WorldWideScience
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Environmental geophysics: Building E3640 Decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Interim progress report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Building E3640 is a potentially contaminated site in the Edgewood area of Aberdeen Proving Ground. Noninvasive geophysical survey techniques, including magnetics, EM-31, EM-61, and ground-penetrating radar, were used as part of a sampling and monitoring program prior to decommissioning and dismantling of the building. Complex and large-amplitude anomalies caused by aboveground metal in this area obscure many smaller features produced by subsurface sources. No underground storage tanks were found in the areas surveyed. Major anomalies produced by subsurface sources include the following: EM-61 and EM-31 lineaments caused by a water line extending north from the south fence; a broad positive magnetic anomaly caused by magnetic fill north of the material and drum storage area and northeast of E3640; a 30-ft-wide band of EM-31 anomalies extending from the front gate to the southeast comer of E3640 and a coincident EM-61 anomaly produced by buried utilities; ground-penetrating radar images along three lines extending from a sump at the northeast comer of E3640 to the eastern fence; and EM-61, EM-31, and magnetic anomalies caused by overhead and underground pipes extending south from the north fence. Smaller, unidentified, localized anomalies observed throughout the survey area are also described in this report.

McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.; Borden, H.M.; Benson, M.A.; Thompson, M.D.; Padar, C.A.; Daudt, C.R.

1995-01-01

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Geophysics: Building E5282 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report discusses Building E5282 which was one of 10 potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek area of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar (GPR), were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. Magnetic surveys identified small, complicated, multiple anomalies west, north, and northeast of the building that may be caused by construction fill. Two underground storage tanks, at the northeast and southeast corners, were identified. A large magnetic anomaly complex east of the building was caused by aboveground pipes and unexploded ordnance fragments scattered at the surface. Electrical resistivity profiling showed a broad, conductive terrain superimposed over magnetic anomalies on the north and west. A broad, high-resistivity, nonmagnetic area centered 25 ft east of the building has an unknown origin, but it may be due to nonconductive organic liquids, construction fill, or a buried concrete slab; GPR imaging showed this area as a highly reflective zone at a depth of about 5 ft. The GPR data also showed a small-diameter pipe oriented north-south located east of the building.

Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.

1992-08-01

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Geophysics: Building E5481 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Building E5481 is one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek and Westwood areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar, were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. The building is located on the northern margin of a landfill that was sited in a wetland. The large number of magnetic sources surrounding the building are believed to be contained in construction fill that had been used to raise the grade. The smaller anomalies, for the most part, are not imaged with ground radar or by electrical profiling. A conductive zone trending northwest to southeast across the site is spatially related to an old roadbed. Higher resistivity areas in the northeast and east are probably representive of background values. Three high-amplitude, positive, rectangular magnetic anomalies have unknown sources. The features do not have equivalent electrical signatures, nor are they seen with radar imaging.

Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.

1992-11-01

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Geophysics: Building E5481 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Building E5481 is one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek and Westwood areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar, were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. The building is located on the northern margin of a landfill that was sited in a wetland. The large number of magnetic sources surrounding the building are believed to be contained in construction fill that had been used to raise the grade. The smaller anomalies, for the most part, are not imaged with ground radar or by electrical profiling. A conductive zone trending northwest to southeast across the site is spatially related to an old roadbed. Higher resistivity areas in the northeast and east are probably representive of background values. Three high-amplitude, positive, rectangular magnetic anomalies have unknown sources. The features do not have equivalent electrical signatures, nor are they seen with radar imaging

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Geophysics: Building E5440 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Building E5440 was one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek and Westwood areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar (GPR), were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. The results show several complex geophysical signatures. Isolated, one-point, magnetic anomalies surrounding the building may be associated with construction fill. A 10-ft-wide band of strongly magnetic positive anomalies bordering the north side of the building obliterates small magnetic sources that might otherwise be seen. A prominent magnetic nose'' extending northward from this band toward a standpipe at 100N,63E may be connected to an underground tank. The southeast corner of the site is underlain by a rectangular, magnetized source associated with strong radar images. A magnetic lineament extending south from the anomaly may be caused by a buried pipe; the anomaly itself may be caused by subsurface equipment associated with a manhole or utility access pit. A 2,500-gamma, positive magnetic anomaly centered at 0N,20E, which is also the location of a 12 [Omega]-m resistivity minimum, may be caused by a buried vault. It appears on radar imaging as a strong reflector.

McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.

1992-11-01

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Geophysics: Building E5282 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground. Interim progress report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report discusses Building E5282 which was one of 10 potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek area of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar (GPR), were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. Magnetic surveys identified small, complicated, multiple anomalies west, north, and northeast of the building that may be caused by construction fill. Two underground storage tanks, at the northeast and southeast corners, were identified. A large magnetic anomaly complex east of the building was caused by aboveground pipes and unexploded ordnance fragments scattered at the surface. Electrical resistivity profiling showed a broad, conductive terrain superimposed over magnetic anomalies on the north and west. A broad, high-resistivity, nonmagnetic area centered 25 ft east of the building has an unknown origin, but it may be due to nonconductive organic liquids, construction fill, or a buried concrete slab; GPR imaging showed this area as a highly reflective zone at a depth of about 5 ft. The GPR data also showed a small-diameter pipe oriented north-south located east of the building.

Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.

1992-08-01

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Interim progress report -- geophysics: Decommissioning of Buildings E5974 and E5978, Aberdeen Proving Ground  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Buildings E5974 and E5978, located near the mouth of Canal Creek, were among 10 potentially contaminated sites in the Westwood and Canal Creek areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including the complementary technologies of magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar, were conducted around the perimeters of the buildings to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. The magnetic anomalies and the electrically conductive areas around these buildings have a spatial relationship similar to that observed in low-lying sites in the Canal Creek area; they are probably associated with construction fill. Electrically conductive terrain is dominant on the eastern side of the site, and resistive terrain predominates on the west. The smaller magnetic anomalies are not imaged with ground radar or by electrical profiling. The high resistivities in the northwest quadrant are believed to be caused by a natural sand lens. The causes of three magnetic anomalies in the high-resistivity area are unidentified, but they are probably anthropogenic

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Geophysics: Building E5481 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground. Interim progress report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Building E5481 is one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek and Westwood areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar, were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. The building is located on the northern margin of a landfill that was sited in a wetland. The large number of magnetic sources surrounding the building are believed to be contained in construction fill that had been used to raise the grade. The smaller anomalies, for the most part, are not imaged with ground radar or by electrical profiling. A conductive zone trending northwest to southeast across the site is spatially related to an old roadbed. Higher resistivity areas in the northeast and east are probably representive of background values. Three high-amplitude, positive, rectangular magnetic anomalies have unknown sources. The features do not have equivalent electrical signatures, nor are they seen with radar imaging.

Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.

1992-11-01

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Interim progress report -- geophysics: Decommissioning of Buildings E5974 and E5978, Aberdeen Proving Ground  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Buildings E5974 and E5978, located near the mouth of Canal Creek, were among 10 potentially contaminated sites in the Westwood and Canal Creek areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including the complementary technologies of magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar, were conducted around the perimeters of the buildings to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. The magnetic anomalies and the electrically conductive areas around these buildings have a spatial relationship similar to that observed in low-lying sites in the Canal Creek area; they are probably associated with construction fill. Electrically conductive terrain is dominant on the eastern side of the site, and resistive terrain predominates on the west. The smaller magnetic anomalies are not imaged with ground radar or by electrical profiling. The high resistivities in the northwest quadrant are believed to be caused by a natural sand lens. The causes of three magnetic anomalies in the high-resistivity area are unidentified, but they are probably anthropogenic.

McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.

1992-11-01

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Geophysics: Building E5440 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground. Interim progress report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Building E5440 was one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek and Westwood areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar (GPR), were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. The results show several complex geophysical signatures. Isolated, one-point, magnetic anomalies surrounding the building may be associated with construction fill. A 10-ft-wide band of strongly magnetic positive anomalies bordering the north side of the building obliterates small magnetic sources that might otherwise be seen. A prominent magnetic ``nose`` extending northward from this band toward a standpipe at 100N,63E may be connected to an underground tank. The southeast corner of the site is underlain by a rectangular, magnetized source associated with strong radar images. A magnetic lineament extending south from the anomaly may be caused by a buried pipe; the anomaly itself may be caused by subsurface equipment associated with a manhole or utility access pit. A 2,500-gamma, positive magnetic anomaly centered at 0N,20E, which is also the location of a 12 {Omega}-m resistivity minimum, may be caused by a buried vault. It appears on radar imaging as a strong reflector.

McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.

1992-11-01

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Preliminary assessment of risk from toxic materials that might be mobilized in the decommissioning of Aberdeen Proving Ground Building E5032  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aberdeen Proving Ground Building E5032 is scheduled for decommissioning, that is, for demolition. Because the building was formerly used for small-scale operations with incendiary and toxic chemical agents, it presents unusual concerns for occupational and public health safety during the demolition. For this reason, an anticipatory risk assessment was conducted, taking into consideration the building's history, properties of potential residual contaminants (particularly chemical and incendiary agents), and assumptions relating to meteorological conditions and envisioned modes of demolition. Safe maximum levels in concrete floors for the worst case were estimated to be: white phosphorus, 3200 mg/kg; mustard, 94 mg/kg; nerve agent GA (tabun), 6 mg/kg; cyanide, 500 mg/kg; and sulfide, 1400 mg/kg. These values will serve as planning guidance for the activities to follow. It is emphasized that the estimates must be reviewed, and perhaps revised, after sampling and analysis are completed, the demolition methodology is chosen, and dust emissions are measured under operating conditions.

Rosenblatt, D.H.; Brubaker, K.L.

1991-12-01

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Preliminary assessment of risk from toxic materials that might be mobilized in the decommissioning of Aberdeen Proving Ground Building E5032  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aberdeen Proving Ground Building E5032 is scheduled for decommissioning, that is, for demolition. Because the building was formerly used for small-scale operations with incendiary and toxic chemical agents, it presents unusual concerns for occupational and public health safety during the demolition. For this reason, an anticipatory risk assessment was conducted, taking into consideration the building`s history, properties of potential residual contaminants (particularly chemical and incendiary agents), and assumptions relating to meteorological conditions and envisioned modes of demolition. Safe maximum levels in concrete floors for the worst case were estimated to be: white phosphorus, 3200 mg/kg; mustard, 94 mg/kg; nerve agent GA (tabun), 6 mg/kg; cyanide, 500 mg/kg; and sulfide, 1400 mg/kg. These values will serve as planning guidance for the activities to follow. It is emphasized that the estimates must be reviewed, and perhaps revised, after sampling and analysis are completed, the demolition methodology is chosen, and dust emissions are measured under operating conditions.

Rosenblatt, D.H.; Brubaker, K.L.

1991-12-01

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Environmental geophysics: Buildings E5485, E5487, and E5489 decommissioning - the open-quotes Ghost Townclose quotes complex, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Buildings E5485, E5487, and E5489, referred to informally as the open-quotes Ghost Townclose quotes complex, are potentially contaminated sites in the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, EM-31, EM-61, and ground-penetrating radar, were conducted to assist a sampling and monitoring program prior to decommissioning and dismantling of the buildings. The buildings are located on a marginal wetland bordering the west branch of Canal Creek. The dominant geophysical signature in the open-quotes Ghost Town close quotes complex is a pattern of northeast-southwest and northwest-southeast anomalies that appear to be associated with a trench/pipe/sewer system, documented by the presence of a manhole. Combinations of anomalies suggest that line sources include nonmetallic and ferromagnetic materials in trenches. On the basis of anomaly associations, the sewer lines probably rest in a trench, back-filled with conductive, amphibolitic, crushed rock. Where the sewer lines connect manholes or junctions with other lines, ferromagnetic materials are present. Isolated, unidentified magnetic anomalies litter the area around Building E5487, particularly to the north. Three small magnetic sources are located east of Building E5487

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Decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. has decommissioned two prototype power reactors - Gentilly 1 and Douglas Point. The decommissioned reactors have been put in a safe 'steady state', and will be monitored for 80 to 100 years before being dismantled. Decommissioning is more advanced at Gentilly 1, where already the spent fuel pool has been converted to workshops, and the service building has been converted to a training centre and offices for Gentilly 2. At both reactors sites, the spent fuel is now safely stored in steel-lined reinforced concrete canisters. Some details of the dry canister storage are provided

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Decommissioning Handbook  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Decommissioning Handbook is a technical guide for the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The decommissioning of a nuclear facility involves the removal of the radioactive and, for practical reasons, hazardous materials to enable the facility to be released and not represent a further risk to human health and the environment. This handbook identifies and technologies and techniques that will accomplish these objectives. The emphasis in this handbook is on characterization; waste treatment; decontamination; dismantling, segmenting, demolition; and remote technologies. Other aspects that are discussed in some detail include the regulations governing decommissioning, worker and environmental protection, and packaging and transportation of the waste materials. The handbook describes in general terms the overall decommissioning project, including planning, cost estimating, and operating practices that would ease preparation of the Decommissioning Plan and the decommissioning itself. The reader is referred to other documents for more detailed information. This Decommissioning Handbook has been prepared by Enserch Environmental Corporation for the US Department of Energy and is a complete restructuring of the original handbook developed in 1980 by Nuclear Energy Services. The significant changes between the two documents are the addition of current and the deletion of obsolete technologies and the addition of chapters on project planning and the Decommissioning Plan, regulatory requirements, characterization, remote technology, and packaging and transportation of the waste materials.

1994-03-01

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Decommissioning handbook  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document is a compilation of information pertinent to the decommissioning of surplus nuclear facilities. This handbook is intended to describe all stages of the decommissioning process including selection of the end product, estimation of the radioactive inventory, estimation of occupational exposures, description of the state-of-the-art in re decontamination, remote csposition of wastes, and estimation of program costs. Presentation of state-of-the-art technology and data related to decommissioning will aid in consistent and efficient program planning and performance. Particular attention is focused on available technology applicable to those decommissioning activities that have not been accomplished before, such as remote segmenting and handling of highly activated 1100 MW(e) light water reactor vessel internals and thick-walled reactor vessels. A summary of available information associated with the planning and estimating of a decommissioning program is also presented. Summarized in particular are the methodologies associated with the calculation and measurement of activated material inventory, distribution, and surface dose level, system contamination inventory and distribution, and work area dose levels. Cost estimating techniques are also presented and the manner in which to account for variations in labor costs as impacting labor-intensive work activities is explained.

Manion, W.J.; LaGuardia, T.S.

1980-11-01

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Nuclear decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sufficient work has now been done, on a world-wide basis, to justify confidence that full decommissioning of nuclear installations, both plant and reactors, can be carried out safely and efficiently. Projects in several countries should confirm this in the next few years. In the United Kingdom, good progress has been made with the Windscale Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor and supporting development work is finding solutions to resolve uncertainties. Estimates from several sources suggest that decommissioning costs can be kept to an acceptable level. (author)

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1982 international decommissioning symposium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sixty-four papers were presented at the following sessions: policy, regulations, and standards; management of decommissioning wastes; decommissioning experience; decommissioning tooling and techniques; radiological concerns; and planning and engineering

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Decommissioning of Brennilis NPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This EDF press communique give information related to the decommissioning of the Brennilis NPP. The following five items are developed in this report: 1. the level-2 decommissioning operations at the Brennilis NPP; 2. the Brennilis NPP, a pilot operation from the commissioning up to the decommissioning; 3. history of the Brennilis NPP decommissioning; 4. the types of radioactive wastes generated by the Brennilis NPP decommissioning; 5. the Brennilis NPP - a yard management as a function of the wastes. The document contains also seven appendices addressing the following subjects: 1. the share of decommissioning assigned to EDF and the decommissioning steps; 2. the EDF installations in course of decommissioning; 3. the CEA decommissioned installations or in course of decommissioning; 4. regulations; 5. costs; 6. waste management - principles; 7. data on the decommissioning yard

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Workshop on decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Nordic workshop on decommissioning of nuclear facilities was held at Risoe in Denmark September 13-15, 2005. The workshop was arranged by NKS in cooperation with the company Danish Decommissioning, DD, responsible for decommissioning of nuclear facilities at Risoe. Oral presentations were made within the following areas: International and national recommendations and requirements concerning decommissioning of nuclear facilities Authority experiences of decommissioning cases Decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Denmark Decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Sweden Plans for decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Norway Plans for decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Finland Decommissioning of nuclear facilities in German and the UK Decommissioning of nuclear facilities in the former Soviet Union Results from research and development A list with proposals for future work within NKS has been prepared based on results from group-work and discussions. The list contains strategic, economical and political issues, technical issues and issues regarding competence and communication. (au)

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Geophysics: Building E5476 decommissiong, Aberdeen Proving Ground  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Building E5476 was one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek and Westwood areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar, were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. The large number of magnetic sources surrounding the building are believed to be contained in construction fill. The smaller anomalies, for the most part, were not imaged with ground radar or by electrical profiling. Large magnetic anomalies near the southwest comer of the building are due to aboveground standpipes and steel-reinforced concrete. Two high-resistivity areas, one projecting northeast from the building and another south of the original structure, may indicate the presence of organic pore fluids in the subsurface. A conductive lineament protruding from the south wall that is enclosed by the southem, high-resistivity feature is not associated with an equivalent magnetic anomaly. Magnetic and electrical anomalies south of the old landfill boundary are probably not associated with the building. The boundary is marked by a band of magnetic anomalies and a conductive zone trending northwest to southeast. The cause of high resistivities in a semicircular area in the southwest comer, within the landfill area, is unexplained

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Geophysics: Building E5476 decommissiong, Aberdeen Proving Ground  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Building E5476 was one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek and Westwood areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar, were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. The large number of magnetic sources surrounding the building are believed to be contained in construction fill. The smaller anomalies, for the most part, were not imaged with ground radar or by electrical profiling. Large magnetic anomalies near the southwest comer of the building are due to aboveground standpipes and steel-reinforced concrete. Two high-resistivity areas, one projecting northeast from the building and another south of the original structure, may indicate the presence of organic pore fluids in the subsurface. A conductive lineament protruding from the south wall that is enclosed by the southem, high-resistivity feature is not associated with an equivalent magnetic anomaly. Magnetic and electrical anomalies south of the old landfill boundary are probably not associated with the building. The boundary is marked by a band of magnetic anomalies and a conductive zone trending northwest to southeast. The cause of high resistivities in a semicircular area in the southwest comer, within the landfill area, is unexplained.

Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.

1992-11-01

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Decommissioning and decontamination  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The SCK-CEN has built a large know-how in decommissioning and decontamination, thanks to its BR3 decommissioning project. In 2007, the decommissioning activities at BR3 have been continued according to the strategy. This article discusses main realisations the following domains: decommissioning of the neutron shield tank and installation of new ventilation for the controlled area, dismantling of the former one and characterization of the stack

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Recommended IAEA decommissioning levels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The areas covered by each of the two terms 'decommissioning' and 'dismantling' of a nuclear installation are defined in order to distinguish them with greater accuracy. Decommissioning is first an administrative decision and afterwards all the material operations involved by this decision. Dismantling is only one of the material operations of the decommissioning but it can be the most important. For the IAEA the possible outcomes for a decommissioned installation fall under three main headings (stages) which we call 'decommissioning levels'. - level 1: shut-down with surveillance, - level 2: conditional release for another use, - level 3: unconditional release of the site

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International decommissioning strategies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The IAEA Safety Requirements for decommissioning states that the regulatory body shall establish requirements for the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, including conditions on the end points of decommissioning. One of the main important issues is that the operator shall be responsible for all aspects of safety of the facility during its lifetime and of the decommissioning activities until its completion. A mechanism for providing adequate financial resources shall be established to cover the costs of radioactive waste management and, in particular the cost of decommissioning. It shall be put in place before operation and shall be updated, as necessary. A safety assessment of the proposed decommissioning strategy shall be performed and its implementation shall not begin until approval has been received by the regulatory body. A decommissioning plan shall be prepared for each facility, to show that decommissioning can be accomplished safely. The decommissioning plan shall be reviewed regularly and shall be updated as required to reflect, in particular, changes in the facility or regulatory requirements, advances in technology and, finally, the needs of decommissioning operation. If it is intended to defer decommissioning, it shall be demonstrated in the final decommissioning plan that such an option is safe. Decontamination and dismantling techniques shall be chosen which minimizes waste and appropriate means shall be in place for safe managing any wastell be in place for safe managing any waste that might be generated during the decommissioning process. A quality assurance programme shall be established for the decommissioning process. Before a site may be released for unrestricted use, a survey shall be performed to demonstrate that the end point conditions, as established by regulatory body, have been met. If site cannot be released for unrestricted use, appropriate control shall be maintained to ensure protection of human health and environment. The IAEA Safety Guidance mainly addresses the radiological hazards resulting from the activities associated with the decommissioning of nuclear reactors, primarily with decommissioning after planned final shutdown. Many of the provisions are also applicable to decommissioning after an abnormal event that has resulted in serious facility damage or contamination. In this case, this Safety Guide may be used as a basis for developing special decommissioning provisions, although additional considerations will be necessary. Due to the short extension of the present paper, we will emphasize only on some critical tasks of decommissioning research reactors. The removal of nuclear fuel from the reactor installation at the end of its operational lifetime should preferably be performed as part of operations or as one of the initial activities in decommissioning. At the beginning of decommissioning, all readily removable radioactive sources (operational waste, sealed sources, liquids) should be removed for reuse, storage in approved location or disposal. The removal of sources will normally result in a significant reduction of the radiation hazards. The operating organization should have, or have access to, competent staff to cover areas such as: safety requirements of the licence, radiation protection, waste management, quality management etc. Personnel should be competent to perform their assigned work safely. The management and staff involved in the decommissioning project should be made aware of and trained, if necessary, in the methods of minimizing the waste generated in the tasks assigned. Appropriate levels of control and supervision should be provided to ensure safety. The organizational structure to be employed during decommissioning should be described in the decommissioning plan. In the description of the organizational structure, there should be a clear delineation of authorities and responsibilities amongst the various units. This is particularly necessary when the operating organization uses outside contractors. In this case all license conditions apply to the

26

Decommissioning nuclear facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the currently accepted alternatives for decommissioning retired light water reactor fuel cycle facilities and the current state of decommissioning technology. Three alternatives are recognized: Protective Storage; Entombment; and Dismantling. Application of these alternatives to the following types of facilities is briefly described: light water reactors; fuel reprocessing plants, and mixed oxide fuel fabrication plants. Brief descriptions are given of decommissioning operations and results at a number of sites, and recent studies of the future decommissioning of prototype fuel cycle facilities are reviewed. An overview is provided of the types of operations performed and tools used in common decontamination and decommissioning techniques and needs for improved technology are suggested. Planning for decommissioning a nuclear facility is dependent upon the maximum permitted levels of residual radioactive contamination. Proposed guides and recently developed methodology for development of site release criteria are reviewed. 21 fig, 32 references

27

NPP Krsko decommissioning concept  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the end of the operational lifetime of a nuclear power plant (NPP) it is necessary to take measures for the decommissioning as stated in different international regulations and also in the national Slovenian law. Based on these requirements Slovenian authorities requested the development of a site specific decommissioning plan for the NPP Krsko. In September 1995, the Nuklearna Elektrarna Krsko (NEK) developed a site specific scope and content for a decommissioning plan including the assumptions for determination of the decommissioning costs. The NEK Decommissioning Plan contains sufficient information to fulfill the decommissioning requirements identified by NRC, IAEA and OECD - NEA regulations. In this paper the activities and results of development of NEK Decommissioning Plan consisting of the development of three decommissioning strategies for the NPP Krsko and selection of the most suitable strategy based on site specific, social, technical, radiological and economic aspects, cost estimates for the strategies including the costs for construction of final disposal facilities for fuel/high level waste (fuel/HLW) and low/intermediate level waste (LLW/ILW) and scheduling of all activities necessary for the decommissioning of the NPP Krsko are presented. (author)

28

Feasibility studies for decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this presentation author deals with planning of decommission of the NPPs A1, V1 and V2 Bohunice and Mochovce. It was concluded that: Used model for decommissioning parameters assessment has been suitable for elaboration of initial decommissioning plans (feasibility studies); Basic assessment of main decommissioning parameters and basic comparison of various decommissioning options have been possible; Improvement of the model and corresponding software is desirable and works on software improvement began one year ago; V1-NPP initial decommissioning plan should be actualized, because initial decommissioning plan does not correspond by its content and structure to requirements of Act No. 130/98 and Nuclear Regulatory Authority Degree No. 246/99; Strategy of radioactive wastes treatment and conditioning together with technical provisions at Jaslovske Bohunice site was changed in comparison with the assumptions in 1991-92; Considered V1 NPP decommissioning options are necessary to be re-evaluated in accordance with latest development of knowledge and approaches to NPP decommissioning in the world; Specific unit costs are substantially and differentially changed in comparison with the assumptions in 1991-92; Necessity to take into account technical changes resulted from V1 NPP reconstruction. (author)

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Regulation of decommissioning activities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The role of the regulatory body in respect of the protection of the worker, property, and the environment is of central importance. The regulator may, however, be faced with key challenges in ensuring compliance of that decommissioning activities are in compliance with regulations. On the basis of lessons learned from past experiences, the paper provides some insights into areas that a regulatory body needs to pay attention to in the area of decommissioning. They include the resources required by the regulatory body, the safety aspects of decommissioning, and issues related to the review of safety submissions. It is noteworthy that a decommissioning involves the regulatory body in most of its core functions. (author)

30

Odin - lessons learnt. Decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article relates briefly to the abandoned natural gas field of Odin on the Norwegian continental shelf. The platform could be seen as the benchmark by which all other decommissioning activity in the North Sea takes place, since it is the first significantly large structure to have been decommissioned in deep water. 1 fig

31

International Decommissioning Strategies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The IAEA has been developing guidance and technical information relating to the decommissioning and decommissioning strategies of nuclear facilities for over 20 years. During this time, the international concept of decommissioning strategies, and its importance, has changed. Three basic decommissioning strategies are envisaged as possibilities for nuclear installations: immediate dismantling, deferred dismantling and entombment. All have advantages and disadvantages, but the International Conference on Safe Decommissioning for Nuclear Activities demonstrated that immediate dismantling is the generally preferred option. However, there are a number of factors that might lead operators to choose one of the other strategies, and each situation has to be examined individually to identify the optimal strategy for that situation. The basic approach of these three strategies is discussed in the paper. (author)

32

Decommissioning at AWE  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

AWE (A) has been at the heart of the UK Nuclear deterrent since it was established in the early 1950's. It is a nuclear licensed site and is governed by the United Kingdoms Nuclear Installation Inspectorate (NII). AWE plc on behalf of the Ministry of Defence (MOD) manages the AWE (A) site and all undertakings including decommissioning. Therefore under NII license condition 35 'Decommissioning', AWE plc is accountable to make and implement adequate arrangements for the decommissioning of any plant or process, which may affect safety. The majority of decommissioning projects currently being undertaken are to do with Hazard category 3, 4 or 5 facilities, systems or plant that have reached the end of their operational span and have undergone Post-Operational Clean-Out (POCO). They were either built for the production of fissile components, for supporting the early reactor fuels programmes or for processing facility waste arisings. They either contain redundant contaminated gloveboxes associated process areas, process plant or systems or a combination of all. In parallel with decommissioning project AWE (A) are undertaking investigation into new technologies to aid decommissioning projects; to remove the operative from hands on operations; to develop and implement modifications to existing process and techniques used. AWE (A) is currently going thorough a sustained phase of upgrading its facilities to enhance its scientific capability, with older facilities, systems and plity, with older facilities, systems and plant being replaced, making decommissioning a growth area. It is therefore important to the company to reduce these hazards progressively and safety over the coming years, making decommissioning an important feature of the overall legacy management aspects of AWE PLC's business. This paper outlines the current undertakings and progress of Nuclear decommissioning on the AWE (A) site. (authors)

33

Research reactor decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Of the ?800 research reactors constructed worldwide to date, ?50% have been shut down and are at various stages of decommissioning. Many reached the end of their design lives or were shut down due to strategic, economic or regulatory considerations. 27% of those in operation are over 40 years old and will need to be decommissioned soon. Decommissioning normally takes the facility permanently out of service and subjects it to progressive hazard reduction, dismantling and decontamination in a safe, secure economically viable way, using best practicable means to meet the best practicable environmental option, such that the risks and doses to workers and the general public are maintained as low as reasonably practicable. Whilst most decommissioning techniques are well established there are still some challenging and important issues that need resolution. Perhaps the most challenging issue is radioactive waste management and storage. It is vitally important that all local and national waste classification, transportation, storage and end point requirements are known, as the adopted strategy will be heavily influenced by these factors. Other equally important but softer issues include the requirement for early decommissioning plans, adequate funding/cost estimates and the involvement of all relevant stakeholders. A comprehensive decommissioning plan should be produced up front that encompasses an early radiological characterisation survey of the facility/site. An appropsurvey of the facility/site. An appropriate funding mechanism needs to be assured. Whilst regular revisions of the decommissioning cost study should help to determine required funds, it is important to validate these cost estimates by benchmarking other decommissioning projects and accumulated experience. The use of appropriate 'stakeholder dialogue' methods by the facility operator to inform and communicate with all interested parties, such as government and non-government organisations, regulators, trades unions, anti-nuclear groups, local activists and the general public should ideally start before decommissioning commences and continue throughout the project. (author)

34

Decommissioning schedule development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After an introduction, the following topics are discussed under Decommissioning Schedule Development: (1) schedule development, (2) generic overall project schedule, and (3) critical path work activity guidelines and their bases

35

Scheduling for decommissioning projects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Project Scheduling system being employed by the Decommissioning Operations Contractor at the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project (SSDP) is described. Results from the planning system show that the project continues to achieve its cost and schedule goals. Initial technical, cost, and schedule baseline guidance was issued for the project in a Decommissioning Plan in September 1983. An integrated cost and schedule control system (C/SCS) which uses the concept of earned value for measurement of performance was instituted in accordance with DOE orders. The schedule and cost variances generated by the C/SCS system are used to confirm the management's assessment of project status. The types of schedules and tools used on the SSDP project to plan and monitor the work are described, and factors that are unique to a decommissioning project that make scheduling critical to the achievement of the project's goals are identified

36

Decommissioning and Decontamination  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objectives of SCK-CEN's decommissioning and decontamination programme are (1) to develop, test and optimise the technologies and procedures for decommissioning and decontamination of nuclear installations in order to minimise the waste arising and the distributed dose; (2) to optimise the environmental impact; (3) to reduce the cost of the end-of-life of the installation; (4) to make these new techniques available to the industry; (5) to share skills and competences. The programme and achievements in 1999 are summarised

37

Decommissioning of commercial reactor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the case of nuclear reactors, the diversion is often difficult as they are highly purposive, the disassembling is not easy as they are robust, and attention is required to handle the equipment containing radioactive substances. Decommissioning is defined as all the measures taken from the state that facilities become unused to the state of becoming green field. In Japan, already 40 years have elapsed since the effort for nuclear power was begun, and in this paper, the present state and future subjects of the decommissioning of nuclear power stations are summarized at the opportunity that the stop of commercial operation of Tokai Nuclear Power Station was decided recently. In the Tokai Nuclear Power Station, 166 MWe graphite-moderated, carbon dioxide-cooled reactor called improved Calder Hall type is installed, which started the operation in 1966. The circumstances of the decision to stop its operation are explained. The basic policy of the decommissioning of commercial nuclear power stations has been already published by the Advisory Committee for Energy. The state of the decommissioning in various foreign countries is reported. In Japan, the state of green field was realized in 1996 in the decommissioning of the JPDR in Japan Atomic Energy Research institute, and the decommissioning of the atomic powered ship ``Mutsu`` was completed. (K.I.)

Yui, Kohei [Japan Atomic Power Co., Tokyo (Japan)

1997-02-01

38

Shippingport decommissioning nears completion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

GE Nuclear Energy's Advanced Nuclear Technology Operation's Decommissioning Service Group is decommissioning Shippingport (PWR, 90 MWe), the world's first commercial nuclear power plant. This key project is the first entire decommissioning of a large, commercial-size nuclear power plant in the world, and is being completed safely and cost effectively using existing dismantling practices. The Shippingport Decommissioning Project has consisted of two distinct phases: a surveillance, maintenance and operation phase, and a decommissioning phase. The former, also known as the caretaker phase, was completed by the end of 1984. Following a detailed operational preparatory review, decommissioning began during September 1985. Non-fuel-bearing irradiated core components were removed from the fuel-handling canal and placed into the reactor pressure vessel. The water level was then lowered to allow the drainage of water from the reactor coolant system pipes and components. At the same time, the electrical system was shut down, asbestos was removed, external surfaces were decontaminated, and the systems were drained. During 1987, all reactor coolant system pipes and components were removed. Early in 1988, the reactor pressure vessel and neutron shield tank (RPV/NST) was shielded and prepared for one-piece removal. The removal of the fuel-handling canal and non-radioactive concrete and structures is now well advanced. At present there are no major technical issues remaining. The pro major technical issues remaining. The project is expected to be completed with less than 200 man-rem exposure which is one-fifth of the radiation exposure than the US Department of Energy has estimated for the decommissioning. 3 figs

39

Decommissioning of research reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research reactors of WWR-S type were built in countries under Soviet influence in '60, last century and consequently reached their service life. Decommissioning implies removal of all radioactive components, processing, conditioning and final disposal in full safety of all sources on site of radiological pollution. The WWR-S reactor at Bucuresti-Magurele was put into function in 1957 and operated until 1997 when it was stopped and put into conservation in view of decommissioning. Presented are three decommissioning variants: 1. Reactor shut-down for a long period (30-50 years) what would entail a substantial decrease of contamination with lower costs in dismantling, mechanical, chemical and physical processing followed by final disposal of the radioactive wastes. The drawback of this solution is the life prolongation of a non-productive nuclear unit requiring funds for personnel, control, maintenance, etc; 2. Decommissioning in a single stage what implies large funds for a immediate investment; 3. Extending the operation on a series of stages rather phased in time to allow a more convenient flow of funds and also to gather technical solutions, better than the present ones. This latter option seems to be optimal for the case of the WWR-S Research at Bucharest-Magurele Reactor. Equipment and technologies should be developed in order to ensure the technical background of the first operations of decommissioning: equipment for scarification, dismantling, dismemberment in aification, dismantling, dismemberment in a highly radioactive environment; cutting-to-pieces and disassembling technologies; decontamination modern technologies. Concomitantly, nuclear safety and quality assurance regulations and programmes, specific to decommissioning projects should be implemented, as well as a modern, coherent and reliable system of data acquisition, recording and storing. Also the impact of decommissioning must be thoroughly evaluated. The national team of specialists will be assisted by IAEA experts to ensure the observance of all the international regulations an practices in the field

40

Decommissioning plan - decommissioning project for KRR 1 and 2 (revised)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report is the revised Decommissioning Plan for the license of TRIGA research reactor decommissioning project according to Atomic Energy Act No. 31 and No. 36. The decommissioning plan includes the TRIGA reactor facilities, project management, decommissioning method, decontamination and dismantling activity, treatment, packaging, transportation and disposal of radioactive wastes. the report also explained the radiation protection plan and radiation safety management during the decommissioning period, and expressed the quality assurance system during the period and the site restoration after decommissioning. The first decommissioning plan was made by Hyundai Engineering Co, who is the design service company, was submitted to the Ministry of Science and Technology, and then was reviewed by the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety. The first decommissioning plan was revised including answers for the questions arising from review process

41

Decommissioning plan - decommissioning project for KRR 1 and 2 (revised)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is the revised Decommissioning Plan for the license of TRIGA research reactor decommissioning project according to Atomic Energy Act No. 31 and No. 36. The decommissioning plan includes the TRIGA reactor facilities, project management, decommissioning method, decontamination and dismantling activity, treatment, packaging, transportation and disposal of radioactive wastes. the report also explained the radiation protection plan and radiation safety management during the decommissioning period, and expressed the quality assurance system during the period and the site restoration after decommissioning. The first decommissioning plan was made by Hyundai Engineering Co, who is the design service company, was submitted to the Ministry of Science and Technology, and then was reviewed by the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety. The first decommissioning plan was revised including answers for the questions arising from review process.

Jung, K. J.; Paik, S. T.; Chung, U. S.; Jung, K. H.; Park, S. K.; Lee, D. G.; Kim, H. R.; Kim, J. K.; Yang, S. H.; Lee, B. J

2000-10-01

42

Preliminary decommissioning study reports  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This six large gunite storage tanks considered as a group is one of approximately 76 facilities currently managed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL) Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). This program, as part of the Department of Energy (DOE) national SFMP, is responsible for the maintenance and surveillance and the final decommissioning of radioactively contaminated surplus ORNL facilities. A long-range planning effort is being conducted that will outline the scope and objectives of the ORNL program and establish decommissioning priorities based on health and safety concerns, budget constraints, and other programmatic constraints. In support of this SFMP planning activity, preliminary engineering assessments are being conducted for each of the ORNL surplus facilities currently managed under the program. These efforts are designed to: (1) provide an initial assessment of the potential decommissioning alternatives, (2) choose a preferred alternative and provide a justification of the decommissioning plan, including cost and schedule estimates. This report presents the results of the preliminary decommission study for the six gunite storage tanks.

Horton, J.R.

1984-09-01

43

Shippingport station decommissioning experience  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Shippingport Atomic Power Station was the first large-scale commercial nuclear power plant to be decommissioned in the United States. The station consisted of a four-loop nuclear steam supply system and a radioactive waste processing facility which were owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and a 100-MWe turbine generator and balance of plant owned by the Duquesne Light Company. The Shippingport Station is located 35 miles northwest of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, on seven acres of land leased in 1954 by the US DOE from the Duquesne Light Company for forty years. This paper will provide a management perspective of the lessons learned during the planning and physical decommissioning phases of the Shippingport Station decommissioning project. Lessons learned include: The key elements and lead times required to perform a safe and cost-effective decommissioning The relationship of detailed engineering, planning, scheduling and cost estimating from both a regulatory compliance and work performance standpoint. An understanding of the Shippingport Station decommissioning lessons learned should be useful in planning and executing future projects

44

Decommissioning USDOE nuclear facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the 1960s, the US Government agency responsible for nuclear energy activities - the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) - recognized the need to eventually decommission facilities. The AEC began to develop techniques for decontaminating some facilities for re-use or for unrestricted use, as well as methods for safe storage of the facilities when decontamination was not a preferred option. In 1977, the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA), the successor to the AEC, made an inventory of unused radioactivity contaminated facilities and established a programme for an orderly decommissioning of these ''surplus'' facilities. About 500 facilities were included in the Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). The SFMP is being continued under the US Department of Energy (DOE), the successor to ERDA. The objectives of the SFMP are to: Safely manage and dispose of the inventory of surplus facilities in accordance with priorities; Maximize re-use of facilities; Optimize use of state-of-the-art decommissioning techniques; Transfer the decommissioning technology to US industry and collaborate with international and other national decommissioning programmes

45

Factors Impacting Decommissioning Costs - 13576  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) studied United States experience with decommissioning cost estimates and the factors that impact the actual cost of decommissioning projects. This study gathered available estimated and actual decommissioning costs from eight nuclear power plants in the United States to understand the major components of decommissioning costs. Major costs categories for decommissioning a nuclear power plant are removal costs, radioactive waste costs, staffing costs, and other costs. The technical factors that impact the costs were analyzed based on the plants' decommissioning experiences. Detailed cost breakdowns by major projects and other cost categories from actual power plant decommissioning experiences will be presented. Such information will be useful in planning future decommissioning and designing new plants. (authors)

46

Decommissioning strategy for Chernobyl NPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At present the Chernobyl NPP is under decommissioning. The decommissioning activity is carried out on basis of 'Decommissioning Conception for ChNPP' approved in 1992. Now a new version of the Conception is developed. This document is based on the decommissioning strategy, which foresees the long-term safe storage of reactor's constructions (up to 100 years) and coolant circuit facilities (up to 50 years) within existing building constructions and dismantling of auxiliary equipment

47

Scheduling for decommissioning projects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the Project Scheduling system being employed by the Decommissioning Operations Contractor at the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project (SSDP). Results from the planning system show that the project continues to achieve its cost and schedule goals. An integrated cost and schedule control system (C/SCS) which uses the concept of earned value for measurement of performance was instituted in accordance with DOE orders. The schedule and cost variances generated by the C/SCS system are used to confirm management's assessment of project status. This paper describes the types of schedules and tools used on the SSDP project to plan and monitor the work, and identifies factors that are unique to a decommissioning project that make scheduling critical to the achievement of the project's goals. 1 fig

48

Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Shippingport Atomic Power Station was located on the Ohio River in Shippingport Borough (Beaver County), Pennsylvania, USA. The US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) constructed the plant in the mid-1950s on a seven and half acre parcel of land leased from Duquesne Light Company (DLC). The purposes were to demonstrate and to develop Pressurized Water Recovery technology and to generate electricity. DLC operated the Shippingport plant under supervision of (the successor to AEC) the Department of Energy (DOE)-Naval Reactors (NR) until operations were terminated on October 1, 1982. NR concluded end-of-life testing and defueling in 1984 and transferred the Station's responsibility to DOE Richland Operations Office (RL), Surplus Facility Management Program Office (SFMPO5) on September 5, 1984. SFMPO subsequently established the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project and selected General Electric (GE) as the Decommissioning Operations Contractor. This report is intended to provide an overview of the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project

49

Site decommissioning management plan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has identified 48 sites contaminated with radioactive material that require special attention to ensure timely decommissioning. While none of these sites represent an immediate threat to public health and safety they have contamination that exceeds existing NRC criteria for unrestricted use. All of these sites require some degree of remediation, and several involve regulatory issues that must be addressed by the Commission before they can be released for unrestricted use and the applicable licenses terminated. This report contains the NRC staff`s strategy for addressing the technical, legal, and policy issues affecting the timely decommissioning of the 48 sites and describes the status of decommissioning activities at the sites.

