissioning or nuclear power engineering. This study creates prerequisites for acquiring and completion of professional and specialized knowledge in the subjects which are described. (authors)

  17. Status of the NRC Decommissioning Program

    Orlando, D. A.; Camper, L.; Buckley, J.; Pogue, E.; Banovac, K.

    2003-02-24

    On July 21, 1997, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published the final rule on Radiological Criteria for License Termination (the License Termination Rule or LTR) as Subpart E to 10 CFR Part 20. NRC regulations require that materials licensees submit Decommissioning Plans to support the decommissioning of its facility if it is required by license condition, or if the procedures and activities necessary to carry out the decommissioning have not been approved by NRC and these procedures could increase the potential health and safety impacts to the workers or the public. NRC regulations also require that reactor licensees submit Post-shutdown Decommissioning Activities Reports and License Termination Plans to support the decommissioning of nuclear power facilities. This paper provides an update on the status of the NRC's decommissioning program that was presented during WM'02. It discusses the staff's current efforts to streamline the decommissioning process, current issues being faced in the decommissioning program, such as partial site release and restricted release of sites, as well as the status of the decommissioning of complex sites and those listed in the Site Decommissioning Management Plan. The paper discusses the status of permanently shut-down commercial power reactors and the transfer of complex decommissioning sites and sites listed on the SDMP to Agreement States. Finally the paper provides an update of the status of various tools and guidance the NRC is developing to assist licensees during decommissioning, including an effort to consolidate and risk-inform decommissioning guidance.

  18. Basic Research on Selecting ISDC Activity for Decommissioning Costing in KRR-2 Decommissioning Project Experience Data

    Song, Chan-Ho; Park, Hee-Seong; Jin, Hyung-Gon; Park, Seung-Kook [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    KAERI is performing research for calculation of expected time of a decommissioning work and evaluation of decommissioning cost and this research calculate a decommissioning work unit productivity based on the experience data of decommissioning activity for KRR-2. The KAERI be used to calculate the decommissioning cost and manage the experience data from the decommissioning activity through the Decommissioning Information Management System (DECOMMIS), Decommissioning Facility Characterization DB System (DEFACS), and Decommissioning Work-unit Productivity Calculation System (DEWOCS). In this paper, the methodology was presented how select the ISDC activities in dismantling work procedures of a 'removal of radioactive concrete'. The reason to select the 'removal of radioactive concrete' is main key activity and generates the amount of radioactive waste. This data will take advantage of the cost estimation after the code for the selected items derived ISDC. There are various efforts for decommissioning costing in each country. In particular, OECD/NEA recommends decommissioning cost estimation using the ISDC and IAEA provides for Cost Estimation for Research Reactors in Excel (CERREX) program that anyone is easy to use the cost evaluation from a limited decommissioning experience in domestic. In the future, for the decommissioning cost evaluation, the ISDC will be used more widely in a strong position. This paper has described a method for selecting the ISDC item from the actual dismantling work procedures.

  19. Decommissioning of Salaspils Research Reactor

    The Salaspils Research Reactor (SRR) is out of operation since July 1998 and the decommissioning of SRR was started in 1999 according to the decision of the Government of Latvia. The main decommissioning activities up to 2006 were connected with collecting and conditioning of historical radioactive wastes from different storages outside and inside of reactor hall. The total amount of dismantled materials was about 700 tons, more than 77 tons were conditioned in concrete containers for disposal in repository. The radioactive wastes management technology is discussed in the paper. It was found, that additional efforts must be spent for immobilization of radionuclides in cemented matrix to be comply with the wastes acceptance criteria. The investigations of mechanical stability of water-cement matrix are described and discussed in the paper

  20. The decommissioning of Berkeley II

    This paper describes the decommissioning progress at the Magnox site at Berkeley in Gloucestershire.Throughout the work at Berkeley the emphasis has been on conducting decommissioning safely. This has been reflected in the progress of decommissioning starting with removal of the fuel from site and thus much greater than 99% of the radioactive inventory. The major radioactive hazard is the Intermediate Level Waste in the form of fuel element debris (graphite struts and extraneous magnox components removed to increase the packing density of fuel elements in flasks going to Sellafield), miscellaneous activated components, sludges and resins. Approximately 1500 m3 of such material exists and is stored in underground waste vaults on site. Work is underway to recover and encapsulate the waste in cement so rendering it 'passively safe'. All work on site is covered by a nuclear safety case which has a key objective of minimising the radiological exposures that could accrue to workers. Reflecting this an early decision has been taken to leave work on the Reactor Pressure Vessels themselves for several decades. Also important in protection of the workforce has been control of asbestos.Much material has been removed with redundant plant and equipment, but a programme of remediation in line with government legislation has been required to ensure personnel safety throughout the decommissioning period and into Care and Maintenance.In addition to health and safety matters the site approach to environmental issues has been consistent. Formally such standards as ISO 14001 have been adhered to and the appropriate certification maintained. At a working level the principles of reduce, reuse and recycle have been inculcated

  1. Integrated decommissioning management tools (IDMT)

    Full text: Nuclear Power Plant decommissioning requires a number of demolition activities related to civil works and systems as well as the construction of temporary facilities used for treatment and conditioning of the dismantled parts. The presence of a radiological, potentially hazardous, environment due to the specific configuration and history of the plant require a professional, expert and qualified approach approved by the national safety authority. Dismantling activities must be designed, planned and analysed in detail during an evaluation phase taking into account different scenarios generated by possible dismantling sequences and specific waste treatments to be implemented. The optimisation process of the activities becomes very challenging taking into account the requirement of the minimisation of the radiological impact on exposed workers and people during normal and accident conditions. While remote operated equipment, waste treatment and conditioning facilities may be designed taking into account this primary goal also a centralised management system and corresponding software tools have to be designed and operated in order to guarantee the fulfilment of the imposed limits as well as the traceability of wastes. Ansaldo Nuclear Division has been strongly involved in the development of a qualified and certified software environment to manage the most critical activities of a decommissioning project. The IDMT system (Integrated Decommissioning Management Tools) provide a set of stand alone user friendly applications able to work in an integrated configuration to guarantee waste identification, traceability during treatment and conditioning process as well as location and identification at the Final Repository site. Additionally, the system can be used to identify, analyse and compare different specific operating scenarios to be optimised in term of both economical and radiological considerations. The paper provides an overview of the different phases of

  2. Decommissioning - The keys to success

    The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) owns and operates five sites across the United Kingdom. The Winfrith site in Dorset was established in the late 1950's as a centre for development of prototype reactors. During its history, nine research reactors have operated on the site together with: a fuel fabrication facility; a post irradiation examination facility; radiochemistry laboratories, etc. The largest reactor, a 100MWe Steam Generating Heavy Water Reactor, was closed down in 1990 and the last research reactor was closed in 1995. Since the early 1990's the site has been undergoing a programme of progressive decommissioning with a view to releasing the site for alternative use unrestricted by the site's nuclear history. Key drivers for the design of the programme were safety, minimising adverse environmental effects, minimising costs and ensuring stakeholder support. One requirement of the stakeholders was to ensure that the site continued to provide high quality employment. This was successfully achieved by developing a Science and Technology Park on the nuclear site. Over 40 companies are now located on the Park providing over 1000 jobs. This paper will focus on the lessons learnt from over a decade of experience of decommissioning at Winfrith and will attempt to identify the 'keys to successful decommissioning'. These 'keys' will include: defining the site end-point; planning the programme; defining the commercial strategy; cost estimation; evaluation and management of risks; safety and environmental management; and stakeholder engagement. In particular, the paper will explore the very close relationship between: funding profiles; cost estimation; risk management and commercial strategy. It will show that these aspects of the programme cannot be considered separately. The paper will attempt to show that, with careful planning; decommissioning can be achieved safety and give good value for money to the funding authority. (author)

  3. Residual activity criteria for decommissioning

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission development of criteria for release of facilities and sites for unrestricted use following decommissioning is described. Residual activity limits for both materials and soil are covered. The objectives are: small risk of exposure, consistency with relevant existing standards, and feasibility of demonstration of compliance by measurement. Specific aspects discussed related to establishment of limits are: appropriate risk and dose limits, identification of radionuclides to be considered, dose assessment methodology, and confirmatory measurements

  4. IDMT, Integrated Decommissioning Management Tools

    Nuclear Power Plant decommissioning requires a number of demolition activities related to civil works and systems as well as the construction of temporary facilities used for treatment and conditioning of the dismantled parts. The presence of a radiological, potentially hazardous, environment due to the specific configuration and history of the plant require a professional, expert and qualified approach approved by the national safety authority. Dismantling activities must be designed, planned and analysed in detail during an evaluation phase taking into account different scenarios generated by possible dismantling sequences and specific waste treatments to be implemented. The optimisation process of the activities becomes very challenging taking into account the requirement of the minimisation of the radiological impact on exposed workers and people during normal and accident conditions. While remote operated equipment, waste treatment and conditioning facilities may be designed taking into account this primary goal also a centralised management system and corresponding software tools have to be designed and operated in order to guarantee the fulfilment of the imposed limits as well as the traceability of wastes. Ansaldo Nuclear Division has been strongly involved in the development of a qualified and certified software environment to manage the most critical activities of a decommissioning project. The IDMT system (Integrated Decommissioning Management Tools) provide a set of stand alone user friendly applications able to work in an integrated configuration to guarantee waste identification, traceability during treatment and conditioning process as well as location and identification at the Final Repository site. Additionally, the system can be used to identify, analyse and compare different specific operating scenarios to be optimised in term of both economical and radiological considerations. The paper provides an overview of the different phases of

  5. Decommissioning plans and activities in Slovenia

    With the ageing of nuclear facilities, or the reduced interest in their further operation, a new set of problems, related to the decommissioning of these facilities, has come into forefront. In many cases it turns out that the preparations for decommissioning have come too late, and that financial resources for covering decommissioning activities have not been provided. In this paper a presentation is given of current decommissioning experience in Slovenia. The main problems and difficulties in decommissioning of the Zirovski vrh Uranium Mine are exposed, and the lesson learned from this case is presented. The preparation of the decommissioning programme for the nuclear power plant Krsko is also described, and the situation at the TRIGA research reactor is briefly discussed. (author)

  6. Safety yields decommissioning successes. Panel Discussion

    Full text of publication follows: Panelists will speak to the most recent decommissioning projects successfully conducted. The projects represent facilities over the full range of commercial decommissioning, fuel storage, and weapons facilities. Lessons learned will be stressed to guide interested parties through future decommissioning activities. Human Factors Assessment of D and D Technologies and How This Relates to Improvement of Safety in Decommissioning Projects (Bruce Lippy (OENHP)); PPPL's Safety Practices, Safety Records, and Corrective Actions to Address Safety Issues (Keith Rule (PPPL)); INEEL's Safety Practices in Decommissioning Projects and Safety-Enhancing D and D Technologies (Richard Meservey (BWXT)); Big Rock Point Restoration Project Decommissioning Successes from a Safety Culture Perspective (William Trubilowicz (Consumers PWR, Big Rock Point))

  7. Fort St. Vrain defueling ampersand decommissioning considerations

    Fort St. Vrain Nuclear Generating Station (FSV) is one of the first commercial reactors to be decommissioned under NRC's decommissioning rule. The defueling and decommissioning of this 330 MWe High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) has involved many challenges for Public Service Company of Colorado (PSC) including defueling to an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI), establishing decommissioning funding, obtaining regulatory approvals, arranging for waste disposal, and managing a large fixed price decommissioning contract. In 1990, a team comprised of the Westinghouse Corporation and Morrison Knudsen Corporation, with the Scientific Ecology Group as a major subcontractor, was contracted by PSC to perform the decommissioning under a fixed price contract. Physical work activities began in August 1992. Currently, physical dismantlement activities are about 45% complete, the project is on schedule, and is within budget

  8. Nuclear decommissioning planning, execution and international experience

    2012-01-01

    A title that critically reviews the decommissioning and decontamination processes and technologies available for rehabilitating sites used for nuclear power generation and civilian nuclear facilities, from fundamental issues and best practices, to procedures and technology, and onto decommissioning and decontamination case studies.$bOnce a nuclear installation has reached the end of its safe and economical operational lifetime, the need for its decommissioning arises. Different strategies can be employed for nuclear decommissioning, based on the evaluation of particular hazards and their attendant risks, as well as on the analysis of costs of clean-up and waste management. This allows for decommissioning either soon after permanent shutdown, or perhaps a long time later, the latter course allowing for radioactivity levels to drop in any activated or contaminated components. It is crucial for clear processes and best practices to be applied in decommissioning such installations and sites, particular where any ...