Fauver, D.N.; Austin, J.H.; Johnson, T.C.; Weber, M.F.; Cardile, F.P.; Martin, D.E.; Caniano, R.J.; Kinneman, J.D.

1993-10-01

50

Site decommissioning management plan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has identified 48 sites contaminated with radioactive material that require special attention to ensure timely decommissioning. While none of these sites represent an immediate threat to public health and safety they have contamination that exceeds existing NRC criteria for unrestricted use. All of these sites require some degree of remediation, and several involve regulatory issues that must be addressed by the Commission before they can be released for unrestricted use and the applicable licenses terminated. This report contains the NRC staff's strategy for addressing the technical, legal, and policy issues affecting the timely decommissioning of the 48 sites and describes the status of decommissioning activities at the sites

51

Decommissioning of offshore installations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

New legislation on the handling and storage of radioactive substances came into force 1 January 2011. This version of the report is updated to reflect this new regulation and will therefore in some chapters differ from the Norwegian version (see NEI-NO--1660). The Ministry of the Environment commissioned the Climate and Pollution Agency to examine the environmental impacts associated with the decommissioning of offshore installations (demolition and recycling). This has involved an assessment of the volumes and types of waste material and of decommissioning capacity in Norway now and in the future. This report also presents proposals for measures and instruments to address environmental and other concerns that arise in connection with the decommissioning of offshore installations. At present, Norway has four decommissioning facilities for offshore installations, three of which are currently involved in decommissioning projects. Waste treatment plants of this kind are required to hold permits under the Pollution Control Act. The permit system allows the pollution control authority to tailor the requirements in a specific permit by evaluating conditions and limits for releases of pollutants on a case-to-case basis, and the Act also provides for requirements to be tightened up in line with the development of best available techniques (BAT). The environmental risks posed by decommissioning facilities are much the same as those from process industries and other waste treatment plants that are regulated by means of individual permits. Strict requirements are intended to ensure that environmental and health concerns are taken into account. The review of the four Norwegian decommissioning facilities in connection with this report shows that the degree to which requirements need to be tightened up varies from one facility to another. The permit for the Vats yard is newest and contains the strictest conditions. The Climate and Pollution Agency recommends a number of measures and requirements that should be considered in the regulation of decommissioning facilities for offshore installations. These facilities need sound expertise to be able to identify and deal with different types of waste, including hazardous waste such as heavy metals, other hazardous substances, low specific activity (LSA) radioactive material and asbestos. Facilities must be designed to allow safe handling of such waste, with no risk of runoff or infiltration into the soil. In addition, a decommissioning facility should have an effective collection system and an on-site treatment plant for contaminated water, including surface water. Each facility must have a sampling and analysis programme to monitor releases of the most relevant pollutants. The need for an environmental monitoring programme to follow developments in the recipient should also be considered. Other factors that must be closely monitored include noise and releases to air in connection with metal cutting and other operations. Moreover, decommissioning contracts must ensure that the costs of handling hazardous waste are met by the offshore operators. When decommissioning facilities for offshore installations are being sited, other interests must also be taken into account; for example, the use of nearby areas for housing, holiday housing or recreation. In addition, the implications for other sectors such as fisheries and agriculture must be taken into consideration. These are important issues that the municipalities must consider when preparing zoning plans and drawing up environmental impact assessments. In many cases, a regional authority is in a better position than a national one to make overall, cross-sectoral assessments of developments within the region. Nevertheless, the report recommends transferring the authority for regulating decommissioning facilities for offshore installations from the County Governors to the Climate and Pollution Agency. Regulating these facilities requires special expertise and overall assessments, and is best dealt with at central level. When new regulations have

Oeen, Sigrun; Iversen, Per Erik; Stokke, Reidunn; Nielsen, Frantz; Henriksen, Thor; Natvig, Henning; Dretvik, Oeystein; Martinsen, Finn; Bakke, Gunnstein

2010-07-01

52

Decommissioning licensing procedure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Decommissioning or closure of a nuclear power plant, defined as the fact that takes place from the moment that the plant stops producing for the purpose it was built, is causing preocupation. So this specialist meeting on Regulatory Review seems to be the right place for presenting and discusing the need of considering the decommissioning in the safety analysis report. The main goal of this paper related to the licensing procedure is to suggest the need of a new chapter in the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (P.S.A.R.) dealing with the decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. Therefore, after a brief introduction the problem is exposed from the point of view of nuclear safety and finally a format of the new chapter is proposed. (author)

53

BNFL's decommissioning programme  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

BNFL has been involved in nuclear operations since the late 1940s and has plants covering the whole of the nuclear cycle, enrichment, fuel manufacture, reactors, reprocessing and waste handling and disposal. Several plants have already become redundant and further plants will become redundant at the end of Magnox reactor fuel reprocessing. The Company has a policy of decommissioning completely all its non-reactor plants within a maximum 50 years of their end of useful life. As some plants have been shutdown since the early 1950s and others are not suitable for any deferment there is already a significant decommissioning challenge and a dedicated decommissioning team has been set up at the largest site, Sellafield, to execute this programme with some twenty-two projects currently ongoing. This paper describes the Company's approach to the challenge, some of the major current projects, the problems being found and their resolution together with the supporting but vital development programme

54

Preparation for Ignalina NPP decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Latest developments of atomic energy in Lithuania, works done to prepare Ignalina NPP for final shutdown and decommissioning are described. Information on decommissioning program for Ignalina NPP unit 1, decommissioning method, stages and funding is presented. Other topics: radiation protection, radioactive waste management and disposal. Key facts related to nuclear energy in Lithuania are listed

55

Platform decommissioning costs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are over 6500 platforms worldwide contributing to the offshore oil and gas production industry. In the North Sea there are around 500 platforms in place. There are many factors to be considered in planning for platform decommissioning and the evaluation of options for removal and disposal. The environmental impact, technical feasibility, safety and cost factors all have to be considered. This presentation considers what information is available about the overall decommissioning costs for the North Sea and the costs of different removal and disposal options for individual platforms. 2 figs., 1 tab

56

Vinca nuclear decommissioning program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper a preliminary program for the nuclear decommissioning in The Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences is presented. Proposed Projects and Activities, planned to be done in the next 10 years within the frames of the Program, should improve nuclear and radiation safety and should solve the main problems that have arisen in the previous period. Project of removal of irradiated spent nuclear fuel from the RA reactor, as a first step in all possible decommissioning strategies and the main activity in the first two-three years of the Program realization, is considered in more details. (author)

57

Interim progress report addendun - environmental geophysics: Building E5032 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground, January 1994 resurvey  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Geophysical surveying around Building E5032 using three new continuously recording geophysical instruments - two types of electromagnetic induction instruments and a cesium vapor magnetometer that were unavailable at the time of the original survey - has provided additional information for defining the location of buried debris, vaults, tanks, and the drainage/sump system near the building. The dominant geophysical signature around Building E5032 consists of a complex pattern of linear magnetic, electrical-conductivity, and electromagnetic field anomalies that appear to be associated with drainage/sewer systems, ditches, past railway activity, the location for Building T5033 (old number 99A), and the probable location of Building 91. Integrated analysis of data acquired using the three techniques, plus a review of the existing ground-penetrating-radar data, allow a more thorough definition of the sources for the observed anomalies.

Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, L.D.; Benson, M.A.; Borden, H.M.; Padar, C.A.

1994-12-01

58

New projects related to decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The PMU has been established in support of the KNPP Decommissioning Department. All of the Infrastructure Projects associated with Decommissioning have been identified and are being managed through the EBRD Procurement Process. The status of the following projects is presented: Evaluation of the Radiological Inventory for Units 1 to 4; Supply of Size Reduction and Decontamination Workshops; Dismantling Tools and Equipment; Heat Generation Plant; Environmental Assessment for Decommissioning; Decay Storage Site for Transitional RAW ; Information Centres for Decommissioning; Storage Site for Conventional Waste from Decommissioning; Inventory, Treatment an Conditioning of Contaminated Soil; Concrete Core Sampling Analysis; Asbestos Removal Equipment; Demolition Equipment

59

Decommissioning of nuclear facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper explains the method of integrated decommissioning, including interim storage, reprocessing, and ultimate disposal. According to the Atomic Energy Act, reprocessing has priority over simple waste disposal. The disposal scheme adopted by the Federal Republic of Germany is outlined. (PW)

60

Nuclear component decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper addresses the considerations in the decommissioning and removal of steam generators from Millstone Unit 2 and Yankee Rowe Station, and reactor vessels from Shoreham Station and the Argonne Experimental Boiling Water Reactor. The topics of the paper include planning task, radiological characterization, removal in whole or segments, economic analysis, and cutting technologies

61

Nuclear reactor decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

More than 400 nuclear power plants are operated as major energy sources in the world, and already more than 50 power reactors finished their operation. In Japan, at present 49 nuclear power plants are in operation, and the total power output exceeded 40 million kW, which supply nearly 30% of the electric power demand in Japan. The operation life of nuclear reactors is generally expected to be 30-40 years, therefore, in near future, the nuclear power plants that finish the role of operation are to appear. The decommissioning of nuclear reactors has become a large concern worldwide. The Japan Power Demonstration Reactor (JPDR) started the operation in 1963, and now it is in the process of decommissioning. As the method of decommissioning, there are management by tight closure, isolation by shielding and dismantling and removal. The basic policy of decommissioning in Japan is explained. The technology of dismantling reactors has been developed by Japan atomic Energy Research Institute, and its effectiveness is to be confirmed by applying it to the dismantling of the JPDR. The dismantling of in-core structures, the removal of the pipings connected to the pressure vessel and the dismantling of the pressure vessel are described. The dismantling of reinforced concrete structures and the problems based on these experiences are explained. (K.I.)

62

Decontamination and decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The project scope of work included the complete decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of the Westinghouse ARD Fuel Laboratories at the Cheswick Site in the shortest possible time. This has been accomplished in the following four phases: (1) preparation of documents and necessary paperwork; packaging and shipping of all special nuclear materials in an acceptable form to a reprocessing agency; (2) decontamination of all facilities, glove boxes and equipment; loading of generated waste into bins, barrels and strong wooden boxes; (3) shipping of all bins, barrels and boxes containing waste to the designated burial site; removal of all utility services from the laboratories; and (4) final survey of remaining facilities and certification for nonrestricted use; preparation of final report. These four phases of work were conducted in accordance with applicable regulations for D and D of research facilities and applicable regulations for packaging, transportation, and burial and storage of radioactive materials. The final result is that the Advanced Fuel Laboratories now meet requirements of ANSI 13.12 and can be released for unrestricted use. The four principal documents utilized in the D and D of the Cheswick Site were: (1) Plan for Fully Decontaminating and Decommissioning, Revision 3; (2) Environmental Assessment for Decontaminating and Decommissioning the Westinghouse Advanced Reactors Division Plutonium Fuel Laboratories, Cheswick, Pa.; (3) WARD-386, Quality Assurance Program Description for Decontaminating and Decommissioning Activities; and (4) Health Physics, Fire Control, and Site Emergency Manual. These documents are provided as Attachments 1, 2, 3 and 4

63

Nuclear facility decommissioning practice for plant-221  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the practice of decommissioning nuclear facilities of the plant-221, including pre-preparation of decommissioning projects, implementing criteria, organizational management and quality assurance system for decommissioning, construction of decommissioning projects, decontaminating methods, operational monitoring, treatment and disposal of decommissioned radioactive contaminants and radiation survey for verification inspection of decommissioning termination. After being decommissioned to national acceptance standards, the whole plant-221 was transferred to local government for its unrestricted use. (authors)

64

Decommissioning of nuclear facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Collaborative studies are in progress in the United Kingdom between the UKAEA, the Generating Boards and other outside bodies, to identify the development issues and practical aspects of decommissioning redundant nuclear facilities. The various types of UKAEA experimental reactors (DFR, Windscale Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor (WAGR), SGHWR) in support of the nuclear power development programme, together with the currently operating commercial 26 Magnox reactors in 11 stations, totalling some 5GW, will be retired before the end of the century and attention is focused on these. The actual timing of withdrawal from service will be dictated by development programme requirements in the case of experimental reactors, and by commercial and technical considerations in the case of electricity production reactors. Decommissioning studies have so far been confined to technical appraisals including the sequence logic of achieving specific objectives, and are based on the generally accepted three-stage progression. Stage 1, which is essentially a defuelling and coolant removal operation, is an interim phase. Stage 2 is a storage situation, the duration of which will be influenced by environmental pressures or economic factors including the re-use of existing sites. Stage 3, which implies removal of all active and non-active waste material and returning the site to general use, must be the ultimate objective. The engineering features and the radioactive inventory of the system must bradioactive inventory of the system must be assessed in detail to avoid personnel or environmental hazards during Stage 2. These factors will also influence decisions on the degree of Stage 2 decommissioning and its duration, bearing in mind that for Stage 3 activation may govern the waste disposal route and the associated radiation man-rem exposure during dismantling. Ideally, planning for decommissioning should be considered at the design stage of the facility. An object of the present studies is to identify features which would assist decommissioning of future systems. (author)

65

CNEA decommissioning program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: According to chapter I, Art. 2.e of the National Law Nr. 24804 ruling nuclear activities in Argentina, CNEA is responsible for determining the procedure for decommissioning Nuclear Power Plants and any other relevant radioactive facilities'. The implementation the Nuclear Law, states that CNEA is responsible for deactivation and decommissioning of all relevant radioactive facilities in the country, at end of life. Consequently CNEA have created the D and D Branch in order to perform this activity. It is important point out that none of the 28 nuclear installations in Argentina is undergoing decommissioning. Nevertheless planning stages prior decommissioning have been started with the criterion of prioritising those that will probably generate the greatest volume of radioactive waste. Decommissioning plan for research reactors and Atucha I Nuclear Power Plant, radiological characterization, decontamination and treatment of miscellaneous equipment and components of the Atucha I Nuclear Power Plant and old installations are being carry out. The main task is to get the technical capability of the steps which must be followed. In order to accomplish this objective the main activities are: a) Coordinates the training of personnel and organizes the experience and technical knowledge already existing in CNEA and members of the Argentinean nuclear sector; b) Coordinates a R and D program on D and D technologies; c) Establishes close links with the operators of nuclear facilities, whose participation both in planning and in actual D and D work is considered extremely important; d)Preliminary planning and radiological characterization of significant nuclear installations. This paper summarizes general aspects of the activities which are currently in progress. (author)

66

Decommissioning - The worldwide challenge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Whatever the future may hold for nuclear power, there are closed or ageing nuclear facilities in many countries around the world. While these may be in safe care and maintenance at present, a sustainable long term solution is required. Facilities need to be decommissioned, contaminated land remediated, and wastes conditioned for safe storage or disposal. Practical nuclear site restoration has been demonstrated internationally. This experience has revealed generic challenges in dealing with old, often experimental, facilities. These include: Facilities not designed for ease of decommissioning; Records of plant construction and operation, and of the materials utilised and wastes produced, not to modern standards; Fuels and wastes stored for long periods in less than optimal conditions, leading to deterioration and handling problems; The historic use of experimental fuels and materials, giving rise to unique waste streams requiring unique waste management solutions; The application of modern safety and environmental standards to plant which dates from the 1940s, 50s and 60s, requiring investment before decommissioning can even commence. These problems can be tackled, as examples from UKAEA's own programme will illustrate. But two fundamental issues must be recognised and considered. First, the costs of decommissioning older facilities are very high, and may place a heavy burden on national budgets, despite using best efforts to control them. We can limit these costs by learning from one another's experience and sharing the development of new techniques and technologies. UKAEA has already initiated a programme of international collaboration, and hopes that other IAEA countries will be encouraged to follow suit. But whilst the costs of decommissioning may be high, the process normally meets with public acceptance. This is seldom the case for long term waste storage or disposal. Until waste management routes are available - either nationally or internationally - the environmental restoration of nuclear sites can never be fully completed. (author)

67

Geophysics: Building E5476 decommissiong, Aberdeen Proving Ground. Interim progress report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Building E5476 was one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek and Westwood areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar, were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. The large number of magnetic sources surrounding the building are believed to be contained in construction fill. The smaller anomalies, for the most part, were not imaged with ground radar or by electrical profiling. Large magnetic anomalies near the southwest comer of the building are due to aboveground standpipes and steel-reinforced concrete. Two high-resistivity areas, one projecting northeast from the building and another south of the original structure, may indicate the presence of organic pore fluids in the subsurface. A conductive lineament protruding from the south wall that is enclosed by the southem, high-resistivity feature is not associated with an equivalent magnetic anomaly. Magnetic and electrical anomalies south of the old landfill boundary are probably not associated with the building. The boundary is marked by a band of magnetic anomalies and a conductive zone trending northwest to southeast. The cause of high resistivities in a semicircular area in the southwest comer, within the landfill area, is unexplained.

Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.

1992-11-01

68

Decommissioning in western Europe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report gives an overview of the situation in Western Europe. The original aim was to focus on organisational and human issues with regard to nuclear reactor decommissioning, but very few articles were found. This is in sharp contrast to the substantial literature on technical issues. While most of the reports on decommissioning have a technical focus, several provide information on regulatory issues, strategies and 'state of the art'. The importance of the human and organizational perspective is however discovered, when reading between the lines of the technical publications, and especially when project managers summarize lessons learned. The results are to a large extent based on studies of articles and reports, mainly collected from the INIS database. Decommissioning of nuclear facilities started already in the sixties, but then mainly research and experimental facilities were concerned. Until now about 70 reactors have been shutdown world-wide. Over the years there have been plenty of conferences for exchanging experiences mostly about technical matters. Waste Management is a big issue. In the 2000s there will be a wave of decommissioning when an increasing amount of reactors will reach the end of their calculated lifetime (40 years, a figure now being challenged by both life-extension and pre-shutdown projects). Several reactors have been shut-down for economical reasons. Shutdown and decommissioning is however not identical. A long period of time can sometimes pass before an owner decides to decommission and dismantle a facility. The conditions will also differ depending on the strategy, 'immediate dismantling' or 'safe enclosure'. If immediate dismantling is chosen the site can reach 'green-field status' in less than ten years. 'Safe enclosure', however, seems to be the most common strategy. There are several pathways, but in general a safe store is constructed, enabling the active parts to remain in safe and waterproof conditions for a longer period of time (sometimes hundred years or more), prior to final demolition. Among the reasons for deferring the dismantling are lack of waste repositories and decreasing dose-rates for the workers. Of Europe's 218 commercial reactors in operation, the majority, 151, are located i the Western part. The biggest producers are France, United Kingdom and Germany, with 58, 35 and 20 reactors respectively. Until now mostly research- and pilot reactors have been shut-down. There are yet few experiences from decommissioning of large-scale commercial reactors. The following commercial reactors are undergoing decommissioning. (There are also a great amount of nuclear facilities of other types being decommissioned.) The three gas-cooled twin reactor plants of Berkeley, Trawsfynydd and Hunterston in UK. In Germany Gundremmingen, Lingen, Kahl and Wuergassen are being decommissioned. All of them are located in the Western part of the country. The biggest project is however the dismantling of the gigantic Greifswald facility situated on the coast of the Baltic see in former Eastern Germany. The plant has eight Russian built reactors of VVER-type. Like the rest of the former GDR-plants Greifswald was shutdown after the reunification in 1990. The strategy chosen is immediate dismantling. France is decommissioning seven reactors (Chooz A1, Chinon A1, A2, A3, St Laurent A1, A2 and Bugey 1.) The oldest, Chinon A1, closed down in 1973 and the youngest, Bugey 1, in 1994. Italy closed down all NPPs (altogether four) in 1987 after a referendum. The first reactor of the Netherlands was shutdown in 1997 mainly for economical reasons. The development of a free European electricity market will make it less profitable to run certain facilities. Vandelos 1 in Spain is undergoing decommissioning after a fire in the turbines in 1989. IAEA, OECD/NEA and EU are co-operating in the field of decommissioning. Much work is spent on harmonizing rules and preparing international guidelines. The international agencies now consider decommissioning of nuclear facilities to be technically unproblematic. Decommissi

69

Decommissioning database. Public presentation by intranet  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to efficiently develop a decommissioning plan of a nuclear facility, it is useful to develop a database containing information on decommissioning technology, cost and risk analysis results, and decommissioning projects such as the JPDR decommissioning project by collecting the information systematically. A decommissioning database has been developed by collecting decommissioning related information and analyzing it. The database provides information on not only data of decommissioning technology and decommissioning projects but also laws and safety standards for decommissioning in each country and international organizations. The database is released in a Homepage on Web and is available for use via intranet with functions of retrieval, display and printing. (author)

70

Licensing and decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This part is relative to licensing and decommissioning. It includes: legal and policy issues relating to the burning of Mox fuel in licensed nuclear power reactors, government liability under German law, the overview on development of nuclear legislation in Latvia, the regulatory approaches in Ukraine relative to the decommissioning of nuclear installations, the development of nuclear legislation in Slovakia, Study on legal issue concerning the policy to construct nuclear power plant and a local referendum: the result of the MAKI town referendum, new development in the nuclear legislation of the Czech Republic, the system of related laws for the peaceful use of nuclear energy in the Republic of Korea and its prospects. (N.C.)

71

Ethics of nuclear decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

What to do with the numerous reactors that reach the end of their operating lives over the next 30 years involves ethical issues of an intergenerational kind. This essay examines various nuclear decommissioning options in the light of the ethical issues. Prompt dismantlement seems preferable to other options involving postponed dismantlement, entombment of some kind or doing nothing. It would avoid bequeathing future generations with the disamenity of entombed reactors or responsibility for dismantling other disused reactors. The choice of option also depends on the health risks through time and whether a sufficient decommissioning fund exists to avoid handing down debt and constrained choice. There is a strong case for supporting research and development from public funds to develop the technology and reduce both the health risks and the costs, especially if dismantlement is left to a future generation. (author)

72

Decommissioning a nuclear reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The process of decommissioning a facility such as a nuclear reactor or reprocessing plant presents many waste management options and concerns. Waste minimization is a primary consideration, along with protecting a personnel and the environment. Waste management is complicated in that both radioactive and chemical hazardous wastes must be dealt with. This paper presents the general decommissioning approach of a recent project at Los Alamos. Included are the following technical objectives: site characterization work that provided a thorough physical, chemical, and radiological assessment of the contamination at the site; demonstration of the safe and cost-effective dismantlement of a highly contaminated and activated nuclear-fuelded reactor; and techniques used in minimizing radioactive and hazardous waste. 12 figs

73

Decommissioning and demolition 1992  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The decommissioning and demolition of structures offshore, onshore and in nuclear works involves new technologies and industries in demolition and removal. The aim of the conference was to provide a forum to keep up to date with technological developments, to publicise new techniques and to share and discuss present and future plans. A particular feature was the multi-disciplinary approach to promote and encourage communication between different sectors of this difficult field of operations. The conference emphasised not only technical issues but also legislative, management and health and safety aspects. Papers were presented by practising engineers, contractors and research workers involved in offshore structures, buildings, power stations, contaminated sites, nuclear plant and includes specialist techniques of cutting, lifting, explosives, ground treatment and decontamination. Many valuable case histories and records based on practical experience were reported. The volume provides a reference source on the state-of-the-art in decommissioning and demolition. The ten papers relevant to the decommissioning and demolition of nuclear facilities are indexed separately. (Author)

74

Conception of Chernobyl NPP decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is shown the description of ChNPP power unit decommission main stages in the Conception, and it is proposed the large-scaled schedule of the realization of chosen decommission version. On the basis of the given schedule it was worked out the propositions on the top-priority and promising tasks the decision of which is necessary for the realization of the chosen decommission version

75

Decommissioning of nuclear power facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is the first manual in Ukraine giving the complete review of the decommissioning process of the nuclear power facilities including the issues of the planning, design documentation development, advanced technology description. On the base of the international and domestic experience, the issues on the radwaste management, the decontamination methods, the equipment dismantling, the remote technology application, and also the costs estimate at decommissioning are considered. The special attention to the personnel safety provision, population and environment at decommissioning process is paid

76

Recordkeeping in the decommissioning process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the US, there are two sets of key decommissioning records clearly identified -- those that are essential for planning the D and D of a facility and then those that are the result of the decommissioning process itself. In some cases, the regulatory authorities require and in others advise the licensees of the records that may be useful or which are required to be kept from the decommissioning. In the remainder of the paper, the author attempts to highlight some important aspects of decommissioning recordkeeping

77

Recordkeeping in the decommissioning process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the US, there are two sets of key decommissioning records clearly identified -- those that are essential for planning the D and D of a facility and then those that are the result of the decommissioning process itself. In some cases, the regulatory authorities require and in others advise the licensees of the records that may be useful or which are required to be kept from the decommissioning. In the remainder of the paper, the author attempts to highlight some important aspects of decommissioning recordkeeping.

Boing, L. E.

2000-02-29

78

Design improvements to facilitate decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Inclusion of decommissioning requirements in nuclear plant design is of increasing interest throughout the industry. Numerous reports and studies have highlighted the cost and difficulties involved in decommissioning of present nuclear plants. It is generally agreed that decommissioning requirements and considerations should be made part of the design process. However, it is difficult to make plans for decommissioning because of both the long time period for economic amortization of a plant and the probable development of improved decommissioning techniques during that period. It is recognized that it is important to prepare proper designs for decommissioning, including additional provisions for decontamination, dismantling and disposal of equipment and structures. However, when considering decommissioning in the design process it is also necessary to investigate what can be done to improve designs for decommissioning without adding front-end costs. Responsible operation of nuclear power plants implies the obligation to provide for the orderly decommissioning and dismantling of these installations at the end of their service life. Viable solutions of the problems involved have to be developed, especially since the number of nuclear installations worldwide is growing and many of these are reaching the end of their service life. Such measures have to satisfy a wide range of requirements while demanding a specific technical approach. Plants have to be decommissioned and ach. Plants have to be decommissioned and dismantled safely, so the solutions adopted have to take into account radiological considerations, physical factors and material features. The protection of human life and of the environment, and compliance with the statutory requirements are of paramount importance. A number of design features provided to facilitate plant operation and maintenance are also beneficial to the ultimate dismantling of nuclear power plants. These issues are discussed in the paper. (author). 4 figs, 2 tabs

79

Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project start of physical decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the current status of the physical decommissioning work, which started September 1985. The preparations required to start a major decommissioning work effort in a safe and cost effective manner are discussed including the development of integrated detailed schedules, manpower and cost estimates, and implementation of a cost/schedule control system. The detailed plan required to ensure that people, property, and procedures are ready in sufficient time to support the start of physical decommissioning is also discussed. The total estimated cost of the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project should be $98.3 M, with the Project scheduled for completion in April 1990. At the decommissioning of the first commercial-sale nuclear power plant, the Shippingport Project is expected to set the standard for safe, cost-effective demolition of nuclear plants

80

Decommissioning of nuclear intallations and pre-funding of decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper deals with the definition of the concept of decommissioning, the legal obligation to establish plans for decommissioning, the definition of the concept of installation and exemption of parts of installations from regulatory radiological controls, the various variants of the decommissioning process, the prefunding of decommissioning, the discretionary scope to refuse permission, and the participation of the public. The author's conclusion is that the draft amendment of the Ministry of the Environment (BMU) has taken into account the proposals and experience of the licensing and supervisory authorities to an extent that the amendment will indeed improve the situation regarding the decommissioning of nuclear installations. Operators' interests have been likewise considered, which is shown for example by the fact that the obligation to dismantle the shutdown installation applies only to the radioactive parts of an installation. (orig./HP)

81

BNFL decommissioning strategy and techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper provides an overview of the range of reactor decommissioning projects being managed by BNFL, both on its own sites and for other client organizations in the UK and abroad. It also describes the decommissioning strategies and techniques that have been developed by BNFL and adopted in order to carry out this work

82

Decommissioning of nuclear power stations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The essential findings about the decommissioning of mainly commercial LWR reactors are: 1) It can said that the decommissioning of the commercial nuclear plants in the Federal Republic which are being built or are already in operation will not bring any insurmountable technical problems. 2) The decommissioning will be carried out within the frame of the safety prescriptions already existing. The personnel carrying out the decommissioning wont be subject to an inadmissible exposure. An increased emission of activity to the environment during the decommissioning is not expected. 3) The costs of the total dismantling of a nuclear plant are rather high in absolute values, but the cost advantage of the nuclear plants compared with other fossile power plants is only negligibly influenced by the decommissioning costs. 4) It is necessary to find a storage site for bulky radioactive waste in the Federal Republic. Transport containers of large volume are to be developed at the same time. 5) The progress of procedures and devices already known for grinding and conditioning of active heavy reactor components, especially of the reactor pressure vessel, should be hastened. 6) The decommissioning of nuclear test plants in the FRG to be carried out during the next years should be used to collect more experience both concerning the technical procedures, costs and concerning the permittance process for later decommissioning of commercial nuclear plants. (orig.)r plants. (orig.)

83

Decommissioning of Radiotherapy Facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiotherapy units containing high activity sealed radioactive sources of 60Co or 137Cs are mainly use for medical, research or calibration applications. After several half-lives of decay, the radionuclide source has to be changed or the unit is decommissioned if no longer required. Before starting a decommissioning project it is very important to look for documents relating to any sources held or installed in equipment. In general this should be no problem because the recommended working life of such sealed radioactive sources is limited to 10 or a maximum of 15 years. These time periods are short in comparison with other facilities like research laboratories or small reactors. These documents (source certificates) will be very helpful to plan the decommissioning because they say everything about the original activity of the source at a reference date, the type of the source and the manufacturer. The next step may be to contact the machine supplier or the source manufacturer, but be aware that neither may still be in existence or may have changed their type of business. In such cases, it is recommended to contact national or international sealed source manufacturers or suppliers for help. Sometimes it is also helpful to contact colleagues in other hospitals or research centres to ask for information about specialists in this topic. In general it is not useful, and even very dangerous, to try to decommission such a unit without expert help It is ion such a unit without expert help It is essential to have specialist tools and shielded containers to recover the source out of the unit. It is strongly recommended to invite the source removal specialist for a site visit to review the situation before starting any decommissioning process. A further problem can occur, if the source must be transported to a national storage centre or even an international storage facility, as the source must be packaged to meet international transport requirements. The end state of such a project should be an empty room where the source is brought out safely within the type-tested container, typically type B. Decontamination of the room will be necessary if a sealed source has leaked, but this is very rare. If a source is leaking, the contamination can be very high and present a high risk to employees and workers due to high dose rates. Some therapy units are additionally shielded with depleted uranium or the source holder is fitted with collimators which are made of depleted uranium. The uranium shielding can cause some minor contamination of the shielded source housing or on the floor. A check should be made for any minor contamination using a surface contamination monitor or wipe tests. The risks of contamination from these sources are small, but can result in the prevention of the free release of the room. A decommissioning plan should be drafted following consultation with the regulator or the decommissioning specialist may undertake this task on behalf of the facility. Normally the specialist contractor will provide a health and safety plan for approval by the regulator and the customer. The decommissioning task of source removal and transport will in general take about 2 to 3 days, but the planning and preparatory work can take several weeks. The amount of preparatory work involved depends mainly of the transport regulations for the source in the type-tested containers and the preparatory work for infrastructures that will be required for decommissioning. Identification of infrastructure and resources. Before dismantling a teletherapy unit, a check should be made that the electrical supply remains connected and that the lighting is both functional and adequate. This will help to accelerate the working process on the unit. Before attempting to move the teletherapy source of unit outside of the building, ensure that the route to be used through the facility is passable (dimensions of doors, floors, etc.) and that the engineering structure of the pathway is sufficient to support the weight of the source or unit (e.g. maximum load limit of fl

84

Decommissioning policy in Sweden  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Sweden the nuclear power program is, according to a parliamentary decision, limited to twelve power producing reactors. The last reactor shall be taken out of service no later than the year 2010. As a result of the Chernobyl accident the program for taking the reactors out of service will be accelerated. This report is the first approach by the Swedish authorities to formulate a decommissioning policy. It is not the final policy document but it discusses the principal questions from the special Swedish viewpoint. (orig.)

85

Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project Start of Physical Decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Shippingport Atomic Power Station consists of the nuclear steam supply system and associated radioactive waste processing systems, which are owned by the United States Department of Energy, and the turbine-generator and balance of plant, which is owned by the Duquesne Light Company. The station is located at Shippingport, Pennsylvania on seven acres of land leased by DOE from Duquesne Light Company. The Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project is being performed under contract to the DOE by the General Electric Company and its integrated subcontractor, Morrison-Knudsen Company. as the Decommissioning Operations Contractor. This paper describes the current status of the physical decommissioning work, which started September 1985. The preparations required to start a major decommissioning work effort in a safe and cost effective manner are discussed including the development and implementation of a cost/schedule control system. The detailed plan required to ensure that people, property, and procedures are ready in sufficient time to support the start of physical decommissioning is also discussed. The total estimated cost of the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project should be $98.3 M, with the Project scheduled for completion in April 1990. As the decommissioning of the first commercial-scale nuclear power plant, the Shippingport Project is expected to set the standard for safe, cost-effective demolition of nuclear plants plants

86

Shippingport station decommissioning project start of physical decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Shippingport Atomic Power Station (SAPS) consists of the nuclear steam supply system and associated radioactive waste processing systems, which are owned by the United States Department of Energy (DOE), and the turbine-generator and balance of plant, which is owned by the Duquesne Light Company. The station is located at Shippingport, Pennsylvania on seven acres of land leased by DOE from Duquesne Light Company. The Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project (SSDP) is being performed under contract to the DOE by the General Electric Company and its integrated subcontractor, Morrison-Knudsen Company, as the Decommissioning Operations Contractor (DOC). This paper describes the current status of the physical decommissioning work, which started September 1985. The preparations required to start a major decommissioning work effort in a safe and cost effective manner are discussed including the development of integrated detailed schedules, manpower and cost estimates, and implementation of a cost/schedule control system. The detailed plan required to ensure that people, property, and procedures are ready in sufficient time to support the start of physical decommissioning is also discussed. The total estimated cost of the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project should be $98.3 M, with the Project scheduled for completion in April 1990. As the decommissioning of the first commercial-scale nuclear power plant, the Shippingport Project is expected to set the standard for safe, cost-effective demolition of nuclear plants

87

Funding Decommissioning - UK Experience  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

'Funding' started with CEGB and SSEB (state-owned electric utilities) in 1976 using the internal un-segregated fund route (i.e unfunded). This continued until privatisation of electricity industry (excluding nuclear) in 1990. Assets bought with the internal un-segregated fund were mostly transferred into non-nuclear private utilities. New state-owned Nuclear Electric (England and Wales) was given a 'Fossil Fuel Levy', a consumer charge of 10% on retail bills, amounting to c. BP 1 bn. annually. This allowed Nuclear Electric to trade legally (A reserve of BP 2.5 bn. was available from Government if company ran out of money). By 1996 the newer nuclear stations (AGRS plus PWR) were privatised as British Energy. British Energy started an external segregated fund, the Nuclear Decommissioning Fund, with a starting endowment of c. BP 225 m. - and BE made annual contributions of British Pound 16 m. into the Fund. Assumptions were that BE had 70 to accumulate cash and could get a 3.5% average annual real return. Older stations (Magnox) were left in private sector and went to BNFL in 1997. Magnox inherited the surplus cash in BE - mostly unspent Fossil Fuel Levy receipts - of c. BP 2.6 bn. Government gave an 'Undertaking' to pay BP 3.8 bn. (escalating at 4.5% real annually) for Magnox liabilities, should Magnox Electric run out of cash. BNFL inherited the BP 2.6 bn. and by 2000 had a 'Nuclear Liabilities Investment Portfolio' of c. BP 4 bn. This was a quasi-segregated internal fund for liabilities in general. [Note: overall UK nuclear liabilities in civilian sector were running at c. BP 48 bn. by now]. BE started profitable and paid BP 100 m. annually in dividends to private investors for several years. BE ran into severe financial problems after 2001 and Government organised restructuring aid, now approved by European Commission. Terms include: - BE now to contribute BP 20 m. a year into an expanded Nuclear Liabilities Fund; - A bond issue of BP 275 m. to go to Fund; - 65% of all BE free cash flow to go to the Fund; - Government would pay for all Stage 1/2/3 decommissioning expenses that BE could not meet. BE is still a private company in a formal sense but the UK Office of National Statistics classifies it as a public sector company, because it regards control (not ownership) as in State hands. Government is now setting up the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) to manage all public sector liabilities. Intention was to have a 'segregated account' to help give assurance that funding would be long-term and reliable. First draft Annual Plan does not mention segregation or any funding commitment beyond the first year (2005/6). The BNFL NLIP will presumably go to the Treasury. NLIP will presumably go to the Treasury. In conclusion, it is clean that the decommissioning funding system has been short term and has relied mainly on Government. Some consumer contributions have been made, but now that nuclear power competes in a private market place and is relatively expensive, there is no guarantee that consumers/polluters will pay for a significant proportion of decommissioning costs

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Tradução e adaptação cultural do Questionário Aberdeen para Veias Varicosas Translation and cultural adaptation of Aberdeen Varicose Veins Questionnaire  

OpenAIRE

CONTEXTO: Atualmente há um crescente interesse por instrumentos de avaliação em saúde produzidos e validados em todo o mundo. Apesar disso, ainda não temos no Brasil instrumentos que avaliem o impacto da doença venosa crônica na vida de seu portador. Para utilização dessas medidas torna-se necessária a realização da tradução e da adaptação cultural ao idioma em questão. OBJETIVO: Traduzir e adaptar culturalmente para a população brasileira o Aberdeen Varicose Veins Question...

Flávia de Jesus Leal; Renata Cardoso Couto; Guilherme Benjamin Brandão Pitta; Priscilla Tosatti Ferreira Leite; Larissa Maranhão Costa; Higino, Wesley J. F.; Marina Sandrelle Correia de Sousa

2012-01-01

89

Decontamination & decommissioning focus area  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In January 1994, the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM) formally introduced its new approach to managing DOE`s environmental research and technology development activities. The goal of the new approach is to conduct research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE, utilizing the best talent in the Department and in the national science community. To facilitate this solutions-oriented approach, the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50, formerly the Office of Technology Development) formed five Focus AReas to stimulate the required basic research, development, and demonstration efforts to seek new, innovative cleanup methods. In February 1995, EM-50 selected the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to lead implementation of one of these Focus Areas: the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D & D) Focus Area.