  9. Decommissioning: a United Kingdom perspective

    The paper considers the United Kingdom legislative framework relevant to decommissioning of facilities on nuclear licensed sites. It describes the various legislative bodies involved in regulating this activity and the inspectorate concerned. The licensing regime is described in some detail highlighting the UK arrangements whereby a license is granted for the site upon which nuclear facilities are planned or exist. The license remains in place throughout the life of the plant on the site: from initial planning through to the end of decommissioning. A site (of part of) is not de-licensed until it can be stated that there has ceased to be any danger from ionising radiations from anything on the site (or appropriate part of the site). The final part of the paper considers the changes arising from the commercialization of the nuclear power industry in UK and the restatement of the Nuclear Installation Inspectorate's policy on decommissioning which has arisen as a result of a review made in response to these changes. (author)

  10. Decommissioning: a United Kingdom perspective

    Haworth, A.; Reed, D.L.; Bleeze, A. [Health and Safety Executive, London (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    The paper considers the United Kingdom legislative framework relevant to decommissioning of facilities on nuclear licensed sites. It describes the various legislative bodies involved in regulating this activity and the inspectorate concerned. The licensing regime is described in some detail highlighting the UK arrangements whereby a license is granted for the site upon which nuclear facilities are planned or exist. The license remains in place throughout the life of the plant on the site: from initial planning through to the end of decommissioning. A site (of part of) is not de-licensed until it can be stated that there has ceased to be any danger from ionising radiations from anything on the site (or appropriate part of the site). The final part of the paper considers the changes arising from the commercialization of the nuclear power industry in UK and the restatement of the Nuclear Installation Inspectorate`s policy on decommissioning which has arisen as a result of a review made in response to these changes. (author).

  11. Decommissioning of naval nuclear ships

    During the next decade the two major nuclear powers will each have to decommission more than 100 naval nuclear vessels, in particular submarines. The problems connected with this task is considered in this report. Firstly the size of the task is considered, i.e. the number of nuclear vessels that has to be decommissioned. Secondly the reactors of these vessels, their fuel elements, their power level, the number of reactors per vessel and the amount of radioactivity to be handled are discussed. Thirdly the decommissioning procedures, i.e. The removal of fuel from the vessels, the temporary storage of the reactor fuel near the base, and the cleaning and disposal of the reactor and the primary circuit components are reviewed. Finally alternative uses of the newer submarines are briefly considered. It should be emphasizes that much of the detailed information on which this report is based, may be of dubious nature, and that may to some extent affect the validity of the conclusions of the report. (au)

  12. Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project: overview and justification

    The purpose of this booklet is to brief the reader on the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project and to summarize the benefits of funding the project in FY 1984. Background information on the station and the decommissioning project is provided in this section of the booklet; the need for a reactor decommissining demonstration is discussed in the next section; and a summary of how the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project (SSDP) provides the needed demonstration is provided in the final section

  13. IAEA Perspectives on Preparation for Decommissioning

    There are about 160 power reactors in decommissioning phase worldwide. In addition, more than 400 other nuclear facilities, such as research reactors or nuclear fuel cycle facilities, have been shutdown for decommissioning, have been undergoing active decommissioning or have already been fully dismantled. Planned and systematic preparation for decommissioning is very important for further effective implementation of dismantling activities. While some preparatory activities for decommissioning start early in the facility life-cycle, the main preparatory activities are implemented towards the end of the operational period and during the transition period from operation to decommissioning. These may include a wide range of technical actions, such as physical and radiological characterization, pre-decommissioning decontamination, management of spent fuel and operational waste, establishment of new waste management facilities and modification of safety systems needed to support decommissioning. In parallel, some non-technical tasks are to be completed, e.g. preparation of the final decommissioning plan and its supporting documents, licensing activities, organizational changes, training of personnel for decommissioning, etc. Preparatory activities may be organized in various ways depending on considered decommissioning strategies and physical and radiological status of the nuclear facility after its routine operation is over. The IAEA published numerous safety and technical reports providing guidance, recommendations, experiences, good practices and lessons learned, fully or to some extent covering the preparatory phase for decommissioning. Many training courses, workshops, seminars etc. were organized to support sharing of good practices among specialists and organizations involved. This paper provides an overview of relevant activities and perspectives of the IAEA in this area. The paper also draws some general conclusions and identifies lessons learned on the basis of

  14. U.S. decommissioning requirements and recommendations on international principles and rules on decommissioning

    U.S. requirements for decommissioning nuclear power plants have been under development for the past seven years. During the year 1985, policies and requirements for the following areas will be developed: methods of decommissioning, timing, planning, and financial security. Due to the common nature of the problems with decommissioning, international exchange of information is highly desirable. (CW)

  15. Decommissioning Technology Development for Nuclear Research Facilities

    It is predicted that the decommissioning of a nuclear power plant would happen in Korea since 2020 but the need of partial decommissioning and decontamination for periodic inspection and life extension still has been on an increasing trend and its domestic market has gradually been extended. Therefore, in this project we developed following several essential technologies as a decommissioning R and D. The measurement technology for in-pipe radioactive contamination was developed for measuring alpha/beta/gamma emitting nuclides simultaneously inside a in-pipe and it was tested into the liquid waste transfer pipe in KRR-2. And the digital mock-up system for KRR-1 and 2 was developed for choosing the best scenarios among several scenarios on the basis of various decommissioning information(schedule, waste volume, cost, etc.) that are from the DMU and the methodology of decommissioning cost estimation was also developed for estimating a research reactor's decommissioning cost and the DMU and the decommissioning cost estimation system were incorporated into the decommissioning information integrated management system. Finally the treatment and management technology of the irradiated graphites that happened after decommissioning KRR-2 was developed in order to treat and manage the irradiated graphites safely

  16. Status of the Fort St. Vrain decommissioning

    Fort St. Vrain is a high temperature gas cooled reactor. It has been shut down as a result of financial and technical difficulties. Fort St. Vrain has been planning for defueling and decommissioning for at least three years. The preliminary decommissioning plan, in accordance with the NRC's final rule, has been submitted and is being reviewed by the NRC. The basis of the preliminary decommissioning plan has been SAFSTOR. Public Service Company, who is the owner and operator of FSV, is scheduled to submit a proposed decommissioning plan to the NRC in the fourth quarter of 1990. PSC has gone out for bid on the decontamination and dismantlement of FSV. This paper includes the defueling schedule, the independent spent fuel storage installation status, the probability of shipping fuel to DOE, the status of the preliminary decommissioning plan submittal, the issuance of a possession only license and what are the results of obtaining this license amendment, preliminary decommissioning activities allowed prior to the approval of a proposed decommissioning plan, the preparation of a proposed decommissioning plan and the status of our decision to proceed with SAFSTOR or DECON as identified in the NRC's final decommissioning rule

  17. European Decommissioning Academy (EDA). Ready to start

    Slugen, Vladimir [Slovak University of Technology, Bratislava (Slovakia). Inst. of Nuclear and Physical Engineering

    2015-02-15

    According to analyses presented at EC meeting focused on decommissioning organized at 11 September 2012 in Brussels, it was stated that at least 2,000 new international experts for decommissioning will be needed in Europe up to 2025, which means about 150 each year. The article describes the European Decommissioning Academy (EDA) which is prepared for the first term in June 2015 in Slovakia. The main goal is a creation of new nuclear experts generation for decommissioning via the Academy, which will include lessons, practical exercises in laboratories as well as 2 days on-site training at NPP V-1 in Jaslovske Bohunice (Slovakia). Four days technical tour via most interesting European decommissioning facilities in Switzerland and Italy are planned as well. After the final exam, there is the option to continue in knowledge collection via participation at the 2nd Eastern and Central European Decommissioning (ECED) conference in Trnava (Slovakia). We would like to focus on VVER decommissioning issues because this reactor type is the most distributed design in the world and many of these units are actually in decommissioning process or will be decommissioned in the near future.

  18. European Decommissioning Academy (EDA). Ready to start

    According to analyses presented at EC meeting focused on decommissioning organized at 11 September 2012 in Brussels, it was stated that at least 2,000 new international experts for decommissioning will be needed in Europe up to 2025, which means about 150 each year. The article describes the European Decommissioning Academy (EDA) which is prepared for the first term in June 2015 in Slovakia. The main goal is a creation of new nuclear experts generation for decommissioning via the Academy, which will include lessons, practical exercises in laboratories as well as 2 days on-site training at NPP V-1 in Jaslovske Bohunice (Slovakia). Four days technical tour via most interesting European decommissioning facilities in Switzerland and Italy are planned as well. After the final exam, there is the option to continue in knowledge collection via participation at the 2nd Eastern and Central European Decommissioning (ECED) conference in Trnava (Slovakia). We would like to focus on VVER decommissioning issues because this reactor type is the most distributed design in the world and many of these units are actually in decommissioning process or will be decommissioned in the near future.

  19. Experiences in teaching decommissioning - 16179

    The paper describes the experience gained by the author in teaching decommissioning in the Highlands of Scotland. Initially when asked to teach the subject of decommissioning to students sitting for a BSc degree in 'Electrical or Mechanical Engineering with Decommissioning Studies', the author was taken aback, not having previously taught degree students and there was no precedent since there was no previous material or examples to build on. It was just as difficult for the students since whilst some had progressed from completing HND studies, the majority were employed at the Dounreay site and were mature students with families who were availing themselves of the opportunity for career advancement (CPD). Some of the students were from the UKAEA and its contractors whilst others were from Rolls-Royce working at Vulcan, the Royal Navy's establishment for testing nuclear reactors for submarines. A number of the students had not been in a formal learning environment for many years. The College which had originally been funded by the UKAEA and the nuclear industry in the 1950's was anxious to break into the new field of Decommissioning and were keen to promote these courses in order to support the work progressing on site. Many families in Thurso, and in Caithness, have a long tradition of working in the nuclear industry and it was thought at the time that expertise in nuclear decommissioning could be developed and indeed exported elsewhere. In addition the courses being promoted by the College would attract students from other parts so that a centre of excellence could be established. In parallel with formal teaching, online courses were also developed to extend the reach of the College. The material was developed as a mixture of power point presentations and formal notes and was obtained from existing literature, web searches and interactive discussions with people in the industry as well as case studies obtained from actual situations. Assignments were set and

  20. Evaluation of the I. Stage of decommissioning and implementation of the II. Stage of decommissioning of NPP V1

    In this paper author deals with following aspects: 1. Introduction of company Nuclear and Decommissioning Company, plc; 2. Evaluation of the I. stage of decommissioning and implementation of the II. Stage of decommissioning of NPP V1; (author)

  1. An apparatus for studying spallation neutrons in the Aberdeen Tunnel laboratory

    Blyth, S C; Chen, X C; Chu, M C; Hahn, R L; Ho, T H; Hsiung, Y B; Hu, B Z; Kwan, K K; Kwok, M W; Kwok, T; Lau, Y P; Lee, K P; Leung, J K C; Leung, K Y; Lin, G L; Lin, Y C; Luk, K B; Luk, W H; Ngai, H Y; Ngan, S Y; Pun, C S J; Shih, K; Tam, Y H; Tsang, R H M; Wang, C H; Wong, C M; Wong, H L; Wong, H H C; Wong, K K; Yeh, M

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the design, construction and performance of an apparatus installed in the Aberdeen Tunnel laboratory in Hong Kong for studying spallation neutrons induced by cosmic-ray muons under a vertical rock overburden of 611 meter water equivalent (m.w.e.). The apparatus comprises of six horizontal layers of plastic-scintillator hodoscopes for determining the direction and position of the incident cosmic-ray muons. Sandwiched between the hodoscope planes is a neutron detector filled with 650 kg of liquid scintillator doped with about 0.06% of Gadolinium by weight for improving the e?ciency of detecting the spallation neutrons. Performance of the apparatus is also presented.

  2. Research in decommissioning techniques for nuclear fuel cycle facilities in JNC. 7. JWTF decommissioning techniques

    Ogawa, Ryuichiro; Ishijima, Noboru [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1999-02-01

    Decommissioning techniques such as radiation measuring and monitoring, decontamination, dismantling and remote handling in the world were surveyed to upgrading technical know-how database for decommissioning of Joyo Waste Treatment Facility (JWTF). As the result, five literatures for measuring and monitoring techniques, 14 for decontamination and 22 for dismantling feasible for JWTF decommissioning were obtained and were summarized in tables. On the basis of the research, practical applicability of those techniques to decommissioning of JWTF was evaluated. This report contains brief surveyed summaries related to JWTF decommissioning. (H. Itami)

  3. Decommissioning of Russian research facilities

    When the most of our research facilities were built and put in operation more than 30 years ago there had been neither requirements no regulations concerning their future decommissioning (D and D). And due to that fact nobody thought of that in the initial designs of these facilities. The situation changed when in 1994 a top-level safety standard 'Safety Provision for Safety of Research Reactors' was issued by Gosatomnadzor of Russia with a special chapter 7, devoted to D and D issues. Unfortunately, it was just one page of requirements pertaining RR D and D in general terms and was not specific. Only in 2001 Gosatomnadzor of Russia developed and issued a more specific standard 'Rules for Safety Decommissioning of Nuclear Research Facilities'. From the total number of 85 Nuclear Research Facilities, including 34 research reactors, 36 critical assemblies and 15 subcritical assemblies, we have now 7 facilities under decommissioning. The situation is inevitably changing over the time. In the end of 2003 the decision was made to permanently shutdown two RR: AM, graphite type with channels, 15 MBt; BR-10, LMFR type, 10 MBt, and to start preparatory work for their future decommissioning, starting from 2005. It needs to be mentioned that from this list we have 6 reactors with which we face many difficulties in developing decommissioning technologies, namely: for TVR reactor: handling of heavy water and high radiation field in the core; for MR reactor: very complex reactor with many former radioactive spills, which is required a careful and expensive D and D work; AM: graphite utilization problem; BR-10: a problem of coolant poisoned with other heavy metals (like lead, bismuth); IBR-30: the fuel cannot be removed from the core prior the D and D project starts; RG-1M: location is above Arctic Circle, problem of transfer of irradiated parts of the reactor. The decision was made to bury then on the site thus creating a shallow-land radwaste storage facility. The established D