NONE

1996-08-01

90

Decommissioning Cost Assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The future costs for dismantling, decommissioning and handling of associated radioactive waste of nuclear installations represents substantial liabilities. It is the generations that benefits from the use of nuclear installations that shall carry the financial burden. Nuclear waste programmes have occasionally encountered set-backs related to the trust from society. This has resulted in delayed, redirected or halted activities, which has the common denominator of costs increases. In modern democratic countries, information sharing, knowledge transfer and open communication about costs for the management of radioactive waste are prerequisites for the task to develop modern methods for public participation and thus to develop well-founded and justified confidence for further development of nuclear energy. Nuclear and radiation safety Authorities have a clear role to provide unbiased information on any health, safety, financial and environmental related issues. This task requires a good understanding of the values and opinion of the public, and especially those of the younger generation

91

Decommissioning and demolition 1990  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The decommissioning and demolition of structures offshore, onshore and in nuclear works involves new technologies and industries in demolition and removal. The aim of the conference, the proceedings of which are presented in this volume, was to provide a forum to keep up to date with technological developments, to publicise new techniques and to share and discuss present and future plans. A particular feature is the multi-disciplinary approach to promote and encourage communication between different sectors of this difficult field of operations. The conference emphasised not only technical issues but also legislative, management and health and safety aspects. Papers were presented by practising engineers, contractors and research workers involved in offshore steel and concrete structures, buildings, power stations, reinforced earth walls, contaminated sites, nuclear plant and includes specialist techniques of cutting, lifting, explosives, ground treatment and decontamination. Many valuable case histories and records based on practical experience are reported. (author)

92

75 FR 9960 - First Trust/Aberdeen Global Opportunity Income Fund, et al.; Notice of Application  

Science.gov (United States)

...AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Investment Company Act Release No. 29163; 812-13161-01] First Trust/Aberdeen Global Opportunity Income Fund, et al...under section 6(c) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (``Act'') for an...preferred stock that such investment companies may issue. Applicants: First Trust/Aberdeen Global Opportunity Income Fund, First...

2010-03-04

93

Decommissioning of nuclear generating stations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Decommissioning of nuclear reactors is discussed, with reference to the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate safety assessment principles, radiation doses, light water and gas cooled reactors and waste disposal. (U.K.)

94

Decommissioning of the Loviisa NPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fortum Power and Heat Oy has revised the decommissioning plan for the Loviisa Nuclear Power Plant (Loviisa 1 and Loviisa 2) by the end of 2003. The lifetime of the power plant has been planned to be extended to 50 years in the decommissioning plan. The decommissioning of the power plant is designed to begin in 2027 and it will be finished in 2053. The plan is based on immediate dismantlement after the shutdown of the power plant. Experienced plant personnel will still be available to lead the decommissioning work. Only the radioactive plant systems, components and structures will be dismantled and disposed of. Decommissioning wastes will be disposed of in the underground disposal tunnels located at the site at a depth of about 110 m. Some of these tunnels have already been completed for the power plant's operating waste. The big and heavy reactor components, e.g. pressure vessels and steam generators, will be disposed of as such, without cutting them into smaller pieces. This will save time and reduce radiation doses. The total volume of decommissioning waste will be 15 500 m3, when packed. Manpower needed for the decommissioning will be about 2 800 man years. The collective radiation dose received by the personnel will be about 9.5 manSv. The cost estimate of the decommissioning is about 216 million euros. The spent fuel will be stored at the plant for 20 years after the shutdown of the power plant. After that it will be transported from the site to the enill be transported from the site to the encapsulation plant for final disposal. (orig.)

95

Decommissioning of the Loviisa NPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Imatran Voima Oy has revised the decommissioning plan for the Loviisa Nuclear Power Plant (Loviisa 1 and Loviisa 2) by the end of the year 1998. The thermal power of the power plant has been increased to 2x1500 MWth, and the life time has been designed to be extended to 45 years in the decommissioning plan. The decommissioning of the power plant is designed to begin in 2022 and it will be finished in 2048. The plan is based on immediate dismantlement (i.e. DECON) after the shut down of the power plant. Experienced plant personnel will still be available to lead the decommissioning work. Only the radioactive plant systems, components and structures will be dismantled and disposed of. Decommissioning wastes will be disposed into the underground disposal tunnels situating at the site in the depth of about 110 m. These tunnels are already partly ready for power plant wastes. The big and heavy reactor components, e.g. pressure vessels and steam generators, will be disposed of as such, without cutting them into smaller parts. This saves time and radiation doses. The total volume of decommissioning wastes is 14 800 m3, when packed in boxes. The manpower needed for decommissioning is about 2 800 manyears. The collective radiation dose for personnel is estimated to be about 9.2 manSv. The cost estimate of the decommissioning is about 1 117 million FIM. The spent fuel will be stored at the plant for 20 years after the shut down of the power plant. After that it will be transported from the site to the encapsulation plant for final disposal. (orig.)

96

An outsider's view of decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The decommissioning of nuclear facilities is not just a technical or even a financial issue. Presenting decommissioning as a technically difficult task overcome by superhuman effort on the part of the industry will not gain much credit amongst sophisticated consumers who now require that any complex technology will work and work safely. Any engineering problems are surmountable given the money to find the solution. Some of the financial aspects of decommissioning are worrying, however, given their open-ended nature. The cost of waste disposal is one of these. Despite a lapse of fifty years since the start-up of its first reactor, the United Kingdom is unlikely to have available a repository for the disposal of intermediate level waste until about 2020. Waste disposal is a large consideration in decommissioning and the industry's forecasts of cost in this area lack credibility in the light of a poor track record in financial prediction. Financial engineering in the form of the segregated fund set up in March 1996 to cover the decommissioning of nuclear power stations in the United Kingdom is likely to provide only short term reassurance in the light of doubts about a credible future for nuclear power. This lack of confidence over the wider problems of nuclear power creates particular problems for decommissioning which go beyond technical difficulties and complicate financial considerations. (UK)

97

Money Related Decommissioning and Funding Decision Making  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

'Money makes the world go round', as the song says. It definitely influences decommissioning decision-making and financial assurance for future decommissioning. This paper will address two money-related decommissioning topics. The first is the evaluation of whether to continue or to halt decommissioning activities at Fermi 1. The second is maintaining adequacy of financial assurance for future decommissioning of operating plants. Decommissioning costs considerable money and costs are often higher than originally estimated. If costs increase significantly and decommissioning is not well funded, decommissioning activities may be deferred. Several decommissioning projects have been deferred when decision-makers determined future spending is preferable than current spending, or when costs have risen significantly. Decommissioning activity timing is being reevaluated for the Fermi 1 project. Assumptions for waste cost-escalation significantly impact the decision being made this year on the Fermi 1 decommissioning project. They also have a major impact on the estimated costs for decommissioning currently operating plants. Adequately funding full decommissioning during plant operation will ensure that the users who receive the benefit pay the full price of the nuclear-generated electricity. Funding throughout operation also will better ensure that money is available following shutdown to allow decommissioning to be conducted without need for additional fundsneed for additional funds

98

The Tokai NPP decommissioning technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tokai power station was closed down in March 1998 and started decommissioning from December 2001 as a pioneer of NPP decommissioning. This article presented current state of Tokai NPP decommissioning technique. As the second stage of decommissioning works, removal works of steam raising unit (four units of heat exchangers) were started from 2006 by jacking down method with decommissioning data accumulated. Each heat exchanger was divided into top head, seven 'tears' of shell and bottom head. Each 'tear' was out and separated into a cylinder, and then divided into two by remote-operated cutting equipment with manipulators for gas cutting and motor disk cutting under monitoring works by fixed and mobile cameras. Divided 'tear' was further cut into center baffle plate, heat transfer tubes and fine pieces of shell. Cutting works would produce radioactive fine particles, which were filtered by temporary ventilation equipment with exhaust fan and filters. Appropriate works using existing technique combined and their rationalization were important at this stage. (T. Tanaka)

99

Decommissioning of nuclear power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear power generation is the most promising and realistic substitute energy for petroleum, and its development and utilization must be promoted positively to secure the stable supply of energy. The oldest nuclear power station in Japan is about 15 years old now, and its final disposal is not an urgent problem for the time being. However, when nuclear power generation is promoted, the measures taken for safely and smoothly carrying out the treatment and disposal of decommissioned nuclear power stations must be thoroughly investigated. It is considered that the decommissioning of nuclear power plants can be basically dealt with by the present techniques, but it is important to make its safety more perfect, and also to utilize the sites for new nuclear power stations. The Reactor Decommissioning Investigation Committee was established in the Agency of Natural Resources and Energy, and the investigation is carried out. The life time of nuclear reactors is considered to be 30 - 40 years mechanically. The methods of decommissioning are mothballing, entombment and dismantling. The state of investigation on the countermeasures to the decommissioning, the safety, the economy and the treatment and disposal of wastes is reported. (Kako, I.)

100

75 FR 80697 - Nuclear Decommissioning Funds  

Science.gov (United States)

...9512] RIN 1545-BF08 Nuclear Decommissioning Funds...for decommissioning nuclear power plants. These final regulations affect taxpayers that own an interest in a nuclear power plant and reflect recent...

2010-12-23

101

Tradução e adaptação cultural do Questionário Aberdeen para Veias Varicosas Translation and cultural adaptation of Aberdeen Varicose Veins Questionnaire  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Atualmente há um crescente interesse por instrumentos de avaliação em saúde produzidos e validados em todo o mundo. Apesar disso, ainda não temos no Brasil instrumentos que avaliem o impacto da doença venosa crônica na vida de seu portador. Para utilização dessas medidas torna-se necessária a realização da tradução e da adaptação cultural ao idioma em questão. OBJETIVO: Traduzir e adaptar culturalmente para a população brasileira o Aberdeen Varicose Veins Questionnaire (AVVQ- Brasil. MÉTODOS: O processo consistiu de duas traduções e duas retrotraduções realizadas por tradutores independentes, da avaliação das versões seguida da elaboração de versão consensual e de pré-teste comentado. RESULTADOS: Os pacientes do pré-teste eram do sexo feminino, com média de idade de 49,9 anos, média de tempo de resposta 7,73 minutos, que variou entre 4,55 minutos (tempo mínimo a 10,13 minutos (tempo máximo. Escolaridade: 20% analfabetismo funcional, 1º grau completo e 2º grau completo; 30% 1º grau incompleto; e 10% 3º grau completo. Gravidade clínica 40% C3 e C6S, 10% C2 e C5, havendo cinco termos incompreendidos na aplicação. CONCLUSÕES: A versão na língua portuguesa do Aberdeen Varicose Veins Questionnaire está traduzida e adaptada para uso na população brasileira, podendo ser utilizada após posterior análise de suas propriedades clinimétricas.BACKGROUND: Currently there is a growing interest in health assessment tools produced and validated throughout the world. Nevertheless, it is still inadequate the number of instruments that assess the impact of chronic venous disease in the life of its bearer. To use these measures it is necessary to accomplish the translation and cultural adaptation to the language in question. OBJECTIVE: Translate to Portuguese and culturally adapted for the Brazilian population the Aberdeen Varicose Veins Questionnaire (AVVQ-Brazil. METHODS: The process consisted of two translations and two back-translations performed by freelance translators, then the evaluation versions of the development of consensual version and commented pretest. RESULTS: The patients in the pre-test were female, mean age 49.9 years, average response time of 7.73 minutes, which ranged from 4.55 minutes (minimum to 10.13 minutes (maximum time. Education: 20% functional illiteracy and first and second complete degrees; 30% first incomplete degree, and 10% third complete degree. Clinical severity: 40% C3 and C6s, 10% C2 and C5, with five misunderstood terms in the application. CONCLUSION: The Portuguese version of the Aberdeen Varicose Veins Questionnaire has been translated and adapted for use in the Brazilian population, and can be used after further analysis of their clinimetric properties, which is underway.

Flávia de Jesus Leal

2012-03-01

102

Phenix Decommissioning Project - Overview  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first heading of your manuscript must be 'Introduction'. Phenix is the only remaining French fast breeder reactor after the shutdown of Superphenix (1999) and Rapsodie (1983). Phenix is located inside the Marcoule nuclear site along the Rhone river near Bagnols-sur-Ceze in southeastern France. Phenix is one of the facilities belonging the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) on the Marcoule site. It is a fast breeder reactor (FBR) developed at the end of the 1960's. that has been in operation since 1973 and was connected to the power grid in 1974. It is a second generation prototype developed while the first generation FBR, Rapsodie, was still in operation. Phenix is a 250 electrical MW power plant. During the first 20 years of operation, its main aim was to demonstrate the viability of sodium-cooled FBRs. Since the 1991 radioactive waste management act, Phenix has become an irradiation tool for the actinide transmutation program. To extend its operating life for 6 additional cycles, it was necessary to refurbish the plant; this involved major work performed from 1999 to 2003 at a total cost of about 250 M??. Today, with a realistic expectation, the final shutdown is planned for the beginning of 2009. The main objective of the Phenix dismantling project is to eliminate all the process equipment and clean all the building to remove all the radioactive zones. To reach this objective, three main hazards must be eliminated: Fuel (criticality hazard), Sodium, Radioactuel (criticality hazard), Sodium, Radioactive equipment. The complexity of decommissioning a facility such as Phenix is increased by: - the lack of storage facility for high radioactive material, - the decision to treat all the radioactive sodium and sodium waste inside the plant, - the very high irradiation of the core structures due to the presence of cobalt alloys. On the other hand, Phenix plant is still under operating with a qualified staff and the radioactivity coming from structural activation is well known. After the final shutdown, the first operations will be conducted by the same staff under the same safety report. Another interesting fact is that the decommissioning funds project exist and are available. The CEA decided to begin the dismantling phase without waiting because after a period of decay it is not really cheaper or easier to work. This approach needs interim storage facilities not long after the final shutdown. For the low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste there are national storage centers but for the high-level wastes, each operator must manage its waste until a suitable disposal site is available. At Marcoule a new storage facility is now being designed and scheduled to begin operating after 2013-2014. After removal of the fuel and core elements, the primary sodium will be drained and eliminated by a carbonation process. To ensure biological shielding, the reference scenario calls for filling the primary vessel with water. The most radioactive structures (dia-grid and core support) will be cut up with remote tools, after which the rest of the structure will be cut up manually. Phenix contains about 1450 metric tons of sodium. The CEA initially planned to build ATENA, a new facility for all radioactive sodium waste from R and D and FBR facilities. For various reasons, but mainly to save money, the CEA decided to treat all radioactive sodium and sodium waste in the framework of the Phenix dismantling project. There are no real difficulties in the dismantling schedule because of the advanced state of development of the processes selected for the ATENA project. Because of the knowledge already obtained, the issues concern project management, waste management and human resources reduction more than technical challenge

103

Decommissioning in Lithuania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lithuania has no primary energy sources of its own. From the late 1980s, the Ignalina NPP (INPP) produced a large percentage of Lithuania's electricity. The Lithuanian electricity and gas networks are closely interrelated to the north-west power sectors of the Russian Federation. The plant, when originally constructed, was intended to supply the northwest region of the former Soviet Union rather than Lithuania alone. The first unit of INPP was commissioned in 1983 and the second unit in 1987. Since Lithuania became independent in 1990, INPP has typically contributed around 80% of national power supply. The plant is located in the north-eastern corner of Lithuania, close to the borders with Belarus and Latvia - 130 km from Vilnius, on the shore of lake Druksiai. Lithuania gained its independence from the former Soviet Union in 1990, and from then on took full responsibility for the safe operation of INPP. The plant, with two Soviet designed RBMK-1500 reactor units, is the only NPP of its type in the EU. The G7 high level meeting in Munich in 1992 was crucial to Lithuania and operation at INPP. The political decision was made that these RBMK reactors should be closed, as the reactors were judged incapable of being upgraded to Western safety levels. The first step in the preparations to close INPP was the International Donors Conference in the year 2000 in Vilnius. Shortly afterwards, the Ignalina International Decommissioning Support Fund (IIDSF) operated by the Europeapport Fund (IIDSF) operated by the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) has been established. The initial contributions to the fund were made by a number of European countries and by the EU. Since that time, only the EU has continued to contribute to the IIDSF, its contributions now totalling 389.5 million euros, equivalent to 93% of the fund

104

Platform decommissioning. Environmental challenges and practical solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The publication gives a short introduction of platform decommissioning, followed by an overview of what to be decommissioned and removed. This will be followed by some of the vital technologies and methods within decommissioning, abandonment of wells, removal and handling of remains that is reuse and scrapping. A final presentation with a view of current research and developments is given. 3 figs

105

Cost lessons learnt from decommissioning Shippingport  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The US Department of Energy has completed decommissioning of its 72 MWe Pressurized Water Reactor at Shippingport. The project, finished on time and under budget, should be encouraging for utilities preparing to decommission commercial plants. But the real lesson of the Shippingport project is that commercial decommissioning of the much larger reactors now in operation will be more difficult and more expensive. (author)

106

Development of decommissioning system engineering technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the decommissioning planning stage, it is important to select the optimized decommissioning process considering the cost and safety. Especially the selection of the optimized decommissioning process is necessary because it affects to improve worker's safety and decommissioning work efficiency. The decommissioning process evaluation technology can provide the optimized decommissioning process as constructing various decommissioning scenarios and it can help to prevent the potential accidents as delivering the exact work procedures to workers and to help workers to perform decommissioning work skillfully. It's necessary to measure the radioactive contamination in the highly contaminated facilities such as hot-cells or glove-boxes to be decommissioned for decommissioning planning. These facilities are very high radiation level, so it is difficult to approach. In this case the detector system is preferable to separate the sensor and electronics, which have to locate in the facility outside to avoid the electric noise and worker's radiation exposure. In this project, we developed the remote detection system for radiation measurement and signal transmission in the high radiation area. In order to minimize worker's exposure when decommissioning highly activated nuclear facilities, it is necessary to develop the remote handling tool to perform the dismantling work remotely. Especially, since cutting, measuring, and decontamination works should be performed remotely in the highly activated area, the remote handling tool for conducting these works should be developed. Therefore, the multi-purpose dismantling machine that can measuring dose, facility cutting, and remote handling for maintenance and decommissioning of highly activated facility should be needed

107

33 CFR 334.140 - Chesapeake Bay; U.S. Army Proving Ground Reservation, Aberdeen, Md.  

Science.gov (United States)

...and is in violation of this regulation. Further, water skiing in the water area of Aberdeen Proving Ground is permitted as...outside of any vessel (except for the purposes of water skiing as outlined above) including, but not...

2010-07-01

108

30 CFR 285.906 - What must my decommissioning application include?  

Science.gov (United States)

...CONTINENTAL SHELF Decommissioning Decommissioning Applications § 285.906 What must my decommissioning application include? You...285.909. (c) A proposed decommissioning schedule for your lease, ROW...

2010-07-01

109

BNFL decommissioning--a practical success  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The presentation will cover 4 areas of BNFL's decommissioning experience: 1. The decommissioning experience on reprocessing site at Sellafield in West Cumbria, showing examples of some of the projects that have been undertaken and some of the tools and techniques that have developed and deployed to great effect; 2. Two quite different projects, that BNFL has undertaken away from its main reprocessing site; 3. The decommissioning and delicensing of a Universities research reactor and then the decommissioning of a diffusion plant at BNFL's Capenhurst site; 4. Describing BNFL's success in penetrating the large decommissioning market in the USA

110

Shippingport station decommissioning project overview  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station (SAPS), the first commercial-sized nuclear power plant in the United States to undergo complete dismantlement. SAPS is located near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, on approximately seven acres of land owned by Duquesne Light Company (DLC), and leased to the US Department of Energy. The Station consists of a 275' by 60' Fuel Handling Building containing the Reactor Containment Chamber, the Service Building, the Turbine Building, the Radioactive Waste Processing Building, the Administration Building, and other smaller support buildings. The Station has four coolant loops; most of the containment structures are located below grade. Shippingport Station was shutdown in October, 1982. Defueling operations began in 1983 and were completed by September 1984. At that time, responsibility for the plant was transferred from DOE Office of Assistant Secretary for Naval Reactors (NE-60) to DOE Office of Terminal Waste Disposal and Remedial Action (NE-20) and then to DOE Richland Operations Office (RL). Also at that time, responsibility for the operation/decommissioning of the station systems passed from DLC to General Electric Company (GE). A caretaker and site preparation period lasted from September, 1984 to September, 1985, at which time decommissioning activities started. The decommissioning period is scheduled as September, 1985 through April, 1990. Project total estimated cost is $98.3 million

111

Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project: overview  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Shippingport was shut down in October 1982. Defueling operations were complete September 1984. The decommissioning project consists of 2 phases and will be completed in April 1990. This overview discusses the schedule, technical statistics, organization, operations, scope of activity specifications, final site configuration, radiological condition, and cost summary

112

Information Support for Storage Decommission  

International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

Decision - Making Information Support of Territory Remediation in the Course of Decommissioning Temporary Radioactive Waste Storage Sites in the Northwestern Region of Russia. Elaboration of an Environmental Monitoring System for Enterprises Involved in Treating and Storing Low- and Intermediate- Radioactive Wastes in the Region

113

Design improvements to facilitate decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seven gas-cooled, graphite-moderate reactors are currently in various phases of decommissioning in France. None of the nuclear generating units with pressurized water reactors (PWR) operated by EdF will have reached the end of its useful life, and will have to be decommissioned and disposed of, before 2010. According to current plans, they are to be entombed after the end of their service life. Care was taken already in the design of the PWR plants to choose materials which would ensure minimum radiation exposure, i.e. a low collective dose, to the personnel during operation and in subsequent decommissioning activities. Plant sections exposed to radiation and those not exposed were separated strictly already in the design stage in order to minimize contamination. Valuable experience in decontamination work and remotely controlled activities in radiation areas was acquired especially in replacements of large components, such as steam generators or thermal neutron shields. Another important requirement is the complete documentation of all activities, especially in decontamination. The intention is to clear for reuse or recycling as much as possible of the materials and residues arising in decommissioning, and to minimize the volume of materials requiring repository storage. (orig.)

114

Decommissioning Study of Oskarshamn NPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By Swedish law it is the obligation of the nuclear power utilities to satisfactorily demonstrate how a nuclear power plant can be safely decommissioned and dismantled when it is no longer in service as well as calculate the estimated cost of decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (SKB) has been commissioned by the Swedish nuclear power utilities to meet the requirements of current legislation by studying and reporting on suitable technologies and by estimating the costs of decommissioning and dismantling of the Swedish nuclear power plants. The present report is an overview, containing the necessary information to meet the above needs, for Oskarshamn NPP. Information is given for the plant about the inventory of materials and radioactivity at the time for final shutdown. A feasible technique for dismantling is presented and the waste management is described and the resulting waste quantities are estimated. Finally a schedule for the decommissioning phase is given and the costs associated are estimated as a basis for funding

115

Decommissioning study of Forsmark NPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By Swedish law it is the obligation of the nuclear power utilities to satisfactorily demonstrate how a nuclear power plant can be safely decommissioned and dismantled when it is no longer in service as well as calculate the estimated cost of decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (SKB) has been commissioned by the Swedish nuclear power utilities to meet the requirements of current legislation by studying and reporting on suitable technologies and by estimating the costs of decommissioning and dismantling of the Swedish nuclear power plants. The present report is an overview, containing the necessary information to meet the above needs, for the Forsmark NPP. Information is given for the plant about the inventory of materials and radioactivity at the time for final shutdown. A feasible technique for dismantling is presented and the waste management is described and the resulting waste quantities are estimated. Finally a schedule for the decommissioning phase is given and the costs associated are estimated as a basis for funding

116

Shippingport Atomic Power Station decommissioning transfer planning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project (SSDP) is the first commercial size nuclear power plant to undergo decommissioning in the United States. One of the objectives in decommissioning the plant is to demonstrate the technology used and thoroughly document the results for dissemination to utilities, government entities, the nuclear industry, and the decommissioning community. DOE has established a Technology Transfer Program to assure that useful information compiled on the project, such as management techniques, radiological controls, decommissioning methods, lessons learned and other special studies and tests, expected to be of interest to the industry, is adequately documented and available to outside parties or participants. The Shippingport decommissioning experience will create a significant data base for the nuclear utility industry in future decommissioning of commercial nuclear power generating facilities

117

Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project Technology Transfer Program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project (SSDP) is the first commercial size nuclear power plant to undergo decommissioning in the United States. One of the objectives in decommissioning the plant is to demonstrate the technology used and thoroughly document the results for dissemination to utilities, government entities, the nuclear industry, and the decommissioning community. The Project is funded and managed by the Department of Energy (DOE). DOE has established a Technology Transfer Program to assure that useful information compiled on the project; such as, management techniques, radiological controls, decommissioning methods, lessons learned and other special studies and tests, expected to be of interest to the industry, is adequately documented and available to outside parties or participants. The Shippingport decommissioning experience will create a significant data base for the nuclear utility industry in future decommissioning of commercial nuclear power generating facilities

118

Decommissioning: a problem or a challenge?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the ageing of nuclear facilities or the reduced interest in their further operation, a new set of problems, related to the decommissioning of these facilities, has come into forefront. In many cases it turns out that the preparations for decommissioning have come too late, and that financial resources for covering decommissioning activities have not been provided. To avoid such problems, future liailities should be thoroughly estimated in drawing up the decommissioning and waste management programme for each nuclear facility in time, and financial provisions for implementing such programme should be provided. In this paper a presentation of current decommissioning experience in Slovenia is given. The main problems and difficulties in decommissioning of the Žirovski Vrh Uranium Mine are exposed and the lesson learned from this case is presented. The preparation of the decommissioning programme for the Nuclear Power Plant Krško is also described, and the situation at the TRIGA research reactor is briefly discussed.

Mele Irena

2004-01-01

119

Decommissioning of Facilities. General Safety Requirements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Decommissioning is the last step in the lifetime management of a facility. It must also be considered during the design, construction, commissioning and operation of facilities. This publication establishes requirements for the safe decommissioning of a broad range of facilities: nuclear power plants, research reactors, nuclear fuel cycle facilities, facilities for processing naturally occurring radioactive material, former military sites, and relevant medical, industrial and research facilities. It addresses all the aspects of decommissioning that are required to ensure safety, aspects such as roles and responsibilities, strategy and planning for decommissioning, conduct of decommissioning actions and termination of the authorization for decommissioning. It is intended for use by those involved in policy development, regulatory control and implementation of decommissioning

120

IDMT, Integrated Decommissioning Management Tools  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear Power Plant decommissioning requires a number of demolition activities related to civil works and systems as well as the construction of temporary facilities used for treatment and conditioning of the dismantled parts. The presence of a radiological, potentially hazardous, environment due to the specific configuration and history of the plant require a professional, expert and qualified approach approved by the national safety authority. Dismantling activities must be designed, planned and analysed in detail during an evaluation phase taking into account different scenarios generated by possible dismantling sequences and specific waste treatments to be implemented. The optimisation process of the activities becomes very challenging taking into account the requirement of the minimisation of the radiological impact on exposed workers and people during normal and accident conditions. While remote operated equipment, waste treatment and conditioning facilities may be designed taking into account this primary goal also a centralised management system and corresponding software tools have to be designed and operated in order to guarantee the fulfilment of the imposed limits as well as the traceability of wastes. Ansaldo Nuclear Division has been strongly involved in the development of a qualified and certified software environment to manage the most critical activities of a decommissioning project. The IDMT system (Integrated Decommissioning Management Tools) providd Decommissioning Management Tools) provide a set of stand alone user friendly applications able to work in an integrated configuration to guarantee waste identification, traceability during treatment and conditioning process as well as location and identification at the Final Repository site. Additionally, the system can be used to identify, analyse and compare different specific operating scenarios to be optimised in term of both economical and radiological considerations. The paper provides an overview of the different phases of decommissioning activities and a presentation of the most original concepts of the IDMT system. (authors)

121

Geophysical study of the Building 103 Dump, Aberdeen Proving Ground  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Building 103 Dump is one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek and Westwood areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, resistivity, ground-penetrating radar, and seismic refraction, were conducted. These surveys indicate that much of the area is free of debris. However, prominent magnetic and resistivity anomalies occur along well-defined lineaments, suggestive of a dendritic stream pattern. Prior to the onset of dumping, the site was described as a ``sand pit,`` which suggests that headward erosion of Canal Creek tributaries cut into the surficial aquifer. Contaminants dumped into the landfill would have direct access to the surficial aquifer and thus to Canal Creek. Seismic refraction profiling indicates 6--12 ft of fill material now rests on the former land surface. Only the northern third of the former landfill was geophysically surveyed.

McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.

1992-12-01

122

Tradução e adaptação cultural do Questionário Aberdeen para Veias Varicosas / Translation and cultural adaptation of Aberdeen Varicose Veins Questionnaire  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese CONTEXTO: Atualmente há um crescente interesse por instrumentos de avaliação em saúde produzidos e validados em todo o mundo. Apesar disso, ainda não temos no Brasil instrumentos que avaliem o impacto da doença venosa crônica na vida de seu portador. Para utilização dessas medidas torna-se necessári [...] a a realização da tradução e da adaptação cultural ao idioma em questão. OBJETIVO: Traduzir e adaptar culturalmente para a população brasileira o Aberdeen Varicose Veins Questionnaire (AVVQ- Brasil). MÉTODOS: O processo consistiu de duas traduções e duas retrotraduções realizadas por tradutores independentes, da avaliação das versões seguida da elaboração de versão consensual e de pré-teste comentado. RESULTADOS: Os pacientes do pré-teste eram do sexo feminino, com média de idade de 49,9 anos, média de tempo de resposta 7,73 minutos, que variou entre 4,55 minutos (tempo mínimo) a 10,13 minutos (tempo máximo). Escolaridade: 20% analfabetismo funcional, 1º grau completo e 2º grau completo; 30% 1º grau incompleto; e 10% 3º grau completo. Gravidade clínica 40% C3 e C6S, 10% C2 e C5, havendo cinco termos incompreendidos na aplicação. CONCLUSÕES: A versão na língua portuguesa do Aberdeen Varicose Veins Questionnaire está traduzida e adaptada para uso na população brasileira, podendo ser utilizada após posterior análise de suas propriedades clinimétricas. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Currently there is a growing interest in health assessment tools produced and validated throughout the world. Nevertheless, it is still inadequate the number of instruments that assess the impact of chronic venous disease in the life of its bearer. To use these measures it is necessary t [...] o accomplish the translation and cultural adaptation to the language in question. OBJECTIVE: Translate to Portuguese and culturally adapted for the Brazilian population the Aberdeen Varicose Veins Questionnaire (AVVQ-Brazil). METHODS: The process consisted of two translations and two back-translations performed by freelance translators, then the evaluation versions of the development of consensual version and commented pretest. RESULTS: The patients in the pre-test were female, mean age 49.9 years, average response time of 7.73 minutes, which ranged from 4.55 minutes (minimum) to 10.13 minutes (maximum time). Education: 20% functional illiteracy and first and second complete degrees; 30% first incomplete degree, and 10% third complete degree. Clinical severity: 40% C3 and C6s, 10% C2 and C5, with five misunderstood terms in the application. CONCLUSION: The Portuguese version of the Aberdeen Varicose Veins Questionnaire has been translated and adapted for use in the Brazilian population, and can be used after further analysis of their clinimetric properties, which is underway.

Flávia de Jesus, Leal; Renata Cardoso, Couto; Guilherme Benjamin Brandão, Pitta; Priscilla Tosatti Ferreira, Leite; Larissa Maranhão, Costa; Wesley J. F., Higino; Marina Sandrelle Correia de, Sousa.

2012-03-01

123

The decommissioning of Berkeley II  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the decommissioning progress at the Magnox site at Berkeley in Gloucestershire.Throughout the work at Berkeley the emphasis has been on conducting decommissioning safely. This has been reflected in the progress of decommissioning starting with removal of the fuel from site and thus much greater than 99% of the radioactive inventory. The major radioactive hazard is the Intermediate Level Waste in the form of fuel element debris (graphite struts and extraneous magnox components removed to increase the packing density of fuel elements in flasks going to Sellafield), miscellaneous activated components, sludges and resins. Approximately 1500 m3 of such material exists and is stored in underground waste vaults on site. Work is underway to recover and encapsulate the waste in cement so rendering it 'passively safe'. All work on site is covered by a nuclear safety case which has a key objective of minimising the radiological exposures that could accrue to workers. Reflecting this an early decision has been taken to leave work on the Reactor Pressure Vessels themselves for several decades. Also important in protection of the workforce has been control of asbestos.Much material has been removed with redundant plant and equipment, but a programme of remediation in line with government legislation has been required to ensure personnel safety throughout the decommissioning period and into Care and Maintenance.In addition to health and safety matters the site approach to environmental issues has been consistent. Formally such standards as ISO 14001 have been adhered to and the appropriate certification maintained. At a working level the principles of reduce, reuse and recycle have been inculcated

124

The decommissioning of nuclear systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discusses why the dismantling of those structures which form part of nuclear systems pose special problems. It outlines the general approach that will need to be adopted in the decommissioning of such nuclear systems and comments briefly upon the way in which radioactive decay may affect dismantling and demolition operations. The techniques available for the demolition of heavy structures are described and an assessment made of the effectiveness of and the problems arising from the use of each procedure. (author)

125

Updated project plan: Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Project plans are the primary documentation used by the DOE Decision Authority to identify the Major System Acquisition Process - Key Decision Points. For the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project (SSDP) the four key decision points are: approve the mission need, project objective, and the initiation of project activity; approve the selection of the SSDP decommissioning mode; approve the initiation of SSDP decommissioning operations; and approve the release of the Shippingport Station site as safe from a radiation standpoint. The purpose of the SSDP is to place the Shippingport Atomic Power Station in a long-term radiologically safe condition following defueling of the reactor, to perform decommissioning in such a manner as to demonstrate to the nuclear industry the application of decommissioning procedures to a large nuclear power plant, and to provide useful planning data for future decommissioning projects

126

Decommissioning plans and activities in Slovenia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the ageing of nuclear facilities, or the reduced interest in their further operation, a new set of problems, related to the decommissioning of these facilities, has come into forefront. In many cases it turns out that the preparations for decommissioning have come too late, and that financial resources for covering decommissioning activities have not been provided. In this paper a presentation is given of current decommissioning experience in Slovenia. The main problems and difficulties in decommissioning of the Zirovski vrh Uranium Mine are exposed, and the lesson learned from this case is presented. The preparation of the decommissioning programme for the nuclear power plant Krsko is also described, and the situation at the TRIGA research reactor is briefly discussed. (author)

127

Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project overview  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station (SAPS), the first commercial-sized nuclear power plant in the United States to undergo complete dimantlement. SAPS is located near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania on approximately seven acres of land owned by Duquesne Light Company (DLC), and leased to the U.S. Department of Energy. The Station consists of a 275' x 60' Fuel Handling Building containing the Reactor Containment Chamber, the Service Building, the Turbine Building, the Radioactive Waste Processing Building, The Administration Building, and other smaller support buildings. The Station has four coolant loops; most of the containment structures are located below grade. Shippingport Station was shutdown in October, 1982. Defueling operations began in 1983 and were completed by September, 1984. A caretaker and site preparation period lasted from September, 1984 to September, 1985, at which time decommissioning activities started. The decommissioning period is scheduled as September, 1985 through April, 1990. Project total estimated cost is $98.3 million

128

Experience of TTR-1 decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Toshiba Training Reactor-1 (TTR-1) was planned for improvement of technical level from the standpoint of nuclear reactor manufacturer, training of a nuclear engineer, and research of nuclear physics, radiochemistry, radiation shielding and others. TTR-1 was permitted for construction in May 1960, attained at the first criticality in March 1962 and has continued to operate over 40 years. TTR-1 was permanently shut down in March 2001, accomplishing the planned target. From the initial criticality to the shut down, total operating time amounts to 15,300 hours and 31 MWds. Decommissioning plan was submitted to the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology on August 8, 2001 and dismantling work was started. The spent fuel was transported outside the laboratory, and the first phase and the second phase dismantling work were completed at the end of February 2004. Some of the reactor equipments continue maintaining their performance, and waste materials generated from dismantling work are under the state of managed storage, until disposal of the dismantling radioactive waste becomes clear, when the third phase of dismantling work will be started. At the end of the third phase work, all the TTR-1 equipments are dismantled and all waste materials are removed from TTR-1, then decommissioning of TTR-1 is completed. The outline of the decommissioning plan, the actually performed dismantling work, and spent fuel transportation work is briefly described. (authorrtation work is briefly described. (author)

129

Decommissioning and the Joint Convention  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management, commonly known as the 'Joint Convention', came into effect in June 2001. The paper describes the development of the Convention, from 1992 to the present day, summarizes its current status, discusses some aspects of the scope of the Convention, and explains the review process that will be used in its implementation. The paper's main emphasis is on the Convention's implications for Contracting Parties concerning decommissioning of nuclear facilities. In describing that, the paper compares some details of the differences in scope of applicability of the Joint Convention and the Convention on Nuclear Safety, and hence explains why decommissioning came within the scope of the Joint Convention. Specific articles of the Convention are identified that are pertinent to countries engaged in decommissioning activities.A Contracting Party should ensure that each of those articles is considered during the preparation of its National Report, which is to be submitted prior to a Review Meeting. (author)

130

San Onofre Unit 1 decommissioning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nuclear plant decommissioning presents several challenges in radiation protection. The plant demolition must consider radiation protection for workers, protection of the public, and careful material management. Decommissioning of the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station (SONGS) Unit 1 presented some additional challenges. Including complete removal of above ground structures this can be accomplished safely and efficiently. None of the low-level radioactive waste is unique to decommissioning although transportation of large components can be a significant challenge. Proven techniques are available to handle Greater than Class C waste (highly activated reactor internals) and spent fuel. A considerable challenge is the disposing of the very large volume of potentially clean material. There is a high cost to survey and decontaminate materials. Moreover, in the US today there are no standards for the clearance of potentially contaminated volumetric materials. Careful planning is necessary to determine the most cost-effective means for waste management, whether it includes decontamination and surveys or simple disposal. Lastly, existing ALARA programs with some minor modifications provide sufficient worker and public protection from radiation.

Goldin, Eric M. [CHP, Southern California Edison, P. O. Box 128, San Clemente, CA 92674-0128 (United States)

2004-07-01

131

Decommissioning of naval nuclear ships  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the next decade the two major nuclear powers will each have to decommission more than 100 naval nuclear vessels, in particular submarines. The problems connected with this task is considered in this report. Firstly the size of the task is considered, i.e. the number of nuclear vessels that has to be decommissioned. Secondly the reactors of these vessels, their fuel elements, their power level, the number of reactors per vessel and the amount of radioactivity to be handled are discussed. Thirdly the decommissioning procedures, i.e. The removal of fuel from the vessels, the temporary storage of the reactor fuel near the base, and the cleaning and disposal of the reactor and the primary circuit components are reviewed. Finally alternative uses of the newer submarines are briefly considered. It should be emphasizes that much of the detailed information on which this report is based, may be of dubious nature, and that may to some extent affect the validity of the conclusions of the report. (au)

132

Preliminary nuclear decommissioning cost study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The decommissioning of a nuclear power plant may involve one or more of three possible options: storage with surveillance (SWS), restricted site release (RSR), and unrestricted site use(USU). This preliminary study concentrates on the logistical, technical and cost aspects of decommissioning a multi-unit CANDU generating station using Pickering GS as the reference design. The procedure chosen for evaluation is: i) removal of the fuel and heavy water followed by decontamination prior to placing the station in SWS for thiry years; ii) complete dismantlement to achieve a USU state. The combination of SWS and USU with an interim period of surveillance allows for radioactive decay and hence less occupational exposure in achieving USU. The study excludes the conventional side of the station, assumes waste disposal repositories are available 1600 km away from the station, and uses only presently available technologies. The dismantlement of all systems except the reactor core can be accomplished using Ontario Hydro's current operating, maintenance and construction procedures. The total decommissioning period is spread out over approximately 40 years, with major activities concentrated in the first and last five years. The estimated dose would be approximately 1800 rem. Overall Pickering GS A costs would be $162,000,000 (1980 Canadian dollars)

133

Shippingport station decommissioning project technology transfer program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

US Department of Energy (DOE) Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project (SSDP) decommissioned, decontaminated, and dismantled the world's first, nuclear fueled, commercial size, electric power plant. SSDP programmatic goal direction for technology transfer is documentation of project management and operations experience. Objective is to provide future nuclear facility decommissioning projects with pertinent SSDP performance data for project assessment, planning, and operational implementation. This paper presents a working definition for technology transfer. Direction is provided for access and availability for SSDP technology acquisition

134

Decommissioning of CANDU nuclear power stations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report summarizes the results of a detailed study of the various procedures and costs associated with decommissioning a CANDU reactor. The three internationally recognized 'stages' of decommissioning (mothballing, encasement, and dismantling) are discussed. It is concluded that decommissioning is possible with presently available technology, and that costs could be financed by only a marginal increase in the cost of electricity during the life of the reactor. The environmental impact would be no greater than that of any large construction project. (auth)

135

Planning and management for reactor decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes decommissioning strategy, planning process, regulation, management and organization, radiological characterization and safety. Planning is used to identify, define and organize the requirements for decommissioning including decommissioning options, items to be accomplished (objective, scope), to solve problems of how it is to be accomplished (methods, means and procedures), questions of who will execute it (resources, organization and responsibilities, interfacing), and time when it will be executed (schedule for meeting the objectives). A plan is highly dependent on the quality of the management team assembled to carry it out. Radiological characterization involves a survey of existing data, calculation, in situ measurements and/or sampling and analyses. Using this databases decommissioning planner may assess options, considering: decontamination processes, dismantling procedures, tools required, radiological protection of workers and public/environment, waste classification, and resulting costs. Comparison and optimization of these factors will lead to selection of a decommissioning strategy, i.e. typically, immediate or deferred dismantling. The planning and implementation of decommissioning for nuclear reactors should be referred both recent dismantling techniques and many decommissioning experiences. The technical lessons learned from many projects will help in the planning for future decommissioning projects. And systematic planning and man projects. And systematic planning and management are essential to successful completion of a decommissioning project. (author)

136

Decontamination, decommissioning, and vendor advertorial issue, 2005  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The focus of the July-August issue is on Decontamination, decommissioning, and vendor advertorials. Major interviews, articles and reports in this issue include: Increasing momentum, by Gary Taylor, Entergy Nuclear, Inc.; An acceptable investment, by Tom Chrisopher, Areva, Inc.; Fuel recycling for the U.S. and abroad, by Philippe Knoche, Areva, France; We're bullish on nuclear power, by Dan R. Keuter, Entergy Nuclear, Inc.; Ten key actions for decommissioning, by Lawrence E. Boing, Argonne National Laboratory; Safe, efficient and cost-effective decommissioning, by Dr. Claudio Pescatore and Torsten Eng, OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), France; and, Plant profile: SONGS decommissioning.