  4. STANDARD OPERATING PROTOCOLS FOR DECOMMISSIONING

    Decommissioning projects at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) sites are conducted under project-specific decision documents, which involve extensive preparation time, public comment periods, and regulatory approvals. Often, the decision documents must be initiated at least one year before commencing the decommissioning project, and they are expensive and time consuming to prepare. The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) is a former nuclear weapons production plant at which hazardous substances and wastes were released or disposed during operations. As a result of the releases, RFETS was placed on the National Priorities List in 1989, and is conducting cleanup activities under a federal facilities compliance agreement. Working closely with interested stakeholders and state and federal regulatory agencies, RFETS has developed and implemented an improved process for obtaining the approvals. The key to streamlining the approval process has been the development of sitewide decision documents called Rocky Flats Cleanup Agreement Standard Operating Protocols or ''RSOPs.'' RSOPs have broad applicability, and could be used instead of project-specific documents. Although no two decommissioning projects are exactly the same and they may vary widely in contamination and other hazards, the basic steps taken for cleanup are usually similar. Because of this, using RSOPs is more efficient than preparing a separate project-specific decision documents for each cleanup action. Over the Rocky Flats cleanup life cycle, using RSOPs has the potential to: (1) Save over 5 million dollars and 6 months on the site closure schedule; (2) Eliminate preparing one hundred and twenty project-specific decision documents; and (3) Eliminate writing seventy-five closure description documents for hazardous waste unit closure and corrective actions

  5. AREVA decommissioning strategy and programme

    As with any industrial installation, a nuclear facility has an operating life that requires accounting for its shutdown. In compliance with its sustainable development commitments, AREVA accounts this via its own decommissioning resources to value and make sites fit for further use. These capabilities guarantee the reversibility of the nuclear industry. Thus, the nuclear site value development constitutes an important activity for AREVA, which contributes to the acceptance of nuclear in line with the AREVA continuous policy of sustainable development which is to be fully responsible from the creation, during the operation, to the dismantling of its facilities in all respects with safety, local acceptance and environment. AREVA has already performed a large variety of operation during the life-time of its installations such as heavy maintenance, equipment replacement, upgrading operation. Nowadays, a completely different dimension is emerging with industrial decommissioning operations of nuclear fuel cycle installations: enrichment gaseous diffusion plant, fuel assembly plants, recycling and reprocessing facilities. These activities constitute a major know-how for AREVA. For this reason, the group decided, beginning of 2008, to gather 4 projects in one business unit called Nuclear Site Value Development - a reprocessing plant UP2 400 on AREVA La Hague site, a reprocessing plant UP1 on AREVA Marcoule site, a MOX fuel plant on Cadarache and 2 sites (SICN Veurey and Annecy) that handled GCR fuel fabrication). The main objectives are to enhance the feed back, to contribute to performance improvements, to value professionals and to put innovation forward. The following article will describe in a first part the main decommissioning programmes managed by AREVA NC Nuclear Site Value Development Business Unit. The second part will deal with strategic approaches. A more efficient organization with integration of the supply chain and innovation will be part of the main drivers

  6. Facilitation of decommissioning light water reactors

    Information on design features, special equipment, and construction methods useful in the facilitation of decommissioning light water reactors is presented. A wide range of facilitation methods - from improved documentation to special decommissioning tools and techniques - is discussed. In addition, estimates of capital costs, cost savings, and radiation dose reduction associated with these facilitation methods are given

  7. 76 FR 3837 - Nuclear Decommissioning Funds; Correction

    2011-01-21

    ... 23, 2010 (75 FR 80697) relating to deductions for contributions to trusts maintained for decommissioning nuclear power plants. DATES: This correction is effective on January 21, 2011, and is applicable... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BF08 Nuclear Decommissioning Funds; Correction...

  8. Survey of decontamination and decommissioning techniques

    Reports and articles on decommissioning have been reviewed to determine the current technology status and also attempt to identify potential decommissioning problem areas. It is concluded that technological road blocks, which limited decommissioning facilities in the past have been removed. In general, techniques developed by maintenance in maintaining the facility have been used to decommission facilities. Some of the more promising development underway which will further simplify decommissioning activities are: electrolytic decontamination which simplifies some decontaminating operations; arc saw and vacuum furnace which reduce the volume of metallic contaminated material by a factor of 10; remotely operated plasma torch which reduces personnel exposure; and shaped charges, water cannon and rock splitters which simplify concrete removal. Areas in which published data are limited are detailed costs identifying various components included in the total cost and also the quantity of waste generated during the decommissioning activities. With the increased awareness of decommissioning requirements as specified by licensing requirements, design criteria for new facilities are taking into consideration final decommissioning of buildings. Specific building design features will evolve as designs are evaluated and implemented

  9. Project gnome decontamination and decommissioning plan

    The document presents the operational plan for conducting the final decontamination and decommissioning work at the site of the first U.S. nuclear detonation designed specifically for peaceful purposes and the first underground event on the Plowshare Program to take place outside the Nevada Test Site. The plan includes decontamination and decommissioning procedures, radiological guidelines, and the NV concept of operations

  10. Interim Storage Facility decommissioning. Final report

    Decontamination and decommissioning of the Interim Storage Facility were completed. Activities included performing a detailed radiation survey of the facility, removing surface and imbedded contamination, excavating and removing the fuel storage cells, restoring the site to natural conditions, and shipping waste to Hanford, Washington, for burial. The project was accomplished on schedule and 30% under budget with no measurable exposure to decommissioning personnel

  11. 76 FR 77431 - Decommissioning Planning During Operations

    2011-12-13

    ... that the NRC staff considers acceptable for use in complying with the NRC's Decommissioning Planning... that the NRC staff considers acceptable for use in complying with the NRC's Decommissioning Planning Rule (DPR), which will become effective on December 17, 2012 (76 FR 35511; June 17, 2011). That...

  12. Meeting the challenge of BNFL's decommissioning programme

    The paper reviews the co-ordinated and integrated programme, adopted by BNFL, in the decommissioning of its radioactive plants. It examines BNFL's approach to the challenges posed by the eventual decommissioning of its 120 plants, its overall strategies, the constraints and the progress achieved to date, drawing on real experience from the 22 completed projects and the 24 projects currently underway. (author)

  13. Training of experts on NPP decommissioning

    The paper presents difficulties and problems in training of NPP decommissioning experts in Ukraine. The scientific and technical cluster is offered to be constructed as a territorial association of enterprises and organizations related to NPP decommissioning issues and spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management. The center is to be based on scientific and educational center in Slavutych, satellite city of Chornobyl NPP.

  14. Decommissioning of a University Cyclotron

    In the decommissioning of a university cyclotron, the cost estimate provided by a decommissioning company to carry out the entire project was in excess of Pounds 1million. This level of funding was not available, and a more modest budget of Pounds 125 thousand was provided (about US$ 250 000 or Euro 180 000). This made it essential that as much of the work as possible was carried out by existing staff. Whereas existing staff could be trained to draft all the required documentation, complete the characterization survey and deliver some aspects of the decontamination programme, their greatest contribution to the project was in sorting, segregation, measurement, packaging and consignment for disposal of all of the decommissioning wastes. This necessitated provision of additional training to existing operators. At an early stage it was identified that an experienced decommissioning consultant was needed to oversee the project. The Decommissioning Consultant appointed external contractors to carry out all the heavy dismantling and demolition work associated with the project. This work involved: -Assembly of a caged storage area adjacent to the cyclotron to hold the wastes from dismantling and demolition, pending characterization for segregation and disposal by existing staff at the facility; -Removal of the D's and cutting them up in situ ready for characterization for shipment to the low level waste repository; -Removal of all rotating machinery in the adjacent generator house, then dismantling the concrete block and brick wall between the inner vault and the generator house; -Removal of extra shielding supported by girder matrix to assist removal of the concrete block wall. Collect core samples of bricks and blocks for activity estimation by operators working at the facility; -Moving of the resonator into the generator house for dismantling, monitoring and characterization; -Dismantling of ancillary equipment such as beam lines, remote target handling system, vacuum

  15. Decommission of nuclear ship `MUTSU`

    Tateyama, Takeshi [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-11-01

    The nuclear-powered ship `MUTSU` was decommissioned by removing the reactor room in June 1995, which was hoisted and transported by a floating crane to a shore storage room at Sekinehama, Aomori Prefecture. This work was carried out in three stages: extraction of the spent fuel assemblies and neutron sources, dismantling of the machinery in the reactor auxiliary room, and separation and transportation of the reactor together with the secondary shielding structure and surrounding hull. IHI mainly conducted the third stage work. The separation work of the reactor room structure using a semisubmersible barge is outlined. Stress analysis and design of the reactor room for lifting work is also described. (author)

  16. The IAEA Safety Regime for Decommissioning

    Full text of publication follows: The International Atomic Energy Agency is developing an international framework for decommissioning of nuclear facilities that consists of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management, and a hierarchy of Safety Standards applicable to decommissioning. The Joint Convention entered into force on 18 June 2001 and as of December 2001 had been ratified by 27 IAEA Member States. The Joint Convention contains a number of articles dealing with planning for, financing, staffing and record keeping for decommissioning. The Joint Convention requires Contracting Parties to apply the same operational radiation protection criteria, discharge limits and criteria for controlling unplanned releases during decommissioning that are applied during operations. The IAEA has issued Safety Requirements document and three Safety Guides applicable to decommissioning of facilities. The Safety Requirements document, WS-R-2, Pre-disposal Management of Radioactive Waste, including Decommissioning, contains requirements applicable to regulatory control, planning and funding, management of radioactive waste, quality assurance, and environmental and safety assessment of the decommissioning process. The three Safety Guides are WS-G-2.1, Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Plants and Research Reactors, WS-G-2.2, Decommissioning of Medical, Industrial and Research Facilities, an WS-G-2.4, Decommissioning of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities. They contain guidance on how to meet the requirements of WS-R-2 applicable to decommissioning of specific types of facilities. These Standards contain only general requirements and guidance relative to safety assessment and do not contain details regarding the content of the safety case. More detailed guidance will be published in future Safety Reports currently in preparation within the Waste Safety Section of the IAEA. Because much material arising during the decommissioning

  17. Asbestos removal in Shippingport Decommissioning Project

    The Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project (SSDP) is being performed under contract to the DOE by the General Electric Company and its integrated subcontractor, MK-Ferguson Company, as the Decommissioning Operations Contractor (DOC). During the planning of this project, it was found that asbestos was the primary insulating material which was used on the nuclear steam supply system and the plant heating system. The original decommissioning plan required that each subcontractor remove the asbestos from the particular component(s) they had to remove. However, since removal of the radioactivity-contaminated asbestos would require special procedures and worker training, the original decommissioning plan was modified so that a single subcontractor removed all of the asbestos prior to other decommissioning tasks. IT Corporation was selected as the asbestos removal subcontractor. Their approach to the project is described

  18. Decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    The objectives of this coordinated research programme (CRP) were to promote the exchange of information on the practical experience by Member States in decontamination and decommissioning. The scope of the programme included several areas of decontamination and decommissioning rather than focusing on a single aspect of it, in line with recommendation of the experts who participated in Phase 1 of the CRP. Experts felt that this format would generate better awareness of decontamination and decommissioning and would be more effective vehicle for the exchange of information by stimulating broader discussion on all aspects of decontamination and decommissioning. Special emphasis was given to the development of principles and methodologies to facilitate decommissioning and to the new methods and techniques for optimization of decontamination and disassembly of equipment. Refs, figs, tabs

  19. Decommissioning of nuclear research facilities at KAERI

    At the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), two research reactors (KRR-1 and KRR-2) and one uranium conversion plant (UCP) are being decommissioned. The main reason of the decommissioning was the diminishing utilities; the start of a new research reactor, HANARO, and the higher conversion cost than that of international market for the UCP. Another reason of the decommissioning was prevention from spreading radioactive materials due to the deterioration of the facilities. Two separate projects have already been started and are carried out as planned. The KAERI selected several strategies, considering the small scale of the projects, the internal standards in KAERI, and the future prospects of the decommissioning projects in Korea. In this paper, the current status of the decommissioning including the waste management and the technology development will be explained

  20. Decommissioning plan for TRIGA Mark-2

    Park, Seung Kook; Lee, B.J.

    1999-04-01

    Korea Research Reactor 1(KRR 1; TRIGA Mark-2) is the first reactor in Korea, but its decommissioning is underway due to its life. In this paper, presenting the reason and object of decommissioning KRR 1, then describing reactor structure and survey result of the facility, activation and contamination status around reactor and nearby equipment and vicinity. Estimating dose rate was evaluated for every work stage. Those of survey, evaluation and radiological status were considered to determine the safe and reasonable decommissioning methods. The order of decommissioning works are divided by section to minimize possible hazard. Proposed decommissioning plan is based on hazard and operability study to protect workers and residents from radiation expose. (author). 12 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs.