Agnihotri, Newal (ed.)

2005-07-15

137

Decommissioning Technology Development for Nuclear Research Facilities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is predicted that the decommissioning of a nuclear power plant would happen in Korea since 2020 but the need of partial decommissioning and decontamination for periodic inspection and life extension still has been on an increasing trend and its domestic market has gradually been extended. Therefore, in this project we developed following several essential technologies as a decommissioning R and D. The measurement technology for in-pipe radioactive contamination was developed for measuring alpha/beta/gamma emitting nuclides simultaneously inside a in-pipe and it was tested into the liquid waste transfer pipe in KRR-2. And the digital mock-up system for KRR-1 and 2 was developed for choosing the best scenarios among several scenarios on the basis of various decommissioning information(schedule, waste volume, cost, etc.) that are from the DMU and the methodology of decommissioning cost estimation was also developed for estimating a research reactor's decommissioning cost and the DMU and the decommissioning cost estimation system were incorporated into the decommissioning information integrated management system. Finally the treatment and management technology of the irradiated graphites that happened after decommissioning KRR-2 was developed in order to treat and manage the irradiated graphites safely.

Lee, K. W.; Kang, Y. A.; Kim, G. H. (and others)

2007-06-15

138

Program of BN-350 reactor decommissioning activity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The BN-350 is being decommissioned according to and for fulfillment of a decision of the RK Government of April 22, 1999, /456/ 'About decommissioning of BN-350 in Aktau-City of Mangistau region', which states that BN-350 reactor is to be decommissioned and preserved for 50 years prior to its disassembling and burial. The BN-350 reactor plant with the fast reactor and a liquid-metal coolant was being operated from 1973 through 1999 year as a part of the productive complex of Mangishlak nuclear power combine factory. The reactor plant was intended for a steam supply to the turbogenerators and sea water desalination system. The design heat power of the reactor is 100 MWt. Since at the moment of making a decision on BN-350 reactor decommissioning there was no a developed draft on the decommissioning, the decommissioning activity is being planned step-by-step. The activity specified in the plan was started in July 1999. Its completion is scheduled in July 2001, when, as expected, the BN-350 decommissioning will be approved. Taking into account the fact that Kazakhstan is not adequately experienced in and does not possess the full range of equipment and technologies on NPP decommissioning, the progress of the activity on BN-350 reactor decommissioning depends, to a considerable extent, on international support in this field

139

Experiences in teaching decommissioning - 16179  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper describes the experience gained by the author in teaching decommissioning in the Highlands of Scotland. Initially when asked to teach the subject of decommissioning to students sitting for a BSc degree in 'Electrical or Mechanical Engineering with Decommissioning Studies', the author was taken aback, not having previously taught degree students and there was no precedent since there was no previous material or examples to build on. It was just as difficult for the students since whilst some had progressed from completing HND studies, the majority were employed at the Dounreay site and were mature students with families who were availing themselves of the opportunity for career advancement (CPD). Some of the students were from the UKAEA and its contractors whilst others were from Rolls-Royce working at Vulcan, the Royal Navy's establishment for testing nuclear reactors for submarines. A number of the students had not been in a formal learning environment for many years. The College which had originally been funded by the UKAEA and the nuclear industry in the 1950's was anxious to break into the new field of Decommissioning and were keen to promote these courses in order to support the work progressing on site. Many families in Thurso, and in Caithness, have a long tradition of working in the nuclear industry and it was thought at the time that expertise in nuclear decommissioning could be developed and indeed exported elsewhere. In addition the courses being elsewhere. In addition the courses being promoted by the College would attract students from other parts so that a centre of excellence could be established. In parallel with formal teaching, online courses were also developed to extend the reach of the College. The material was developed as a mixture of power point presentations and formal notes and was obtained from existing literature, web searches and interactive discussions with people in the industry as well as case studies obtained from actual situations. Assignments were set and examination papers prepared which were validated by internal and external assessors. The first course was started in 2004 (believed to be unique at that time) and attracted eight students. Subsequent courses have been promoted as well as a BEng (Hons) course which also included a course on Safety and Reliability. (authors)

140

Decommissioning of Facilities Using Radioactive Material. Safety Requirements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The importance of decommissioning has come to the fore in the past few years. Previously the requirements for safety during decommissioning had been considered as part of general waste management, but recently it was decided that this important part of a facility?s life needs to have definitive requirements specified. This publication provides such information. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Protection of human health and the environment; 3. Responsibilities associated with decommissioning; 4. Decommissioning strategy; 5. Decommissioning plan; 6. Funding; 7. Decommissioning management; 8. Conduct of decommissioning; 9. Completion of decommissioning.

141

Principles of record keeping for decommissioning purposes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the siting and conceptual design stage of a nuclear facility the first records pertaining to that facility are produced and stored. Subsequent phases in the facility's life cycle (detailed design, construction, commissioning, operation and shutdown) will include the production and retention of a large variety of records. Design, as-built drawings and operational records are essential for safe and efficient operation of any nuclear facility. This set of records is constantly updated and augmented during operation. Records from all phases of a nuclear facility are important for planning its decommissioning. Although not all of these records need to be included explicitly in the decommissioning plan itself, the process of initial, ongoing and final planning utilizes pertinent records for, and ultimately achieves, safe and cost effective decommissioning. When a nuclear facility is shutdown for decommissioning, current operating experience may be lost. Therefore, one important element of planning is to identify, secure and store appropriate operational records to support decommissioning. This process is preferably initiated during the design and construction phase and continues throughout operation including shutdown. Part of the records inventory from operation will become records for decommissioning and it is cost effective to identify these records before final facility shutdown. Experience shows that lack of attention to record keeping may result in an undue waste oord keeping may result in an undue waste of time, other resources and additional costs. The newly established Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management recognizes the importance of keeping decommissioning-related records. In addition, the systematic management of records is an essential part of quality assurance and is often a licence condition. A good comprehensive decommissioning records management system (RMS) is one specific application of the broader concepts of 'Protection of future generations' and 'Burden on future generations' as highlighted in the top-level IAEA document on Principles of Radioactive Waste Management. It should be noted that other programmes of the IAEA have addressed record keeping for radioactive waste management and disposal facilities. A newly-published IAEA report provides guidance in records relevant to decommissioning and its key statements are summarised in this paper. The contents is as follows: 1. Introduction; 2. Design and Operational Data Required for Decommissioning; 2.1. Decommissioning Strategy; 2.2 Primary Data Sources for Decommissioning; 2.2.1 Design, construction and modification data; 2.2.2. Operating, shutdown and post-shutdown data; 3. The Process of Selecting Decommissioning Records; 3.1 Establishing the Records Management System; 3.2 Selection of Decommissioning Records; 3.3. Documentation Prepared for Decommissioning; 4. Record Medium and Location

142

Decommissioning strategies and programme developments of Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As of August 2003, there are 52 nuclear power plants in operation producing approximately 35% electricity of total supply in Japan. The Japan Atomic Power Company decided to shutdown the Tokai-1 Power Station (Gas cooled reactor, 166 MWe) at the end of March in 1998 due to the economical reasons such as increase in operation and repair costs. The Fugen reactor, which is a prototype of an advanced thermal reactor, also was shutdown at the end of March in 2003 because of the completion of its initial objectives. In order to ensure stable supply of nuclear energy in the future, decommissioning of retired nuclear facilities is indispensable in Japan for securing sites for the next facilities. Therefore, early dismantling of nuclear power plant facilities after shutdown is required as Japanese basic policy on decommissioning. Based on this basic policy, research and development programs have actively been conducted in both government organizations and private sectors in recent years. Regulatory systems for decommissioning nuclear facilities including waste managements have progressed in the regulatory side taking these situations into account. Decommissioning of nuclear facilities is now getting one of the important issues of nuclear power in Japan. This paper describes the strategies and programs of the decommissioning in Japan. The paper has the following sections: 1. Introduction; 2. National policy on decommissioning; 3. Regulation; 4. Funding; 5. Decommissioning progrtion; 4. Funding; 5. Decommissioning programs; 5.1. JPDR Decommissioning Project; 5.2. Tokai-1 Power Station Decommissioning Project; 5.3. Fugen Decommissioning Project; 6. Technology Development; 7. Radioactive waste management

143

Decommissioning of Russian research facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When the most of our research facilities were built and put in operation more than 30 years ago there had been neither requirements no regulations concerning their future decommissioning (D and D). And due to that fact nobody thought of that in the initial designs of these facilities. The situation changed when in 1994 a top-level safety standard 'Safety Provision for Safety of Research Reactors' was issued by Gosatomnadzor of Russia with a special chapter 7, devoted to D and D issues. Unfortunately, it was just one page of requirements pertaining RR D and D in general terms and was not specific. Only in 2001 Gosatomnadzor of Russia developed and issued a more specific standard 'Rules for Safety Decommissioning of Nuclear Research Facilities'. From the total number of 85 Nuclear Research Facilities, including 34 research reactors, 36 critical assemblies and 15 subcritical assemblies, we have now 7 facilities under decommissioning. The situation is inevitably changing over the time. In the end of 2003 the decision was made to permanently shutdown two RR: AM, graphite type with channels, 15 MBt; BR-10, LMFR type, 10 MBt, and to start preparatory work for their future decommissioning, starting from 2005. It needs to be mentioned that from this list we have 6 reactors with which we face many difficulties in developing decommissioning technologies, namely: for TVR reactor: handling of heavy water and high radiation field in the core; for MR reactor: very complex reactor wie; for MR reactor: very complex reactor with many former radioactive spills, which is required a careful and expensive D and D work; AM: graphite utilization problem; BR-10: a problem of coolant poisoned with other heavy metals (like lead, bismuth); IBR-30: the fuel cannot be removed from the core prior the D and D project starts; RG-1M: location is above Arctic Circle, problem of transfer of irradiated parts of the reactor. The decision was made to bury then on the site thus creating a shallow-land radwaste storage facility. The established D and D standard explains in more or less detail the procedures to be accomplished before the actual decommissioning process can start. Basically these are: remove fuel from the reactor core to an interim SF storage facility at the reactor; after specified time of cooling, remove the fuel from the reactor building; drain coolant by using operational manual and remove it from the reactor building; conduct Engineering and Radiation Monitoring of the facility to get initial data on radiation conditions; Develop a Principal D and D Programme; develop a D and D documentation; develop a D and D SAR. Only after these procedures and documents have been accomplished and prepared an operating organization may apply for a D and D license to be issued by Gosatomnadzor of Russia. When a D and D project is fully accomplished by an operating organization the final results/conditions at the former RR site shall be evidenced by a special commission, including a Gosatomnadzor of Russia representative. A Final Report on D and D with the radiation data achieved in the end of its implementation shall be written and submitted to Gosatomnadzor of Russia for review and making decision on taking a research facility out of regulatory control

144

AREVA decommissioning strategy and programme  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As with any industrial installation, a nuclear facility has an operating life that requires accounting for its shutdown. In compliance with its sustainable development commitments, AREVA accounts this via its own decommissioning resources to value and make sites fit for further use. These capabilities guarantee the reversibility of the nuclear industry. Thus, the nuclear site value development constitutes an important activity for AREVA, which contributes to the acceptance of nuclear in line with the AREVA continuous policy of sustainable development which is to be fully responsible from the creation, during the operation, to the dismantling of its facilities in all respects with safety, local acceptance and environment. AREVA has already performed a large variety of operation during the life-time of its installations such as heavy maintenance, equipment replacement, upgrading operation. Nowadays, a completely different dimension is emerging with industrial decommissioning operations of nuclear fuel cycle installations: enrichment gaseous diffusion plant, fuel assembly plants, recycling and reprocessing facilities. These activities constitute a major know-how for AREVA. For this reason, the group decided, beginning of 2008, to gather 4 projects in one business unit called Nuclear Site Value Development - a reprocessing plant UP2 400 on AREVA La Hague site, a reprocessing plant UP1 on AREVA Marcoule site, a MOX fuel plant on Cadarache and 2 sites (SICN Veurey and Annecy) that handled GCR fuel fabrication). The main objectives are to enhance the feed back, to contribute to performance improvements, to value professionals and to put innovation forward. The following article will describe in a first part the main decommissioning programmes managed by AREVA NC Nuclear Site Value Development Business Unit. The second part will deal with strategic approaches. A more efficient organization with integration of the supply chain and innovation will be part of the main drivers. (authors)

Gay, A. [AREVA NC - Nuclear Site Value Development Business Unit., 75 - Paris (France)

2008-07-01

145

STANDARD OPERATING PROTOCOLS FOR DECOMMISSIONING  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Decommissioning projects at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) sites are conducted under project-specific decision documents, which involve extensive preparation time, public comment periods, and regulatory approvals. Often, the decision documents must be initiated at least one year before commencing the decommissioning project, and they are expensive and time consuming to prepare. The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) is a former nuclear weapons production plant at which hazardous substances and wastes were released or disposed during operations. As a result of the releases, RFETS was placed on the National Priorities List in 1989, and is conducting cleanup activities under a federal facilities compliance agreement. Working closely with interested stakeholders and state and federal regulatory agencies, RFETS has developed and implemented an improved process for obtaining the approvals. The key to streamlining the approval process has been the development of sitewide decision documents called Rocky Flats Cleanup Agreement Standard Operating Protocols or ''RSOPs.'' RSOPs have broad applicability, and could be used instead of project-specific documents. Although no two decommissioning projects are exactly the same and they may vary widely in contamination and other hazards, the basic steps taken for cleanup are usually similar. Because of this, using RSOPs is more efficient than preparing a separate project-speient than preparing a separate project-specific decision documents for each cleanup action. Over the Rocky Flats cleanup life cycle, using RSOPs has the potential to: (1) Save over 5 million dollars and 6 months on the site closure schedule; (2) Eliminate preparing one hundred and twenty project-specific decision documents; and (3) Eliminate writing seventy-five closure description documents for hazardous waste unit closure and corrective actions

146

AREVA decommissioning strategy and programme  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As with any industrial installation, a nuclear facility has an operating life that requires accounting for its shutdown. In compliance with its sustainable development commitments, AREVA accounts this via its own decommissioning resources to value and make sites fit for further use. These capabilities guarantee the reversibility of the nuclear industry. Thus, the nuclear site value development constitutes an important activity for AREVA, which contributes to the acceptance of nuclear in line with the AREVA continuous policy of sustainable development which is to be fully responsible from the creation, during the operation, to the dismantling of its facilities in all respects with safety, local acceptance and environment. AREVA has already performed a large variety of operation during the life-time of its installations such as heavy maintenance, equipment replacement, upgrading operation. Nowadays, a completely different dimension is emerging with industrial decommissioning operations of nuclear fuel cycle installations: enrichment gaseous diffusion plant, fuel assembly plants, recycling and reprocessing facilities. These activities constitute a major know-how for AREVA. For this reason, the group decided, beginning of 2008, to gather 4 projects in one business unit called Nuclear Site Value Development - a reprocessing plant UP2 400 on AREVA La Hague site, a reprocessing plant UP1 on AREVA Marcoule site, a MOX fuel plant on Cadarache and 2 sites (SICN Veurey and Annecdarache and 2 sites (SICN Veurey and Annecy) that handled GCR fuel fabrication). The main objectives are to enhance the feed back, to contribute to performance improvements, to value professionals and to put innovation forward. The following article will describe in a first part the main decommissioning programmes managed by AREVA NC Nuclear Site Value Development Business Unit. The second part will deal with strategic approaches. A more efficient organization with integration of the supply chain and innovation will be part of the main drivers. (authors)

147

Rancho Seco--Decommissioning Update  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Rancho Seco Nuclear Generating Station ceased operation in June of 1989 and entered an extended period of SAFSTOR to allow funds to accumulate for dismantlement. Incremental dismantlement was begun in 1997 of steam systems and based on the successful completion of work, the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) board of directors approved full decommissioning in July 1999. A schedule has been developed for completion of decommissioning by 2008, allowing decommissioning funds to accumulate until they are needed. Systems removal began in the Auxiliary Building in October of 1999 and in the Reactor Building in January of 2000. Systems dismantlement continues in the Reactor Building and should be completed by the end of 2003. System removal is near completion in the Auxiliary Building with removal of the final liquid waste tanks in progress. The spent fuel has been moved to dry storage in an onsite ISFSI, with completion on August 21, 2002. The spent fuel racks are currently being removed from the pool, packaged and shipped, and then the pool will be cleaned. Also in the last year the reactor coolant pumps and primary piping were removed and shipped. Characterization and planning work for the reactor vessel and internals is also in progress with various cut-up and/or disposal options being evaluated. In the year ahead the remaining systems in the Reactor Building will be removed, packaged and sent for disposal, including the pressurizer. Work will be started on embedded and underground piping and the large outdoor tanks. Building survey and decontamination will begin. RFP's for removal of the vessel and internals and the steam generators are planned to fix the cost of those components. If the costs are consistent with current estimates the work will go forward. If they are not, hardened SAFSTOR/entombment may be considered.

Newey, J. M.; Ronningen, E. T.; Snyder, M. W.

2003-02-26

148

Depleted uranium risk assessment at Aberdeen Proving Ground  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Environmental Science Group at Los Alamos and the Test and Evaluation Command (TECOM) are assessing the risk of depleted uranium (DU) testing at Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG). Conceptual and mathematical models of DU transfer through the APG ecosystem have been developed in order to show the mechanisms by which DU migrates or remains unavailable to different flora and fauna and to humans. The models incorporate actual rates of DU transfer between different ecosystem components as much as possible. Availability of data on DU transport through different pathways is scarce and constrains some of the transfer rates that can be used. Estimates of transfer rates were derived from literature sources and used in the mass-transfer models when actual transfer rates were unavailable. Objectives for this risk assessment are (1) to assess if DU transports away from impact areas; (2) to estimate how much, if any, DU migrates into Chesapeake Bay; (3) to determine if there are appreciable risks to the ecosystems due to DU testing; (4) to estimate the risk to human health as a result of DU testing

149

An air quality survey and emissions inventory at Aberdeen Harbour  

Science.gov (United States)

A network of 10 stations, with passive sampling for VOCs (including benzene), NO 2, and SO 2, over 2-week periods, grab sampling for CO, and 48-h pumped sampling for PM 10, was set up to make an air quality survey for 12 months around Aberdeen Harbour. Benzene, CO, SO 2 and PM 10 were always well below the AQS target values. However, NO 2 frequently showed a pronounced gradient across the harbour reaching its highest concentrations at the city end, indicating that the road traffic was the principal source of the pollution. This was backed up by the predominance of aromatics in the VOCs in the city centre, derived from petrol engined vehicles, compared to the predominance of alkanes and alkenes around the docks, derived from diesel engined heavy trucks and possibly ships. Black carbon on the PM 10 filters also showed a gradient with highest levels in the city centre. It is proposed that for such surveys in future, NO 2 and black carbon would be the two most informative parameters. This emissions inventory has shown first, that trucks contribute very little to the total, and second, that the ro-ro ferries are the major contributors as they burn light fuel oil while the oil platform supply vessels burn low-sulphur marine gas oil with around 0.1% S. When the whole picture of the emissions from the city is considered, the emissions from the harbour constitute only a small part.

Marr, I. L.; Rosser, D. P.; Meneses, C. A.

150

Environmental geophysics at Beach Point, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Geophysical studies at Beach Point Peninsula, in the Edgewood area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, provide diagnostic signatures of the hydrogeologic framework and possible contaminant pathways. These studies permit construction of the most reasonable scenario linking dense, nonaqueous-phase liquid contaminants introduced at the surface with their pathway through the surficial aquifer. Subsurface geology and contaminant presence were identified by drilling, outcrop mapping, and groundwater sampling and analyses. Suspected sources of near-surface contaminants were defined by magnetic and conductivity measurements. Negative conductivity anomalies may be associated with unlined trenches. Positive magnetic and conductivity anomalies outline suspected tanks and pipes. The anomalies of greatest concern are those spatially associated with a concrete slab that formerly supported a mobile clothing impregnating plant. Resistivity and conductivity profiling and depth soundings were used to identify an electrical anomaly extending through the surficial aquifer to the basal pleistocene unconformity, which was mapped by using seismic reflection methods. The anomaly may be representative of a contaminant plume connected to surficial sources. Major activities in the area included liquid rocket fuel tests, rocket fuel fire suppression tests, pyrotechnic material and smoke generator tests, and the use of solvents at a mobile clothing impregnating plant.

McGinnis, L.D.; Daudt, C.R.; Thompson, M.D.; Miller, S.F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Reclamation Engineering and Geosciences Section; Mandell, W.A. [Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc., Washington, DC (United States); Wrobel, J. [Dept. of Defense, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)

1994-07-01

151

76 FR 3837 - Nuclear Decommissioning Funds; Correction  

Science.gov (United States)

...TD 9512] RIN 1545-BF08 Nuclear Decommissioning Funds; Correction AGENCY: Internal...contributions to trusts maintained for decommissioning nuclear power plants. DATES: This...Y must file a request for a revised schedule of ruling amounts by March 15 of...

2011-01-21

152

The decommissioning of light water reactors - experience  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

More than ten nuclear power plants in Germany have been decommissioned or are under dismantling. Objectives, strategies, preparatory work, licensing, technical dismantling and safety considerations are explained from the utility point of view, using the Stade (KKS) decommissioning as an example. Challenges with respect to characterisation, logistics and economy are discussed. (orig.)

Schiffer, K.; Bacmeister, G.U.; Adler, J. [E.ON Kernkraft GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

2005-02-01

153

The decommissioning of light water reactors - experience  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

More than ten nuclear power plants in Germany have been decommissioned or are under dismantling. Objectives, strategies, preparatory work, licensing, technical dismantling and safety considerations are explained from the utility point of view, using the Stade (KKS) decommissioning as an example. Challenges with respect to characterisation, logistics and economy are discussed. (orig.)

154

Survey of decontamination and decommissioning techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reports and articles on decommissioning have been reviewed to determine the current technology status and also attempt to identify potential decommissioning problem areas. It is concluded that technological road blocks, which limited decommissioning facilities in the past have been removed. In general, techniques developed by maintenance in maintaining the facility have been used to decommission facilities. Some of the more promising development underway which will further simplify decommissioning activities are: electrolytic decontamination which simplifies some decontaminating operations; arc saw and vacuum furnace which reduce the volume of metallic contaminated material by a factor of 10; remotely operated plasma torch which reduces personnel exposure; and shaped charges, water cannon and rock splitters which simplify concrete removal. Areas in which published data are limited are detailed costs identifying various components included in the total cost and also the quantity of waste generated during the decommissioning activities. With the increased awareness of decommissioning requirements as specified by licensing requirements, design criteria for new facilities are taking into consideration final decommissioning of buildings. Specific building design features will evolve as designs are evaluated and implemented

155

Waste Management During RA Reactor Decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of radioactive waste management during the RA reactor decommissioning is to deal with radioactive waste in a manner that protects human health and the environment now and in the future. The estimation of waste quantities to be expected during decommissioning is a very important step in the initial planning. (author)

156

The decommissioning program of a nuclear reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A decommission project for one of the Chinese reactors has being done in recent years. It is doing in several aspects, the investigation, the feasibility study, the engineering design will be done in more detail for smooth decommissioning operation at the site in the near future

157

Decommissioning of nuclear ship 'Otto Hahn'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nuclear powered ship 'Otto Hahn' was commissioned in 1968, and ended its mission in 1979. The decommissioning was approved in December, 1980, and after the dismantling and removal of the reactor plant were completed, the decommissioning was recognized in September, 1982. The features of the method of decommissioning Otto Hahn were the carrying-out of the reactor pressure vessel together with the primary shielding tank as one body, and after the machinery, equipment and structures in the controlled area were removed or decontaminated, the ship was reconstructed to a diesel freighter. It is considered that the method of decommissioning of Otto Hahn and the data obtained by this work furnish much information for the decommissioning of nuclear power stations and nuclear powered ships hereafter. In this report, the course of decommissioning of Otto Hahn and its experience are synthetically summarized. The propulsion plant of Otto Hahn, the radiological condition, the conceptual design of decommissioning, the dismantling works, the procedures of permission and approval, the procedure for removing the control, the execution of decommissioning, and the removal of the controlled area are reported. (K.I.)

158

Project gnome decontamination and decommissioning plan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The document presents the operational plan for conducting the final decontamination and decommissioning work at the site of the first U.S. nuclear detonation designed specifically for peaceful purposes and the first underground event on the Plowshare Program to take place outside the Nevada Test Site. The plan includes decontamination and decommissioning procedures, radiological guidelines, and the NV concept of operations

159

The IAEA Safety Regime for Decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text of publication follows: The International Atomic Energy Agency is developing an international framework for decommissioning of nuclear facilities that consists of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management, and a hierarchy of Safety Standards applicable to decommissioning. The Joint Convention entered into force on 18 June 2001 and as of December 2001 had been ratified by 27 IAEA Member States. The Joint Convention contains a number of articles dealing with planning for, financing, staffing and record keeping for decommissioning. The Joint Convention requires Contracting Parties to apply the same operational radiation protection criteria, discharge limits and criteria for controlling unplanned releases during decommissioning that are applied during operations. The IAEA has issued Safety Requirements document and three Safety Guides applicable to decommissioning of facilities. The Safety Requirements document, WS-R-2, Pre-disposal Management of Radioactive Waste, including Decommissioning, contains requirements applicable to regulatory control, planning and funding, management of radioactive waste, quality assurance, and environmental and safety assessment of the decommissioning process. The three Safety Guides are WS-G-2.1, Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Plants and Research Reactors, WS-G-2.2, Decommissioning of Medical, Industrial and Research Facilities, an WS-G-2.4, Decommissioning of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities. They contain guidance on how to meet the requirements of WS-R-2 applicable to decommissioning of specific types of facilities. These Standards contain only general requirements and guidance relative to safety assessment and do not contain details regarding the content of the safety case. More detailed guidance will be published in future Safety Reports currently in preparation within the Waste Safety Section of the IAEA. Because much material arising during the decommissioning of nuclear facilities may be only slightly contaminated with radioactivity, an important matter for decommissioning of facilities is the level of contamination, which may be released from regulatory control. This issue is being addressed in a Safety Guide being prepared by the IAEA dealing with the Scope of Regulatory Control. This Safety Guide will attempt to rationalise levels of radioactivity subject to exclusion, exemption, discharge, recycle, contained in commodities, and released from regulatory control, taking into consideration levels of radioactivity in naturally occurring radioactive materials. This Safety Guide is scheduled to be completed late in 2002 or in 2003. The IAEA is organizing, in cooperation with the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, an International Conference on Safe Decommissioning for Nuclear Activities. The Conference will take place 14 to 18 October 2002 in Berlin, Germany

160

Completion of the Shippingport reactor decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Planning for the decommissioning of the Shippingport Atomic Power Plant began in 1979 and ended with publication of the Decommissioning Plan in 1983. The site was available for occupation by the Decommissioning Operations Contractor in September 1984 and physical work on decommissioning commenced in September 1985. This physical work was completed 3.75 years later, almost 6 months ahead of schedule. The total cost will be $92M which is $6M less than the $98M estimated. A breakdown of planned and actual statistics is presented for various aspects of the decommissioning work including: Cost, schedule, manpower, radiation exposures, waste arisings and shipments. Various aspects concerning contracts, decontamination, asbestos, safety, lessons learned and technology transfer are also presented. 19 figs., 6 tabs

161

Shippingport shows costs of PWR decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Decommissioning of the Shippingport nuclear power station commences in September 1985 and is due for completion in April 1990. After 25 years of operation as a pioneering power plant, Shippingport will now become the most significant reactor decommissioning operation so far anywhere in the world. It is close enough to a full scale commercial nuclear power station to give hard data on costs and relevant experience on the practical implications of decommissioning. The operating history of Shippingport is summarised, then the decommissioning programme is tabulated. The two aims of the decommissioning are; no primary system decontamination and one-piece removal of the reactor pressure vessel. These are discussed. The estimated cost is given. (U.K.)

162

Completion of the Shippingport reactor decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Planning for the decommissioning of the Shippingport Atomic Power Plant began in 1979 and ended with publication of the Decommissioning Plan in 1983. The site was available for occupation by the Decommissioning Operations Contractor in September 1984 and physical work on decommissioning commenced in September 1985. This physical work was completed 3.75 years later, almost 6 months ahead of schedule. The total cost will be 92M dollars which is 6M dollars less than the 98M dollars estimated. A breakdown of planned and actual statistics is presented for various aspects of the decommissioning work including: Cost, schedule. manpower, radiation exposures, waste arisings and shipments. Various aspects concerning contracts, decontamination, asbestos, safety, lessons learned and technology transfer are also presented. (author)

163

Decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objectives of this coordinated research programme (CRP) were to promote the exchange of information on the practical experience by Member States in decontamination and decommissioning. The scope of the programme included several areas of decontamination and decommissioning rather than focusing on a single aspect of it, in line with recommendation of the experts who participated in Phase 1 of the CRP. Experts felt that this format would generate better awareness of decontamination and decommissioning and would be more effective vehicle for the exchange of information by stimulating broader discussion on all aspects of decontamination and decommissioning. Special emphasis was given to the development of principles and methodologies to facilitate decommissioning and to the new methods and techniques for optimization of decontamination and disassembly of equipment. Refs, figs, tabs

164

Asbestos removal in Shippingport Decommissioning Project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project (SSDP) is being performed under contract to the DOE by the General Electric Company and its integrated subcontractor, MK-Ferguson Company, as the Decommissioning Operations Contractor (DOC). During the planning of this project, it was found that asbestos was the primary insulating material which was used on the nuclear steam supply system and the plant heating system. The original decommissioning plan required that each subcontractor remove the asbestos from the particular component(s) they had to remove. However, since removal of the radioactivity-contaminated asbestos would require special procedures and worker training, the original decommissioning plan was modified so that a single subcontractor removed all of the asbestos prior to other decommissioning tasks. IT Corporation was selected as the asbestos removal subcontractor. Their approach to the project is described

165

Regulatory methods and issues in decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Successful decommissioning of nuclear facilities depends not only on an operator having a sound decommissioning plan and programme in place prior to beginning decommissioning, it also requires that the regulator have a sound regulatory infrastructure in place to both provide guidance and monitor the facility during decommissioning. A regulatory infrastructure includes both regulations and compliance strategies. Regulations in some Member States include criteria for: (1) site release for artificial radioactive material with and without restrictions; (2) site criteria for technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material; (3) radioactivity that may be present in building materials and on equipment that are released from a site during decommissioning (i.e. clearance); (4) public outreach; (5) environmental reviews; and (6) source control. In addition, the roles of regulators and developers must be firmly established and it is recognized that the responsibility for safety ultimately is the responsibility of the operator. Strategies for decommissioning materials facilities include cleaning the site to allow any use after release, terminating the licence with restriction on future site use and perpetual licence (nuclear parks with no site release envisioned). Strategies for decommissioning reactor facilities include DECON, SAFSTORE, or ENTOMB. Issues associated with decommissioning include the on-site storage of high level waste, storage of low level waste, level waste, storage of low level waste, materials requirements versus the reactor decommissioning approach, and ensuring that realistic scenarios and modelling techniques and tools are available and being used.To aid licensees and regulators in the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, the IAEA and some Member States have developed safety standards and guidance documents. Each of these activities will provide support for Member States in meeting the obligations under the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management. (author)

166

Shippingport Station decommissioning project overview  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The U.S. Department of Energy is in the process of decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station located on the Ohio River, 30 miles northwest of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The Shippingport Station is the first commercial size nuclear power plant to undergo decommissioning in the United Staes. The plant is located on approximately 7 acres of land owned by the Duquesne Light Company (DLC) and leased to the U.S. Government. DLC operates two nuclear power plants, Beaver Valley 1 and 2, located immediately adjacent to the site and the Bruce Mansfield coal-fired power plant is also within the immediate area. The Station was shutdown in October, 1982. Defueling operations began in 1983 and were completed by September, 1984. The Shippingport Station consists of a 275' x 60' fuel handling building containing the reactor containment chamber, the service building, the turbine building, the radioactive waste processing building, the administration building and other smaller support buildings. The Station has four coolant loops and most of the containment structures are located below grade. Structures owned by the U.S. Government including the fuel handling building, service building, contaminated equipment room, the boiler chambers, the radioactive waste processing building and the decontamination and laydown buildings will be dismantled and removed to 3 feet below grade. The area will then be filled with clean soil and graded. The turbine building, testing and training be turbine building, testing and training building and the administration building are owned by DLC and will remain

167

Decommissioning of Salaspils nuclear reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In May 1995, the Latvian Government decided to shut down the Research Reactor Salaspils (SRR) and to dispense with nuclear energy in future. The reactor has been out of operation since July 1998. A conceptual study for the decommissioning of SRR has been carried out by Noell-KRC-Energie- und Umwelttechnik GmbH from 1998-1999. he Latvian Government decided on 26 October 1999 to start the direct dismantling to 'green field' in 2001. The results of decommissioning and dismantling performed in 1999-2001 are presented and discussed. The main efforts were devoted to collecting and conditioning 'historical' radioactive waste from different storages outside and inside the reactor hall. All radioactive material more than 20 tons were conditioned in concrete containers for disposal in the radioactive waste depository 'Radons' in the Baldone site. Personal protective and radiation measurement equipment was upgraded significantly. All non-radioactive equipment and material outside the reactor buildings were free-released and dismantled for reuse or conventional disposal. Weakly contaminated material from the reactor hall was collected and removed for free-release measurements. The technology of dismantling of the reactor's systems, i.e. second cooling circuit, zero power reactors and equipment, is discussed in the paper. (author)

168

Government Assigns New Supervisory Task. Safe Decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When the Government decided to shutdown one of the two Barsebaeck reactors in February of 1998, it presented SKI with a task that came much earlier than expected; the supervision of the decommissioning of a reactor. As a result of proposals presented in Parliament, SKI began the formulation of a long-term strategy in 1997 for the inspection of a nuclear plant during the decommissioning process. As a preliminary task, SKI started a research programme dealing with the potential risks associated with the transition from normal operations through shutdown to final deconstruction of the power plant. Emphasis was laid on safety culture issues and on questions of organization, as opposed to an earlier stress on the purely technical aspects of decommissioning. After a long period of uncertainty, following much discussion, in July 1998 a Government decision was finally reached to shutdown the first reactor at Barsebaeck. This was carried out in November 1999. It is still uncertain as to when the other reactor will be decommissioned; a decision is expected at the earliest in 2004. This uncertainty, resulting from the prolonged decision making process, could be detrimental to the safety culture on the site; motivation could diminish, and key personnel could be lost. Decommissioning is a new phase in the life cycle of a plant, giving rise to new inspection issues of supervision. During the period of uncertainty, while awaiting SKI has identified ten key areas, dealing with the santified ten key areas, dealing with the safety culture of the organization, in connection with the decommissioning of Barsebaeck 1. 1. Obtaining and retaining staff competence during decommissioning; 2. Sustaining organizational memory; 3. Identifying key organizational functions and management skills that are critical during the transition from operations to decommissioning. 4. Sustaining organizational viability and accountability for decommissioning; 5. Sustaining motivation and trust in management of dismantlement; 6. Overseeing contractors; 7. Decommissioning multi-unit sites when one unit continues to operate; 8. Delaying dismantling of decommissioning nuclear power plants; 9. Establishing organizational processes and control systems to identify and address emerging as well as known safety issues; 10. Determining and communicating the level of risk during decommissioning. The list of safety issues that can be linked to safety culture, and questions of organisation, illustrates the scope of supervision that must be performed during decommissioning of a nuclear power plant. Given the myriad of complex activities taking place, this focus is a useful way to assist the regulator to articulate concerns to the power plant management in terms of links to potential safety problems

169

Decommissioning of nuclear power technological and research installations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Strategy of reactor decommissioning was summarized on the World experience base. Analysis of Ukrainian NPP decommissioning process for three versions of the following nuclear power complex development is presented. Examples of organization and management in industrial NPP's decommissioning (USA, England, Japan, Russia) and research reactors (Russia, USA, Japan, Ukraine) are considered. Immediate dismantling during research reactor WWR-M decommissioning is proposed. 11 refs

170

Lessons learned in decommissioning laboratory facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The misconception that the decommissioning of small facilities is a trivial, low priority activity often results in unnecessary costs, delays and possible safety issues, e.g. the loss of radiation sources, which in some countries has led to the death of members of the public who came into contact with them. Much of the existing technical literature on decommissioning addresses the technological and other aspects of the decontamination and dismantling of the larger nuclear facilities, such as nuclear power plants and relatively large prototype, research and test reactors, although an increasing number of documents focusing on decommissioning of smaller facilities have been published in the last decades. Furthermore, the infrastructure for sharing the knowledge and experience gained in the decommissioning of large nuclear facilities is already well established in many parts of the world, but this is not generally the case for smaller facilities. The paper aims to identify some of the lessons learned when decommissioning laboratory facilities in the United Kingdom. Much of the information is generic and is equally relevant to a whole range of the smaller facilities that exist worldwide. It is anticipated that the sharing of knowledge gained from the decommissioning of laboratory facilities will be directly relevant to others faced with similar projects in the future, such that they can benefit directly and achieve safe, cost-effective completion of a well considered decoctive completion of a well considered decommissioning project. (author)

171

Waste management in decommissioning projects at KAERI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two decommissioning projects are being carried out at the KAERI (Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute), one for the Korea research reactors, KRR-1 and KRR-2, and another for the uranium conversion plant (UCP). The concept of the management of the wastes from the decommissioning sites was reviewed with relation to the decommissioning strategies, technologies for the treatment and the decontamination, and the characteristics of the waste. All the liquid waste generated from the KRR-1 and KRR-2 decommissioning site is evaporated by a solar evaporation facility and all the liquid waste from the UCP is treated together with the lagoon sludge waste. The solid wastes from the decommissioning sites are categorized into three groups; not contaminated, restricted releasable and radioactive waste. The not-contaminated waste will be reused and/or disposed of an industrial disposal site, and the releasable waste will be stored for a future disposal at the KAERI. The radioactive waste is packed into containers, and it will be stored at the decommissioning sites till it is sent to a national repository site. The reduction of the radioactive solid waste is one of the strategies for the decommissioning projects and could be achieved by a repeated decontamination. By the achievement of a minimization strategy, the amount of radioactive waste was reduced and the disposal cost will be reduced, but the cost for the manpower, and for a direct handling of the materials as well as for thendling of the materials as well as for the administration was increased

172

Waste management in decommissioning projects at KAERI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two decommissioning projects are carried out at the KAERI (Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute), one for the Korea research reactors, KRR-1 and KRR-2, and another for the uranium conversion plant (UCP). The concept of the management of the wastes from the decommissioning sites was reviewed with a relation of the decommissioning strategies, technologies for the treatment and the decontamination, and the characteristics of waste. All the liquid waste generated from KRR-1 and KRR-2 decommissioning site is evaporated by a solar evaporation facility and all the liquid waste from the UCP is treated together with lagoon sludge waste. The solid wastes from the decommissioning sites are categorized into three groups; not contaminated, restricted releasable and radioactive waste. The not-contaminated waste will be reused and/or disposed at an industrial disposal site, and the releasable waste is stored for the future disposal at the KAERI. The radioactive waste is packed in containers, and will be stored at the decommissioning sites till they are sent to a national repository site. The reduction of the radioactive solid waste is one of the strategies for the decommissioning projects and could be achieved by the repeated decontamination. By the achievement of the minimization strategy, the amount of radioactive waste was reduced and the disposal cost will be reduced, but the cost for manpower, for direct materials and for administration was increasedion was increased

173

Methodology and technology of decommissioning nuclear facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The decommissioning and decontamination of nuclear facilities is a topic of great interest to many Member States of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) because of the large number of older nuclear facilities which are or soon will be retired from service. In response to increased international interest in decommissioning and to the needs of Member States, the IAEA's activities in this area have increased during the past few years and will be enhanced considerably in the future. A long range programme using an integrated systems approach covering all the technical, regulatory and safety steps associated with the decommissioning of nuclear facilities is being developed. The database resulting from this work is required so that Member States can decommission their nuclear facilities in a safe time and cost effective manner and the IAEA can effectively respond to requests for assistance. The report is a review of the current state of the art of the methodology and technology of decommissioning nuclear facilities including remote systems technology. This is the first report in the IAEA's expanded programme and was of benefit in outlining future activities. Certain aspects of the work reviewed in this report, such as the recycling of radioactive materials from decommissioning, will be examined in depth in future reports. The information presented should be useful to those responsible for or interested in planning or implementing the decommissioning of nuclear facilities

174

Decommissioning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author discusses the possible implications on the hydro industry of the recent forced removal of the Edwards dam from the Kennebec river in Augusta USA. The dam had been in position for 160 years. It now turns out that the removal of the dam may not be a one-off case and from now on all relicensing applications will be scrutinised with regard to the possibility of removing dams. The industry has been advised that fighting every dam removal, rather than accepting that in some cases it is a sensible option, could be a bad policy.

Ayer, Fred [Lukas and Ayer, Portland, ME (United States)

2000-12-01

175

Decommissioning activities for Salaspils research reactor - 59055  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In May 1995, the Latvian government decided to shut down the Salaspils Research Reactor (SRR). The reactor is out of operation since July 1998. A conceptual study for the decommissioning of SRR has been carried out by Noell-KRC-Energie- und Umwelttechnik GmbH at 1998-1999. The Latvian government decided to start the direct dismantling to 'green field' in October 26, 1999. The upgrade of decommissioning and dismantling plan was performed in 2003-2004 years, which change the main goal of decommissioning to the 'brown field'. The paper deals with the SRR decommissioning experience during 1999-2010. The main decommissioning stages are discussed including spent fuel and radioactive wastes management. The legal aspects and procedures for decommissioning of SRR are described in the paper. It was found, that the involvement of stakeholders at the early stages significantly promotes the decommissioning of nuclear facility. Radioactive waste management's main efforts were devoted to collecting and conditioning of 'historical' radioactive wastes from different storages outside and inside of reactor hall. All radioactive materials (more than 96 tons) were conditioned in concrete containers for disposal in the radioactive wastes repository 'Radons' at Baldone site. The dismantling of contaminated and activated components of SRR systems is discussed in paper. The cementation of dismantled radioactive wastes in concrete containers is discussed. Infrastructure of SRR, including persoed. Infrastructure of SRR, including personal protective and radiation measurement equipment, for decommissioning purposes was upgraded significantly. Additional attention was devoted to the free release measurement's technique. The certified laboratory was installed for supporting of all decommissioning activities. All non-radioactive equipments and materials outside of reactor buildings were released for clearance and dismantled for reusing or conventional disposing. Weakly contaminated materials from reactor hall were collected, decontaminated and removed for clearance measurements. (authors)

176

Decommissioning of French nuclear submarines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the beginning of the sixties, France has developed a fleet of nuclear powered vessels. Insofar as the ships of the 2. generation are being built, the older ones are decommissioned and enter the dismantling process. The average rate is presently one submarine decommissioned every two or three years. The overall strategy for the decommissioning of French nuclear submarines can be brought down to 3 phases: 1. Level 1 dismantling which essentially consists in: - unloading the spent fuel and storing it in a pool ; - possibly emptying the circuits which contain radioactive liquids. The level 1 is easily achieved, as it is not very different from the plant situation during ship overhaul or major refits. 2. Level 2 dismantling which consists in isolating the nuclear reactor compartment from the rest of the submarine and conditioning it for interim storage on a ground facility located inside Cherbourg Naval Dockyard. The rest of the ship is decontaminated, controlled and set for scrap like any conventional submarine. Up to now, the policy has been to keep the reactor compartment in this intermediate storage facility for at least 20 years, a duration calculated to allow enough time for short life corrosion products to disappear and hence, reduce the radioactive dose to workers during the level 3 dismantling operations. 3. Level 3 dismantling of the nuclear reactor compartment after a storage period. These operations consist in cutting into pieces all remaining structures ting into pieces all remaining structures and equipment, conditioning and sending them to ANDRA for disposal. The SSBN Le Redoutable, first French nuclear submarine which was removed from active service en 1991, underwent the first two phases but, forward and stern parts after cutting of the reactor compartment have been sealed and turned into a museum which is now part of 'La Cite de la Mer' in Cherbourg. Among the three other SSBNs removed from active service, two are at the end of phase 1 just before the separation of the reactor compartment and one is waiting for phase 2. What kind of waste is produced and in what quantities? What means are used to condition and treat this waste? We propose giving some answers to these questions, by discussing firstly the spent fuels (the only high-level activity waste), and secondly the solid and liquid waste of low and medium activity

177

Pipeline Decommissioning Trial AWE Berkshire UK - 13619  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Paper details the implementation of a 'Decommissioning Trial' to assess the feasibility of decommissioning the redundant pipeline operated by AWE located in Berkshire UK. The paper also presents the tool box of decommissioning techniques that were developed during the decommissioning trial. Constructed in the 1950's and operated until 2005, AWE used a pipeline for the authorised discharge of treated effluent. Now redundant, the pipeline is under a care and surveillance regime awaiting decommissioning. The pipeline is some 18.5 km in length and extends from AWE site to the River Thames. Along its route the pipeline passes along and under several major roads, railway lines and rivers as well as travelling through woodland, agricultural land and residential areas. Currently under care and surveillance AWE is considering a number of options for decommissioning the pipeline. One option is to remove the pipeline. In order to assist option evaluation and assess the feasibility of removing the pipeline a decommissioning trial was undertaken and sections of the pipeline were removed within the AWE site. The objectives of the decommissioning trial were to: - Demonstrate to stakeholders that the pipeline can be removed safely, securely and cleanly - Develop a 'tool box' of methods that could be deployed to remove the pipeline - Replicate the conditions and environments encountered along the route of the pipeline The onsite trial was also designed to replicate the physical prevailing conditions and constraints encountered along the remainder of its route i.e. working along a narrow corridor, working in close proximity to roads, working in proximity to above ground and underground services (e.g. Gas, Water, Electricity). By undertaking the decommissioning trial AWE have successfully demonstrated the pipeline can be decommissioned in a safe, secure and clean manor and have developed a tool box of decommissioning techniques. The tool box of includes; - Hot tapping - a method of breaching the pipe while maintaining containment to remove residual liquids, - Crimp and shear - remote crimping, cutting and handling of pipe using the excavator - Pipe jacking - a way of removing pipes avoiding excavations and causing minimal disturbance and disruption. The details of the decommissioning trial design, the techniques employed, their application and effectiveness are discussed and evaluated here in. (authors)

178

Stakeholder involvement in decommissioning nuclear facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Significant numbers of nuclear facilities will need to be decommissioned in the coming decades. In this context, NEA member countries are placing increasing emphasis on the involvement of stakeholders in the associated decision procedures. This study reviews decommissioning experience with a view to identifying stakeholder concerns and best practice in addressing them. The lessons learnt about the end of the facility life cycle can also contribute to better foresight in siting and building new facilities. This report will be of interest to all major players in the field of decommissioning, in particular policy makers, implementers, regulators and representatives of local host communities

179

TA-2 Water Boiler Reactor Decommissioning Project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This final report addresses the Phase 2 decommissioning of the Water Boiler Reactor, biological shield, other components within the biological shield, and piping pits in the floor of the reactor building. External structures and underground piping associated with the gaseous effluent (stack) line from Technical Area 2 (TA-2) Water Boiler Reactor were removed in 1985--1986 as Phase 1 of reactor decommissioning. The cost of Phase 2 was approximately $623K. The decommissioning operation produced 173 m3 of low-level solid radioactive waste and 35 m3 of mixed waste. 15 refs., 25 figs., 3 tabs

180

Development of a Decommissioning Certificate Program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Decommissioning Certificate Program has been developed at Washington State University Tri-Cities (WSU TC) in conjunction with Bechtel Hanford, Inc. (BHI), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)to address the increasing need for qualified professionals to direct and manage decommissioning projects. The cooperative effort between academia, industry, and government in the development and delivery of this Program of education and training is described, as well as the Program's design to prepare students to contribute sooner, and at a higher level, to decommissioning projects

181

Social effects of decommissioning Trawsfynydd Power Station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The decision to close Trawsfynydd in 1993 had significant implications for the staff and local community. The site is situated within a National Park and local employment opportunities are limited. The staff and local communities were consulted regarding the issues arising from closure and decommissioning. This consultation influenced the decommissioning strategy for the site, with emphasis placed on the mitigation of the effects of closure. Subsequent studies have shown that the adopted strategies have served to limit the social and economic effects. The experience at Trawsfynydd has proved to be generally applicable at other decommissioning sites. (author)

182

Decommissioning and decontrolling the R1-reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sweden's first nuclear reactor - the research reactor R1 - situated in bedrock under the Royal Technical Institute of Stockholm, has in the period 1981-1983 been subject to a complete decommissioning. The National Institute for Radiation Protection has followed the work in detail, and has after the completion of the decommissioning performed measurements of radioactivity on site. The report gives an account of the work the Institute has done in preparation for- and during decommissioning and specifically report on the measurements for classification of the local as free for non-nuclear use. (aa)

183

Development of a decommissioning engineering support system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Preparations are underway to decommission Fugen nuclear power station. An engineering system to support the decommissioning is being developed to create a dismantling plan using state-of-the-art software such as 3-dimensional (3D) CAD and virtual reality. The system will be used to quantify radioactive waste, to visualize radioactive inventory, to simulate dismantling and to optimize the decommissioning schedule. The system will also be useful to gain public acceptance and has promise for various other purposes such as training in dismantling and to link with remote dismantling machines. (author)

184

Design problems in reactor decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper will use two examples from the decommissioning programme of the Windscale Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor to illustrate the kinds of design problem encountered and the approaches to their solution. The examples are: removal of the core restraint bands and removal of insulation from the exterior of the pressure vessel. The first case consists of careful investigation and analysis to predict the present state of the core and restraint bands before removal methods can be considered. There is much uncertainty involved in the design process to find the best method. In contrast, the condition of the vessel insulation is known to a high degree of certainty, as are most of the design constraints to this problem. The paper will discuss the work so far undertaken on the restraint band problem and the design methods to be employed to determine a suitable technique for removing the insulation. (author)

185

Regulating aspects of NPP decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

About 13% of total electricity produced in Russia is generated by nuclear power. Nine NPPs, with a total capacity more than 21 GWe, are currently in operation. In correspondence to the Law of the Russian Federation 'On the Use of Nuclear Energy' all activity in the field of the use of nuclear energy, including decommissioning, is carried out in accordance with the licenses, which are issued by state authorities of safety regulation. Main legislative basis of licensing of activity in the field of the use of nuclear energy are as follows: the Constitution of the Russian Federation, Federal Law On the Use of Nuclear Energy, Federal Law On Ecological Review, The Statute 'On Licensing of Activity in the Field of the Use of Nuclear Energy'. (Author)

186

77 FR 75198 - Standard Format and Content for Post-Shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report  

Science.gov (United States)

...Content for Post-shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report...the licensee's planned decommissioning activities, a schedule for the accomplishment...associated with site-specific decommissioning activities. III....

2012-12-19

187

77 FR 8902 - Draft Regulatory Guide: Issuance, Availability Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Reactors  

Science.gov (United States)

...Availability Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Reactors AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...DG-1271 ``Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Reactors.'' This guide describes...184, ``Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Reactors,'' dated July...

2012-02-15

188

Decommissioning information management in decommissioning planning and operations at AECL (Ref 5054)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As the AECL Decommissioning program has grown over the past few years, particularly with regard to long-term planning, so has its need to manage the records and information required to support the program. The program encompasses a diverse variety of facilities, including prototype and research reactors, fuel processing facilities, research laboratories, waste processing facilities, buildings, structures, lands and waste storage areas, many of which have changed over time. The decommissioning program involves planning, assessing, monitoring and executing projects to decommission the facilities. The efficient and effective decommissioning planning, assessment, monitoring and execution for the facilities and projects are dependent on a sound information base, upon which decisions can be made. A vital part of this Information Base is the ongoing management of historical facility records, including decommissioning records, throughout the full life cycle of the facilities. This paper describes AECL's and particularly DP and O's approach to: 1) Establishing a decommissioning records and information framework, which identifies what records and information are relevant to decommissioning, prioritizing the decommissioning facilities, identifying sources of relevant information and providing a user-friendly, electronic, search and retrieval tool for facility information accessible to staff. 2) Systematically, gathering, assessing, archiving and identifying important informationving and identifying important information and making that information available to staff to support their ongoing decommissioning work. 3) Continually managing and enhancing the records and information base and its support infrastructure to ensure its long-term availability. 4) Executing special information enhancement projects, which transform historic records into information for analysis. (author)

189

Decommissioning cost estimates based on the international structure for decommissioning costing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Decommissioning cost estimates is essential part of decommissioning planning in all stages of nuclear installation lifetime. It has been recognized that there is a variety of formats, content and practice in decommissioning costing, due to the specific national requirement or to different assumptions. These differences make the process of decommissioning costing less transparent and more complicated to review. To solve these issues the document: 'A Proposed Standardised List of Items for Costing Purposes in the Decommissioning of Nuclear Installation' (known as 'Yellow Book') was jointly published by IAEA, OECD/NEA and EC in 1999. After a decade, the document was revised and issued by same organizations under the title: 'International Structure for Decommissioning Costing (ISDC) of Nuclear Installation. ISDC as the list of typical decommissioning activities (could be used also a check-list) provides s general cost structure suitable for use for all types of nuclear installations i.e. power plants, research reactors, fuel cycle facilities or laboratories. The purpose of the ISDC, is to facilitate the communication and to promote uniformity and to provide a common platform in presenting the decommissioning costs. Clear definition of ISDC items supports the common understanding of cost items, i.e. what is behind the cost. ISDC decommissioning activities are organised in a hierarchical structure, with the 1st and 2nd levels being aggregations of basind levels being aggregations of basic activities identified at the 3rd level. At (author)

190

Nuclear submarine decommissioning and related environmental problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The issue of nuclear powered submarines occupies a particular place among the problems related to nuclear wastes. Nuclear submarines that were withdrawn from military service as well as those intended fro utilization represent a potential source of both nuclear and radiation hazard. By the beginning of 1966 more than one hundred and fifty nuclear powered vessels were decommissioned in Russia both for the reason of expiration of their service life and due to treaties on reduction of strategic offensive weapons. By 200 this number is expected to increase to one hundred and seventy-eighty units. According to published data the number of nuclear submarines decommissioned in USA to date exceeds twenty units. Major problems associated with utilization of nuclear submarines are related to safety and special security measures are to undertaken for decommissioned nuclear submarines. One of the most significant problems is related with management and/or storage of spent fuel from decommissioned nuclear submarines

191

Sellafield Decommissioning Programme - Update and Lessons Learned  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Sellafield site in North West England has over 240 active facilities covering the full nuclear cycle from fuel manufacture through generation, reprocessing and waste treatment. The Sellafield decommissioning programme was formally initiated in the mid 1980s though several plants had been decommissioned prior to this primarily to create space for other plants. Since the initiation of the programme 7 plants have been completely decommissioned, significant progress has been made in a further 16 and a total of 56 major project phases have been completed. This programme update will explain the decommissioning arrangements and strategies and illustrate the progress made on a number of the plants including the Windscale Pile Chimneys, the first reprocessing plan and plutonium plants. These present a range of different challenges and requiring approaches from fully hands on to fully remote. Some of the key lessons learned will be highlighted

192

The total decommissioning of nuclear facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The following nuclear facilities in the Federal Republic of Germany are now ready for total decommissioning: the power plant Niederaichbach (KKN), the nuclear ship Otto Hahn and the research reactor FR2. Planning work on KKN commenced in 1979 and the approval procedure was begun in early 1980 when the approval contract was submitted. At the beginning of 1980 the contract for decommissioning the nuclear facilities on the Otto Hahn was awarded. Approval was received in December 1980 and work was begun on decommissioning the plant. FR2 is still in operation and will be shut down at the end of 1981. Planning work for decommissioning the nuclear part began at the end of 1980. The planning and the methods which are intended to be used for the three plants are described. (orig.)

193

Decommissioning of DR 1, Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report describes the decommissioning activities carried out at the 2kW homogeneous reactor DR 1 at Risoe National Laboratory. The decommissioning work took place from summer 2004 until late autumn 2005. The components with the highest activity, the core vessel the recombiner and the piping and valves connected to these, were dismantled first by Danish Decommissioning's own technicians. Demolition of the control rod house and the biological shield as well as the removal of the floor in the reactor hall was carried out by an external demolition contractor. The building was emptied and left for other use. Clearance measurements of the building showed that radionuclide concentrations were everywhere below the clearance limit set by the Danish nuclear regulatory authorities. Furthermore, measurements on the surrounding area showed that there was no contamination that could be attributed to the operation and decommissioning of DR 1. (au)

194

Decommissioning: from COMECON to CIS and RUSSIA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

NPP decommissioning experience in the USSR and the Commonwealth Independent States (CIS) members was actively accumulated over ten years since 1982, by Russian experts in particular. Nevertheless, it is not well renowned throughout the scientists and engineers from both Russia and other near' (the CIS) and 'distant' foreign countries. A general review on NPP decommissioning in the CIS has been published just now. An unshown before NPP decommissioning issues are presented in the report. The first program on NPP decommissioning was developed under the aegis of COMECOM with the leadership of Russian experts. The most considerable results are the feasibility studies of Armenia NPP, the Novovoronezh NPP first construction stage (two units) and Bohunice V - 1 unit. (J.P.N.)

195

Regulatory framework and licensing of decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The decommissioning of a nuclear power plant is a complex technical and administrative process, which includes multiple and diverse activities whose final global objective is the plant disappearance and the release of its site for conventional uses, without causing non acceptable radiological effects to the workers, the general public or the environment. The licensing process to grant the necessary administrative authorizations is also complex and the available experience is still limits. This paper reviews the applicable Spanish regulatory framework for decommissioning, from the view point of both, the regulator and the operator and summarizes the licensing process of decommissioning project. It also presents some considerations on the regulatory control of the decommissioning activities performed by CSN, as well as the new regulatory developments the CSN is working on, with the collaboration of the operator (ENRESA). (Author)

196

Integral radiation protection at major decommissioning projects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The legal framework for decommissioning of nuclear installations in Switzerland is described. By means of the examples SAPHIR and DIORIT, the interplay between planning, surveillance and waste management in the sense of an integral radiation protection is explained. (orig.)

197

The cost of decommissioning uranium mill tailings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report identifies several key operations that are commonly carried out during decommissioning of tailings areas in the Canadian environment. These operations are unit costed for a generic site to provide a base reference case. The unit costs have also been scaled to the quantities required for the decommissioning of four Canadian sites and these scaled quantities compared with site-specific engineering cost estimates and actual costs incurred in carrying out the decommissioning activities. Variances in costing are discussed. The report also recommends a generic monitoring regime upon which both short- and longer-term environmental monitoring costs are calculated. Although every site must be addressed as a site-specific case, and monitoring programs must be tailored to fit a specific site, it would appear that for the conventional decommissioning and monitoring practices that have been employed to date, costs can be reasonably estimated when site-specific conditions are taken into account

198

Radioactive waste minimization strategies from decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are more than 600 nuclear power plants in the word, amount them there are more than 100 NPPs under or have been finished decommissioning. A large amount of radioactive waste will be produced from nuclear facilities decommissioning. Nuclear facility can be divided into design, construction, operation, transition, decommissioning (including decontamination, demolition, waste treatment and disposal) five stages in its whole-life. Waste minimization strategy from decommissioning occur all stages. For waste minimization, IAEA and a number of developed countries, implemented a series of related policies. China has also developed and implemented various policies, regulations, standards, in order to achieve waste minimization and applied in practice, but still need to improve and develop. (authors)

199

Decommissioning Project Manager's Implementing Instructions (PMII)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Decommissioning Project personnel are responsible for complying with these PMII. If at any time in the performance of their duties a conflict between these instructions and other written or verbal direction is recognized or perceived, the supervisor or worker shall place his/her work place in a safe condition, stop work, and seek resolution of the conflict from the Decommissioning Project Manager or his designee

200

Decommissioning of the BR3 PWR  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objectives, programme and main achievements of SCK-CEN's decommissioning programme in 1997 are summarised. Particular emphasis is on the BR3 decommissioning project. In 1997, auxiliary equipment and loops were dismantled; concrete antimissile slabs were decontaminated; the radiology of the primary loop was modelled; the quality assurance procedure for dismantling loops and equipment were implemented; a method for the dismantling of the reactor pressure vessel was selected; and contaminated thermal insulation of the primary loop containing asbestos was removed.

Massaut, V.; Klein, M

1998-07-01

201

Safe decommissioning of civil nuclear industry sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper contains the World Nuclear Association's Position Statement on the nuclear industry's perspective and policy on the decommissioning of civil nuclear industry sites. It emphasizes that the restoration of a nuclear site to the full extent practicable for its reuse is fundamental to the sustainable use of resources and is the nuclear industry's guiding goal in decommissioning. Furthermore, it notes that the local public supports the reuse of sites because it will provide opportunities for workforce redeployment and local redevelopment. (author)

202

Status of decommissioning of nuclear power facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Present status of nuclear facility decommissioning is widely reviewed on the basis of the discussions in IAEA meeting held in October 1975. The first part of this report defines three stages of decommissioning. Namely, the physical states of plants and components and the required surveillance, inspections and tests are defined for each stage. The second part recommends principally some regulatory guides for both restricted and unrestricted site release on the basis of ICRP recommendations. The third part reviews studies and evaluations being performed in each member country. The fourth part explains the necessity of taking into account the decommissioning of facilities at the design stage. The key points are discussed from the viewpoints of component arrangement, construction, deconstruction during operation and dismantling, and the recording of plant history. The fifth part discusses the development of tools and technology for decommissioning from the viewpoints of decontamination, dismantling, conditioning, transportation and disposal, and exposure prevention. The remaining parts of this report treat problems of waste disposal, the methods of estimating decommissioning costs, and the role of IAEA for international cooperation. The present status and future problems of Japanese atomic industry are also discussed. In the final part, the decommissionings of JRR-1 and Fermi reactor are reviewed as examples. (Aoki, K.)

203

Safety in decommissioning of research reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Guide covers the technical and administrative considerations relevant to the nuclear aspects of safety in the decommissioning of reactors, as they apply to the reactor and the reactor site. While the treatment, transport and disposal of radioactive wastes arising from decommissioning are important considerations, these aspects are not specifically covered in this Guide. Likewise, other possible issues in decommissioning (e.g. land use and other environmental issues, industrial safety, financial assurance) which are not directly related to radiological safety are also not considered. Generally, decommissioning will be undertaken after planned final shutdown of the reactor. In some cases a reactor may have to be decommissioned following an unplanned or unexpected event of a series or damaging nature occurring during operation. In these cases special procedures for decommissioning may need to be developed, peculiar to the particular circumstances. This Guide could be used as a basis for the development of these procedures although specific consideration of the circumstances which create the need for them is beyond its scope

204

Lessons learned from preparation for decommissioning of Ignalina NPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The decision for decommissioning of Unit 1 of Ignalina NPP (INPP) was made in October 1999. At that time only a Preliminary Decommissioning Plan had been developed. INPP was then faced with number of issues, namely: To define the strategy for decommissioning; To define the steps necessary to implement preparation for decommissioning; To seek funding for decommissioning; To establish and develop the organizational structure for dealing with decommissioning; To develop Project Management, Commercial and Engineering skills to manage decommissioning; To develop the relationships between operating and decommissioning parts of INPP; To develop a plan for the conversion of an Operating Nuclear Power plant to a Decommissioning Organization. Each of the above issues represents significant and challenging demands on INPP Management and staff. Lessons have and continue to be learned. INPP are proceeding with the immediate dismantling strategy of this RBMK design reactor. (author)

205

Problems in decommissioning uranium exploration facility and monitoring parameters after decommission  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discussed the problems in the decommission of uranium exploration facilities. Tailings with the uranium over cut-off grade was suggested to fill back to the pit, while those under cut-off grade can be buried in shallow depth. The parameters to monitor the facility after decommission was also discussed in the paper. (author)

206

Power plant decommissioning successfully demonstrated on the Sodium Reactor Experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The completion of the Sodium Reactor Experiment (SRE) decommissioning project provides further evidence that nuclear power plants can be decommissioned safely and for reasonable costs. The SRE project is defined and the major decommissioning activities and accomplishments are discussed. All decommissioning activities were accomplished without major problems; supporting development work was required; however, no new ''inventions'' were needed. There was no measurable radiation exposure to the surrounding public during the decommissioning. Radiation exposures to the project crews were well below allowable criteria. The cost for decommissioning is approximately 10% of the current cost to build a duplicate facility. The site and facilities have been restored for future, unrestricted use

207

Decommissioning of nuclear power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is preferable to grasp the possible selection of disposing method and the extent of expense in decommissioning nuclear power plants after their durable years have expired, and also to establish the countermeasure if necessary. The following discussion is made mainly on light water reactors. As the measures for the reactors after the durable years have expired, (1) mothballing, (2) in-place entombment, and (3) dismantling are considered in the Regulatory Guide 1.86 of US AEC. Mothballing is advantageous in case that the administration of a reactor is not a heavy burden after mothballing as, for example, other reactor facilities are still in operation at that site. In-place entombment is superior in the point that the dismantling of a pressure vessel and biological shields is avoidable, which is most difficult in the whole station dismantling. Dismantling is the most satisfactory method but most expensive. More than 10,000 million yen will be needed in the complete dismantling of a large light water reactor. The dismantling techniques for in-reactor construction, a pressure vessel and biological shields are instructed together with the disposal of waste material and radiation exposure by dismantling works. However, exposure is supposed to be the same as that in normal reactor operation or less. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

208

Decommissioning of fast reactors after sodium draining  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Acknowledging the importance of passing on knowledge and experience, as well mentoring the next generation of scientists and engineers, and in response to expressed needs by Member States, the IAEA has undertaken concrete steps towards the implementation of a fast reactor data retrieval and knowledge preservation initiative. Decommissioning of fast reactors and other sodium bearing facilities is a domain in which considerable experience has been accumulated. Within the framework and drawing on the wide expertise of the Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG-FR), the IAEA has initiated activities aiming at preserving the feedback (lessons learned) from this experience and condensing those to technical recommendations on fast reactor design features that would ease their decommissioning. Following a recommendation by the TWG-FR, the IAEA had convened a topical Technical Meeting (TM) on 'Operational and Decommissioning Experience with Fast Reactors', hosted by CEA, Centre d'Etudes de Cadarache, France, from 11 to 15 March 2002 (IAEA-TECDOC- 1405). The participants in that TM exchanged detailed technical information on fast reactor operation and decommissioning experience with various sodium cooled fast reactors, and, in particular, reviewed the status of the various decommissioning programmes. The TM concluded that the decommissioning of fast reactors to reach safe enclosure presented no major difficulties, and that this had been accomplished mainly through judicious adaptation of processes and procedures implemented during the reactor operation phase, and the development of safe sodium waste treatment processes. However, the TM also concluded that, on the path to achieving total dismantling, challenges remain with regard to the decommissioning of components after sodium draining, and suggested that a follow-on TM be convened, that would provide a forum for in-depth scientific and technical exchange on this topic. This publication constitutes the Proceedings of this follow-up TM held in Cadarache, France, 26-30 September 2005

209

Decommissioning Challenges, strategy and programme development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document gathers 4 short articles. The first one presents the IAEA decommissioning activities. These activities include: -) the development and implementation of the international action on decommissioning, -) the provision of experts and equipment to assist member states, -) networking activities such as training or exchange of knowledge and experience. The second article presents the work program of the Nea (nuclear energy agency) in the field of decommissioning and reports on the lessons that have been learnt. Among these lessons we can quote: -) selecting a strategy for decommissioning and funding it adequately, -) regulating the decommissioning of nuclear activities, -) thinking of the future in terms of reusing materials, buildings and sites, -) involving local and regional actors in the decommissioning process from decision-making to dismantling work itself, and -) increasing transparency in decision-making in order to build trust. The third article presents the management of radioactive wastes in France. This management is based on the categorization of wastes in 6 categories according to both the activity level and the radioactive half-life T: 1) very low activity, 2) low activity and T 31 years, 4) intermediate activity and T 31 years, and 6) high activity. For categories 1, 2, 3 and 5, the waste treatment process and the disposal places have been operating for a long time laces have been operating for a long time while for categories 4 and 6, the disposal places are still being studied: low-depth repository and deep geological repository respectively. The last article presents the action of the US Department of energy in decommissioning activities and environmental remediation, the example of the work done at the ancient nuclear site of Rocky Flats gives an idea of the magnitude and complexity of the operations made. (A.C.)

210

Securing decommissioning funds. Why organization matters?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Securing decommissioning funds requires that the financial resources set aside for the purpose of decommissioning be managed prudently. Decommissioning of nuclear power plant is prescribed by National Atomic Laws or by other nuclear legislation. It is a mandatory operation. The operators of nuclear power plants set money aside for that purpose. This is known as 'Decommissioning reserve fund'. Decommissioning implies costs very distant in time. Thus, it is obvious, from an economic point of view, that the funds set aside should be managed. As decommissioning is mandatory, the funds accumulated should be secured. In others words, they should be available when needed. Availability of funds is influenced by endogenous and exogenous factors. Endogenous factors are a matter of design of the reserve funds. They include the management of the funds, its monitoring and control... Availability of funds is influenced by these factors, depending on the rules to which the behaviour of the manager of the funds is subjected. In contrast, exogenous factors deal with the energy context. These factors are mainly the electricity sector organisation and/or the overall economic situation. They are decisive factors of the economic performance of the reserve fund for a given design. Therefore, the requirement of availability of funds, when needed, is a matter of compatibility between the design of the decommissioning funds and the electricity context. Put differently, reserve fund's design need to be consistent with the electricity context's features in respect of the availability of funds. Current reserve funds were designed in a context of monopoly regime. In this context, availability of decommissioning funds was not questionable. At least, as far as the design of the reserve funds is concerned. This is because nuclear generator didn't confront any competition pressure. Electricity prices were set trough rate base mechanism, and all the business risks were borne by the customers. Because of electricity sector restructuring, businesses are no longer protected from market sanctions and stock market volatility. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the compatibility of the design of reserve fund models with the liberalised electricity context. The paper first considers the design of reserve funds and concludes that there is no single design. Based on the variety of design, section two assess their respective compatibility with the new electricity context. It appears that the monitoring and control of the management of the funds are the main determinant of compatibility. The paper concludes that, as secure funding is a dimension of safe decommissioning, there is a necessity for an optimal design of decommissioning funds model. The paper also suggests that external management solution improve the credibility of decommissioning commitment. This paper has completed two objectives. Firstly, it has highlighted the diversity of designs of the decommissioning reserve funds. We have seen that the reserve funds are organised differently, regarding the key features of their design, namely the collection of funds, the management of the funds collected, and the monitoring and control of that management. Secondly, and in respect of the objective to ensure the availability of the funds when needed, the paper has shown that current designs of decommissioning reserve funds are not equally compatible with the constraints of the electricity sector liberalisation. In fact, the new electricity context is characterised by electricity price volatility with, at some conditions, harmful effects on the financial viability of electric companies. The paper has shown that external fund designs offer a satisfactory compatibility with these constraints. This is because the design of external funds imposes clear limitations on the behaviour of the manager of the funds. Therefore, the paper suggests that in a context of liberalised electricity market, external funds model improves the credibility of the commitment to handle the financial burden of decommissioni

211

Systematic Approach for Decommissioning Planning and Estimating  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear facility decommissioning, satisfactorily completed at the lowest cost, relies on a systematic approach to the planning, estimating, and documenting the work. High quality information is needed to properly perform the planning and estimating. A systematic approach to collecting and maintaining the needed information is recommended using a knowledgebase system for information management. A systematic approach is also recommended to develop the decommissioning plan, cost estimate and schedule. A probabilistic project cost and schedule risk analysis is included as part of the planning process. The entire effort is performed by a experienced team of decommissioning planners, cost estimators, schedulers, and facility knowledgeable owner representatives. The plant data, work plans, cost and schedule are entered into a knowledgebase. This systematic approach has been used successfully for decommissioning planning and cost estimating for a commercial nuclear power plant. Elements of this approach have been used for numerous cost estimates and estimate reviews. The plan and estimate in the knowledgebase should be a living document, updated periodically, to support decommissioning fund provisioning, with the plan ready for use when the need arises

212

Closing responsibilities: decommissioning and the law  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Laws change over time, with the times. Interpretations of old laws shift and the need for new laws emerges. There are endless reasons for these necessary changes, but the basic impetus is the changing nature of societal circumstance. Fifty years ago there were no laws directly governing nuclear power in any way. Today we know that nuclear power touches people from their wallets to their descendants. Currently, many laws related to nuclear power are in place, laws which protect all sectors of society from electricity generating bodies to a newborn child, and the Chernobyl accident has broadened the legal ramifications of nuclear power even more. This expanding body of nuclear law reflects our expanding understanding of nuclear power from its technical beginnings to its societal consequences and implications. The law is now beginning to reflect the growing significance of decommissioning. What are the relationships between decommissioning and the existing laws, government agencies, and policies? Ironically, although the UK will lead the world in addressing decommissioning responsibilities, there are no explicit laws in place to govern the process. In the absence of specific legislation governing decommissioning, the primary responsibilities fall to the operators of the power plants, a circumstance not lost on those involved in privatization. In this chapter, the wide and varied legal ramifications of decommissioning are examined. (author). (author)

213

Decommissioning of the Iraq former nuclear complex  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: A number of sites in Iraq have some degree of radiological contamination and require decommissioning and remediation in order to ensure radiological safety. Many of these sites in Iraq are located at the nuclear research centre at Al Tuwaitha. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Board of Governors has approved a project to assist the Government of Iraq in the evaluation and decommissioning of former facilities that used radioactive materials. The project is divided into three phases: Phase 1: collect and analyze all available data and conduct training of the Iraqi staff, Phase 2: develop a decommissioning and remediation plan, and Phase 3: implement field activities relating to decommissioning, remediation and site selection suitable for final disposal of waste. Four working groups have been established to complete the Phase 1 work and significant progress has been made in drafting a new nuclear law which will provide the legal basis for the licensing of the decommissioning of the former nuclear complex. Work is also underway to collect and analysis existing date, to prioritize future activities and to develop a waste management strategy. This will be a long-term and costly project. (authors)

214

A decontamination technique for decommissioning waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A large amount of radioactive metallic waste is generated from decommissioned commercial nuclear reactors. It is necessary from the point of environmental protection and resource utilization to decontaminate the contaminated metallic waste. A decommissioning waste processing system has been previously proposed considering such decommissioning waste characteristics as its large quantity, large radioactivity range, and various shapes and materials. The decontamination process in this system was carried out by abrasive blasting as pretreatment, electrochemical decontamination as the main process, and ultrasonic cleaning in water as post-treatment. For electrochemical decontamination, electrolytic decontamination for simple shaped waste and REDOX decontamination for complicated shaped waste were used as effective decontamination processing. This time, various kinds of actual radioactive contaminated samples were taken from operating power plants to simulate the decontamination of decommissioning waste. After analyzing the composition, morphogenesis and surface observation, electrolytic decontamination, REDOX decontamination, and ultrasonic cleaning experiments were carried out by using these samples. As a result, all the samples were decontaminated below the assumed exemption level(=4 x 10-2 Bq/g). A maximum decontamination factor of over 104 was obtained by both electrolytic and REDOX decontamination. The stainless steel sample was easy to decontaminate in botel sample was easy to decontaminate in both electrochemical decontaminations because of its thin oxidized layer. The ultrasonic cleaning process after electrochemical decontamination worked effectively for removing adhesive sludge and the contaminated liquid. It has been concluded from the results mentioned above that electrolytic decontamination and REDOX decontamination are effective decontamination process for decontaminating decommissioning waste

215

Study on the decommissioning of research reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Currently, KAERI operates TRIGA Mark-II and TRIGA Mark-III research reactors as a general purpose research and training facility. As these are, however, situated at Seoul office site of KAERI which is scheduled to be transferred to KEPCO as well as 30 MW HANARO research reactor which is expected to reach the first criticality in 1995 is under construction at head site of KAERI, decommissioning of TRIGA reactors has become an important topic. The objective of this study is to prepare and present TRIGA facility decontamination and decommissioning plan. Estimation of the radioactive inventory in TRIGA research reactor was carried out by the use of computational method. In addition, summarized in particular were the methodologies associated with decontamination, segmenting processes for activated metallic components, disposition of wastes. Particular consideration in this study was focused available technology applicable to decommissioning of TRIGA research reactor. State-of-the-art summaries of the available technology for decommissioning presented here will serve a useful document for preparations for decommissioning in the future. 6 figs, 41 tabs, 30 refs. (Author)

216

Management of Sellafield site decommissioning - recent experiences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

History of the British Nuclear Site Sellafield - located in Western Cambria goes back to 1940, when it served for military and energy independence tasks in the Great Britain. Since then Sellafield served as the major British nuclear site providing wide range of services to the British nuclear industry, including fuel and waste storage/management, nuclear fuel reprocessing, electricity production and decommissioning. Currently the Sellafield site is one of the largest site under decommissioning facing serious challenges associated with the process and cost management. In November 2008 the Nuclear Management Partners, the consortium consisting URS Washington Group, AMEC and AREVA NC, were awarded the contract as the new Parent Body Organization of Sellafield Ltd. that provides management expertise and governance to the client (Nuclear Decommissioning Authority). Since 2008 AMEC has gained extensive experiences from management of complex decommissioning projects that are applicable across different geographies and projects of similar nature. Presentation describes the development of the process system of the project management from the side of PBO as well as complex scheme of the Sellafield site decommissioning project. (author)

217

Decommissioning work on schedule for 1990 completion at Shippingport  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Shippingport reactor in Pennsylvania will be the first large-scale commercial nuclear power plant to be decommissioned following a long history of operation. The features of the decommissioning plan and progress to date are outlined. (author)

218

Technical and cost aspects of radioactive wastes from decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's Co-operative Programme on Decommissioning was established in 1985 to share the experience and information emerging from on-going decommissioning projects within member countries. The main aim of the programme is to gather and collate such data, which can then provide the basis for planning the future industrial phase of decommissioning of commercial nuclear plants. Starting with 10 decommissioning projects in 1985, today the programme has 35 participating projects from 12 countries. Apart from exchanging valuable information, task groups have been set up for in-depth analysis and studies of areas of common interest, among which are the recycling of material from decommissioning projects and decommissioning costs. This paper will describe the structure and mode of operation of the programme. Some of the results of the work in the task groups will be presented, with particular emphasis on the management of materials from decommissioning and on decommissioning costs. (author)

219

Decommissioning and radioactive waste management. The European Commission overview  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this lecture author deals with the European Commission overview on the decommissioning and radioactive waste management. Financial support of European Commission of decommissioning of the Ignalina NPP, Bohunice V1 NPP and Kozloduy Units 1 and 2 is presented.