  1. Conceptual data modeling on the decommissioning database

    ISP (Information Strategy Planning), which is the first step of the whole database development, has been studied to manage effectively information and data related to the decommissioning activities of the Korea Research Reactor 1 and 2 (KRR 1 and 2). A record management system (RMS) of large nuclear facilities of national experience such as in the U. S. A., Japan, Belgium, and Russian were reviewed. In order to establish the scope of the decommissioning DB, user requirement and the importance of the information were analyzed and set up the conceptual design of the decommissioning DB. The results have been reviewed an national experience were recognized to acquire the technology of the decommissioning DB for the whole decommissioning process. It has been extracted the principle information such as working information, facilities information, radioactive waste treatment, and radiological surveying and analysis during the interviewing with an experts. These information and data will be used as the basic data to design the prototyping

  2. Decommissioning plan for TRIGA Mark-2

    Korea Research Reactor 1(KRR 1; TRIGA Mark-2) is the first reactor in Korea, but its decommissioning is underway due to its life. In this paper, presenting the reason and object of decommissioning KRR 1, then describing reactor structure and survey result of the facility, activation and contamination status around reactor and nearby equipment and vicinity. Estimating dose rate was evaluated for every work stage. Those of survey, evaluation and radiological status were considered to determine the safe and reasonable decommissioning methods. The order of decommissioning works are divided by section to minimize possible hazard. Proposed decommissioning plan is based on hazard and operability study to protect workers and residents from radiation expose. (author). 12 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs

  3. Decommissioning progress at Fort St Vrain

    The Fort St. Vrain Nuclear Generating Station in Colorado in the United States is well along in Decommissioning for release of the site from its Nuclear Regulatory Commission license. This decommissioning is being performed under a fixed price contract between the owner, Public Service Company of Colorado and a team of Westinghouse and Morrison-Knudsen. This paper will discuss the innovative decommissioning technique of filling the gas cooled reactor with water for shielding and contamination control and the other practical and readily available technologies used. This Decommissioning is demonstrating that a full size commercial nuclear reactor can be successfully decommissioned with a reasonable schedule, cost, and radiation dose to the work force. (Author)

  4. Measuring and reporting on decommissioning progress

    One of the challenges facing AECL, as well as other organizations charged with the responsibility of decommissioning nuclear facilities, is the means by which to measure and report on decommissioning progress to various audiences which, in some cases, may only have a peripheral knowledge or understanding of the complexities associated with the decommissioning process. The reporting and measurement of decommissioning progress is important for a number of reasons, i.e., It provides a vehicle by which to effectively communicate the nature of the decommissioning process; It ensures that stakeholders and shareholders are provided with a transparent and understandable means for assessing value for money; It provides a means by which to integrate the planning, measurement, and operational aspects of decommissioning One underlying reason behind the challenge of reporting decommissioning progress lies in the fact that decommissioning programs are generally executed over periods of time that far exceed those generally associated with typical design and build projects. For example, a decommissioning program could take decades to complete in which case progress on the order of a few percent in any one year might be typical. However, such progress may appear low compared to that seen with more typical projects that can be completed in a matter of years. As a consequence, AECL undertook to develop a system by which to measure decommissioning progress in a straightforward, meaningful, and understandable fashion. The system is not rigorously objective, and there are subjective aspects that are necessitated by the need to keep the system readily understandable. It is also important to note that while the system is simple in concept, there is, nonetheless, significant effort involved in generating and updating the parameters used as input, and in the actual calculations. (author)

  5. Uranium hexafluoride production plant decommissioning

    The Institute of Energetic and Nuclear Research - IPEN is a research and development institution, located in a densely populated area, in the city of Sao Paulo. The nuclear fuel cycle was developed from the Yellow Cake to the enrichment and reconversion at IPEN. After this phase, all the technology was transferred to private enterprises and to the Brazilian Navy (CTM/SP). Some plants of the fuel cycle were at semi-industrial level, with a production over 20 kg/h. As a research institute, IPEN accomplished its function of the fuel cycle, developing and transferring technology. With the necessity of space for the implementation of new projects, the uranium hexafluoride (UF6) production plant was chosen, since it had been idle for many years and presented potential leaking risks, which could cause environmental aggression and serious accidents. This plant decommission required accurate planning, as this work had not been carried out in Brazil before, for this type of facility, and there were major risks involving gaseous hydrogen fluoride aqueous solution of hydrofluoric acid (HF) both highly corrosive. Evaluations were performed and special equipment was developed, aiming to prevent leaking and avoid accidents. During the decommissioning work, the CNEN safety standards were obeyed for the whole operation. The environmental impact was calculated, showing to be not relevant.The radiation doses, after the work, were within the limits for the public and the area was released for new projects. (author)

  6. Decommissioning of Salaspils nuclear reactor

    In May 1995, the Latvian Government decided to shut down the Research Reactor Salaspils (SRR) and to dispense with nuclear energy in future. The reactor has been out of operation since July 1998. A conceptual study for the decommissioning of SRR has been carried out by Noell-KRC-Energie- und Umwelttechnik GmbH from 1998-1999. he Latvian Government decided on 26 October 1999 to start the direct dismantling to 'green field' in 2001. The results of decommissioning and dismantling performed in 1999-2001 are presented and discussed. The main efforts were devoted to collecting and conditioning 'historical' radioactive waste from different storages outside and inside the reactor hall. All radioactive material more than 20 tons were conditioned in concrete containers for disposal in the radioactive waste depository 'Radons' in the Baldone site. Personal protective and radiation measurement equipment was upgraded significantly. All non-radioactive equipment and material outside the reactor buildings were free-released and dismantled for reuse or conventional disposal. Weakly contaminated material from the reactor hall was collected and removed for free-release measurements. The technology of dismantling of the reactor's systems, i.e. second cooling circuit, zero power reactors and equipment, is discussed in the paper. (author)

  7. The decommissioning NPP A-1

    Project of decommissioning NPP A-1 is split into 4 main groups of tasks. Tasks in group 1 are focused on the solution of selected problems that have immediate impact on the environment. It is mainly the solution of problems in the building of cleaning station of wastage water and in the building with underground storage tanks for wastage water and solid radwaste, including the prevention of wash-out and penetration of contaminated soil from these buildings into surface and underground waters. A part of addressing these tasks is a controlled of generated radwaste-predominatly sludge with various physical and chemical properties. Tasks in group 2- following the removal of spent fuel-are focused on the management of all radwaste in the long-term storage facility, in the short-term storage facility, equipment of transport and technology part, equipment in hot cells. Tasks in group 3 are focused on development of technology procedures for treatment and conditioning of sludge, contaminated soils and concrete crush, saturated ionexes and ash from incineration facility of the Bohunice radwaste treatment and conditioning complex. Tasks in group 4 are focused on the methodology. And technical support for particular activities applicable during decommissioning NPP

  8. Government Assigns New Supervisory Task. Safe Decommissioning

    When the Government decided to shutdown one of the two Barsebaeck reactors in February of 1998, it presented SKI with a task that came much earlier than expected; the supervision of the decommissioning of a reactor. As a result of proposals presented in Parliament, SKI began the formulation of a long-term strategy in 1997 for the inspection of a nuclear plant during the decommissioning process. As a preliminary task, SKI started a research programme dealing with the potential risks associated with the transition from normal operations through shutdown to final deconstruction of the power plant. Emphasis was laid on safety culture issues and on questions of organization, as opposed to an earlier stress on the purely technical aspects of decommissioning. After a long period of uncertainty, following much discussion, in July 1998 a Government decision was finally reached to shutdown the first reactor at Barsebaeck. This was carried out in November 1999. It is still uncertain as to when the other reactor will be decommissioned; a decision is expected at the earliest in 2004. This uncertainty, resulting from the prolonged decision making process, could be detrimental to the safety culture on the site; motivation could diminish, and key personnel could be lost. Decommissioning is a new phase in the life cycle of a plant, giving rise to new inspection issues of supervision. During the period of uncertainty, while awaiting SKI has identified ten key areas, dealing with the safety culture of the organization, in connection with the decommissioning of Barsebaeck 1. 1. Obtaining and retaining staff competence during decommissioning; 2. Sustaining organizational memory; 3. Identifying key organizational functions and management skills that are critical during the transition from operations to decommissioning. 4. Sustaining organizational viability and accountability for decommissioning; 5. Sustaining motivation and trust in management of dismantlement; 6. Overseeing

  9. Planning of the BN-350 reactor decommissioning

    The experimental and commercial BN-350 NPP equipped with a fast neutron sodium cooled reactor is located in Kazakhstan near the Aktau city on the Caspian Sea coast. It was commissioned in 1973 and intended for weapon-grade plutonium production and as stream supply to a water desalination facility and the turbines of the Mangyshlak Atomic Energy Complex. Taking into account technical, financial and political issues, the Government of Kazakhstan enacted the Decree no. 456 'On Decommissioning of the Reactor BN-350 in the Aktau City of the Mangystau Region'. Because the decision on reactor decommissioning was adopted before the end of scheduled operation (2003), the plan to decommission the BN-350 reactor has not yet been developed. To determine the activities required for ensuring reactor safety and in preparation for decommission in the period prior, the development and ensuring approval by the Republic of Kazakhstan Government of the decommissioning plan, a 'Plan of Priority Actions for BN-350 Reactor Decommissioning' was developed and approved. Actions provided for in the plan include the following: Development of BN-350 Reactor Decommissioning Plan; Accident prevention during the period of transition; Unloading nuclear fuel from reactor and draining the coolant from the heat exchange circuits. Decommission is defined as a complex of administrative and technical actions taken to allow the removal of some or all of regulatory controls over a nuclear facility. These actions involve decontamination, dismantling and removal of radioactive materials, waste, components and structures. They are carried out to achieve a progressive and systematic reduction in radiological hazards and are undertaken on the basis of planning and assessment in order to ensure safety decommissioning operations. In accordance with the decision of Kazakhstan Government, three basic stages for BN-350 reactor decommissioning are envisaged: First stage - Placement of BN-350 into long-term storage

  10. The decommissioning plan of the Nuclear Ship MUTSU

    Adachi, M.; Matsuo, R.; Fujikawa, S.; Nomura, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Mutsu, Aomori (Japan). Mutsu Establishment

    1995-07-01

    This paper describes the review about the decommissioning plan and present state of the Nuclear Ship Mutsu. The decommissioning of the Mutsu is carried out by Removal and Isolation method. The procedure of the decommissioning works is presented in this paper. The decommissioning works started in April, 1992 and it takes about four years after her last experimental voyage. (author).

  11. The decommissioning plan of the Nuclear Ship MUTSU

    This paper describes the review about the decommissioning plan and present state of the Nuclear Ship Mutsu. The decommissioning of the Mutsu is carried out by Removal and Isolation method. The procedure of the decommissioning works is presented in this paper. The decommissioning works started in April, 1992 and it takes about four years after her last experimental voyage. (author)

  12. Waste management in decommissioning projects at KAERI

    Two decommissioning projects are being carried out at the KAERI (Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute), one for the Korea research reactors, KRR-1 and KRR-2, and another for the uranium conversion plant (UCP). The concept of the management of the wastes from the decommissioning sites was reviewed with relation to the decommissioning strategies, technologies for the treatment and the decontamination, and the characteristics of the waste. All the liquid waste generated from the KRR-1 and KRR-2 decommissioning site is evaporated by a solar evaporation facility and all the liquid waste from the UCP is treated together with the lagoon sludge waste. The solid wastes from the decommissioning sites are categorized into three groups; not contaminated, restricted releasable and radioactive waste. The not-contaminated waste will be reused and/or disposed of an industrial disposal site, and the releasable waste will be stored for a future disposal at the KAERI. The radioactive waste is packed into containers, and it will be stored at the decommissioning sites till it is sent to a national repository site. The reduction of the radioactive solid waste is one of the strategies for the decommissioning projects and could be achieved by a repeated decontamination. By the achievement of a minimization strategy, the amount of radioactive waste was reduced and the disposal cost will be reduced, but the cost for the manpower, and for a direct handling of the materials as well as for the administration was increased

  13. International radiation safety recommendations on decommissioning

    Full text: The IAEA Safety Requirements for decommissioning states that the regulatory body shall establish requirements for the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, including conditions on the end points of decommissioning. One of the main important issues is that the operator shall be responsible for all aspects of safety of the facility during its lifetime and of the decommissioning activities until its completion. A mechanism for providing adequate financial resources shall be established to cover the costs of radioactive waste management and, in particular the cost of decommissioning. It shall be put in place before operation and shall be updated, as necessary. A safety assessment of the proposed decommissioning strategy shall be performed and its implementation shall not begin until approval has been received by the regulatory body. A decommissioning plan shall be prepared for each facility, to show that decommissioning can be accomplished safely. The decommissioning plan shall be reviewed regularly and shall be updated as required to reflect, in particular, changes in the facility or regulatory requirements, advances in technology and, finally, the needs of decommissioning operation. If it is intended to defer decommissioning, it shall be demonstrated in the final decommissioning plan that such an option is safe. Decontamination and dismantling techniques shall be chosen which minimizes waste and appropriate means shall be in place for safe managing any waste that might be generated during the decommissioning process. A quality assurance programme shall be established for the decommissioning process. Before a site may be released for unrestricted use, a survey shall be performed to demonstrate that the end point conditions, as established by regulatory body, have been met. If site cannot be released for unrestricted use, appropriate control shall be maintained to ensure protection of human health and environment. The IAEA Safety Guidance mainly addresses

  14. Decommissioning standards: the radioactive waste impact

    Several considerations are important in establishing standards for decommissioning nuclear facilities, sites and materials. The review includes discussions of some of these considerations and attempts to evaluate their relative importance. Items covered include the form of the standards, timing for decommissioning, occupational radiation protection, costs and financial provisions, and low-level radioactive waste. Decommissioning appears more closely related to radiation protection than to waste management, although it is often carried under waste management programs or activities. Basically, decommissioning is the removal of radioactive contamination from facilities, sites and materials so that they can be returned to unrestricted use or other actions designed to minimize radiation exposure of the public. It is the removed material that is the waste and, as such, it must be managed and disposed of in an environmentally safe manner. It is important to make this distinction even though, for programmatic purposes, decommissioning may be carried under waste management activities. It was concluded that the waste disposal problem from decommissioning activities is significant in that it may produce volumes comparable to volumes produced during the total operating life of a reactor. However, this volume does not appear to place an inordinate demand on shallow land burial capacity. It appears that the greater problems will be associated with occupational exposures and costs, both of which are sensitive to the timing of decommissioning actions

  15. Methodology and technology of decommissioning nuclear facilities

    The decommissioning and decontamination of nuclear facilities is a topic of great interest to many Member States of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) because of the large number of older nuclear facilities which are or soon will be retired from service. In response to increased international interest in decommissioning and to the needs of Member States, the IAEA's activities in this area have increased during the past few years and will be enhanced considerably in the future. A long range programme using an integrated systems approach covering all the technical, regulatory and safety steps associated with the decommissioning of nuclear facilities is being developed. The database resulting from this work is required so that Member States can decommission their nuclear facilities in a safe time and cost effective manner and the IAEA can effectively respond to requests for assistance. The report is a review of the current state of the art of the methodology and technology of decommissioning nuclear facilities including remote systems technology. This is the first report in the IAEA's expanded programme and was of benefit in outlining future activities. Certain aspects of the work reviewed in this report, such as the recycling of radioactive materials from decommissioning, will be examined in depth in future reports. The information presented should be useful to those responsible for or interested in planning or implementing the decommissioning of nuclear facilities

  16. Disposition of fuel elements from the Aberdeen and Sandia pulse reactor (SPR-II) assemblies

    Mckerley, Bill [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bustamante, Jacqueline M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Costa, David A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Drypolcher, Anthony F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hickey, Joseph [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    We describe the disposition of fuel from the Aberdeen (APR) and the Sandia Pulse Reactors (SPR-II) which were used to provide intense neutron bursts for radiation effects testing. The enriched Uranium - 10% Molybdenum fuel from these reactors was shipped to the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for size reduction prior to shipment to the Savannah River Site (SRS) for final disposition in the H Canyon facility. The Shipper/Receiver Agreements (SRA), intra-DOE interfaces, criticality safety evaluations, safety and quality requirements and key materials management issues required for the successful completion of this project will be presented. This work is in support of the DOE Consolidation and Disposition program. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has operated pulse nuclear reactor research facilities for the Department of Energy since 1961. The Sandia Pulse Reactor (SPR-II) was a bare metal Godiva-type reactor. The reactor facilities have been used for research and development of nuclear and non-nuclear weapon systems, advanced nuclear reactors, reactor safety, simulation sources and energy related programs. The SPR-II was a fast burst reactor, designed and constructed by SNL that became operational in 1967. The SPR-ll core was a solid-metal fuel enriched to 93% {sup 235}U. The uranium was alloyed with 10 weight percent molybdenum to ensure the phase stabilization of the fuel. The core consisted of six fuel plates divided into two assemblies of three plates each. Figure 1 shows a cutaway diagram of the SPR-II Reactor with its decoupling shroud. NNSA charged Sandia with removing its category 1 and 2 special nuclear material by the end of 2008. The main impetus for this activity was based on NNSA Administrator Tom D'Agostino's six focus areas to reenergize NNSA's nuclear material consolidation and disposition efforts. For example, the removal of SPR-II from SNL to DAF was part of this undertaking. This project was in support of NNSA's efforts

  17. Decommissioning activities for Salaspils research reactor - 59055

    In May 1995, the Latvian government decided to shut down the Salaspils Research Reactor (SRR). The reactor is out of operation since July 1998. A conceptual study for the decommissioning of SRR has been carried out by Noell-KRC-Energie- und Umwelttechnik GmbH at 1998-1999. The Latvian government decided to start the direct dismantling to 'green field' in October 26, 1999. The upgrade of decommissioning and dismantling plan was performed in 2003-2004 years, which change the main goal of decommissioning to the 'brown field'. The paper deals with the SRR decommissioning experience during 1999-2010. The main decommissioning stages are discussed including spent fuel and radioactive wastes management. The legal aspects and procedures for decommissioning of SRR are described in the paper. It was found, that the involvement of stakeholders at the early stages significantly promotes the decommissioning of nuclear facility. Radioactive waste management's main efforts were devoted to collecting and conditioning of 'historical' radioactive wastes from different storages outside and inside of reactor hall. All radioactive materials (more than 96 tons) were conditioned in concrete containers for disposal in the radioactive wastes repository 'Radons' at Baldone site. The dismantling of contaminated and activated components of SRR systems is discussed in paper. The cementation of dismantled radioactive wastes in concrete containers is discussed. Infrastructure of SRR, including personal protective and radiation measurement equipment, for decommissioning purposes was upgraded significantly. Additional attention was devoted to the free release measurement's technique. The certified laboratory was installed for supporting of all decommissioning activities. All non-radioactive equipments and materials outside of reactor buildings were released for clearance and dismantled for reusing or conventional disposing. Weakly contaminated materials from reactor hall were collected

  18. Decommissioning of underground structures, systems and components

    A large number of operational and shut down nuclear installations have underground systems, structures and components such as pipes, tanks or vaults. This practice of incorporating such features into the design of nuclear facilities has been in use for an extended period of time during which decommissioning was not perceived as a serious issue and was rarely considered in plant design and construction. Underground features can present formidable decontamination and/or dismantling issues, and these are addressed in this report. Decommissioning issues include, among others, difficulty of access, the possible need for remotely operated technologies, leakage of the contents and the resulting contamination of foundations and soil, as well as issues such as problematic radiological characterization. Although to date there have been more than 40 IAEA publications on decommissioning, none of them has ever addressed this subject. Although cases of decommissioning of such facilities have been described in the technical literature, no systematic treatment of relevant decommissioning strategies and technologies is currently available. It was perhaps assumed that generic decontamination and dismantling approaches would also be adequate for these 'difficult' facilities. This may be only partly true due to a number of unique physical, layout and radiological characteristics. With growing experience in the decommissioning field, it is timely to address this subject in a systematic and comprehensive fashion. Practical guidance is given in this report on relevant decommissioning strategies and technologies for underground features of facilities. Also described are alternative design and construction approaches that could facilitate a smoother path forward through the decommissioning process. The objective of this report is to highlight important points in the decommissioning of underground systems, structures or components for policy makers, operators, waste managers and other

  19. UK policy for nuclear decommissioning: viewpoint

    The importance of the United Kingdom Government formulating a policy for the decommissioning of nuclear installations is stressed in this article because of the UK's aging nuclear reactors, especially the Magnox type reactors, the decommissioning of which is likely to cause particular difficulties. Funds have not, so far, been properly set aside, as estimated costs continue to rise, nor have actual management strategies been developed. The author raises ethical, environmental, technical and economic objections to current plans to postpone decommissioning until 100 years after reactors are closed. (UK)

  20. Decommissioning and reclamation of ANHUA uranium mine

    Since the late 1980s a number of uranium production facilities in China were closed and are in various stages of decommissioning. To date 5 mines have been decommissioned. ANHUA mine is situated in west part of Hunan province in South China. The production of uranium ore began in 1974 and stopped in 1986. Decommissioning and reclamation programme started in July 1992 and completed in May 1997. This paper describes the experience in sealing of drift entrances, covering of waste rock piles and rehabilitation of cadmium contaminated farmland with replantation. (author)

  1. Modelling of nuclear power plant decommissioning financing

    Costs related to the decommissioning of nuclear power plants create a significant financial burden for nuclear power plant operators. This article discusses the various methodologies employed by selected European countries for financing of the liabilities related to the nuclear power plant decommissioning. The article also presents methodology of allocation of future decommissioning costs to the running costs of nuclear power plant in the form of fee imposed on each megawatt hour generated. The application of the methodology is presented in the form of a case study on a new nuclear power plant with installed capacity 1000 MW. (authors)

  2. Bankruptcy potential threatens decommissioning funds, says NRC

    Electric utilities and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) disagreed at an America Nuclear Society seminar on how reactor decommissioning should be financed. Industry and state regulators claim it should be handled by standard depreciation methods without involving the NRC, which argues that it must guard against safety risks from industry bankruptices and premature decommissioning. Both sides agreed that funds must be collected, but disagreed on the best method. Their options include the deposit method, external sinking fund, internal reserve, and insurance or surety bond. The NRC feels that too many utilities face possible bankruptcy unrelated to decommissioning or accidents, and that this possibility should outweigh other considerations. 1 table

  3. Development of a Decommissioning Certificate Program

    A Decommissioning Certificate Program has been developed at Washington State University Tri-Cities (WSU TC) in conjunction with Bechtel Hanford, Inc. (BHI), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)to address the increasing need for qualified professionals to direct and manage decommissioning projects. The cooperative effort between academia, industry, and government in the development and delivery of this Program of education and training is described, as well as the Program's design to prepare students to contribute sooner, and at a higher level, to decommissioning projects

  4. Social effects of decommissioning Trawsfynydd Power Station

    The decision to close Trawsfynydd in 1993 had significant implications for the staff and local community. The site is situated within a National Park and local employment opportunities are limited. The staff and local communities were consulted regarding the issues arising from closure and decommissioning. This consultation influenced the decommissioning strategy for the site, with emphasis placed on the mitigation of the effects of closure. Subsequent studies have shown that the adopted strategies have served to limit the social and economic effects. The experience at Trawsfynydd has proved to be generally applicable at other decommissioning sites. (author)

  5. Pipeline Decommissioning Trial AWE Berkshire UK - 13619

    Agnew, Kieran [AWE, Aldermaston, Reading, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    This Paper details the implementation of a 'Decommissioning Trial' to assess the feasibility of decommissioning the redundant pipeline operated by AWE located in Berkshire UK. The paper also presents the tool box of decommissioning techniques that were developed during the decommissioning trial. Constructed in the 1950's and operated until 2005, AWE used a pipeline for the authorised discharge of treated effluent. Now redundant, the pipeline is under a care and surveillance regime awaiting decommissioning. The pipeline is some 18.5 km in length and extends from AWE site to the River Thames. Along its route the pipeline passes along and under several major roads, railway lines and rivers as well as travelling through woodland, agricultural land and residential areas. Currently under care and surveillance AWE is considering a number of options for decommissioning the pipeline. One option is to remove the pipeline. In order to assist option evaluation and assess the feasibility of removing the pipeline a decommissioning trial was undertaken and sections of the pipeline were removed within the AWE site. The objectives of the decommissioning trial were to: - Demonstrate to stakeholders that the pipeline can be removed safely, securely and cleanly - Develop a 'tool box' of methods that could be deployed to remove the pipeline - Replicate the conditions and environments encountered along the route of the pipeline The onsite trial was also designed to replicate the physical prevailing conditions and constraints encountered along the remainder of its route i.e. working along a narrow corridor, working in close proximity to roads, working in proximity to above ground and underground services (e.g. Gas, Water, Electricity). By undertaking the decommissioning trial AWE have successfully demonstrated the pipeline can be decommissioned in a safe, secure and clean manor and have developed a tool box of decommissioning techniques. The tool box of includes

  6. Pipeline Decommissioning Trial AWE Berkshire UK - 13619

    This Paper details the implementation of a 'Decommissioning Trial' to assess the feasibility of decommissioning the redundant pipeline operated by AWE located in Berkshire UK. The paper also presents the tool box of decommissioning techniques that were developed during the decommissioning trial. Constructed in the 1950's and operated until 2005, AWE used a pipeline for the authorised discharge of treated effluent. Now redundant, the pipeline is under a care and surveillance regime awaiting decommissioning. The pipeline is some 18.5 km in length and extends from AWE site to the River Thames. Along its route the pipeline passes along and under several major roads, railway lines and rivers as well as travelling through woodland, agricultural land and residential areas. Currently under care and surveillance AWE is considering a number of options for decommissioning the pipeline. One option is to remove the pipeline. In order to assist option evaluation and assess the feasibility of removing the pipeline a decommissioning trial was undertaken and sections of the pipeline were removed within the AWE site. The objectives of the decommissioning trial were to: - Demonstrate to stakeholders that the pipeline can be removed safely, securely and cleanly - Develop a 'tool box' of methods that could be deployed to remove the pipeline - Replicate the conditions and environments encountered along the route of the pipeline The onsite trial was also designed to replicate the physical prevailing conditions and constraints encountered along the remainder of its route i.e. working along a narrow corridor, working in close proximity to roads, working in proximity to above ground and underground services (e.g. Gas, Water, Electricity). By undertaking the decommissioning trial AWE have successfully demonstrated the pipeline can be decommissioned in a safe, secure and clean manor and have developed a tool box of decommissioning techniques. The tool box of includes; - Hot tapping - a method

  7. Deactivation, Decontamination and Decommissioning Project Summaries

    Peterson, David Shane; Webber, Frank Laverne

    2001-07-01

    This report is a compilation of summary descriptions of Deactivation, Decontamination and Decommissioning, and Surveillance and Maintenance projects planned for inactive facilities and sites at the INEEL from FY-2002 through FY-2010. Deactivations of contaminated facilities will produce safe and stable facilities requiring minimal surveillance and maintenance pending further decontamination and decommissioning. Decontamination and decommissioning actions remove contaminated facilities, thus eliminating long-term surveillance and maintenance. The projects are prioritized based on risk to DOE-ID, the public, and the environment, and the reduction of DOE-ID mortgage costs and liability at the INEEL.