220

78 FR 64028 - Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Reactors  

Science.gov (United States)

...NRC-2012-0035] Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Reactors AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Regulatory...guide (RG) 1.184 ``Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Reactors.'' This guide describes a method NRC...

2013-10-25

221

Magnetic resonance imaging-the Aberdeen perspective on developments in the early years  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From the beginnings of medical imaging with radioactivity, an account is given of the development in Aberdeen of CT scanners in nuclear medicine, and their clinical value, leading to the present-day gamma-cameras. Early animal work with electron magnetic resonance is described, which developed into a programme towards nuclear magnetic resonance of water in body tissues. The 1974 NMR image of a mouse, using the nuclear medicine experience, led to a quest to build the first clinically useful whole-body MRI. The work of other teams is outlined, and the steps which led to successful diagnostic images being made with the Aberdeen machine in 1980. The welcome from the medical fraternity, and the output of the multinational medical imaging companies, has led to the present-day, worldwide use of the MRI technique. (review)

222

Remedial investigation report for J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Volume 3: Ecological risk assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Environmental Management Division of the U.S. Army Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation (RI) and feasibility study (FS) of the J-Field area at APG, pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. As part of that activity, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted an ecological risk assessment (ERA) of the J-Field site. This report presents the results of that assessment.

Hlohowskyj, I.; Hayse, J.; Kuperman, R.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R.

2000-02-25

223

Remedial investigation report for J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Volume 3: Ecological risk assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Environmental Management Division of the U.S. Army Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation (RI) and feasibility study (FS) of the J-Field area at APG, pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. As part of that activity, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted an ecological risk assessment (ERA) of the J-Field site. This report presents the results of that assessment

224

The sedimentology of the Teekloof Formation east of Aberdeen C.P  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Teekloof Formation (Beaufort Group) sediments to the east of Aberdeen (South Africa) consist of mudstone, siltstone and fine-to very fine-grained lithic wackes and arenites. Sandstone lithosomes commonly have erosive bases and the vertical and lateral arrangement of lithofacies indicate that the environment of deposition was fluviatile. Uranium mineralization was syndepositional and was supplied to the stream waters in the form of soluble complexes by the weathering and leaching of acid volcanic and granitic rocks

225

The Ministry of Dilemmas [decommissioning nuclear submarines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A consultant for Greenpeace, the anti-nuclear campaigners, looks at the United Kingdom Government's problems with decommissioning of its nuclear submarine fleet as the vessels become obsolete, and at the transport and storage of spent fuels from the submarine's propulsion reactors. It is argued that no proper plans exist to decommission the vessels safely. The Ministry of Defence sites such as Rosyth and Devonport are immune from inspection by regulatory bodies, so there is no public knowledge of any potential radioactive hazards from the stored out-of-service carcasses, floating in dock, awaiting more active strategies. The author questions the wisdom of building new nuclear submarines, when no proper program exists to decommission existing vessels and their operational waste. (U.K.)

226

SOGIN Decommissioning strategy and funding (Italy)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Statement: In Italy, as it is well known, there are no more operational NPPs. The four existing nuclear plants are definitely shutdown and ready for decommissioning. Considerations on decommissioning funding system have to take into account this particular situation. Strategy for decommissioning: New inputs given to SOGIN by the Italian Government are: conditioning all radioactive waste existing on the NPPs within the year 2010, release all nuclear sites - free of radiological constraints - by 2020. The last task is conditioned by availability of the national waste repository by the year 2009. Strategy for decommissioning: Key issue is prompt dismantling considering No more nuclear activities in Italy and Progressive loss of competencies. Previously Existing funds: Before plant shutdown, ENEL has cumulated provisions for decommissioning, even in absence of a clear regulatory framework. These provisions were not sufficient for decommissioning, considering the early closure of the plants. An additional fund was granted to ENEL by the government, in the form of a 'credit' to be paid by the 'electric system' (CCSE). This fund (provisions + credit) was considered sufficient by ENEL for a decommissioning with Safe Store strategy (fund = discounted foreseen costs). The total fund (provisions + credit) was assigned to Sogin at the incorporation date. The amount, money 1999, was about 800 M euros. Considering the new context: new strategy (Prompt Dismantling with site release by 2020), Sogin constitution (societal costs), new economic conditions. The fund was not considered sufficient for all Sogin tasks. This conclusion was agreed upon also by the independent 'Authority for electric energy and gas'. A new regulatory framework was therefore defined. Regulatory aspects: The Legislative Decree 79/99 has stated that costs for the decommissioning of NPP, fuel cycle back end and related activities should be considered as stranded costs for the general electric system. The same Decree stated that a specific company should have been established for the management of these activities. Consequently, Sogin has been incorporated, all nuclear assets and liabilities of Enel being assigned to the Company. Sogin is responsible for decommissioning and fuel back end, under the policy indicated by the Government. The Ministerial Decree 26.01.2000 precisely defined which costs can be considered as stranded costs. As a matter of fact, the decree confirms that all costs incurred in by Sogin for decommissioning, fuel cycle back end, wastes disposal are to be considered. The same Decree defines modalities for funding Sogin for the above mentioned activities. The same Decrees define that in the 'related activities' the dismantling of research plants for the nuclear fuel cycle should be considered. These plants are now property of Enea and FN. The Decree defines modalities for funding Sogin for the above mentioned activities. Sogin is entitled to receive also the funds for the decommissioning of Enea plants, providing a Consortium with Enea. Funding mechanism - Main Criteria: Costs are financed with a levy on the price of kWh for final consumers. The amount of the levy, for different categories of consumers, is defined by the 'Authority for electric energy and gas'. Regulatory procedure: Sogin presents to the Authority, each year, a complete program with scheduled activities and cost estimates for the overall project. Present estimates consider a global cost of about 2600 M euros for power plants and 630 M euros for Research plants. The Authority, every three years, determines the total amount of the expenses on the basis of Sogin documentation, taking into account efficiency criteria. Annual re-considerations are possible if major events occur. On this basis, the Authority defines the amount of the levy. In early 2002, the Authority issued the first resolution for the determination of decommissioning costs Specific reference was made to costs foreseen for 2002-2004, in the general context of the pluri-annual program. The Authority endorsed the cost esti

227

Radiological planning guide for DOE decommissioning operations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Guide is intended to promote the efficient and uniform decommissioning of the many DOE nuclear facilities and sites whose missions are complete. Since it is imperative that a consistent set of criteria and methodologies be applied to all DOE decommissioning operations, this guide attempts to provide that framework through an integrated systems approach in which all factors interact. Decommissioning is assumed to include three major phases: site characterization, remedial action, and certification. This paper discusses the PNL efforts to date in developing the draft Guide, emphasizing the need for: (1) an overall management team with expertise in health physics, statistics, instrumentation and quality assurance; (2) design objectives based on ALARA; (3) selection of de minimis criteria; and (4) a methodical records search and statistically based surveys to estimate residual radionuclide inventories, and to provide a basis for additional surveys, survey instrument requirements, dose estimates, and appropriate protective measures

228

Platform decommissioning: Socio-economic impacts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The object of this presentation is to evaluate the socio-economic effects of the decommissioning of steel jacket platforms in the North Sea and in the North East Atlantic in the period up to 2020 in their entirety. It is focused on two different decommissioning options, namely total and partial removal of installations. Partial removal applies only to installations in water deeper than 75 meters. All other installations, i.e those in waters shallower than 75 meters, have to be totally removed and brought onshore for disposal. Areas being analyzed cover costs of different decommissioning options, effects of the different options on employment, fiscal aspects of the different options, and aspects of recycling onshore. 6 figs., 13 tabs

229

Decommissioning at Trawsfynydd nuclear power station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Trawsfynndd nuclear power station in North Wales was formally closed on July 20th 1993 on economic grounds. Radiation effects in the steel pressure vessels of the two Magnox units required high cost modifications if the reactors were to continue operation. Defuelling of the reactors was completed by August 1995. The Deferred Safestore Strategy has been selected as the decommissioning option. This does not involve any significant active dismantling until about 135 years from shutdown. Three main aspects of the decommissioning are discussed. These are: public consultation which focussed on the socio-economic implications of the reduction in the workforce and the visual impact of the safestore building design which was reduced in height in response to public opinion; technical considerations relating to waste management and electrical plant decommissioning; the conversion of the reactor buildings to provide safe storage for activated and contaminated material for a long period yet requiring only minimal maintenance. (UK)

230

Site Decommissioning Management Plan. Supplement 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has identified 51 sites contaminated with radioactive material that require special attention to ensure timely decommissioning. While none of these sites represent an immediate threat to public health and safety, they have contamination that exceeds existing NRC criteria for unrestricted use. All of these sites require some degree of remediation, and several involve regulatory issues that must be addressed by the Commission before they can be released for unrestricted use and the applicable licenses terminated. This report contains the NRC stairs strategy for addressing the technical, legal, and policy issues affecting the timely decommissioning of the 51 sites and describes the status of decommissioning activities at the sites. This is supplement number one to NUREG-1444, which was published in October 1993

231

Working plan of the Loviisa NPP decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of the development of decommissioning project for the Loviisa NPP (Finland), units 1 and 2, after termination of its designed service life of 30 years are described. The volume of works, types of radioactive equipment and building materials to be dismantled are estimated. Variants and techniques of dismantling, underground storage facilities are described. Doses received by the personnel are evaluated, measures of radiation safety and general costs of works (for separate components) in 1987 prices are considered. The Loviisa-1 NPP decommissioning will start in 2008, the Loviisa-2 - in 2012. It will take more than 12 years to realize the decommissioning procedure from unit 1 shutdown to containment of the storage facilities license cancelling. Works for the dismantling of the equipment will require approximately 3000 man-years. Collective dose of irradiation of personnel busy with dismantling is assessed as 23 manxSv. Total cost will constitute 800 mln marks (Finland)

232

International comparisons of decommissioning cost estimates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An international review of nuclear facility decommissioning costs has been recently published by the NEA. The report was prepared by an expert Working Group with the objective of finding out why the published estimates for decommissioning of nuclear power plants vary so widely and if there were political, institutional, technical or economic factors that could explain these variations. The Working Group identified, indeed, a great number of factors that could potentially cause differences in estimates and concluded that a considerable part of the variation among the estimates studied could, in fact, be explained by differences in a few simple factors such as the technical scope and coverage of the decommissioning plans, the characteristics of the facilities themselves and the prevailing cost conditions. The Working Group also warns about the pitfalls that lurk in the practice of using fluctuating exchange rates for international cost comparisons. (author) 5 refs.; 6 tabs

233

Decommissioning of DR 2. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the work of dismantling and demolishing reactor DR 2, the waste volumes generated, the health physical conditions and the clearance procedures used for removed elements and waste. Since the ultimate goal for the decommissioning project was not clearance of the building, but downgrading the radiological classification of the building with a view to converting it to further nuclear use, this report documents how the lower classification was achieved and the known occurrence of remaining activity. The report emphasises some of the deliberations made and describes the lessons learned through this decommissioning project. The report also intends to contribute towards the technical basis and experience basis for further decommissioning of the nuclear facilities in Denmark. (au)

234

Mound's decommissioning experience, tooling, and techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Monsanto Research Corporation (MRC), which operates Mound for the Department of Energy (DOE), has been decommissioning radioactively contaminated facilities since 1949. We are currently decommissioning three plutonium-238 contaminated facilities (approximately 50,000 ft2) that contained 1100 linear ft of gloveboxes; 900 linear ft of conveyor housing; 2650 linear ft of dual underground liquid waste lines; and associated contaminated piping, services, equipment, structures, and soil. As of June 1982, over 29,000 Ci of plutonium-238 have been removed in waste and scrap residues. As a result of the current and previous decommissioning projects, valuable experience has been gained in tooling and techniques. Special techniques have been developed in planning, exposure control, contamination control, equipment removal, structural decontamination, and waste packaging

235

Decommissioning of a Rare Earths Extraction Facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The occupational and environmental radiation exposures and radiation safety issues associated with the decommissioning of a rare earths and thorium extraction facility are presented. This plant was in continuous operation during the period 1952-1988, chemically processing monazite for the separation of rare earths and thorium. It was decommissioned over a nine month period during the early 1990s. Operations at the plant over the years had resulted in buildup of activity on equipment surfaces, floors, pipes, walls and associated structures. The reaction tanks had accumulated elevated levels of activity as a result of impregnation of radionuclides into the rubber linings and pitting of surfaces due to chemical corrosion. Gamma exposure levels, airborne radioactivity and concentration of radionuclides in sludge and wastes for disposal are presented. The sequence of systematic decommissioning operations is outlined. The solid, liquid and gaseous effluents generated are characterized and quantified. Personal radiation exposures for the decommissioning and waste disposal operations are estimated. Novel methods of decontamination and recycling of large metallic objects and building surfaces are presented as a means of optimizing the quantity of waste as well as radiation exposures. The total effective doses received by the workers from external and internal exposures over the duration of the decommissioning operations were assessed to be in the range of 0.20-8.94 mSv, with ao be in the range of 0.20-8.94 mSv, with a mean value of 7.2 mSv. After completion of the decommissioning operations, the groundwater was monitored for a number of years to check for contamination from the waste disposal sites. The 228Ra concentrations in the groundwater were very low. (author)

236

RCH Programme on Decommissioning Techniques for Research Reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The co-ordinated research programme on decommissioning techniques for research reactors was launched and conducted by the IAEA from 1997 to 2001 in order to support the attainment and transfer of know-how on research reactors decommissioning, CIEMAT was one of the institutions involved in this programme with a project related to decommissioning techniques to be applied in its own installations. (Author)

237

Technical and legal aspects of the decommissioning of nuclear installations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many of the plants licensed at the start of nuclear power programmes will require decommissioning in the 1990's and this issue should now be confronted by the nuclear industry, its regulators and governments. This paper deals with the United States programme and experience in the decommissioning of nuclear installations and describes alternative decommissioning methods including safety and financial aspects. (NEA)

238

General principles underlying the decommissioning of nuclear facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Previous statements on the use of the term 'decommissioning' by the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Atomic Energy Control Board, and the Advisory Committee on Nuclear Safety are reviewed, culminating in a particular definition for its use in this paper. Three decommissioning phases are identified and discussed, leading to eight general principles governing decommissioning including one related to financing

239

Romanian experience on the decommissioning of nuclear facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Like many countries, Romania has started the decommissioning of small nuclear and radiological facilities as well as the decommissioning of research reactors. The regulatory framework for decommissioning as well as decommissioning licensing process in Romania are briefly described. The main regulations on decommissioning issued by regulatory authority either in force or in planning are presented. The paper describes the content of the technical documentation for getting the decommissioning license, and content and format of the decommissioning plan to be prepared and submitted by operator. The decommissioning licenses issued until now as well as a description of decommissioning activities in Romania are presented. As an example the decommissioning activities at MultiZonal Research Reactor located on Pitesti site are presented. The paper described, also, the major problems met during the regulatory review of the 6 editions of decommissioning plan for the WWR-S research reactor and the progress made in the implementation of decommissioning activities. The WWR-S research reactor located on Magurele site is now in permanent shut down state under the preservation and clean up license. (author)

240

The experience of research reactors decommissioning in the Russian Federation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report presents the current status of decommissioning of Russian research reactors. Several examples highlight basic problems connected to decommissioning such as the management of spent nuclear fuel (SNF); the management of special coolants; funding problems; aging of the personnel and social aspects; and loss of knowledge. Lessons learned from the decommissioning of Russian research reactors are given. (author)

241

Reactor decommissioning and dismantling at NPPs and nuclear industrial plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Problems related to decommissioning and dismantling of reactors and equipment at NPPs and industrial enterprises are considered. A number of available technologies of decommissioning and dismantling of similar installations is described. Problems associated with utilization of waste produced in the process of reactor decommissioning and dismantling of structures and buildings are addressed

242

Feedback Experience from Decommissioning of Uranium Conversion Plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

KAERI has been conducting decommissioning activities of Uranium Conversion Plant (UCP) for the last decade. As a result of all this work KAERI has accumulated significant experience in the field of decommissioning of nuclear facilities. On the basis of the experience gained from decommissioning activities, this paper describes several lessons learned

243

Decommissioning of a tritium-contaminated laboratory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A tritium laboratory facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, was decommissioned in 1979. The project involved dismantling the laboratory equipment and disposing of the equipment and debris at an on-site waste disposal/storage area. The laboratory was constructed in 1953 and was in service for tritium research and fabrication of lithium tritide components until 1974. The major features of the laboratory included some 25 meters of gloveboxes and hoods, associated vacuum lines, utility lines, exhaust ducts, electrodryers, blowers, and laboratory benches. This report presents details on the decommissioning, health physics, waste management, environmental surveillance, and costs for the operation

244

Work on decommissioning of Asse II mine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is a historical contribution, starting with a description of the active time of this former salt mine. This is followed by an outline of the time of storage of radioactive materials, followed by the time of research and development work. Backfilling of the southern part was the first step to decommissioning. After describing these activities, the boundary conditions to be considered in decommissioning are described, as are the steps involved in the closing-down concept. A status report on the current situation is given as well. (orig.)

245

Decommissioning of a tritium-contaminated laboratory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A tritium laboratory facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, was decommissioned in 1979. The project involved dismantling the laboratory equipment and disposing of the equipment and debris at an on-site waste disposal/storage area. The laboratory, constructed in 1953, was in service for tritium research and fabrication of lithium tritide components until 1974. The major features of the laboratory included 25 meters of gloveboxes and hoods, associated vacuum lines, utility lines, exhaust ducts, electrodryers, blowers, and laboratory benches. This report presents details on the decommissioning, health physics, waste management, environmental surveillance, and costs for the operation

246

Decommissioning techniques for post irradiation examination cell  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Alpha-Gamma Cell in Material Monitoring Facility has been operated since 1973 as a unique hot cell for mechanical testing of highly irradiated FBR fuel claddings. The decommissioning of this hot cell was conducted to introduce advanced test techniques and also introduce improved remote maintenance system. In this work new techniques were applied based on the operational and maintenance experience; remote air-plasma cutting method for dismantling as well as remote dry-ice blast and electro-chemical dissolution methods for decontamination. In this decommissioning the radiation exposure level of worker and amount of radioactive waste disposals were attained to be remarkably reduced. (author)

247

Cost Estimation for Research Reactor Decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the IAEA's statutory objectives is to 'seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world'. One way this objective is achieved is through the publication of a range of technical series. Two of these are the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and the IAEA Safety Standards Series. According to Article III.A.6 of the IAEA Statute, the safety standards establish 'standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property.' The safety standards include the Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. These standards are written primarily in a regulatory style, and are binding on the IAEA for its own programmes. The principal users are the regulatory bodies in Member States and other national authorities. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series comprises reports designed to encourage and assist R and D on, and application of, nuclear energy for peaceful uses. This includes practical examples to be used by owners and operators of utilities in Member States, implementing organizations, academia, and government officials, among others. This information is presented in guides, reports on technology status and advances, and best practices for peaceful uses of nuclear energy based on inputs from international experts. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series complements the IAEA Safety Standards Series. The purpose of this publication is to develop a costing methodology and a software tool in order to support cost estimation for research reactor decommissioning. The costing methodology is intended for the preliminary cost estimation stages for research reactor decommissioning with limited inventory data and other input data available. Existing experience in decommissioning costing is considered. As the basis for the cost calculation structure, the costing model uses the International Structure for Decommissioning Costing (ISDC) that is recommended by the IAEA, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency, and the European Commission as the general platform for decommissioning cost estimation purposes. Use of the ISDC based model facilitates the preliminary costing stages in the absence of decommissioning plans. For proper establishment of the costing case, the intended decommissioning strategy is used. The model should be flexible as to the extent and details of the inventory data. The impact of individual inventory items (working constraints) should be respected. Implementing the ISDC as the basis for the cost calculation structure ensures compatibility with the IAEA classification scheme for radioactive waste. The developed tool is intended for experts who are familiar with the facility, such as the former or actual operators of research reactors. A basic knowledge of decommissioning issues is recommended. (author)

248

Reviews of IAEA's activity on decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Decontamination and decommissioning (D/D) activities were introduced in the IAEA's programme in 1973. Since 1980, the IAEA has published more than ten technological review reports and safety and regulatory guidance reports in the area of D/D. In part I, concept of exemption level and outline of deriving method for exempt quantities are described and example exempt quantities presented. And part II describes the outline of the IAEA technical report on 'decommissioning techniques for research reactors' which has been published recently. (author). 4 refs., 9 tabs

249

Good practices in decommissioning planning and pre-decommissioning activities for the Magurele VVR-S nuclear research reactor  

OpenAIRE

The VVR-S Nuclear Research Reactor at the “Horia Hulubei” National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering in Magurele, Bucharest, will be decommissioned applying the immediate dismantling strategy. The implementation of the decommissioning project started in 2010 and is planned for completion within 11 years. Good practices in decommissioning planning, organization, funding, and logistics are described in this paper.

Dragusin Mitica; Pavelescu Octavian Alexandru; Iorga Ioan

2011-01-01

250

Good practices in decommissioning planning and pre-decommissioning activities for the Magurele VVR-S nuclear research reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The VVR-S Nuclear Research Reactor at the 'Horia Hulubei' National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering in Magurele, Bucharest, will be decommissioned applying the immediate dismantling strategy. The implementation of the decommissioning project started in 2010 and is planned for completion within 11 years. Good practices in decommissioning planning, organization, funding, and logistics are described in this paper. (author)

251

Good practices in decommissioning planning and pre-decommissioning activities for the Magurele VVR-S nuclear research reactor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The VVR-S Nuclear Research Reactor at the “Horia Hulubei” National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering in Magurele, Bucharest, will be decommissioned applying the immediate dismantling strategy. The implementation of the decommissioning project started in 2010 and is planned for completion within 11 years. Good practices in decommissioning planning, organization, funding, and logistics are described in this paper.

Dragusin Mitica

2011-01-01

252

The institutional framework of decommissioning in Italy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Decommissioning of the NPP is generally viewed in a negative framework. On the contrary, it is an activity which aims is said to obtain the final removal of the risk factors from the environment. It is the last step of the production cycle, whose importance is underlined by the Regulation recently issued for the correct management of resources in the territory. Decommissioning NPP involves the final arrangements of the radioactive wastes, produced either during the past operation period or resulting from the dismantling operation. All the radioactive wastes must be conditioned and maintained in safe conditions. Radioactive waste management is no longer a problem for those countries that decided to face it, that is the majority of the industrialised countries. Correct technological solutions exist, due exist, respectful of the environment, of the people, of the ethical principles. The centrality of the problem is also decreed by the fact that sometimes now, the European Commission has been working on the issue of the directive on waste management, an effort which Italy has strongly supported, also during the Presidency period. Decommissioning on NPP is moreover an activity that implies advanced technological solutions, multilateral overlapping programs, working of style situations. Not many countries have completed yet (the) decommissioning of their plants: such activity should therefore be seen as an opportunity for the growth and the assertion of the Italian industry, also in view of the potential new market and the alliance with European industries. Of the 530 nuclear reactors present in world today, approximately 100 are undergoing decommissioning. In the next 2 years another 100 will reach the end of their operative life. Probably after the necessary system improvement many of them will continue to work, but it is clear that the international market of the decommissioning will continue to grow in the next years. Italy can play an important role in this scenario: the decommissioning program produced by Sogin can therefore be a springboard for specific activities. Decommissioning of the Italian NPP will cost a total of approximately 3.5 billions euro. This amount of money will be founded by the electricity market (electricity bill): in order to optimise this huge amount, the efficiency and efficacy of the decommissioning program must be guaranteed. For this reason in 2003 the Italian government gave a significant drive for the centralisation of all the activities and responsibilities to a unique operator, also assigning Sogin with the management of the ENEA fuel cycle plants and related companies. Decommissioning program for Italian nuclear plants have been issued since 1999 and have under-gone the complex licensing procedure foreseen by a specific regulation of the sector, the law 241/2000 and by the regulation regarding the Environmental Impact Assessment. This regulatory frame is a recent one and, for some aspects, is still not completed and has, for the same reasons, sometimes caused some delay in activities. Other factors providing delays involved the excessive sensitivity of some local situation which, even though guaranteed by regulation that envisage the direct participation in decision making, see the decommissioning as a risk factor that they can't control directly. In order to proceed in completing this unpostponable operations in the most correct and effective manner, it is important that the different institutional bodies involved in the licensing procedure co-operate in the success of the program. The issue of the decree envisaged by law 230/95 constitutes a test table to this end. Working along these lines, the government has already began by signed the institutional agreement for the coordination of the licensing procedure related to the mention law 230/95 and the Environmental Impact Assessment. (author)

253

Decontamination and decommissioning focus area. Technology summary  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents details of the facility deactivation, decommissioning, and material disposition research for development of new technologies sponsored by the Department of Energy. Topics discussed include; occupational safety, radiation protection, decontamination, remote operated equipment, mixed waste processing, recycling contaminated metals, and business opportunities.

NONE

1995-06-01

254

Y-12 Plant Decontamination and Decommissioning Program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) Program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant is part of the Environmental Restoration (ER) and Waste Management (WM) Programs (ERWM). The objective of the ER Program is to provide Y-12 the capability to meet applicable environmental regulations through facility development activities and site remedial actions. The WM Program supports the ER program. The D and D Program provides collective management of sites within the Plant which are in need of decontamination and decommissioning efforts, prioritizes those areas in terms of health, safety, and environmental concerns, and implements the appropriate level of remedial action. The D and D Program provides support to identifiable facilities which formerly served one or more of the many Plant functions. Program activities include (1) surveillance and maintenance of facilities awaiting decommissioning; (2) planning safe and orderly facility decommissioning; and (3) implementing a program to accomplish facility disposition in a safe, cost effective, and timely manner. In order to achieve the first objective, a formal plan which documents the surveillance and maintenance needs for each facility has been prepared. This report provides this documentation for the Y-12 facilities currently included in the D and D Program, as well as those planned for future inclusion in the Program, and includes projected resource requirements for the planning period of FY 1993 through FY 2000

255

Sodium Reactor Experiment decommissioning. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Sodium Reactor Experiment (SRE) located at the Rockwell International Field Laboratories northwest of Los Angeles was developed to demonstrate a sodium-cooled, graphite-moderated reactor for civilian use. The reactor reached full power in May 1958 and provided 37 GWh to the Southern California Edison Company grid before it was shut down in 1967. Decommissioning of the SRE began in 1974 with the objective of removing all significant radioactivity from the site and releasing the facility for unrestricted use. Planning documentation was prepared to describe in detail the equipment and techniques development and the decommissioning work scope. A plasma-arc manipulator was developed for remotely dissecting the highly radioactive reactor vessels. Other important developments included techniques for using explosives to cut reactor vessel internal piping, clamps, and brackets; decontaminating porous concrete surfaces; and disposing of massive equipment and structures. The documentation defined the decommissioning in an SRE dismantling plan, in activity requirements for elements of the decommissioning work scope, and in detailed procedures for each major task.

Carroll, J.W.; Conners, C.C.; Harris, J.M.; Marzec, J.M.; Ureda, B.F.

1983-08-15

256

Importance of funding in decommissioning cost estimates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Decommissioning cost estimates have been made by several study groups for the decommissioning of pressurized-water and boiling-water nuclear power stations. The results of these studies are comparable when corrected for inflation and the differences in contingency factors applied by the study groups. The estimated dismantling costs differ far less than a factor of 2 in all cases, despite the design differences found in the plants that were studied. An analysis of the different methods available for funding the dismantling of these facilities shows the much stronger effect that the choice of funding methods has on the net cost of decommissioning. The total cost of dismantling may vary more than a factor of 4 from one funding method to another, assuming current or recent historical inflation rates. The funding methods evaluated include sinking funds, deposits, negative-salvage value depreciation, and insurance. These funding methods are taken from the NRC's Notice of Proposed Rulemaking description of acceptable funding methods. The funding analysis for this study was performed using the DECOST-86 computer code. The evaluation of funding options for a nuclear facility, and the appropriate choice of the funding method best for that facility, are found to be more important than detailed engineering studies in determining the net cost of decommissioning during the early portions of the plant's operating lifetime

257

Refuel floor reconfiguration for plant decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Decommissioning of the Shoreham nuclear power station required reconfiguration of the refuel floor to ensure safe and adequate working areas for segmentation, packaging, and removal of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and its internal components. This paper describes the major activities associated with refuel floor reconfiguration

258

Financing strategies for nuclear power decommissioning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report analyzes several alternatives for financing the decommissioning of nuclear power plants from the point of view of assurance, cost, equity, and other criteria. Sensitivity analyses are performed on several important variables and possible impacts on representative companies' rates are discussed and illustrated.

None,

1980-07-01

259

The decommissioning of a small nuclear reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The JEEP II reactor at Kjeller, Norway has been used as a model for a study of the decommissioning of a small research reactor. A radiological survey is given and a plan for volume reducing, packaging, certifying, classifying and shipping of the radioactive waste is described. 23 refs., 4 figs

260

78 FR 663 - Decommissioning Planning During Operations  

Science.gov (United States)

...the NRC's Regulatory Guide series. This series...public information such as methods that are acceptable to...RG 4.22 describes a method that the NRC staff considers...issued Draft Regulatory Guide, DG-4014, ``Decommissioning...of Nuclear Regulatory Research. [FR Doc....

2013-01-04

261

Offshore decommissioning issues: Deductibility and transferability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dealing with the decommissioning of petroleum installations is a relatively new challenge to most producer countries. It is natural to expect that industry's experience in building platforms is much greater than the one of dismantling them. Even if manifold and varied efforts are underway towards establishing international 'best practices' standards in this sector, countries still enjoy rather extensive discretionary power as they practice a particular national style in the regulation of decommissioning activities in their state's jurisdiction. The present paper offers a broad panorama of this discussion, concentrating mainly on two controversial aspects. The first one analyses the ex-ante deductibility of decommissioning costs as they constitute an ex-post expense. The second discussion refers to the assignment of decommissioning responsibility in the case of transfer of exploration and production rights to new lessees during the project's life. Finally the paper applies concepts commonly used in project financing as well as structures generally used in organising pension funds to develop insights into these discussions

262

CECP, Decommissioning Costs for PWR and BWR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1 - Description of program or function: The Cost Estimating Computer Program CECP, designed for use on an IBM personal computer or equivalent, was developed for estimating the cost of decommissioning boiling water reactor (BWR) and light-water reactor (PWR) power stations to the point of license termination. 2 - Method of solution: Cost estimates include component, piping, and equipment removal costs; packaging costs; decontamination costs; transportation costs; burial volume and costs; and manpower staffing costs. Using equipment and consumables costs and inventory data supplied by the user, CECP calculates unit cost factors and then combines these factors with transportation and burial cost algorithms to produce a complete report of decommissioning costs. In addition to costs, CECP also calculates person-hours, crew-hours, and exposure person-hours associated with decommissioning. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The program is designed for a specific waste charge structure. The waste cost data structure cannot handle intermediate waste handlers or changes in the charge rate structures. The decommissioning of a reactor can be divided into 5 periods. 200 different items for special equipment costs are possible. The maximum amount for each special equipment item is 99,999,999$. You can support data for 10 buildings, 100 components each; ESTS1071/01: There are 65 components for 28 systems available to specify the contaminated systems costs (BWR). ESTSthe contaminated systems costs (BWR). ESTS1071/02: There are 75 components for 25 systems available to specify the contaminated systems costs (PWR)

263

Virtual reality technology and nuclear decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During past years, an important activity at the Halden VR Centre (HVRC), Institute for Energy Technology (IFE) in Halden has been the development of virtual reality (VR) software for use in the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. It is hoped that use of VR technology in the planning process may prove beneficial both with regard to minimizing workers' radiation exposure, as well as in helping to achieve the efficient use of human resources. VR can also be a valuable tool in the dismantling phase. In addition to this, VR provides the decommissioning project team with an effective medium in presentations to the public, as well as for communicating with relevant engineers and licensing authorities. The most extensive IFE VR decommissioning project is at present the VRdose project, conducted in co-operation with the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC). VRdose will be used in the decommissioning of one of JNC's reactors, the Fugen Nuclear Power Station.The paper describes the present and planned versions of the VRdose system, but also briefly describes other related activities at HVRC. (author)

264

Decommissioning technology development for research reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although it is expected that the decommissioning of a nuclear power plant will happen since 2020, the need of partial decommissioning and decontamination for periodic inspection and life extension has been on an increasing trend and domestic market has gradually been extended. Therefore, in this project the decommissioning DB system on the KRR-1 and 2 was developed as establishing the information classification system of the research reactor dismantling and the structural design and optimization of the decommissioning DB system. Also in order to secure the reliability and safety about the dismantling process, the main dismantling simulation technology that can verify the dismantling process before their real dismantling work was developed. And also the underwater cutting equipment was developed to remove these stainless steel parts highly activated from the RSR. First, the its key technologies were developed and then the design, making, and capability analysis were performed. Finally the actual proof was achieved for applying the dismantling site. an automatic surface contamination measuring equipment was developed in order to get the sample automatically and measure the radiation/radioactivity

265

Utility perspectives on decommissioning - the accounting involvement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the approach taken by Houston Lighting and Power Company in determining a decommissioning plan and its continuing efforts toward funding of this plan for the South Texas Project. This approach is broadened to an overall utility viewpoint

266

Radiological characterization of nuclear plants under decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present work a description of major problems encountered in qualitative and quantitative radiological characterization of nuclear plants for decommissioning and decontamination purpose is presented. Referring to several nuclear plant classes activation and contamination processes, direct and indirect radiological analysis and some italian significant experience are descripted

267

BNFL nuclear decommissioning liabilities management program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this paper is to describe BNFL's policy and strategy for decommissioning and also to summarize the overall scope of nuclear liabilities in the wider field of waste retrieval and storage, as well as the dismantling and demolition aspects of decommissioning. BNFL's recently established organisational arrangements for discharging all types of these liabilities are explained, together with a review of practical progress in dealing with them. Organisational changes in recent years have amalgamated decommissioning work with operations covering waste storage and retrieval operations. A strategy of minimising residual activity in shutdown plants is pursued, followed by dismantling and demolition on appropriate time scales to minimise risk and cost. Since April 1995, a new BNFL subsidiary, Nuclear Liabilities Management Company Limited has taken responsibility for discharge of BNFL's Waste Retrieval and Decommissioning liabilities on all BNFL sites. NLM has the objectives of optimal and lowest cost management of liabilities and much clearer segregation of physical operations from project specification and planning. The Ministry of Defense (MoD) policy, strategy, work programmes and progress for the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) are also outlined. MoD/AEA has established an equivalent strategy for dealing with its liabilities. (J.S.). 5 refs., 2 figs., 4 appends

268

Consideration of ISDC for Decommissioning Cost Estimation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 2009, they decided to update the Yellow Book, and began to update it by analyzing user experiences. They found that several countries have adopted the proposed standardized cost structure for the production of cost estimates directly or for mapping national estimates onto a common structure. They also made conclusions that more detailed advice should be given on the use of the standardized structure and on the definition of cost items to avoid ambiguity. The revised cost structure, to be known as the International Structure for Decommissioning Costing (ISDC), was published in 2012. The standardized cost structure developed in the report may be used for estimating the costs of decommissioning of any type of nuclear facility. We analyzed this standardized cost structure (ISDC) and applied it to DECOMMIS which was developed by KAERI. The appropriate estimation system for domestic application was examined by comparing the estimation results. KAERI made WBS code in DECOMMIS and data obtained during decommissioning work of KRR2 and UCP. Recently the IAEA updated the decommissioning cost items and its structure by ISDC. The cost estimation items of the DECOMMIS were applied to ISDC structure. For applying, the ISDC code compared with WBS code of DECOMMIS as on text of the activity name from daily report basis. The mapping result of the ISDC items to WBS code of the DECOMMIS is much different. AS results of this study that it need the corresponding cost category which classified in accordance with the national standard price estimates

269

UK nuclear decommissioning policy: time for decision  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents the results of an investigation into the current United Kingdom policy on the decommissioning of nuclear reactors. The most controversial feature of the policy is the plan to postpone the most difficult stage of decommissioning, the dismantling of the core, for over 100 years. While this policy has clear advantages to the present generation there are strong ethical arguments against such a long delay which also poses technical and economic questions. The work will be left to future generations, who will have to bear both the opportunity costs of labour and capital and some risk of radioactive contamination. Uncertainties exist over the availability of finance to complete the decommissioning so far into the future and assumptions have to be made that the relevant nuclear technology will still be available. It is suggested that a more active policy is needed to demonstrate that decommissioning can be carried out safely within expected costs and that higher priority needs to be given to the construction of safe waste repositories. (UK)

270

Decommissioning of the Northrop TRIGA reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An overview of the administrative and operational aspects of decommissioning and dismantling the Northrop Mark F TRIGA Reactor, including: planning and preparation, personnel requirements, government interfacing, costs, contractor negotiations, fuel shipments, demolition, disposal of low level waste, final survey and disposition of the concrete biological shielding. (author)

271

Decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Feasibility, needs and costs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reactor decommissioning activities generally are considered to begin after operations have ceased and the fuel has been removed from the reactor, although in some countries the activities may be started while the fuel is still at the reactor site. The three principal alternatives for decommissioning are described. The factors to be considered in selecting the decommissioning strategy, i.e. a stage or a combination of stages that comprise the total decommissioning programme, are reviewed. One presents a discussion of the feasibility of decommissioning techniques available for use on the larger reactors and fuel cycle facilities. The numbers and types of facilities to be decommissioned and the resultant waste volumes generated for disposal will then be projected. Finally, the costs of decommissioning these facilities, the effect of these costs on electricity generating costs, and alternative methods of financing decommissioning are discussed. The discussion of decommissioning draws on various countries' studies and experience in this area. Specific details about current activities and policies in NEA Member Countries are given in the short country specific Annexes. The nuclear facilities that are addressed in this study include reactors, fuel fabrication facilities, reprocessing facilities, associated radioactive waste storage facilities, enrichment facilities and other directly related fuel cycle support facilities. The present study focuses on the technical feasibility, needs, and costs of decommissioning the larger commercial facilities in the OECD member countries that are coming into service up to the year 2000. It is intended to inform the public and to assist in planning for the decommissioning of these facilities

272

Development of the Decommissioning Project Management System, DECOMMIS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI), two projects for decommissioning of the research reactors and uranium conversion plant are carried out. The management of the projects can be defined as 'the decision of the changes of the decommissioning methodologies for the more efficient achievement of the project at an adequate time and to an improved method'. The correct decision comes from the experiences on the decommissioning project and the systematic experiences can be obtained from the good management of the decommissioning information. For this, a project management tool, DECOMMIS, was developed in the D and D Technology Division, which has the charge of the decommissioning projects at the KAERI, and its purpose was extended to following fields; generation of reports on the dismantling waste for WACID, record keeping for the next decommissioning projects of nuclear facilities, provision of fundamental data for the R and D of the decommissioning technologies.

Chung, U. S.; Park, J. H.; Lee, K. W.; Hwang, D. S.; Park, S. K.; Hwang, S. T.; Paik, S. T.; Choi, Y. D.; Chung, K. H.; Lee, K. I.; Hong, S. B

2007-03-15

273

Recent trend of dismantling techniques for nuclear reactor decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the recent trend of dismantling techniques and decontamination methods for nuclear reactor decommissioning. Recent decommissioning techniques will be described in Section 2 through 5, such as the decontamination methods, the one-piece removal method, the dismantling methods for the reactor pressure vessel and internals, the dismantling and removal of concrete structures. In Section 6 are presented the recent progresses and achievement of individual BR-3, KRB-A, MZFR, Greifswald, Trojan, and Connecticut Yankee decommissioning projects, with special reference to decontamination and decommissioning techniques including remotely operated robots, for the immediate dismantling of reactors. The planning and implementation of decommissioning for nuclear reactor plant should refer recent dismantling techniques and many decommissioning experiences. The technical lessons learned from many projects will help in the planning for future decommissioning projects. (author)

274

Decommissioning of NPP A1 - HWGCR type  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Prototype nuclear power plant A-1 located at Jaslovske Bohunice, was a HWGCR with channel type reactor KS 150 (refuelling during operation) and capacity of 143 MWe. Single unit has been constructed with reactor hall building containing reactor vessel, heavy water system and equipment for spent fuel handling. Another compartment of main building contents coolant system piping, six steam generators and six turbo compressors, the turbine hall was equipped by three turbines. Unit also shares liquid radwaste treatment and storage buildings and ventilation systems including chimney. It started operation in 1972 and was shutdown in 1977 after primary coolant system integrity accident. In 1979 a final decision was made to decommission this plant. The absence of waste treatment technologies and repository and not sufficient storage capacity affected the planning and realization of decommissioning for NPP A-1. The decommissioning policy for the first stage is for lack of regulations based on 'case by case' strategy. For these reasons and for not existence of Decommissioning Found until 1995 the preferred decommissioning option is based on differed decommissioning with safe enclosure of confinement. Transfer of undamaged spent fuel cooled in organic coolant to Russia was finished in 1990. It was necessary to develop new technology for the damaged fuel preparation for transport. The barriers check-up and dismantling of secondary circuit and cooling towers was performed during 1989/90. The complex plan for the first phase of A-1 decommissioning - the status with treated operational radwaste, removed contamination and restored treated waste and spent fuel (in case of interruption of transfer to Russia) was developed in 1993-1994. Under this project bituminization of all liquid operational radwaste (concentrates) was performed during 1995/96, vitrification of inorganic spent fuel coolant started at 1996, decontamination of spent fuel pool coolant occurs (under AEA Technology support) in 1997 as well as preparation for bituminization of organic spent fuel coolant. The new equipment for spent fuel handling including new storage (semi dry) for spent fuel was projected and should be built up in 1997. The decontamination and dismantling of auxiliary equipment (radwaste tanks, evaporation plant and original solid storage) should start after the commissioning of conditioning centre and bituminization plant with new evaporation plant in 1998 and finish at 2000. The decontamination and dismantling of original spent fuel storage should finish at 2007/8. Supporting activities to these works started at 1994/95. (author)

275

Governments' role in decommissioning nuclear power facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many nuclear power plants will reach the end of their operating lives over the next 20 years; some may be life-extended, others may not. This development will precipitate enhanced industrial and regulatory activities in the area of decommissioning. We are also witnessing in many countries a significant shift in the role of government itself: new pressures on governments, such as enhanced attention on environmental impact/mitigation and strategies to implement market-oriented approaches in a variety of sectors, including the energy sector are driving the public policy agenda. The paper will examine the range of policy issues, drawing from recent NEA studies on decommissioning policies and the recent NEA study on Government and Nuclear Energy and, strategies and costs, and other current trends and developments in the nuclear industry and in the nuclear policy fields. The paper will reflect on issues to be addressed during the conference and draw conclusions on the appropriate role of government in this area. Decommissioning policy is very specific and focused: it is not a high level policy/political issue in most instances and rarely gets the same attention as the issue surrounding the future of nuclear energy itself and public concerns regarding safety, waste and economics. One reason why decommissioning does not get the same attention as for example disposal of spent nuclear fuel might be the fact that technology is available for decommissioning, while technology for disposal of spent nuclear fuel is under development. High profile or not, it will remain an important issue for governments and industry alike particularly because of the cost and long lead times involved. In some instances, governments are the owners of the facilities to be decommissioned. In addition, decommissioning factors into issues surrounding the economics of nuclear energy and the sustainability of the nuclear option. Based on results of the Tarragona Seminar (Spain, September 2-4, 2003) and the Rome Workshop, we conclude that, with respect to power production facilities, government policy should aim at securing funding, whatever system is practically chosen, so that the actual beneficiary from the power generated - and not the future taxpayer -pays for all the production costs, including future decommissioning. There are very good ethical reasons behind a system which ensures that the generations that consume this electricity do not leave such an economic burden to their grandchildren. This is also one of the principles that are expressed in the 1999 Joint Convention. The most practical way to ensure that such economic burdens do not crop up at a later stage is probably to create some sort of funding mechanism. Such funding can be organised in different ways according to different conditions in different countries. Generally speaking, to ensure an effective funding mechanism, there has to be national legislation on how such a mechanism should be constructed. Different systems with governmental institutions more or less involved are possible. But any funding system, aiming at providing economic resources for decommissioning in a foreseeable future should meet the following requirements. Stable legal framework: the legislation regarding funding should have high profile among legislators to ensure that political pressures do not lead to decisions to change the legislation in order to allow assets to be used for other urgent purposes. Legal rules must ensure that funds collected for this purpose cannot disappear as a consequence of bankruptcy of an owner of a nuclear facility that needs to be decommissioned. Calculations of future costs have to meet high accuracy standards. This means that appropriate discount factors will have to be applied to ensure that the time frames when costs will be incurred will be factored into the costing formulae. One possible way to achieve high accuracy is to require regular and frequent reviews of all calculations. It is essential that mechanisms are in place to ensure that the real value of assets in the fund guard agai

276

European Nuclear Decommissioning Training Facility II  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

SCK-CEN co-ordinates a project called European Nuclear Decommissioning Training Facility II (EUNDETRAF II) in the Sixth Framework Programme on Community activities in the field of research, technological development and demonstration for the period 2002 to 2006. This was a continuation of the FP5 project EUNDETRAF. EUNDETRAF II is a consortium of main European decommissioners, such as SCK-CEN, EWN (Energie Werke Nord, Greifswald Germany), Belgatom (Belgium), SOGIN Societa Gestione Impiantio Nucleari, Italy), Universitaet Hannover (Germany), RWE NUKEM (United Kingdom), DECOM Slovakia Slovakia), CEA Centre d'Energie Atomique, France), UKAEA (United Kingdom's Atomic Energy Agency, United Kingdom) and NRG (Nuclear Research and consultancy Group, Netherlands). The primary objective of this project is to bring together this vast skill base and experience; to consolidate it for easy assimilation and to transfer to future generations by organising a comprehensive training programme.Each training course has a one-week theoretical and a one-week practical component. The theoretical part is for a broader audience and consists of lectures covering all the main aspects of a decommissioning. The practical part of the course includes site visits and desk top solutions of anticipated decommissioning problems. Due to operational constraints and safety considerations, the number of participants to this part of the course is strictly limited. The partners intend to organise altogether two two-week EUNDETRAF II training courses over a period of three years. Another goal is to disseminate the existing theory as well as the practical know-how to personnel of the third countries. Finally it is important to bring together the principal decommissioning organisations undertaking various decommissioning activities. The project creates a forum for regular contacts to exchange information and experiences for mutual benefit of these organisations as well as to enhance skill base in Europe to strengthen the European position in the world

277

Management of Decommissioning on a Multi-Facility Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The management of the decommissioning of multi-facility sites may be inadequate or inappropriate if based on approaches and strategies developed for sites consisting of only a single facility. The varied nature of activities undertaken, their interfaces and their interdependencies are likely to complicate the management of decommissioning. These issues can be exacerbated where some facilities are entering the decommissioning phase while others are still operational or even new facilities are being built. Multi-facility sites are not uncommon worldwide but perhaps insufficient attention has been paid to optimizing the overall site decommissioning in the context of the entire life cycle of facilities. Decommissioning management arrangements need to be established taking a view across the whole site. A site-wide decommissioning management system is required. This should include a project evaluation and approval process and specific arrangements to manage identified interfaces and interdependencies. A group should be created to manage decommissioning across the site, ensuring adequate and consistent practices in accordance with the management system. Decommissioning management should be aimed at the entire life cycle of facilities. In the case of multi facility sites, the process becomes more complex and decommissioning management arrangements need to be established with a view to the whole site. A site decommissioning management system, a group that is responsible for desystem, a group that is responsible for decommissioning on site, a site project evaluation and approval process and specific arrangements to manage the identified interfaces are key areas of a site decommissioning management structure that need to be addressed to ensure adequate and consistent decommissioning practices. A decommissioning strategy based on single facilities in a sequential manner is deemed inadequate

278

Use of remote equipment in reactor decommissioning - 16326  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear reactor decommissioning continues to remain at the forefront of the energy and defence industries as many reactors built from the 1940's to the 1970's are reaching the end of their life cycles. As demand for decommissioning increases, the focus on worker's health and safety has become paramount. This focus on worker safety, coupled with the unique challenges faced in reactor decommissioning, continues to promote the use of remote equipment in the decommissioning process. New technologies available in the market today have also created new opportunities for the implementation and application of remote equipment for reactor decommissioning. These technologies include: carbon fibre, high pressure liquid cutting, and advanced control packages. Also, the methods for remote deployment of existing decommissioning technologies such as flame cutting, shearing, and heavy equipment continue to evolve. This paper will focus on the use of this technology at the following facilities: the decommissioning of the Rancho Seco reactor in California, the Brookhaven graphite research reactor in New York, the Windscale Pile 1 Reactor in the United Kingdom, and the Fort St. Vrain HTG Reactor in Colorado. These have all used remote equipment and emerging technologies to solve complex problems in nuclear reactor decommissioning. The purpose is this paper is to outline some of the challenges associated with reactor decommissioning, describe new technologies and deployment techniques be technologies and deployment techniques being used in the decommissioning field, and to provide an overview of projects using these new technologies. (authors)

279

NMSS handbook for decommissioning fuel cycle and materials licensees  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission amended its regulations to set forth the technical and financial criteria for decommissioning licensed nuclear facilities. These regulations were further amended to establish additional recordkeeping requirements for decommissioning; to establish timeframes and schedules for the decommissioning; and to clarify that financial assurance requirements must be in place during operations and updated when licensed operations cease. Reviews of the Site Decommissioning Management Plan (SDMP) program found that, while the NRC staff was overseeing the decommissioning program at nuclear facilities in a manner that was protective of public health and safety, progress in decommissioning many sites was slow. As a result NRC determined that formal written procedures should be developed to facilitate the timely decommissioning of licensed nuclear facilities. This handbook was developed to aid NRC staff in achieving this goal. It is intended to be used as a reference document to, and in conjunction with, NRC Inspection Manual Chapter (IMC) 2605, ''Decommissioning Inspection Program for Fuel Cycle and Materials Licensees.'' The policies and procedures discussed in this handbook should be used by NRC staff overseeing the decommissioning program at licensed fuel cycle and materials sites; formerly licensed sites for which the licenses were terminated; sites involving source, special nuclear, or byproduct material subject to NRC regulation for which a license was never issued; and sites in the NRC's SDMP program. NRC staff overseeing the decommissioning program at nuclear reactor facilities subject to regulation under 10 CFR Part 50 are not required to use the procedures discussed in this handbook

280

In Situ Decommissioning (ISD) Concepts and Approaches for Excess Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning End State - 13367  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The United States Department of Energy (DOE) currently has numerous radiologically contaminated excess nuclear facilities waiting decommissioning throughout the Complex. The traditional decommissioning end state is complete removal. This commonly involves demolishing the facility, often segregating various components and building materials and disposing of the highly contaminated, massive structures containing tons of highly contaminated equipment and piping in a (controlled and approved) landfill, at times hundreds of miles from the facility location. Traditional demolition is costly, and results in significant risks to workers, as well as risks and costs associated with transporting the materials to a disposal site. In situ decommissioning (ISD or entombment) is a viable alternative to demolition, offering comparable and potentially more protective protection of human health and the environment, but at a significantly reduced cost and worker risk. The Savannah River Site (SRS) has completed the initial ISD deployment for radiologically contaminated facilities. Two reactor (P and R Reactors) facilities were decommissioned in 2011 using the ISD approach through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. The SRS ISD approach resolved programmatic, regulatory and technical/engineering issues associated with avoiding the potential hazards and cost associated with generating and disposing of an estimated 124,300 metric tons (153,000 m{sup 3}) of contaminated debris per reactor. The DOE Environmental Management Office of Deactivation and Decommissioning and Facility Engineering, through the Savannah River National Laboratory, is currently investigating potential monitoring techniques and strategies to assess ISD effectiveness. As part of SRS's strategic planning, the site is seeking to leverage in situ decommissioning concepts, approaches and facilities to conduct research, design end states, and assist in regulatory interactions in broad national and international government and private industry decommissioning applications. SRS offers critical services based upon the SRS experience in decommissioning and reactor entombment technology (e.g., grout formulations for varying conditions, structural and material sciences). The SRS ISD approach follows a systems engineering framework to achieve a regulatory acceptable end state based on established protocols, attains the final end state with minimal long stewardship requirements, protects industrial workers, and protects groundwater and the environment. The ISD systems engineering framework addresses key areas of the remedial process planning, technology development and deployment, and assessment to attain the ultimate goal of natural resource stewardship and protecting the public. The development and deployment of the SRS ISD approach has established a path for ISD of other large nuclear facilities in the United States and around the globe as an acceptable remedial alternative for decommissioning nuclear facilities. (authors)

Serrato, Michael G. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Musall, John C.; Bergren, Christopher L. [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

2013-07-01

281

In Situ Decommissioning (ISD) Concepts and Approaches for Excess Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning End State - 13367  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The United States Department of Energy (DOE) currently has numerous radiologically contaminated excess nuclear facilities waiting decommissioning throughout the Complex. The traditional decommissioning end state is complete removal. This commonly involves demolishing the facility, often segregating various components and building materials and disposing of the highly contaminated, massive structures containing tons of highly contaminated equipment and piping in a (controlled and approved) landfill, at times hundreds of miles from the facility location. Traditional demolition is costly, and results in significant risks to workers, as well as risks and costs associated with transporting the materials to a disposal site. In situ decommissioning (ISD or entombment) is a viable alternative to demolition, offering comparable and potentially more protective protection of human health and the environment, but at a significantly reduced cost and worker risk. The Savannah River Site (SRS) has completed the initial ISD deployment for radiologically contaminated facilities. Two reactor (P and R Reactors) facilities were decommissioned in 2011 using the ISD approach through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. The SRS ISD approach resolved programmatic, regulatory and technical/engineering issues associated with avoiding the potential hazards and cost associated with generating and disposing of an estimated 124,300 metric tons (153,000 m3) of contaminated debris per reactor. The DOE Environmental Management Office of Deactivation and Decommissioning and Facility Engineering, through the Savannah River National Laboratory, is currently investigating potential monitoring techniques and strategies to assess ISD effectiveness. As part of SRS's strategic planning, the site is seeking to leverage in situ decommissioning concepts, approaches and facilities to conduct research, design end states, and assist in regulatory interactions in broad national and international government and private industry decommissioning applications. SRS offers critical services based upon the SRS experience in decommissioning and reactor entombment technology (e.g., grout formulations for varying conditions, structural and material sciences). The SRS ISD approach follows a systems engineering framework to achieve a regulatory acceptable end state based on established protocols, attains the final end state with minimal long stewardship requirements, protects industrial workers, and protects groundwater and the environment. The ISD systems engineering framework addresses key areas of the remedial process planning, technology development and deployment, and assessment to attain the ultimate goal of natural resource stewardship and protecting the public. The development and deployment of the SRS ISD approach has established a path for ISD of other large nuclear facilities in the United States and around the globe as an acceptable remedial alternative for decommissioning nuclear facilities. (authors)

282

Initial building investigations at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland: Objectives and methodology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As part of an environmental-contamination source-definition program at Aberdeen Proving Ground, detailed internal and external inspections of 23 potentially contaminated buildings are being conducted to describe and characterize the state of each building as it currently exists and to identify areas potentially contaminated with toxic or other hazardous substances. In addition, a detailed geophysical investigation is being conducted in the vicinity of each target building to locate and identify subsurface structures, associated with former building operations, that are potential sources of contamination. This report describes the objectives of the initial building inspections, including the geophysical investigations, and discusses the methodology that has been developed to achieve these objectives.

Brubaker, K.L.; Dougherty, J.M.; McGinnis, L.D.

1994-12-01

283

An apparatus for studying spallation neutrons in the Aberdeen Tunnel laboratory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, we describe the design, construction and performance of an apparatus installed in the Aberdeen Tunnel laboratory in Hong Kong for studying spallation neutrons induced by cosmic-ray muons under a vertical rock overburden of 611 m water equivalent (m.w.e.). The apparatus comprises six horizontal layers of plastic-scintillator hodoscopes for determining the direction and position of the incident cosmic-ray muons. Sandwiched between the hodoscope planes is a neutron detector filled with 650 kg of liquid scintillator doped with about 0.06% of Gadolinium by weight for improving the efficiency of detecting the spallation neutrons. Performance of the apparatus is also presented

284

Decommissioning of an uranium hexafluoride pilot plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Institute of Nuclear and Energetic Researches has completed fifty years of operation, belongs to the National Commission for Nuclear Energy, it is situated inside the city of Sao Paulo. The IPEN-CNEN/SP is a Brazilian reference in the nuclear fuel cycle, researches in this field began in 1970, having dominance in the cycle steps from Yellow Cake to Uranium Hexafluoride technology. The plant of Uranium Hexafluoride produced 35 metric tonnes of this gas by year, had been closed in 1992, due to domain and total transference of know-how for industrial scale, demand of new facilities for the improvement of recent researches projects. The Institute initiates decommissioning in 2002. Then, the Uranium Hexafluoride pilot plant, no doubt the most important unit of the fuel cycle installed at IPEN-CNEN/SP, beginning decommissioning and dismantlement (D and D) in 2005. Such D and D strategies, planning, assessment and execution are described, presented and evaluated in this paper. (author)

285

Approach to decommissioning at AECL's laboratories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This series of slides presents: the Chalk River Laboratories (overview), the decommissioning organization (planning and operations), the waste management strategy (four steps: Characterization, Processing/Immobilization/Packaging, Storage, disposal), the integration of waste management and decommissioning, the free release criteria (status in Canada, AECL official criteria, AECL interim criteria, comparison to International Criteria, Release of Lands, Groundwater Monitoring, Approaches Under Consideration for Free Release, Actions) and the issues for discussion (What are the release standards? Do the same release standards apply to soil and the ground as apply to the buildings? Are release standards dose-based, or concentration based? Are there different release standards for different types of radionuclides? What are the standards for groundwater? Are surface contamination or volumetric standards used?)

286

Shoreham decommissioning technology: Simple and effective  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article reports that at Shoreham decommissioning a large nuclear power plant proves to be a straightforward exercise, accomplished with existing tools and procedures. Plans to dismantle Shoreham nuclear power embraced a simple concept: applying proven technology in new or innovative ways to get the job done. Although Shoreham's operating history was brief, the project is significant because the plant was a large commercial unit and the technologies and methods applied to dismantle it will eventually apply to the present operating fleet of nuclear plants when their service lives come to an end. So, in several respects, Shoreham became the proving ground for planning, techniques and technologies that are likely to figure prominently in the evolution of decommissioning practices over the next two decades

287

Practical technological benefits of SRE decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The decommissioning of the Sodium Reactor Experiment is essentially complete. Contaminated materials, equipment, and soil were removed, decreasing the residual radioactivity to levels acceptable for future unrestricted use of the site. The fuel was removed and declad, tooling and techniques to support the decommissioning were developed, bulk sodium and residual sodium films were removed, coolant systems were dismantled, the reactor vessel was dissected, the interior surfaces of the facilities were decontaminated, and waste materials were packaged and shipped to burial sites. Radiation exposure to workers and the public was within the guidelines and as low as reasonably achievable. In performing the project, new decontamination techniques were tested, decontamination equipment was evaluated, and waste disposal methods were developed

288

Decommissioning of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory was operated from 1982 until 1997. The last several years included operations with mixtures of deuterium and tritium. In September 2002, the three year Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) Project for TFTR was successfully completed. The need to deal with tritium contamination as well as activated materials led to the adaptation of many techniques from the maintenance work during TFTR operations to the D and D effort. In addition, techniques from the decommissioning of fission reactors were adapted to the D and D of TFTR and several new technologies, most notably the development of a diamond wire cutting process for complex metal structures, were developed. These techniques, along with a project management system that closely linked the field crews to the engineering staff who developed the techniques and procedures via a Work Control Center, resulted in a project that was completed safely, on time, and well below budget

289

Law regulations on decommissioning of reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Concerning the decommissioning of reactors, the major provisions are discussed in the Electricity Enterprises Act and The Law for the Regulations of Nuclear Source Material, Nuclear Fuel Material and Reactors. Tokai Unit 1 in Tokai Power Station, Japan's first nuclear power plant, will be subject to the low regulations on reactor decommissioning about ten years hence. JPDR (Japan Power Demonstration Reactor) is being dismantled in the near future. Accoring to the Act the electricity enterprise must obtain the permission thereon from the Ministry for International Trade and Industry. According to the Low, the reactor owner must report thereon in advance to the competent Minister and the competent Minister may give orders concerning the necessary measures etc. (Mori, K.)

290

Design of user interface on decommissioning DB  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It has been designed GUI(Graphic user interface) to consult the convenience of a input data and the flexibility that can be retrieved dismantling information relation to decommissioning DB of KRR1 and 2. The GUI can proceed an input materials and a search and output of a saved data in server based on a facility code and also have a function of explorer which can find the lower dismantling objects in each facilities. It has added the structure of the multimedia that could be showed a series of dismantling activities with a Mpeg and pictures into the GUI. In the future work, decommissioning DB and user interface are intend to contribute a functions that could be evaluate and analyze for a dismantling activities with a engineering theory

291

Decommissioning of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory was operated from 1982 until 1997. The last several years included operations with mixtures of deuterium and tritium. In September 2002, the three year Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Project for TFTR was successfully completed. The need to deal with tritium contamination as well as activated materials led to the adaptation of many techniques from the maintenance work during TFTR operations to the D&D effort. In addition, techniques from the decommissioning of fission reactors were adapted to the D&D of TFTR and several new technologies, most notably the development of a diamond wire cutting process for complex metal structures, were developed. These techniques, along with a project management system that closely linked the field crews to the engineering staff who developed the techniques and procedures via a Work Control Center, resulted in a project that was completed safely, on time, and well below budget.

E. Perry; J. Chrzanowski; C. Gentile; R. Parsells; K. Rule; R. Strykowsky; M. Viola

2003-10-28

292

Decommissioning of aqueous homogeneous critical facility (AHCF)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aqueous Homogeneous Critical Facility (AHCF), constructed to investigate the characteristics of a heavy water moderated homogeneous reactor, had been operated until 1966 since it was reached to the critical state in 1961. As it performed its mission, the license for the operation of the facility was revoked at December 25, 1962, and thereafter the facility has been mothballed safely. This critical facility was determined to remove and dismantle at this time in order to obtain some information for decommissioning of a nuclear power reactor and utilize the area thereof effectively. This paper describes the program and methods for this decommissioning work, the amount of wastes generated, treatment of nuclear fuel, removal of fuel handling facility, and radiation protection and safety during this work. (author)

293

Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a reference pressurized water reactor power station: Technical support for decommissioning matters related to preparation of the final decommissioning rule  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Preparation of the final Decommissioning Rule by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has been assisted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff familiar with decommissioning matters. These efforts have included updating previous cost estimates developed during the series of studies on conceptually decommissioning reference licensed nuclear facilities for inclusion in the Final Generic Environmental Impact Statement (FGEIS) on decommissioning; documenting the cost updates; evaluating the cost and dose impacts of post-TMI-2 backfits on decommissioning; developing a revised scaling formula for estimating decommissioning costs for reactor plants different in size from the reference pressurized water reactor (PWR) described in the earlier study; defining a formula for adjusting current cost estimates to reflect future escalation in labor, materials, and waste disposal costs; and completing a study of recent PWR steam generator replacements to determine realistic estimates for time, costs and doses associated with steam generator removal during decommissioning. This report presents the results of recent PNL studies to provide supporting information in four areas concerning decommissioning of the reference PWR: updating the previous cost estimates to January 1986 dollars; assessing the cost and dose impacts of post-TMI-2 backfits; assessing the cost and dose impacts of recent steam generator replacements; and developing a scaling formula for plants different in size than the reference plant and an escalation formula for adjusting current cost estimates for future escalation

294

Decommissioning of a vitrification facility: rinsing phase  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Marcoule site was the host of the very first electricity-generating nuclear reactors (3 gas-graphite reactors operated between 1956 and 1984) and spent fuel reprocessing plant (UP1 and various ancillaries operated between 1958 and 1997). Reprocessing plant has been shut down ten years ago and since this time decommissioning, dismantling and waste retrieval activities are under way. An important part of this decommissioning program concerns the vitrification facility of Marcoule. This facility includes 20 tanks devoted to interim storage of highly active solutions, awaiting for vitrification. The main objectives of the rinsing phase are to decrease radiological activity in equipment before dismantling and to minimize the amount of highly radioactive waste resulting from rinsing, which are to be vitrified. In 2006, the rinsing program was defined: - during the period 2007 to 2010, rinsing of all tanks and equipment with specific reagents is taking place, - during the period 2009 to 2010, vitrification of concentrated liquid solutions will be performed. Then, decommissioning of the vitrification facility will be started. This strategy aims at producing less than 5% 'B' type waste (Long lived active waste) from the decommissioning operations of the tanks, as well as reducing the dose rate and the risks by simplifying remote dismantling. Clean up operations had begun in 2007 and radiological surveys are followed up so as to monitor the efficiency of the decontamination process. The paper will assess the main options that were selected regarding the decontamination process, and will present the first results and the feed back experience of the rinsing operations. (authors)

Bouchet, F. [AREVA-SGN, Bagnols sur Ceze cedex, 30205 (France); Asou, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique - CEA (France); Leblanc, S. [AREVA-TA (France); Martin, F. [AREVA-NC/Nuclear Site Value Development Business Unit (France)

2009-06-15

295

Decommissioning of the Risoe Hot Cell facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Concise descriptions of actions taken in relation to the decommissioning of the hot cell facility at Risoe National Laboratory are presented. The removal of fissile material, removal and decontamination of large cell internals, and of large equipment such as glove boxes and steel boxes, in addition to dose commitments, are explained. Tables illustrating the analysis of smear tests, constants for contamination level examination, contamination and radiation levels after cleaning and total contamination versus measured radiation are included. (AB)

296

Decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since 1973, when the IAEA first introduced the subject of decontamination and decommissioning into its programme, twelve Agency reports reflecting the needs of the Member States on these topics have been published. These reports summarize the work done by various Technical Committees, Advisory Groups, and International Symposia. While the basic technology to accomplish decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) is fairly well developed, the Agency feels that a more rapid exchange of information and co-ordination of work are required to foster technology, reduce duplication of effort, and provide useful results for Member States planning D and D activities. Although the Agency's limited financial resources do not make possible direct support of every research work in this field, the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) creates a forum for outstanding workers from different Member States brought into closer contact with one another to provide for more effective interaction and, perhaps subsequently, closer collaboration. The first IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on decontamination and decommissioning was initiated in 1984. Nineteen experts from 11 Member States and two international organizations (CEC, OECD/NEA) took part in the three Research Co-ordination Meetings (RCM) during 1984-87. The final RCM took place in Pittsburgh, USA, in conjunction with the 1987 International Decommissioning Symposium (sponsored by the US DOE and organized in co-operation with the IAEA and OECD/NEA). The present document summarizes the salient features and achievements of the co-ordinated research work performed during the 1984-87 programme period. The document consists of two parts: Part 1, Summary of the three research co-ordination meetings and Part 2, Final submissions by participants on the research work performed during 1984-1987. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 7 reports presented. Refs, figs and tabs

297

Decommissioning a tritium glove-box facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A large glove-box facility for handling reactive metal tritides was decommissioned. Major sections of the glove box were decontaminated and disassembled for reuse at another tritium facility. To achieve the desired results, decontamnation required repeated washing, first with organic liquids, then with water and detergents. Worker protection was provided by simple ventilation combined with careful monitoring of the work areas and employees. Several innovative techniques are described

298

Decommissioning a tritium glove-box facility  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A large glove-box facility for handling reactive metal tritides was decommissioned. Major sections of the glove box were decontaminated and disassembled for reuse at another tritium facility. To achieve the desired results, decontamnation required repeated washing, first with organic liquids, then with water and detergents. Worker protection was provided by simple ventilation combined with careful monitoring of the work areas and employees. Several innovative techniques are described.

Folkers, C.L.; Homann, S.G.; Nicolosi, A.S.; Hanel, S.L.; King, W.C.

1979-08-08

299

Decommissioning of the BR3 PWR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dismantling and the decommissioning of nuclear installations at the end of their life-cycle is a new challenge to the nuclear industry. Different techniques and procedures for the dismantling of a nuclear power plant on an existing installation, the BR-3 pressurized-water reactor, are described. The scientific program, objectives, achievements in this research area at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN for 1997 are summarized

300

Decommissioning experience with Whiteshell Reactor 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Whiteshell Reactor 1 (WR-1) is an organic-cooled heavy-water-moderated research reactor that operated from 1965 to 1985. The reactor is owned by AECL, and is located at Whiteshell Laboratories at Pinawa, Manitoba. The reactor was shut down in 1985. Fuel was removed from the reactor and placed in the fuel storage bays, system fluids were removed or transferred to drain tanks, and some selective dismantling and refurbishment of space has take place as part of the post-operational cleanup. An overall decommissioning plan was prepared, and formal decommissioning operations commenced in 1989. The first-phase work essentially completes Stage 2 decommissioning as defined by IAEA guidelines. To optimize use of the reactor building by the Whiteshell site during a proposed deferment period of 50 a, dismantling and decontamination of premium space consistent with Stage 2 criteria is included in Phase 1. The primary objective of Phase 1 is to complete shutdown and cleanup activities and to secure the reactor and contaminated process systems to reduce the monitoring and surveillance requirements during the deferment period. This paper addresses the actual operations carried out to date. It includes the work techniques and emphasizes the manner in which these apply specifically to a research reactor. The end state for the Phase 1 work will be documented to describe the building and facility condition in support of a license for the reactor in a mothballed state. End-state documentain a mothballed state. End-state documentation includes procedures for meeting monitoring and surveillance requirements. The overall decommissioning plan will be maintained and updated, as required by the regulator, throughout the deferment period

301

Study on archive management for nuclear facility decommissioning projects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper introduces the main features and status of the archive management for nuclear facility decommissioning projects, and explores and discusses the countermeasures in its archive management. Taking the practice of the archive management system of a reactor decommissioning project as an example, the paper illustrates the establishment of archive management system for the nuclear facility decommissioning projects. The results show that the development of a systematic archive management principle and system for nuclear decommissioning projects and the construction of project archives for the whole process from the design to the decommissioning by digitalized archive management system are one effective route to improve the complete, accurate and systematic archiving of project documents, to promote the standardization and effectiveness of the archive management and to ensure the traceability of the nuclear facility decommissioning projects. (authors)

302

Some studies related to decommissioning of nuclear reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Decommissioning of large nuclear reactors has not yet taken place in the Nordic countries. Small nuclear installations, however, have been dismantled. This NKA-programme has dealt with some interesting and important factors which have to be analysed before a large scale decommissioning programme starts. Prior to decommissioning, knowledge is required regarding the nuclide inventory in various parts of the reactor. Measurements were performed in regions close to the reactor tank and the biological shield. These experimental data are used to verify theoretical calculations. All radioactive waste generated during decommissioning will have to be tansported to a repository. Studies show that in all the Nordic countries there are adequate transport systems with which decommissioning waste can be transported. Another requirement for orderly decommissioning planning is that sufficient information about the plant and its operation history must be available. It appears that if properly handled and sorted, all such information can be extracted from existing documentation. (authors)

303

The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's decommissioning process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The term 'Decommission' is defined in the U.S.. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (USNRC's) regulations at 10 CFR 20.1003 as to remove a facility or site safely from service and reduce residual radioactivity to a level that permits 1) release of the property for unrestricted use and termination of the license; or, 2) release of the property under restricted conditions and the termination of the license. USNRC's decommissioning program encompasses the decommissioning of all NRC licensed facilities, ranging from routine license terminations for sealed source users, to the oversight of complex sites and those on the Site Decommissioning Management Plan (SDMP), as well as power and non-power reactors. This paper describes the USNRC's decommissioning process for materials and reactor facilities and presents an overview of USNRC's decommissioning program activities. (author)

304

The use of managing agencies in decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On 1 April 1994 UKAEA Government Division was formed and one of its main responsibilities is the safe and cost effective management of the facilities which have already closed and the fuel reprocessing and radioactive waste management plant required to assist in the current programme of decommissioning. UKAEA Government Division, working on behalf of DTI, is intended to be a lean and efficient programme management and procurement organisation. Rather than build up its own project management capability it intends to use external resources for this function, obtained in future by competitive tendering. For each major facility undergoing decommissioning a Managing Agency has been, or will be, appointed to act on behalf of UKAEA Government Division. The responsibilities of each Managing Agency will be to assist in the definition of tasks, the commissioning of option studies and safety studies, the specification of individual contracts, management of the tendering processes and the subsequent management of the Implementation Contractors carrying out the decommissioning work, including the associated safety and training responsibilities. Teams involved in Managing Agency work require skills in project management, relevant technical issues, contract and safety management. (author)

305

Large transport packages for decommissioning waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main tasks performed during the period related to the influence of manufacture, transport and disposal on the design of such packages. It is deduced that decommissioning wastes will be transported under the IAEA Transport Regulations under either the Type B or Low Specific Activity (LSA) categories. If the LSA packages are self-shielded, reinforced concrete is the preferred material of construction. But the high cost of disposal implies that there is a strong reason to investigate the use of returnable shields for LSA packages and in such cases they are likely to be made of ferrous metal. Economic considerations favour the use of spheroidal graphite cast iron for this purpose. Transport operating hazards have been investigated using a mixture of desk studies, routes surveys and operations data from the railway organisations. Reference routes were chosen in the Federal Republic of Germany, France and the United Kingdom. This work has led to a description of ten accident scenarios and an evaluation of the associated accident probabilities. The effect of disposal on design of packages has been assessed in terms of the radiological impact of decommissioning wastes, an in addition corrosion and gas evolution have been examined. The inventory of radionuclides in a decommissioning waste package has low environmental impact. If metal clad reinforced concrete packages are to be used, the amount of gas evolution is such that a vent would need to be included in the design. Similar unclad packages would be sufficiently permeable to gases to prevent a pressure build-up. (author)

306

Lessons learned on stakeholder issues in decommissioning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Issues of public concern during decommissioning and dismantling (D and D) are partly the same and partly different from those of the preceding phases (planning, construction and operation). While in the course of construction and operation the main challenges include meeting expectations of a higher quality of life, accommodating a growing population, mitigating construction nuisances, and assuring the safe operation of the facility, the main concerns in the D and D phase are decreasing employment rate, the eventual reduction of revenues for the municipality, the future use of the affected land and negative social impacts (e.g., out-migration). The decommissioning phase is characterised by heterogeneity of stakeholder interests and values, difficulties of reaching consensus or compromise, and difficulties in connection with the harmonization of energy production, environmental protection and sustainable socio-economic development considerations. Typically, there might also be tensions between local and regional decisions. As in other phases, the building of trust between stakeholder is crucial from the point of view of conflict management, and social lessons learnt from the siting and developments of nuclear facilities are widely applicable in the field of D and D as well. A review is presented of major lessons to be learnt from NEA activities in the field of decommissioning and stakeholder involvement. (author)

O' Sullivan, P.; Pescatore, C. [OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, 92 - Issy les Moulineaux (France)

2008-07-01

307

Decommissioning of Pu contaminated glove box system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The co-conversion test units had used for an engineering test of a co-conversion process with a microwave direct denitration process since 1979. The important data and operational experience, which have been collected by the operation of this units in these 9 years, were very useful for a design and operation of Plutonium Conversion Development Facility. And co-converted power (0.8 ton Pu) had been fed as saw materials of 'Joyo' and 'Fugen' fuels. By the 9 years operation of this test units, main process equipments and glove boxes had been superannuated. Then, this test units was decommissioned from January 1988 until January 1989. Pu contamination in glove boxes was the highest and total volume of glove boxes was the largest compered with past experiences on the decommissioning of glove boxes. So that, many new and/or improved method was applied to this decommissioning. Then, it was completed not only with a decrease of personal exposure and waste volume but also without any trouble. (author)

308

Decommissioning U.K. power stations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The strategy for decommissioning U.K. commercial nuclear power stations at the end of their operating lives has hitherto been based on early partial dismantling and clearance to green-field site after about 100 years. This strategy involves a considerable financial liability particularly in the early years following shutdown of the stations. In 1990 Nuclear Electric identified the potential for significantly reducing this liability by reviewing a range of alternative strategies for decommissioning. This review has now been completed by Nuclear Electric and this paper describes the background to it, the review itself and the conclusions. As a result Nuclear Electric are now proposing to adopt a new strategy, referred to as the ''Deferred Safestore strategy'' for all its gas-cooled power stations. This does not involve any significant active dismantling until about 135 years after shutdown, allowing radioactivity levels in the plant to decay to very low levels in-situ. Following defuelling, an initial care and maintenance phase of about 30 years occurs followed by construction of containments (Safestores) around all buildings containing active plant. The purpose of these is to protect the buildings and their contents from deterioration due to weathering for a further 100 years. Complete dismantling is carried out after that time. An alternative option at that time, with further considerable cost savings, could be In-situ decommissioning. (Author)ssioning. (Author)

309

Decommissioning project of commercial nuclear power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Decommissioning project of commercial nuclear power plant in Japan was outlined. It is expected that the land, after the decommissioning of commercial nuclear power plants, will serve as sites for new plants. Steps will be taken to reduce the amount of wastes generated and to recycle/reuse them. Wastes with a radioactivity concentration below the 'clearance level' need not be dealt with as radioactive material, and may be handled in the same way as conventional wastes. The Tokai-1 power station, a 166 MWe carbon dioxide cooled reactor which closed down in 1998, is being decommissioned and the first ten years as 'safe storage' to allow radioactivity to decay. Non-reactor grade components such as turbines were already removed, heat exchanger dismantling started and the reactor will be dismantled, the buildings demolished and the site left ready for reuse. All radioactive wastes will be classified as low-level wastes in three categories and will be buried under the ground. The total cost will be 88.5 billion yen -34.7 billion for dismantling and 53.8 billion for waste treatment including the graphite moderator. (T. Tanaka)

310

Investment management for nuclear decommissioning trusts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to Nuclear Regulatory Commission estimates, and assuming a 4 percent annual inflation rate, minimum decommissioning requirements for a single reactor could total almost $350 million after 30 years. Consequently, reducing customer contributions to decommissioning funds is a potentially rewarding activity. In fact, improving the after-tax return earned on an NDT fund by as little as one percentage point can reduce customer contributions to the fund by 15% over its life. Unfortunately, many electric utilities are headed in the wrong direction and are unlikely to achieve satisfactory results. The main problem is the prevalence of the conventional wisdom, most of which has been appropriated from the area of pension fund management. This is an area which is familiar to most utility managements, but which has only superficial similarity to the issue of NDT investing. The differences are pronounced: NDTs, unlike pensions, are fully taxable at corporate income tax rates. In addition, NDT managers should be concerned with protecting the inflation-adjusted or real value of fund investments at a single, future decommissioning date. Pension managers, on the other hand, may be concerned with satisfying nominal contractual obligations spread over an extended future time horizon. In view of the large stakes involved in the management of NDTs, the authors summarize five key tenets of the conventional wisdom in this area and demonstrate where they feel they are in errorte where they feel they are in error

311

Planning for decommissioning of the Shippingport Atomic Power Station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The overall objective of the project is to place Shippingport in a long term radiologically safe condition following termination of operations and to perform the decommissioning in such a manner so as to provide engineering, technology and cost information for future projects. The Decommissioning Assessment, Environmental Assessment, and a draft outline for the EIS have been completed. The results of the assessments are summarized. In addition, the management of the Shippingport decommissioning project is discussed

312

Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project: an overview and status report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An overview and current status of the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project (SSDP) are presented. The Shippingport Atomic Power Station is the first commercial-size nuclear power plant to undergo decommissioning in the US. The project is planned to demonstrate decommissioning operations within an environment of current industry practice; e.g., dismantlement and other SSDP operational procedures are based upon current construction/maintenance/demolition practices

313

Operation and dismantling report 2004 for Danish Decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report describes the operations at Danish Decommissioning (DD) that are essential for the nuclear inspection authorities' assessment of safety related issues. The report presents an account of safety and of the work at DD, including the decommissioning projects in 2004 for the nuclear facilities. The radioactive waste treatment facility in operation is described, and inspection and maintenance reports of the nuclear facilities prepared for decommissioning are presented. (ln)

314

Decommissioning the UT TRIGA reactor - Meeting technical and regulatory requirements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the most significant findings and features contained in the Decommissioning Plan which accompanied The University of Texas's termination of license application for its TRIGA reactor. Key topics which distinguish this plan from past research reactor decommission applications and which reflect the latest NRC regulatory requirements, are presented. This includes biological shield activation calculations, decommissioning tasks and schedule for the DECON alternative, collective dose equivalent, occupational health and environmental provisions, radioactive waste management, preliminary cost estimates and funding requirements. (author)

315

Initial decommissioning planning for the Budapest research reactor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Budapest Research Reactor is the first nuclear research facility in Hungary. The reactor is to remain in operation for at least another 13 years. At the same time, the development of a decommissioning plan is a mandatory requirement under national legislation. The present paper describes the current status of decommissioning planning which is aimed at a timely preparation for the forthcoming decommissioning of the reactor.