  8. Considerations about the European Decommissioning Academy (EDA)

    The concept of the European Decommissioning Academy, to be launched in Slovakia in June 2015, is described. The main goal is to educate a new generation of experts in the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, with focus on VVER type reactors. This year the Academy activities will include lessons, practical exercises in laboratories, and 2 days on-site training at the Jaslovske Bohunice V-1 nuclear power plant. A 4-days' visit to major European decommissioning facilities in Switzerland and Italy is also planned. (orig.)

  9. Studies on the decommissioning cost of nuclear power plants

    This study analyzes the existing literature on decommissioning costs abroad systematically, giving special attention to the OECD member states. Then, the feasible range of decommissioning costs obtained by the analysis is compared to the decommissioning fund being raised by the country's only electric utility, KEPCO. This study concludes that the decommissioning fund is being raised enough to cover future expenses for the decommissioning of nuclear power plants. 1 fig., 13 tabs., 8 refs. (Author)

  10. Decommissioning information management in decommissioning planning and operations at AECL (Ref 5054)

    As the AECL Decommissioning program has grown over the past few years, particularly with regard to long-term planning, so has its need to manage the records and information required to support the program. The program encompasses a diverse variety of facilities, including prototype and research reactors, fuel processing facilities, research laboratories, waste processing facilities, buildings, structures, lands and waste storage areas, many of which have changed over time. The decommissioning program involves planning, assessing, monitoring and executing projects to decommission the facilities. The efficient and effective decommissioning planning, assessment, monitoring and execution for the facilities and projects are dependent on a sound information base, upon which decisions can be made. A vital part of this Information Base is the ongoing management of historical facility records, including decommissioning records, throughout the full life cycle of the facilities. This paper describes AECL's and particularly DP and O's approach to: 1) Establishing a decommissioning records and information framework, which identifies what records and information are relevant to decommissioning, prioritizing the decommissioning facilities, identifying sources of relevant information and providing a user-friendly, electronic, search and retrieval tool for facility information accessible to staff. 2) Systematically, gathering, assessing, archiving and identifying important information and making that information available to staff to support their ongoing decommissioning work. 3) Continually managing and enhancing the records and information base and its support infrastructure to ensure its long-term availability. 4) Executing special information enhancement projects, which transform historic records into information for analysis. (author)

  11. Decommissioning cost estimates based on the international structure for decommissioning costing

    Decommissioning cost estimates is essential part of decommissioning planning in all stages of nuclear installation lifetime. It has been recognized that there is a variety of formats, content and practice in decommissioning costing, due to the specific national requirement or to different assumptions. These differences make the process of decommissioning costing less transparent and more complicated to review. To solve these issues the document: 'A Proposed Standardised List of Items for Costing Purposes in the Decommissioning of Nuclear Installation' (known as 'Yellow Book') was jointly published by IAEA, OECD/NEA and EC in 1999. After a decade, the document was revised and issued by same organizations under the title: 'International Structure for Decommissioning Costing (ISDC) of Nuclear Installation. ISDC as the list of typical decommissioning activities (could be used also a check-list) provides s general cost structure suitable for use for all types of nuclear installations i.e. power plants, research reactors, fuel cycle facilities or laboratories. The purpose of the ISDC, is to facilitate the communication and to promote uniformity and to provide a common platform in presenting the decommissioning costs. Clear definition of ISDC items supports the common understanding of cost items, i.e. what is behind the cost. ISDC decommissioning activities are organised in a hierarchical structure, with the 1st and 2nd levels being aggregations of basic activities identified at the 3rd level. At (author)

  12. ECED 2013: Eastern and Central Europe Decommissioning. International Conference on Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities. Conference Guide and Book of Abstracts

    The Conference included the following sessions: (I) Opening session (2 contributions); (II) Managerial and Funding Aspects of Decommissioning (5 contributions); (III) Technical Aspects of Decommissioning I (6 contributions); (IV) Experience with Present Decommissioning Projects (4 contributions); (V) Poster Session (14 contributions); (VI) Eastern and Central Europe Decommissioning - Panel Discussion; (VII) Release of Materials, Waste Management and Spent Fuel Management (6 contributions); (VIII) Technical Aspects of Decommissioning II (5 contributions).

  13. Decommissioning of DR 1, Final report

    Lauridsen, Kurt

    2006-01-15

    The report describes the decommissioning activities carried out at the 2kW homogeneous reactor DR 1 at Risoe National Laboratory. The decommissioning work took place from summer 2004 until late autumn 2005. The components with the highest activity, the core vessel the recombiner and the piping and valves connected to these, were dismantled first by Danish Decommissioning's own technicians. Demolition of the control rod house and the biological shield as well as the removal of the floor in the reactor hall was carried out by an external demolition contractor. The building was emptied and left for other use. Clearance measurements of the building showed that radionuclide concentrations were everywhere below the clearance limit set by the Danish nuclear regulatory authorities. Furthermore, measurements on the surrounding area showed that there was no contamination that could be attributed to the operation and decommissioning of DR 1. (au)

  14. Nuclear submarine decommissioning and related environmental problems

    The issue of nuclear powered submarines occupies a particular place among the problems related to nuclear wastes. Nuclear submarines that were withdrawn from military service as well as those intended fro utilization represent a potential source of both nuclear and radiation hazard. By the beginning of 1966 more than one hundred and fifty nuclear powered vessels were decommissioned in Russia both for the reason of expiration of their service life and due to treaties on reduction of strategic offensive weapons. By 200 this number is expected to increase to one hundred and seventy-eighty units. According to published data the number of nuclear submarines decommissioned in USA to date exceeds twenty units. Major problems associated with utilization of nuclear submarines are related to safety and special security measures are to undertaken for decommissioned nuclear submarines. One of the most significant problems is related with management and/or storage of spent fuel from decommissioned nuclear submarines

  15. Safety issues in decommissioning, strategies and regulation

    Many plants throughout the world are undergoing decommissioning. There are some differences in the safety issues associated with decommissioning as compared with operations. These pose challenges to operators, regulators and those responsible for developing policies and strategies.The paper aims to set the scene for future discussion by identifying these issues. This includes regulatory systems, regulating the changing situation and factors that need to be taken into account in developing decommissioning strategies. In particular, the situation in the absence of a disposal route for waste and issues associated with care and maintenance periods are discussed.A key point that is identified is that well considered and justified strategies need to be developed to act as the basis for detailed decommissioning plans. (author)

  16. Health physics considerations in decontamination and decommissioning

    These proceedings contain papers on legal considerations, environmental aspects, decommissioning equipment and methods, instrumentation, applied health physics, waste classification and disposal, and project experience. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers

  17. Decommissioning of DR 1, Final report

    The report describes the decommissioning activities carried out at the 2kW homogeneous reactor DR 1 at Risoe National Laboratory. The decommissioning work took place from summer 2004 until late autumn 2005. The components with the highest activity, the core vessel the recombiner and the piping and valves connected to these, were dismantled first by Danish Decommissioning's own technicians. Demolition of the control rod house and the biological shield as well as the removal of the floor in the reactor hall was carried out by an external demolition contractor. The building was emptied and left for other use. Clearance measurements of the building showed that radionuclide concentrations were everywhere below the clearance limit set by the Danish nuclear regulatory authorities. Furthermore, measurements on the surrounding area showed that there was no contamination that could be attributed to the operation and decommissioning of DR 1. (au)

  18. The cost of decommissioning uranium mill tailings

    This report identifies several key operations that are commonly carried out during decommissioning of tailings areas in the Canadian environment. These operations are unit costed for a generic site to provide a base reference case. The unit costs have also been scaled to the quantities required for the decommissioning of four Canadian sites and these scaled quantities compared with site-specific engineering cost estimates and actual costs incurred in carrying out the decommissioning activities. Variances in costing are discussed. The report also recommends a generic monitoring regime upon which both short- and longer-term environmental monitoring costs are calculated. Although every site must be addressed as a site-specific case, and monitoring programs must be tailored to fit a specific site, it would appear that for the conventional decommissioning and monitoring practices that have been employed to date, costs can be reasonably estimated when site-specific conditions are taken into account

  19. Decommissioning and disposal costs in Switzerland

    Introduction Goal: Secure sufficient financial resources. Question: How much money is needed? Mean: Concrete plans for decommissioning and waste disposal. - It is the task of the operators to elaborate these plans and to evaluate the corresponding costs - Plans and costs are to be reviewed by the authorities Decommissioning Plans and Costs - Comprise decommissioning, dismantling and management (including disposal) of the waste. - New studies 2001 for each Swiss nuclear power plant (KKB 2 x 380 MWe, KKM 370 MWe, KKG 1020 MWe, KKL 1180 MWe). - Studies performed by NIS (D). - Last developments taken into account (Niederaichbach, Gundremmingen, Kahl). Decommissioning: Results and Review Results: Total cost estimates decreasing (billion CHF) 1994 1998 2001 13.7 13.1 11.8 Lower costs for spent fuel conditioning and BE/HAA/LMA repository (Opalinus Clay) Split in 2025: 5.6 bil. CHF paid by NPP 6.2 billion CHF in Fund Review: Concentrates on disposal, ongoing

  20. Sellafield Decommissioning Programme - Update and Lessons Learned

    Lutwyche, P. R.; Challinor, S. F.

    2003-02-24

    The Sellafield site in North West England has over 240 active facilities covering the full nuclear cycle from fuel manufacture through generation, reprocessing and waste treatment. The Sellafield decommissioning programme was formally initiated in the mid 1980s though several plants had been decommissioned prior to this primarily to create space for other plants. Since the initiation of the programme 7 plants have been completely decommissioned, significant progress has been made in a further 16 and a total of 56 major project phases have been completed. This programme update will explain the decommissioning arrangements and strategies and illustrate the progress made on a number of the plants including the Windscale Pile Chimneys, the first reprocessing plan and plutonium plants. These present a range of different challenges and requiring approaches from fully hands on to fully remote. Some of the key lessons learned will be highlighted.

  1. Decommissioning: from COMECON to CIS and RUSSIA

    NPP decommissioning experience in the USSR and the Commonwealth Independent States (CIS) members was actively accumulated over ten years since 1982, by Russian experts in particular. Nevertheless, it is not well renowned throughout the scientists and engineers from both Russia and other near' (the CIS) and 'distant' foreign countries. A general review on NPP decommissioning in the CIS has been published just now. An unshown before NPP decommissioning issues are presented in the report. The first program on NPP decommissioning was developed under the aegis of COMECOM with the leadership of Russian experts. The most considerable results are the feasibility studies of Armenia NPP, the Novovoronezh NPP first construction stage (two units) and Bohunice V - 1 unit. (J.P.N.)

  2. Contamination source review for Building E3180, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Zellmer, S.D.; Smits, M.P.; Rueda, J.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    This report was prepared by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to document the results of a contamination source review of Building E3180 at the Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) in Maryland. The report may be used to assist the US Army in planning for the future use or disposition of this building. The review included a historical records search, physical inspection, photographic documentation, geophysical investigation, collection of air samples, and review of available records regarding underground storage tanks associated with Building E3180. The field investigations were performed by ANL during 1994. Building,E3180 (current APG designation) is located near the eastern end of Kings Creek Road, north of Kings Creek, and about 0.5 miles east of the airstrip within APG`s Edgewood Area. The building was constructed in 1944 as a facsimile of a Japanese pillbox and used for the development of flame weapons systems until 1957 (EAI Corporation 1989). The building was not used from 1957 until 1965, when it was converted and used as a flame and incendiary laboratory. During the 1970s, the building was converted to a machine (metal) shop and used for that purpose until 1988.

  3. Ecological risk assessment of depleted uranium in the environment at Aberdeen Proving Ground

    A preliminary ecological risk assessment was conducted to evaluate the effects of depleted uranium (DU) in the Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) ecosystem and its potential for human health effects. An ecological risk assessment of DU should include the processes of hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment, and risk characterization. Ecological risk assessments also should explicitly examine risks incurred by nonhuman as well as human populations, because risk assessments based only on human health do not always protect other species. To begin to assess the potential ecological risk of DU release to the environment we modeled DU transport through the principal components of the aquatic ecosystem at APG. We focused on the APG aquatic system because of the close proximity of the Chesapeake Bay and concerns about potential impacts on this ecosystem. Our objective in using a model to estimate environmental fate of DU is to ultimately reduce the uncertainty about predicted ecological risks due to DU from APG. The model functions to summarize information on the structure and functional properties of the APG aquatic system, to provide an exposure assessment by estimating the fate of DU in the environment, and to evaluate the sources of uncertainty about DU transport

  4. Remedial investigation report for J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Volume 1: Remedial investigation results

    This report presents the results of the remedial investigation (RI) conducted at J-Field in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), a U.S. Army installation located in Harford County, Maryland. Since 1917, activities in the Edgewood Area have included the development, manufacture, and testing of chemical agents and munitions and the subsequent destruction of these materials at J-Field by open burning and open detonation. These activities have raised concerns about environmental contamination at J-Field. This RI was conducted by the Environmental Conservation and Restoration Division, Directorate of Safety, Health and Environmental Division of APG, pursuant to requirements outlined under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (CERCLA). The RI was accomplished according to the procedures developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1988). The RI provides a comprehensive evaluation of the site conditions, nature of contaminants present, extent of contamination, potential release mechanisms and migration pathways, affected populations, and risks to human health and the environment. This information will be used as the basis for the design and implementation of remedial actions to be performed during the remedial action phase, which will follow the feasibility study (FS) for J-Field

  5. Remedial investigation report for J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Volume 1: Remedial investigation results

    Yuen, C. R.; Martino, L. E.; Biang, R. P.; Chang, Y. S.; Dolak, D.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R. A.; Patton, T. L.; Prasad, S.; Quinn, J.; Rosenblatt, D. H.; Vercellone, J.; Wang, Y. Y.

    2000-03-14

    This report presents the results of the remedial investigation (RI) conducted at J-Field in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), a U.S. Army installation located in Harford County, Maryland. Since 1917, activities in the Edgewood Area have included the development, manufacture, and testing of chemical agents and munitions and the subsequent destruction of these materials at J-Field by open burning and open detonation. These activities have raised concerns about environmental contamination at J-Field. This RI was conducted by the Environmental Conservation and Restoration Division, Directorate of Safety, Health and Environmental Division of APG, pursuant to requirements outlined under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (CERCLA). The RI was accomplished according to the procedures developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1988). The RI provides a comprehensive evaluation of the site conditions, nature of contaminants present, extent of contamination, potential release mechanisms and migration pathways, affected populations, and risks to human health and the environment. This information will be used as the basis for the design and implementation of remedial actions to be performed during the remedial action phase, which will follow the feasibility study (FS) for J-Field.

  6. Environmental geophysics at the Southern Bush River Peninsula, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Davies, B.E.; Miller, S.F.; McGinnis, L.D. [and others

    1995-05-01

    Geophysical studies have been conducted at five sites in the southern Bush River Peninsula in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The goals of the studies were to identify areas containing buried metallic objects and to provide diagnostic signatures of the hydrogeologic framework of the site. These studies indicate that, during the Pleistocene Epoch, alternating stands of high and low sea level resulted in a complex pattern of channel-fill deposits. Paleochannels of various sizes and orientations have been mapped throughout the study area by means of ground-penetrating radar and EM-31 techniques. The EM-31 paleochannel signatures are represented onshore either by conductivity highs or lows, depending on the depths and facies of the fill sequences. A companion study shows the features as conductivity highs where they extend offshore. This erosional and depositional system is environmentally significant because of the role it plays in the shallow groundwater flow regime beneath the site. Magnetic and electromagnetic anomalies outline surficial and buried debris throughout the areas surveyed. On the basis of geophysical measurements, large-scale (i.e., tens of feet) landfilling has not been found in the southern Bush River Peninsula, though smaller-scale dumping of metallic debris and/or munitions cannot be ruled out.

  7. Natural attenuation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds in a freshwater tidal wetland, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Olsen, Lisa D.; Smith, Barrett L.; Johnson, Mark A.; Fleck, William B.

    1997-01-01

    Ground-water contaminant plumes that are flowing toward or currently discharging to wetland areas present unique remediation problems because of the hydrologic connections between ground water and surface water and the sensitive habitats in wetlands. Because wetlands typically have a large diversity of microorganisms and redox conditions that could enhance biodegradation, they are ideal environments for natural attenuation of organic contaminants, which is a treatment method that would leave the ecosystem largely undisturbed and be cost effective. During 1992-97, the U.S. Geological Survey investigated the natural attenuation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOC's) in a contaminant plume that discharges from a sand aquifer to a freshwater tidal wetland along the West Branch Canal Creek at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Characterization of the hydrogeology and geochemistry along flowpaths in the wetland area and determination of the occurrence and rates of biodegradation and sorption show that natural attenuation could be a feasible remediation method for the contaminant plume that extends along the West Branch Canal Creek.

  8. Contamination source review for Building E3162, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Miller, G.A.; Draugelis, A.K.; Rueda, J.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    This report was prepared by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to document the results of a contamination source review for Building E3162 at the Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) in Maryland. The report may be used to assist the US Army in planning for the future use or disposition of this building. The review included a historical records search, physical inspection, photographic documentation, geophysical investigation, and collection of air samples. The field investigations were performed by ANL during 1994 and 1995. Building E3162 (APG designation) is part of the Medical Research Laboratories Building E3160 Complex. This research laboratory complex is located west of Kings Creek, east of the airfield and Ricketts Point Road, and south of Kings Creek Road in the Edgewood Area of APG. The original structures in the E3160 Complex were constructed during World War 2. The complex was originally used as a medical research laboratory. Much of the research involved wound assessment involving chemical warfare agents. Building E3162 was used as a holding and study area for animals involved in non-agent burns. The building was constructed in 1952, placed on inactive status in 1983, and remains unoccupied. Analytical results from these air samples revealed no distinguishable difference in hydrocarbon and chlorinated solvent levels between the two background samples and the sample taken inside Building E3162.

  9. Risk Management of Large Component in Decommissioning

    The need for energy, especially electric energy, has been dramatically increasing in Korea. Therefore, a rapid growth in nuclear power development has been achieved to have about 30% of electric power production. However, such a large nuclear power generation has been producing a significant amount of radioactive waste and other matters such as safety issue. In addition, owing to the severe accidents at the Fukushima in Japan, public concerns regarding NPP and radiation hazard have greatly increased. In Korea, the operation of KORI 1 has been scheduled to be faced with end of lifetime in several years and Wolsong 1 has been being under review for extending its life. This is the reason why the preparation of nuclear power plant decommissioning is significant in this time. Decommissioning is the final phase in the life-cycle of a nuclear facility and during decommissioning operation, one of the most important management in decommissioning is how to deal with the disused large component. Therefore, in this study, the risk in large component in decommissioning is to be identified and the key risk factor is to be analyzed from where can be prepared to handle decommissioning process safely and efficiently. Developing dedicated acceptance criteria for large components at disposal site was analyzed as a key factor. Acceptance criteria applied to deal with large components like what size of those should be and how to be taken care of during disposal process strongly affect other major works. For example, if the size of large component was not set up at disposal site, any dismantle work in decommissioning is not able to be conducted. Therefore, considering insufficient time left for decommissioning of some NPP, it is absolutely imperative that those criteria should be laid down

  10. Decommissioning Project Manager's Implementing Instructions (PMII)

    Decommissioning Project personnel are responsible for complying with these PMII. If at any time in the performance of their duties a conflict between these instructions and other written or verbal direction is recognized or perceived, the supervisor or worker shall place his/her work place in a safe condition, stop work, and seek resolution of the conflict from the Decommissioning Project Manager or his designee

  11. Decommissioning of a 5 MW research reactor

    The complete decommissioning of a research reactor is described. Planning and execution of all activities, including schedules, budgets, waste management, health physics and subcontracted operations are presented. Flexibility in operations was obtained by using the operating staff as the decommissioning progressed. Totals for waste shipments and costs are given. Final site conditions are presented along with a description of the subsequent use of the facility. (author)

  12. Russian nuclear-powered submarine decommissioning

    Russia is facing technical, economic and organizational difficulties in dismantling its oversized and unsafe fleet of nuclear powered submarines. The inability of Russia to deal effectively with the submarine decommissioning crisis increases the risk of environmental disaster and may hamper the implementation of the START I and START II treaties. This paper discusses the nuclear fleet support infrastructure, the problems of submarine decommissioning, and recommends international cooperation in addressing these problems

  13. Decommissioning of the BR3 PWR

    The objectives, programme and main achievements of SCK-CEN's decommissioning programme in 1997 are summarised. Particular emphasis is on the BR3 decommissioning project. In 1997, auxiliary equipment and loops were dismantled; concrete antimissile slabs were decontaminated; the radiology of the primary loop was modelled; the quality assurance procedure for dismantling loops and equipment were implemented; a method for the dismantling of the reactor pressure vessel was selected; and contaminated thermal insulation of the primary loop containing asbestos was removed

  14. Risk Management of Large Component in Decommissioning

    Nah, Kyung Ku; Kim, Tae Ryong [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The need for energy, especially electric energy, has been dramatically increasing in Korea. Therefore, a rapid growth in nuclear power development has been achieved to have about 30% of electric power production. However, such a large nuclear power generation has been producing a significant amount of radioactive waste and other matters such as safety issue. In addition, owing to the severe accidents at the Fukushima in Japan, public concerns regarding NPP and radiation hazard have greatly increased. In Korea, the operation of KORI 1 has been scheduled to be faced with end of lifetime in several years and Wolsong 1 has been being under review for extending its life. This is the reason why the preparation of nuclear power plant decommissioning is significant in this time. Decommissioning is the final phase in the life-cycle of a nuclear facility and during decommissioning operation, one of the most important management in decommissioning is how to deal with the disused large component. Therefore, in this study, the risk in large component in decommissioning is to be identified and the key risk factor is to be analyzed from where can be prepared to handle decommissioning process safely and efficiently. Developing dedicated acceptance criteria for large components at disposal site was analyzed as a key factor. Acceptance criteria applied to deal with large components like what size of those should be and how to be taken care of during disposal process strongly affect other major works. For example, if the size of large component was not set up at disposal site, any dismantle work in decommissioning is not able to be conducted. Therefore, considering insufficient time left for decommissioning of some NPP, it is absolutely imperative that those criteria should be laid down.

  15. Applicability of EPRI Decommissioning Pre-Planning Manual to International Decommissioning Projects

    Industry models for planning the efficient decommissioning of a nuclear power plant continue to evolve. Effective planning is a key to cost control, a critical aspect of decommissioning. In 2001, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) published the 'Decommissioning Pre-Planning Manual', referred to as the 'Manual'. The goal of the Manual was to develop a framework for use in pre-planning the decommissioning of a nuclear power plant. The original research was based on information collected during the active decommissioning of power reactors in New England, and the ongoing decommissioning planning of another reactor still in operation. The research team identified thirty-two (32) major Decommissioning Tasks that support the strategic and tactical planning that can be conducted in advance of plant shutdown. The Decommissioning Tasks were organized in a logical sequence of execution, and sorted in common discipline groupings. Owners of U.S. nuclear plants that have shut down prematurely during the past 5 years have found the EPRI Decommissioning Pre-Planning Manual useful in developing their transition plans from an operating to shutdown facility. Concurrently, during the past 15 years, the IAEA has published numerous technical and safety reports on nuclear reactor decommissioning planning and execution. IAEA's goal is to provide its global members with useful and timely guidance for the planning and execution of nuclear decommissioning projects. This information has been used extensively by international nuclear plant operators. One of the key objectives will be to develop a road-map linking the 32 EPRI Decommissioning Tasks with the comparable (or equivalent) topics covered in the IAEA library of decommissioning knowledge. The logical and convenient structure of the Manual will be cross-referenced to the IAEA topics to aid in organizing the development of decommissioning plans. The road-map will serve to provide a basis for improved

  16. Investigation on decommissioning of smelting conversion facilities

    To carry out decommissioning of smelting and conversion plant (containing apparatuses) in future, it is required to develop planned businesses. As JNC constructed a general WBS on the decommissioning on last fiscal years, further detailed investigations on WBS is necessary for promotion of its operations. Therefore, aiming at construction of detailed WBS with less than the fourth level, intention of updating on subdivision and radioactive decommission, and addition of data on determining methods on polluting condition of uranium series wastes, here were reported results on four items, such as reviewing of WBS on the decommissioning, construction of detailed WBS with less than the fourth level, updating of databases on subdivision and decommission, and data addition on determining methods on polluting conditions of uranium series wastes to the subdivision and the decommission databases. On this fiscal year, it was carried out investigation on contents of WBS on the 'Construction of investigating items on subdivision and removal engineerings (sixteen sheets of construction figure)' to consult WBS with less than the fourth level for eight sheets of figure in details on the second item, to carry out literature retrieval on reuse since 1998, to input sixty extracted data to database on the third item, and to carry out literature retrieval on the determining method since 1990, to input eight extracted data to database by preparing a new term in 'testing'. (G.K.)

  17. Safety in decommissioning of research reactors

    This Guide covers the technical and administrative considerations relevant to the nuclear aspects of safety in the decommissioning of reactors, as they apply to the reactor and the reactor site. While the treatment, transport and disposal of radioactive wastes arising from decommissioning are important considerations, these aspects are not specifically covered in this Guide. Likewise, other possible issues in decommissioning (e.g. land use and other environmental issues, industrial safety, financial assurance) which are not directly related to radiological safety are also not considered. Generally, decommissioning will be undertaken after planned final shutdown of the reactor. In some cases a reactor may have to be decommissioned following an unplanned or unexpected event of a series or damaging nature occurring during operation. In these cases special procedures for decommissioning may need to be developed, peculiar to the particular circumstances. This Guide could be used as a basis for the development of these procedures although specific consideration of the circumstances which create the need for them is beyond its scope

  18. The Importance of Experience Based Decommissioning Planning

    Decommissioning of a nuclear facility is an extensive and multidisciplinary task, which involves the management and technical actions associated with ceasing operation and thereafter the step-by-step transfer of the facility from an operating plant to an object under decommissioning. The decommissioning phase includes dismantling of systems and components, decontamination and clearance, demolition of buildings, remediation of any contaminated ground and finally a survey of the site. Several of these activities generate radioactive or potentially radioactive waste, which has to be managed properly prior to clearance or disposal. What makes decommissioning of nuclear installations unique is to large extent the radioactive waste management. No other industries have that complex regulatory framework for the waste management. If decommissioning project in the nuclear industry does not consider the waste aspects to the extent required, there is a large risk of failure causing a reduced trust by the regulators and other stakeholders as well as cost and schedule overruns. This paper will give an overview of important aspects and findings gathered during decades of planning and conducting decommissioning and nuclear facility modernization projects. (authors)

  19. Decommissioning cost estimating and contingency application

    The funding of nuclear power plant decommissioning has matured into an integral part of utility planning. State public utility commission regulators and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission have recognized the need to assure the availability of funds to safely decommission these facilities at the end of their useful lives. The cost estimates for decommissioning need to reflect the changes in labor and material costs due to inflation, changes in waste disposal costs for packaging, transporting and burying radioactive materials, and the site-specific factors for each unit that account for differences in plant design and construction. Decommissioning activities involve remote tooling to segment the reactor vessel and internals, decontamination of contaminated systems to reduce occupational exposure, controlled blasting to demolish concrete structures, and removal and disposal of radioactive wastes by controlled burial. The unforeseeable problems encountered in performing these activities result in additional costs that are accounted for through contingency. The recent progress in nuclear power plant decommissioning cost estimation and contingency application are discussed. The important factor to be included in planning for the establishment of a decommissioning fund are identified, and typical results of recent estimates are provided. The nuclear industry is probably one of the first industries to plan for the eventual retirement of its facilities, and the public needs to be aware of these efforts

  20. Decommissioning of nuclear power plants in the Slovak Republic

    The article deals with the current situation in nuclear power plant decommissioning in the Slovak Republic. Slovak NPPs which are being operated or decommissioned are listed, and the major aspects influencing the selection of the most convenient decommissioning option are outlined. Some of these aspects, such as the responsibility for the decommissioning, financing, the object of decommissioning, radioactive waste management, and decommissioning legislation are discussed in more detail. The current state of decommissioning of NPPs in the Slovak Republic is highlighted. It is concluded that the Slovenske Elektrarne company, which is the utility responsible for NPP decommissioning in the Slovak Republic, guarantees feasibility of decommissioning within the required time-scale while observing the relevant safety principles and minimizing all adverse impacts on the personnel, on the public living in the surroundings, and on the environment. (author)

  1. Decommissioning Licensing Process of Nuclear Installations in Spain

    The Enresa experience related to the decommissioning of nuclear facilities includes the decommissioning of the Vandellos I and Jose Cabrera NPPs. The Vandellos I gas-graphite reactor was decommissioned in about five years (from 1998 to 2003) to what is known as level 2. In February 2010, the decommissioning of Jose Cabrera power plant has been initiated and it is scheduled to be finished by 2018. The decommissioning of a nuclear power plant is a complex administrative process, the procedure for changing from operation to decommissioning is established in the Spanish law. This paper summarizes the legal framework defining the strategies, the main activities and the basic roles of the various agents involved in the decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Spain. It also describes briefly the Licensing documents required to obtain the decommissioning authorization and the Enresa point of view, as licensee, on the licensing decommissioning process. (author)

  2. Problems in decommissioning uranium exploration facility and monitoring parameters after decommission

    This paper discussed the problems in the decommission of uranium exploration facilities. Tailings with the uranium over cut-off grade was suggested to fill back to the pit, while those under cut-off grade can be buried in shallow depth. The parameters to monitor the facility after decommission was also discussed in the paper. (author)

  3. International Atomic Energy Agency activities in decommissioning

    Full text: The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been addressing the safety and technical issues of decommissioning for over 20 years, but their focus has been primarily on planning. Up to know, the activities have been on an ad hoc basis and sometimes, important issues have been missed. A new Action Plan on the Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities has recently been approved by the Agency's board of Governors which will focus the Agency's efforts and ensure that our Member States' concerns are addressed. The new initiatives associated with this Action Plan will help ensure that decommissioning activities in the future are performed in a safe and coherent manner. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been preparing safety and technical documents concerning decommissioning since the mid-1980's. There have been over 30 documents prepared that provide safety requirements, guidance and supporting technical information. Many of these documents are over 10 years old and need updating. The main focus in the past has been on planning for decommissioning. During the past five years, a set of Safety Standards have been prepared and issued to provide safety requirements and guidance to Member States. However, decommissioning was never a real priority with the Agency, but was something that had to be addressed. To illustrate this point, the first requirements documents on decommissioning were issued as part of a Safety Requirements [1] on pre-disposal management of radioactive waste. It was felt that decommissioning did not deserve its own document because it was just part of the normal waste management process. The focus was mostly on waste management. The Agency has assisted Member States with the planning process for decommissioning. Most of these activities have been focused on nuclear power plants and research reactors. Now, support for the decommissioning of other types of facilities is being requested. The Agency is currently providing technical

  4. Decommissioning of nuclear facilities: Germany’s experience

    Germany has gained considerable experience in the decommissioning of nuclear facilities since the 1970s. Currently 16 nuclear power plants, both power and prototype reactors, are at different stages of decommissioning. Three decommissioning projects have been completed. Future tasks in Germany are the completion of the current decommissioning projects and the decommissioning of the nuclear facilities that are still operating once they have reached the end of their operating life. The number of parallel decommissioning projects of large scale facilities required by the phase-out of nuclear power could pose challenges in terms of the availability and maintenance of competences at all levels (operators, regulatory body, technical support organizations, and suppliers)

  5. Evaluation of nuclear facility decommissioning projects. Status report. Humboldt Bay Power Plant Unit 3, SAFSTOR decommissioning

    This document explains the purpose of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) Evaluation of Nuclear Facility Decommissioning Projects (ENFDP) program and summarizes information concerning the decommissioning of the Humboldt Bay Power Plant (HBPP) Unit 3 facility. Preparations to put this facility into a custodial safe storage (SAFSTOR) mode are currently scheduled for completion by June 30, 1986. This report gives the status of activities as of June 1985. A final summary report will be issued after completion of this SAFSTOR decommissioning activity. Information included in this status report has been collected from the facility decommissioning plan, environmental report, and other sources made available by the licensee. This data has been placed in a computerized data base system which permits data manipulation and summarization. A description of the computer reports that can be generated by the decommissioning data system (DDS) for Humboldt Bay and samples of those reports are included in this document

  6. Securing decommissioning funds. Why organization matters?

    Full text: Securing decommissioning funds requires that the financial resources set aside for the purpose of decommissioning be managed prudently. Decommissioning of nuclear power plant is prescribed by National Atomic Laws or by other nuclear legislation. It is a mandatory operation. The operators of nuclear power plants set money aside for that purpose. This is known as 'Decommissioning reserve fund'. Decommissioning implies costs very distant in time. Thus, it is obvious, from an economic point of view, that the funds set aside should be managed. As decommissioning is mandatory, the funds accumulated should be secured. In others words, they should be available when needed. Availability of funds is influenced by endogenous and exogenous factors. Endogenous factors are a matter of design of the reserve funds. They include the management of the funds, its monitoring and control... Availability of funds is influenced by these factors, depending on the rules to which the behaviour of the manager of the funds is subjected. In contrast, exogenous factors deal with the energy context. These factors are mainly the electricity sector organisation and/or the overall economic situation. They are decisive factors of the economic performance of the reserve fund for a given design. Therefore, the requirement of availability of funds, when needed, is a matter of compatibility between the design of the decommissioning funds and the electricity context. Put differently, reserve fund's design need to be consistent with the electricity context's features in respect of the availability of funds. Current reserve funds were designed in a context of monopoly regime. In this context, availability of decommissioning funds was not questionable. At least, as far as the design of the reserve funds is concerned. This is because nuclear generator didn't confront any competition pressure. Electricity prices were set trough rate base mechanism, and all the business risks were borne by the

  7. Decontamination and decommissioning costing efforts

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management (EM) is responsible for decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of a wide variety of facilities ranging from reactors to fuel cycle processing buildings throughout the country. The D and D effort represents a large financial investment and a considerable challenge for the DOE and contractor program and project managers. Specifically, the collection and sharing of useful cost data and development of cost estimates are difficult in an environment in which the availability of these data is limited and the technologies and project methods are evolving. Sound cost data are essential for developing project cost estimates; baselines; and project management, benchmarking, and continuous improvement purposes. This paper will focus on some initiatives that in coordination with other federal agencies and international organizations, the DOE Environmental Management Applied Cost Engineering (ACE) Team is taking to standardize cost definitions; to collect, analyze, and report D and D cost data; and to develop fast, accurate, and easy-to-use cost-estimating models for D and D work

  8. Decommissioning Challenges, strategy and programme development

    This document gathers 4 short articles. The first one presents the IAEA decommissioning activities. These activities include: -) the development and implementation of the international action on decommissioning, -) the provision of experts and equipment to assist member states, -) networking activities such as training or exchange of knowledge and experience. The second article presents the work program of the Nea (nuclear energy agency) in the field of decommissioning and reports on the lessons that have been learnt. Among these lessons we can quote: -) selecting a strategy for decommissioning and funding it adequately, -) regulating the decommissioning of nuclear activities, -) thinking of the future in terms of reusing materials, buildings and sites, -) involving local and regional actors in the decommissioning process from decision-making to dismantling work itself, and -) increasing transparency in decision-making in order to build trust. The third article presents the management of radioactive wastes in France. This management is based on the categorization of wastes in 6 categories according to both the activity level and the radioactive half-life T: 1) very low activity, 2) low activity and T 31 years, 4) intermediate activity and T 31 years, and 6) high activity. For categories 1, 2, 3 and 5, the waste treatment process and the disposal places have been operating for a long time while for categories 4 and 6, the disposal places are still being studied: low-depth repository and deep geological repository respectively. The last article presents the action of the US Department of energy in decommissioning activities and environmental remediation, the example of the work done at the ancient nuclear site of Rocky Flats gives an idea of the magnitude and complexity of the operations made. (A.C.)

  9. Decommissioning of fast reactors after sodium draining

    Acknowledging the importance of passing on knowledge and experience, as well mentoring the next generation of scientists and engineers, and in response to expressed needs by Member States, the IAEA has undertaken concrete steps towards the implementation of a fast reactor data retrieval and knowledge preservation initiative. Decommissioning of fast reactors and other sodium bearing facilities is a domain in which considerable experience has been accumulated. Within the framework and drawing on the wide expertise of the Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG-FR), the IAEA has initiated activities aiming at preserving the feedback (lessons learned) from this experience and condensing those to technical recommendations on fast reactor design features that would ease their decommissioning. Following a recommendation by the TWG-FR, the IAEA had convened a topical Technical Meeting (TM) on 'Operational and Decommissioning Experience with Fast Reactors', hosted by CEA, Centre d'Etudes de Cadarache, France, from 11 to 15 March 2002 (IAEA-TECDOC- 1405). The participants in that TM exchanged detailed technical information on fast reactor operation and decommissioning experience with various sodium cooled fast reactors, and, in particular, reviewed the status of the various decommissioning programmes. The TM concluded that the decommissioning of fast reactors to reach safe enclosure presented no major difficulties, and that this had been accomplished mainly through judicious adaptation of processes and procedures implemented during the reactor operation phase, and the development of safe sodium waste treatment processes. However, the TM also concluded that, on the path to achieving total dismantling, challenges remain with regard to the decommissioning of components after sodium draining, and suggested that a follow-on TM be convened, that would provide a forum for in-depth scientific and technical exchange on this topic. This publication constitutes the Proceedings of

  10. Potential health impacts from range fires at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland.

    Willians, G.P.; Hermes, A.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Hartmann, H.M.; Tomasko, D.

    1998-03-01

    This study uses atmospheric dispersion computer models to evaluate the potential for human health impacts from exposure to contaminants that could be dispersed by fires on the testing ranges at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. It was designed as a screening study and does not estimate actual human health risks. Considered are five contaminants possibly present in the soil and vegetation from past human activities at APG--lead, arsenic, trichloroethylene (TCE), depleted uranium (DU), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT); and two chemical warfare agents that could be released from unexploded ordnance rounds heated in a range fire--mustard and phosgene. For comparison, dispersion of two naturally occurring compounds that could be released by burning of uncontaminated vegetation--vinyl acetate and 2-furaldehyde--is also examined. Data from previous studies on soil contamination at APG are used in conjunction with conservative estimates about plant uptake of contaminants, atmospheric conditions, and size and frequency of range fires at APG to estimate dispersion and possible human exposure. The results are compared with US Environmental Protection Agency action levels. The comparisons indicate that for all of the anthropogenic contaminants except arsenic and mustard, exposure levels would be at least an order of magnitude lower than the corresponding action levels. Because of the compoundingly conservative nature of the assumptions made, they conclude that the potential for significant human health risks from range fires is low. The authors recommend that future efforts be directed at fire management and control, rather than at conducting additional studies to more accurately estimate actual human health risk from range fires.