Toth Gabor

2011-01-01

316

Unrestricted re-use of decommissioned nuclear laboratories  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A decommissioning strategy was developed by the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN. In this strategy decommissioning works are limited to the radioactive parts of the nuclear installation. After obtaining an attestation for unrestricted reuse of the building after removal of all radioactivity, the building can be used for new industrial purposes outside the nuclear field. The decommissioning activities according to this strategy have been applied in four buildings. The results are described.

Cornelissen, R.; Noynaert, L.; Harnie, S.; Marien, J.

1996-09-18

317

The environmental improvement of decommissioning uranium tailings impoundment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The general remark is introduced on environmental improvement of decommissioning uranium tailings impoundments at home and abroad. The problems need to be solved on radiative protection, dam slope stabilization and flood control of the decommissioning impoundments are stated. Based on the experiences of foreign countries, the engineering measures used on the decommission are described separately. A detail statement on the test of reducing the radon release rate with earth cover and the calculation is given especially

318

Administrative requirements of financial securities to cover decommissioning operations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper points out that the lack of experience in decommissioning of nuclear power plants is reflected by the absence of specific legislation regarding the economic, fiscal and accounting aspects of the process. The author suggests that a fund be created for decommissioning costs through contributions deriving from plant operation. The paper analyses the procedures to be followed and draws attention to the need for clear legislation on decommissioning. (NEA)

319

Managing LLRW from decommissioning of nuclear facilities - a Canadian perspective  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Canada, considerable experience has been gained recently in decommissioning nuclear facilities and managing the resulting waste. This experience has raised important issues from both the decommissioning and waste management perspectives. This paper focuses on the waste management aspects of decommissioning. Past experience is reviewed, preliminary estimates of waste volumes and characteristics are provided, and the major technical and regulatory issues are discussed. (author). 5 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

320

Decommissioning of nuclear installations - regulations - financing - responsibility - insurance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper highlights three aspects of decommissioning of nuclear installations which relate, more or less directly, to legal options already applied or advocated. It reviews the regulatory conditions for decommissioning a nuclear installation and indicates legal provisions for financing decommissioning expenditures. It also describes the legal provisions to determine liabilities in case of nuclear damage and the assistance which insurers may provide to cover the consequences of such liabilities. (NEA)

321

Decommissioning conceptual study: In situ decommissioning of eight 105 reactor buildings in the 100 areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Eight deactivated production reactors on the Hanford Site will be decommissioned. This decommissioning conceptual study report is based on performing the decommissioning with the recommended preferred method (in situ). Final selection of the method of decommissioning is dependent upon the completion of the national Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process. For the purpose of estimating this effort, it is assumed that the work will be done as follows: UNC Nuclear Industries Decommissioning Operations will do the radiological characterization, all Decontamination and Decommissioning nonexplosive destruction, fixing of contaminants, and void filling; an offsite explosives contractor will assist in destruction of some concrete walls; and a large scale earth-moving contractor will construct the burial mound. Before demolition, loose contamination will be stabilized. Building walls and ceilings will be safely and cost effectively demolished using a wrecking ball and/or explosives. Most of the reinforced concrete walls that will reside within the berm envelope will be retained. The rubble will be spread and left as fill. After demolition and void filling is completed, an offsite contractor will mound over the entire building with earth and gravel to extend a minimum of 16 ft above the reactor block. The mound will be seeded to establish plant growth which will minimize run-off erosion, and promote transpiration of precipitation. The depth of the mound will be sufficient so thepth of the mound will be sufficient so that precipitation penetration will be negligible thereby reducing the potential for radionuclide transport down into the water table. The total estimated cost of this project, including escalation, contingency, and engineering, is $42,760,000, and is estimated to take 5 years to complete. The project funding is scheduled to commence with capital equipment procurement and design in the first quarter of FY 1987

322

78 FR 38739 - Standard Format and Content for Post-Shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report  

Science.gov (United States)

...submission of a post-shutdown decommissioning activities report (PSDAR...the licensee's planned decommissioning activities, a schedule for the accomplishment...associated with site-specific decommissioning activities. Revision...

2013-06-27

323

30 CFR 285.908 - What must I include in my decommissioning notice?  

Science.gov (United States)

...methods and procedures in your approved decommissioning application, including changes to...will use; and (2) An updated decommissioning schedule. (c) We will review your decommissioning notice and may require you to...

2010-07-01

324

26 CFR 1.468A-0T - Nuclear decommissioning costs; table of contents.  

Science.gov (United States)

...estimated cost of decommissioning. (3) Taxpayer's...of requesting schedule of ruling amounts...Determination of revised schedule of ruling amounts...payments to a nuclear decommissioning fund before...rules. (1) Schedules of ruling amounts... (2) Nuclear decommissioning fund...

2010-04-01

325

Decommissioning of fuel cycle facilities in South Africa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experience gained in South Africa on the decommissioning of uranium conversion, enrichment and fuel fabrication facilities is briefly summarized with emphasis on the lessons learned. The South African Nuclear Energy Corporation (Necsa) has consolidated its nuclear decommissioning and waste management activities at Pelindaba and introduced a comprehensive, all-embracing nuclear liability management approach. The paper describes the experience gained on various aspects of decommissioning and waste management including the social impacts of the decommissioning and waste related activities during the decade from 1995 to 2005. Certain technological difficulties arose during this period and the approaches adopted to resolve these difficulties are also addressed. (author)

326

Lessons learned in decommissioning the Sodium Reactor Experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Sodium Reactor Experiment was decommissioned, and the objective of permitting the future unrestricted use of the building and site was attained. It was decommissioned using a variety of decontamination and dismantling techniques. This project involved the tasks of management, planning, engineering, tooling development, procedure development, mockup, contracts, personnel, training, sodium removal, nuclear systems dismantlement, remote cutting and handling, explosive cutting, safety and contamination control, exposure control, decontamination, excavation, sampling and survey, and waste management. To accomplish these tasks require making refinements and innovations in the decommissioning technology. Several lessons from the project will be useful to future decommissioning projects. 3 references, 17 figures, 1 table

327

Planning for safe decommissioning of research reactors in Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Egypt operates two Research Reactors: ETRR-1: Tank type, 2 MW power, 10% enrichment EK-10 fuel, and commissioned in 1960 and ETRR-2: Open pool type, 22 MW power, 20% enrichment plate type fuel and commissioned in 1997. A proposed decommissioning plan for each reactor will be presented. The established decommissioning plan includes facility characterization, procedures and radiological protection aspects. The safety assessment during the decommissioning identifies the actions that are necessary to ensure continuous safety during all phases of decommissioning. Protective measures should provide the necessary defense in depth. (author)

328

Decommissioning wind energy projects: An economic and political analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wind energy is the fastest-growing segment of new electrical power capacity in the United States, with the potential for significant growth in the future. To facilitate such growth, a number of concerns between developers and landowners must be resolved, including assurance of wind turbine decommissioning at the end of their useful lives. Oklahoma legislators enlisted the authors to develop an economically-sound proposal to ensure developers complete their decommissioning obligations. Economic analysis of turbine decommissioning is complicated by a lack of operational experience, as few U.S. projects have been decommissioned. This leads to a lack of data regarding decommissioning costs. Politically, the negotiation leading to the finally-enacted solution juxtaposed economic theory against political pragmatism, leading to a different but hopefully sound solution. This article will provide background for the decommissioning issue, chronicle the development of the decommissioning component of the Oklahoma Wind Energy Act, and frame issues that remain for policymakers in regulating wind power development. - Highlights: ? Wind energy is the fastest-growing component of U.S. power generation. ? Decommissioning wind projects is policy concern for wind development. ? Little public information on wind turbine decommissioning costs exists. ? Oklahoma’s solution attempts to account for both costs and risks. ? Additional research is needed to create a more precise pold to create a more precise policy solution.

329

Radiation protection in connection with the decommissioning of nuclear plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document presents the SSI preliminary views and position concerning the decommissioning of nuclear plants. To prevent the exposure of the decommissioning personnel and the general public to unacceptable levels of radiation and to protect the environment and future generations, it is SSI's task to formulate and issue the necessary terms and regulations with which the reactor licensees must comply during the decommissioning work. The views and principles presented here are the basis of SSI's continued work on guidelines and regulations for the decommissioning of nuclear plants

330

EC decommissioning information network (EC-DB-NET2)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The EC Decommissioning Information Network is the platform to effectively share the achievements, techniques and principles that have been developed under previous and the current EC programmes and also the knowledge drawn from practical decommissioning projects. The strategic tools of the EC-DB-NET2 project are first the database on technical and cost aspects on decommissioning of nuclear installations which is a consequent enhancement of the former databases EC-DB-COST and EC-DB-TOOL and second the EC Decommissioning Web Site being an essential part of this network. (authors)

331

Tasks and problems at the decommissioning of WWER-440 reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Decommissioning is the final and very important phase in the life cycle of nuclear reactors and covers all activities from shutdown and removal of the fuel to environmental restoration of the site. The main characteristics and problems of the decommissioning process are outlined in this paper. The paper presents the tasks of scientific and methodical base elaboration for the purposes of performing expert analysis in INRNE-BAS on decommissioning process of WWER reactors /1/ and related problems of nuclear safety and radiation protection. Results of preliminary design calculations for the possible reuse of the fuel discharged from a decommissioned WWER-440 reactor are given in the paper (Authors)

332

Conclusions and theses relating to the decommissioning of nuclear installations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Most of the problems encountered in decommissioning are due to deficiencies on the side of the laws. Items of controversy revealed at the meeting are: -content covered by the term decommissioning; - definition of decommissioning stages and their hierarchy in schedule; - subject matter of decommissioning; -interfaces between operation and decommissioning processes; - substantive requirements to be met; - formal requirements to be met. The meaning of the term 'nuclear installation' used in paragraph 7 sub-sec. (3), 1st sentence Atomic Energy Act corresponds to the meaning of the term used in paragraph 7 sub-sec. 1 Atomic Energy Act. However, the licensee is free to proceed with the decommissioning of individual components of an installation that can be disconnected from the safety programme of decommissioning activities. Those measures in the post-shutdown phase under regulatory control under the operating licence or the surveillance programme do not require to be licensed anew. All other measures require a licence for decommissioning ('as far as'). Decommissioning cannot be 'directed' by orders under the surveillance programme. The (unlawful) nuclear power phaseout cannot be imposed on the basis of paragraph 7 sub-sec. 3 Atomic Energy Act. (orig./HSCH)

333

Computer System Analysis for Decommissioning Management of Nuclear Reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear reactor decommissioning is a complex activity that should be planed and implemented carefully. A system based on computer need to be developed to support nuclear reactor decommissioning. Some computer systems have been studied for management of nuclear power reactor. Software system COSMARD and DEXUS that have been developed in Japan and IDMT in Italy used as models for analysis and discussion. Its can be concluded that a computer system for nuclear reactor decommissioning management is quite complex that involved some computer code for radioactive inventory database calculation, calculation module on the stages of decommissioning phase, and spatial data system development for virtual reality. (author)

334

Decommissioning of nuclear facilities: Feasibility, needs and costs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Nuclear Energy Agency's Working Group on Decommissioning is preparing a study entitled ''Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities: Feasibility, Needs and Costs.'' The study addresses the economics, technical feasibility and waste management aspects of decommissioning larger commercial reactors and nuclear support facilities. Experience on decommissioning small reactors and fuel cycle facilities shows that current technology is generally adequate. Several major projects that are either underway or planned will demonstrate decommissioning of the larger and more complex facilities. This experience will provide a framework for planning and engineering the decommissioning of the larger commercial reactors and fuel cycle facilities. Several areas of technology development are desired for worker productivity improvement, occupational exposure reduction, and waste volume reduction. In order to assess and plan for the decommissioning of large commercial nuclear facilities, projections have been made of the capacity of these facilities that may be decommissioned in the future and the radioactive waste that would be produced from the decommissioning of these facilities. These projections through the year 2025 are based on current data and the OECD reactor capacity forecast through the year 2000. A 25-year operating lifetime for electrical power generation was assumed. The possibilities of plant lifetime extension and the deferral of plant dismantlement make this projection verynt dismantlement make this projection very conservative

335

HEAVY WATER COMPONENTS TEST REACTOR DECOMMISSIONING  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Heavy Water Components Test Reactor (HWCTR) Decommissioning Project was initiated in 2009 as a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Removal Action with funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). This paper summarizes the history prior to 2009, the major D&D activities, and final end state of the facility at completion of decommissioning in June 2011. The HWCTR facility was built in 1961, operated from 1962 to 1964, and is located in the northwest quadrant of the Savannah River Site (SRS) approximately three miles from the site boundary. The HWCTR was a pressurized heavy water test reactor used to develop candidate fuel designs for heavy water power reactors. In December of 1964, operations were terminated and the facility was placed in a standby condition as a result of the decision by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission to redirect research and development work on heavy water power reactors to reactors cooled with organic materials. For about one year, site personnel maintained the facility in a standby status, and then retired the reactor in place. In the early 1990s, DOE began planning to decommission HWCTR. Yet, in the face of new budget constraints, DOE deferred dismantlement and placed HWCTR in an extended surveillance and maintenance mode. The doors of the reactor facility were welded shut to protect workers and discourage intruders. In 2009 the $1.6 billion allocation from the ARRA to SRS for site footprint reduction at SRS reopened the doors to HWCTR - this time for final decommissioning. Alternative studies concluded that the most environmentally safe, cost effective option for final decommissioning was to remove the reactor vessel, both steam generators, and all equipment above grade including the dome. The transfer coffin, originally above grade, was to be placed in the cavity vacated by the reactor vessel and the remaining below grade spaces would be grouted. Once all above equipment including the dome was removed, a concrete cover was to be placed over the remaining footprint and the groundwater monitored for an indefinite period to ensure compliance with environmental regulations.

Austin, W.; Brinkley, D.

2011-10-13

336

Chemical decontamination for decommissioning (DFD) and DFDX  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

DFD is an acronym for the 'Decontamination for Decommissioning' process developed in 1996 by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The process was designed to remove radioactivity from the surfaces of metallic components to allow these components to be recycled or free-released for disposal as non-radioactive. DFD is a cyclic process consisting of fluoroboric acid, potassium permanganate and oxalic acid. The process continues to uniformly remove base metal once oxide dissolution is complete. The DFD process has been applied on numerous components, sub-systems and systems including the reactor systems at Big Rock Point and Maine Yankee in the United States, and the Jose Cabrera (Zorita) Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) in Spain. The Big Rock Point site has been returned to Greenfield and at Maine Yankee the land under the license was reduced for an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI). In the upcoming months in Zorita NPP in Spain will initiate dismantlement and decommissioning activities to return the site to a non-nuclear facility. The development of the EPRI DFD process has been an on-going evolution and much has been learned from its use in the past. It is effective in attaining very high decontamination factors; however, DFD also produces secondary waste in the form of ion exchange resins. This secondary waste generation adds to the decommissioning quota but this can be improved upon at a time when radioactive waste storage at nuclear facilities anive waste storage at nuclear facilities and waste disposal sites is limited. To reduce the amount of secondary waste, EPRI has developed the DFDX process. This new process is an enhancement to the DFD process and produces a smaller amount of metallic waste rather than resin waste; this reduction in volume being a factor of ten or greater. Electrochemical ion exchange cells are the heart of the DFDX system and contain electrodes and cation ion exchange resin. It has been used very successfully in small system applications and the next evolution is to design, build and implement a system for the chemical decontamination for decommissioning of larger reactor systems and components, and Full System Decontamination (FSD). The purpose of this paper is to provide a reference point for those planning future chemical decontaminations for plant decommissioning. It is based on actual experience from the work already performed to date and the planned development of the DFDX process. (author)

337

"…to merit the countenance of the magistrates' : Gender and Civic Identity in eighteenth-century Aberdeen  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the context of shifting ideas fostered by the Enlightenment and by a drive for civility, this chapter focuses on the construction of male and female civic identities and the tensions between reconstructed masculinity and femininity. Changing views of sexual difference and ideals of masculinity and femininity informed the gendered nature of work, public life and political activity, while several different pressures came together to shape an emphasis on propriety and the desirability of establishing a civic identity that was not only personal, but also represented the town as a whole. It meant that personal civic identity was linked to the perception and outward projections of the town. Thus the chapter articulates the role and strategies of Aberdeen’s town council in regulating not only the economy but also civic spaces. It will look at how the council ‘managed’ the town with reference to the gendered character of decision-making in the face of shifting ideas of sociability, civility and town image and demonstrates how public behaviour, usually female activity, which was potentially damaging to the town’s civic identity was condemned, chastened and policed. A key issue is that men of standing and status, bourgeois men of position and wealth, largely policed women of the working classes according to the concept of civic nicety and politeness at ‘the council’s pleasure’.

Simonton, Deborah Leigh

2014-01-01

338

IAEA Assistance on Decommissioning of Small Facilities with Limited Resources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The number of facilities reaching their lifetime is increasing and drawing the attention of operators, regulators, public and other interested parties (potential users of the site after decommissioning) on the importance of adequate planning, funding and implementation of decommissioning activities in compliance with regulatory requirements and criteria. Specific attention is required for small facilities that have been used for research purposes and in most cases state owned by and dependent on state funding. With the current tendency for expansion of the nuclear industry such small facilities could become less of importance for the operators which can increase the probability that these facilities become abandoned, hazardous and imposing undue burden to future generations. This concern is more related to countries with limited human and financial resources at the operating organizations and the regulatory body. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been working on the; (i) establishment of internationally recognized safety standards on decommissioning and (ii) providing Member States with assistance on the application of these standards. The recent international conference on Lessons Learned from the Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities and the Safe Termination of Practices (Athens, Greece, 2006) has demonstrated that the set of IAEA standards is almost complete and that the International Action Plan on Decommissioning (2004), that is addressing decommissioning of small facilities, is being successfully implemented. However the need for further assistance on decommissioning of small facilities in countries with limited resources was also recognized and the Agency is planning its future work in this field. The IAEA also addresses the needs of small nuclear countries that have only a limited number of nuclear facilities, e.g. a research reactor, in its Research Reactor Decommissioning Demonstration Project (R2D2P. The Philippine Research Reactor (PRR-1) was selected as a model for the demonstration of decommissioning of a research reactor, including 'hands-on' demonstrations. The regulatory framework and the overall decommissioning approach have already been addressed in this project. The characterization survey and the decommissioning plan will follow. In addition it is planned to complement the project with a demonstration of the transfer from operation to decommissioning on the example of High Flux Australian Reactor. This paper summarizes the outcomes of the Athens conference and the outcomes of the ongoing international projects on Evaluation and Demonstration of Safety during Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities (DeSa) and the Research Reactor Decommissioning Demonstration Project (R2D2P) that are related to the decommissioning of small facilities. It also presents the planned IAEA work in this field

339

Decommissioning of nuclear power plants: policies, strategies and costs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As many nuclear power plants will reach the end of their lifetime during the next 20 years or so, decommissioning is an increasingly important topic for governments, regulators and industries. From a governmental viewpoint, particularly in a deregulated market, one essential aspect is to ensure that money for the decommissioning of nuclear installations will be available at the time it is needed, and that no 'stranded' liabilities will be left to be financed by the taxpayers rather than by the electricity consumers. For this reason, there is governmental interest in understanding decommissioning costs, and in periodically reviewing decommissioning cost estimates from nuclear installation owners. Robust cost estimates are key elements in designing and implementing a coherent and comprehensive national decommissioning policy including the legal and regulatory bases for the collection, saving and use of decommissioning funds. From the industry viewpoint, it is essential to assess and monitor decommissioning costs in order to develop a coherent decommissioning strategy that reflects national policy and assures worker and public safety, whilst also being cost effective. For these reasons, nuclear power plant owners are interested in understanding decommissioning costs as best as possible and in identifying major cost drivers, whether they be policy, strategy or 'physical' in nature. National policy considerations will guide the development of national regulations that are elopment of national regulations that are relevant for decommissioning activities. Following these policies and regulations, industrial managers responsible for decommissioning activities will develop strategies which best suit their needs, while appropriately meeting all government requirements. Decommissioning costs will be determined by technical and economic conditions, as well as by the strategy adopted. Against this backdrop, the study analyses the relationships among decommissioning policy as developed by governments, decommissioning strategies as proposed by industries, and resulting decommissioning costs. Major cost drivers, of policy, strategy and technical nature, are also discussed. The findings from the study are based on responses to a questionnaire sent to participating countries. It should be noted that not all responses were of the same level of detail, and it was felt that further detail in responses would have allowed more in depth comparisons in a more valid fashion. (author)

340

Vandellos 1 NPP decommissioning feedback experience  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Vandellos 1 Nuclear Power Plant (CNV1) is located on the Mediterranean coast in the province of Tarragona (Spain). The Plant is of the European Natural Uranium Graphite-Gas type. The thermal power of the plant amounts to 1,670 MWt, its electrical output being 500 Mwe. The Plant started-up commercial service in May 1972; its final shutdown, due to a fire in the turbines, occurred in October 1989, after 17 years of operation with an accumulated energy production of 55,647 GWh. The option of decommissioning accepted by the Ministry of Industry, consists of first removing the spent fuel and conditioning the operating radioactive wastes, and then undertaking dismantling of almost all the structures and components located outside the reactor vessel, except those ensuring confinement of the vessel itself and the safety and surveillance of the facility and site. No action will be taken with respect to the vessel, in which the reactor will remain confined without nuclear fuel and with its internal components intact until completion of the waiting (dormancy) period. The site itself will be kept under surveillance during dormancy phase, following partial clearance, the remaining installations being left within the new site perimeter in a situation of monitored confinement. Following the dormancy period, which will last some 30 years, total dismantling of the remaining installations will be undertaken, this implying subsequent complete clearance of the site. The project was se clearance of the site. The project was started in November of 1992, and the works on site began in 1998. The safe enclosure consists only in the reactor pressure vessel, which will be left on site. The activity content of the vessel is about 100 000 Ci, mostly Co 60. Part of the Stage 2 concept is the total static isolation of this vessel. The vessel has 1 700 penetrations, the pipes of which were cut, seal-welded and inspected. After five years of works in Vandellos 1 NPP decommissioning, ENRESA has an experience and knowledge, that is necessary to support in order to reuse and apply the model to others projects. This knowledge and experience are mostly in three areas: -Data Bases, -Basic Document and - Lessons Learned which are described. Lessons Learned are summarized in eleven conclusions: a) The dilemma about the difference between an installation in operation and a decommissioning works. A NPP in operation is an installation; a NPP in decommissioning process is an activity, this impact is fundamental from the documentary and controls points of view; b) The flexibility of the time schedule of the project. In opposition with a construction, the time schedule of a decommissioning project it possible to maintain with small delays due to the versatility of parallel tasks; c) The authorization procedure is one of the key points, before and during the process. As a new activity, decommissioning was born without specifics regulation; day by day all the actors realize that is necessary to reflect back together in order to define and establish new standards to regulate the decommissioning processes; d) The prevention of the risks on site is a topic not only related to the Protection Radiation, the conventional risks have more importance in the decommissioning tasks. The issue of the new regulation about it, impact directly in the executions of the works. The training and the information to the workers are the best corrective tool again the risks; e) Some performances or characteristics of the auxiliary systems must be taken in account in the procurement process for decommissioning, namely, the modularity, versatility of the auxiliary systems and the reuse as a way of reducing wastes and save row materials. The radiation protection is the subject concern during all the operations; Important issues of radioprotection as operational radiological history, the characterization of the materials and the environment to prevent the risk, and special care with the internal contamination of the body; g) The very big amount of material generated during the decommissioning

341

FAMS DECOMMISSIONING END-STATE ALTERNATIVE EVALUATION  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nuclear Material Management (NMM) completed a comprehensive study at the request of the Department of Energy Savannah River Operations Office (DOE-SR) in 2004 (Reference 11.1). The study evaluated the feasibility of removal and/or mitigation of the Pu-238 source term in the F-Area Material Storage (FAMS) facility during on-going material storage operations. The study recommended different options to remove and/or mitigate the Pu-238 source term depending on its location within the facility. During April 2005, the Department of Energy (DOE) sent a letter of direction (LOD) to Washington Savannah River Company (WSRC) directing WSRC to implement a new program direction that would enable an accelerated shutdown and decommissioning of FAMS (Reference 11.2). Further direction in the LOD stated that effective December 1, 2006 the facility will be transitioned to begin deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) activities. To implement the LOD, Site D&D (SDD) and DOE agreed the planning end-state would be demolition of the FAMS structure to the building slab. SDD developed the D&D strategy, preliminary cost and schedule, and issued the deactivation project plan in December 2005 (Reference 11.3). Due to concerns and questions regarding the FAMS planning end-state and in support of the project's Critical Decision 1, an alternative study was performed to evaluate the various decommissioning end-states and the methods by which those end-states are achieved. This report documents the results of the alternative evaluation which was performed in a structured decision-making process as outlined in the E7 Manual, Procedure 2.15, ''Alternative Studies'' (Reference 11.4).

Grimm, B; Stephen Chostner, S; Brenda Green, B

2006-05-25

342

Estimated doses from decommissioning activities at commercial nuclear power stations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reviews generic population dose estimates for decommissioning reference boiling water reactors (BWRs) and pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and provides extrapolated estimates of the total collective dose resulting from decommissioning commercial nuclear reactors operated in the United States. Decontamination and decommissioning of retired nuclear power reactors is a necessary part of the nuclear fuel cycle. During decommissioning of large facilities, radioactivity will be encountered in activated reactor components and in contaminated piping, equipment, and building surfaces. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) sponsored a series of studies to evaluate the technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning a variety of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. The NRC adopted the following standardized definitions concerning decommissioning: (1) decommissioning: the measures taken at the end of a facility's operating lifetime to ensure the protection of the public from any residual radioactivity or other hazards present in the facility; (2) DECON: immediate decontamination leading to the release of the facility for unrestricted use; (3) SAFSTOR: safe storage plus deferred decontamination leading to release of the facility for unrestricted use; and (4) ENTOMB: entombment plus decay leading to release of the facility for unrestricted use. In the NRC studies, the most likely decommissioning alternative for most facilities was assumed to be DECON or SAFSTORas assumed to be DECON or SAFSTOR

343

Decommissioning and material recycling. Radiation risk management issues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Once nuclear fuel cycle facilities have permanently stopped operations they have to be decommissioned. The decommissioning of a nuclear facility involves the surveillance and dismantling of the facility systems and buildings, the management of the materials resulting from the dismantling activities and the release of the site for further use. The management of radiation risks associated with these activities plays an important role in the decommissioning process. Existing legislation covers many aspects of the decommissioning process. However, in most countries with nuclear power programmes legislation with respect to decommissioning is incomplete. In particular this is true in the Netherlands, where government policy with respect to decommissioning is still in development. Therefore a study was performed to obtain an overview of the radiation risk management issues associated with decommissioning and the status of the relevant legislation. This report describes the results of that study. It is concluded that future work at the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation on decommissioning and radiation risk management issues should concentrate on surveillance and dismantling activities and on criteria for site release. (orig.)

344

The impact of dry spent-fuel storage on decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several utilities have made decisions to decommission nuclear plants. Other utilities are currently investigating the economic and technical feasibility of decommissioning versus continued operations. As a result, assessments are being made to determine the impact of dry spent-fuel storage on decommissioning. This assessment is being made on a comparison of wet and dry storage (including modifications to current wet storage systems). Not only are the capital and operating costs of the equipment or modifications being evaluated, but staffing levels, interference with other decommissioning activities, and the ability to eventually transfer the fuel to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all factor into the assessments. In the case of the Rancho Seco nuclear generating station, the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) developed three objectives related to spent-fuel disposition to support the safe and economical closure of the plant. These objectives are as follows: 1. Minimize occupational and public radiation exposure. 2. Minimize decommissioning costs, including the need to maintain the spent-fuel pool. 3. Prepare the fuel for DOE acceptance. These rather universal goals are being met for Rancho Seco through the use of a canister-based spent-fuel storage and transportation system, the NUHOMS system. This paper discusses the economic and technical impacts of dry spent-fuel storage on decommissioning, more specifically as it relates to the decommissioning of thes it relates to the decommissioning of the Rancho Seco plant

345

The impact of dry spent fuel storage on decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several utilities have made decisions to decommission nuclear plants. Other utilities are currently investigating the economic and technical feasibility of decommissioning versus continued operations. As a result, assessments are being made to determine the impact of dry spent fuel storage on decommissioning. This assessment is being made on a comparison basis of wet versus dry storage (including modifications to current wet storage systems). Not only are the capital and operating costs of the equipment or modifications being evaluated, but staffing levels, interference with other decommissioning activities, and the ability to eventually transfer the fuel to DOE all factor into the assessments. In the case of the Rancho Seco Nuclear Generating Station, the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) developed three objectives related to spent fuel disposition to support the safe and economical closure of the plant. These objectives are: (1) minimize occupational and public radiation exposure; (2) minimize decommissioning costs, including the need to maintain the spent fuel pool; and (3) prepare the fuel for Department of Energy (DOE) acceptance. These rather universal goals are being met for Rancho Seco through the use of a canister-based spent fuel storage and transportation system, the NUHOMSO system. This paper will discuss the economic and technical impacts of dry spent fuel storage on decommissioning, more specifically as it relates to the decommissioning of thes it relates to the decommissioning of the Rancho Seco plant

346

Decommissioning and material recycling. Radiation risk management issues  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Once nuclear fuel cycle facilities have permanently stopped operations they have to be decommissioned. The decommissioning of a nuclear facility involves the surveillance and dismantling of the facility systems and buildings, the management of the materials resulting from the dismantling activities and the release of the site for further use. The management of radiation risks associated with these activities plays an important role in the decommissioning process. Existing legislation covers many aspects of the decommissioning process. However, in most countries with nuclear power programmes legislation with respect to decommissioning is incomplete. In particular this is true in the Netherlands, where government policy with respect to decommissioning is still in development. Therefore a study was performed to obtain an overview of the radiation risk management issues associated with decommissioning and the status of the relevant legislation. This report describes the results of that study. It is concluded that future work at the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation on decommissioning and radiation risk management issues should concentrate on surveillance and dismantling activities and on criteria for site release. (orig.).

Dodd, D.H.

1996-09-01

347

Experience in site decommissioning of AECL Whiteshell Laboratories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Whiteshell Laboratories (WL) is a Nuclear Research and Test Establishment near Winnipeg, Canada, operated by AECL since the early 1960s and is now under decommissioning. WL occupies approximately 7,000 ha of land and employed more than 1000 staff up to the mid-1990s. Nuclear operations carried out at WL included a research reactor, hot cell facilities, waste management, reactor safety research, nuclear materials research, accelerator technology, biophysics, and industrial radiation applications. In preparation for decommissioning, a comprehensive environmental assessment was successfully completed and in 2002, the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission issued a decommissioning licence for WL - the first decommissioning license issued for a Nuclear Research and Test Establishment in Canada. Decommissioning is now underway, focusing on decontamination of nuclear facilities, laboratories and associated service systems, to achieve a safe state of storage-with-surveillance. Redundant non-nuclear buildings are being removed. Later phases have planned waste management improvements for selected wastes already in storage, eventually followed by final decommissioning of all facilities and infrastructure and removal of most wastes from the site. WL site decommissioning is project that engages most aspects of nuclear decommissioning and is at a stage of implementation where it has some unique experiences and lessons to share. Selected topics discussed in this paper are: site charactediscussed in this paper are: site characterization, environmental assessment, public consultation, regulation, capability maintenance, compliance, site operation, cost control, and fitness-for-service of waste storage facilities. (author)

348

The regulatory process for the decommissioning of nuclear facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this publication is to provide general guidance to Member States for regulating the decommissioning of nuclear facilities within the established nuclear regulatory framework. The Guide should also be useful to those responsible for, or interested in, the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The Guide describes in general terms the process to be used in regulating decommissioning and the considerations to be applied in the development of decommissioning regulations and guides. It also delineates the responsibilities of the regulatory body and the licensee in decommissioning. The provisions of this Guide are intended to apply to all facilities within the nuclear fuel cycle and larger industrial installations using long-lived radionuclides. For smaller installations, however, less extensive planning and less complex regulatory control systems should be acceptable. The Guide deals primarily with decommissioning after planned shutdown. Most provisions, however, are also applicable to decommissioning after abnormal event, once cleanup operations have been terminated. The decommissioning planning in this case must take account of the abnormal event. 28 refs., 1 fig

349

Decontamination and decommissioning project for the nuclear facilities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The final goal of this project is to complete the decommissioning of the Korean Research Reactor no.1 and no. 2(KRR-1 and 2) and uranium conversion plant safely and successfully. The goal of this project in 2006 is to complete the decontamination of the inside reactor hall of the KRR-2 which will be operating as a temporary storage for the radioactive waste until the construction and operation of the national repository site. Also the decommissioning work of the KRR-1 and auxiliary facilities is being progress. As the compaction of decommissioning project is near at hand, a computer information system was developed for a systematically control and preserve a technical experience and decommissioning data for the future reuse. The nuclear facility decommissioning, which is the first challenge in Korea, is being closed to the final stages. We completed the decommissioning of all the bio-shielding concrete for KRR-2 in 2005 and carried out the decontamination and waste material grouping of the roof, wall and bottom of the reactor hall of the KRR-2. The decommissioning for nuclear facility were demanded the high technology, remote control equipment and radioactivity analysis. So developed equipment and experience will be applied at the decommissioning for new nuclear facility in the future.

Park, J. H.; Paik, S. T.; Park, S. W. (and others)

2007-02-15

350

Lessons learned from the decommissioning of NORM facility in Malaysia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Malaysia Decommissioning of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) facility in Malaysia will run into unforeseeable complications and difficulties if there is no proper planning. The Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB) plays important role in guiding and assisting the operator/contractor in this NORM decommissioning project. A local Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) processing plant located in the northern region of peninsular Malaysia had ceased its operations and decided to decommission and remediate its site for the final release of the site. The remediated site is earmarked as an industrial site. During its operations, monazites are processed for rare earth elements such as cerium and lanthanum. It's plant capable of processing monazite to produce rare earth chloride and rare earth carbonate. The main by-product of monazite processing is the radioactive cake containing primarily thorium hydroxide. Operation of the monazite processing plant started in early eighties and terminated in early nineties. The decommissioning of the plant site started in late 2003 and completed its decommissioning and remediation works in early 2006. This paper described the lesson learned by Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) in conducting third party independent audit for the decommissioning of the NORM contaminated facility. By continuously reviewing the lessons learned, mistakes and/or inefficiencies in this plant decommissioning project, hopefully will result in a smoother, less costly and more productive future decommissioning works on NORM facilities in Malaysia. (author)

351

License Stewardship Approach to Commercial Nuclear Power Plant Decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper explores both the conceptual approach to decommissioning commercial nuclear facilities using a license stewardship approach as well as the first commercial application of this approach. The license stewardship approach involves a decommissioning company taking control of a site and the 10 CFR 50 License in order to complete the work utilizing the established trust fund. In conclusion: The license stewardship approach is a novel way to approach the decommissioning of a retired nuclear power plant that offers several key advantages to all parties. For the owner and regulators, it provides assurance that the station will be decommissioned in a safe, timely manner. Ratepayers are assured that the work will be completed for the price they already have paid, with the decommissioning contractor assuming the financial risk of decommissioning. The contractor gains control of the assets and liabilities, the license, and the decommissioning fund. This enables the decommissioning contractor to control their work and eliminates redundant layers of management, while bringing more focus on achieving the desired end state - a restored site. (authors)

352

The regulatory process for the decommissioning of nuclear facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this publication is to provide general guidance to Member States for regulating the decommissioning of nuclear facilities within the established nuclear regulatory framework. The Guide should also be useful to those responsible for, or interested in, the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The Guide describes in general terms the process to be used in regulating decommissioning and the considerations to be applied in the development of decommissioning regulations and guides. It also delineates the responsibilities of the regulatory body and the licensee in decommissioning. The provisions of this Guide are intended to apply to all facilities within the nuclear fuel cycle and larger industrial installations using long lived radionuclides. For smaller installations, however, less extensive planning and less complex regulatory control systems should be acceptable. The Guide deals primarily with decommissioning after planned shutdown. Most provisions, however, are also applicable to decommissioning after an abnormal event, once cleanup operations have been terminated. The decommissioning planning in this case must take account of the abnormal event. 28 refs, 1 fig

353

Decommissioning of surplus facilities at ORNL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) National SFMP, administered by the Richland Operations Office. This program was established to provide for the management of certain DOE surplus radioactively contaminated facilities from the end of their operating life until final facility disposition is completed. As part of this program, the ORNL SFMP oversees some 75 facilities, ranging in complexity from abandoned waste storage tanks to large experimental reactors. This paper describes the scope of the ORNL program and outlines the decommissioning activities currently underway, including a brief description of the decontamination techniques being utilized. 4 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

354

Decommissioning in the United States - Past, present and future - 16318  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The experience related to decommissioning of nuclear facilities in the United States is very substantial and covers power reactors, research reactors, and many facilities in the Department of Energy complex. The focus of this paper however is on the commercial power plants. With 104 operating reactors, the U.S. fleet of civilian reactors is still the largest in the world. Nuclear power industry in the United States has undergone a dramatic upturn after decades of stalemate. One effect of this nuclear renaissance has been that the plans have changed for several reactors that were initially destined for decommissioning. Instead, the focus now is on re-licensing of the reactors and on power up-rates. In fact, after the peak period between 1987 and 1998, no additional power reactors have been shutdown. On the contrary, power up-rates in the past twenty years have added a cumulative capacity equivalent to five new reactors. Almost all the operating reactors plan to have license extensions, thus postponing the eventual decommissioning. Nevertheless, in addition to the 9 reactors where licenses have been terminated following decommissioning, 12 power and early demonstration reactors and 14 test and research reactors are permanently shutdown and are in decommissioning phase. Substantial experience and lessons learned are available from the U.S. projects that are of value to the international decommissioning projects, especially where such projects are in early stages. These lsuch projects are in early stages. These lessons cover a wide array of areas from decommissioning plans, technology applications, large component removal, regulatory and public interface, decommissioning funding and costs, clean up criteria, surveys of the decommissioned site, and license termination. Additionally, because of the unavailability of a national spent fuel disposition facility, most decommissioning sites are constructing above ground interim storage facilities for the spent nuclear fuel. The U.S. nuclear power projects are also gearing up for the design and licensing of new reactors. Lessons from the past are useful in the development of such designs so that along with the other factors, the designs are optimized for eventual decommissioning as well. This paper provides an overview of the past reactor decommissioning, lessons learned from the past experience, and status of the current decommissioning activities and issues. It also presents some long term projections for the future of decommissioning in the United States. (authors)

355

Apollo decommissioning project, Apollo, Pennsylvania. Final technical report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In November, 1991 Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) received a grant to partially fund the decommissioning of the former Apollo Nuclear Fuel Facility. The decommissioning was performed in accordance with a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approved decommissioning plan. This report summarizes the decommissioning of the Apollo Nuclear Fuel Facility and the radiological surveying of the site to demonstrate that these decommissioning activities were effective in reducing residual activity well below NRC's criteria for release for unrestricted use. The Apollo Nuclear Fuel Facility was utilized by the Nuclear Materials and Equipment Corporation (NUMEC) and B and W for nuclear research and production under Atomic Energy Commission and Department of Energy (DOE) contracts during 20 plus years of nuclear fuel manufacturing operations

356

Financial aspects of decommissioning. Report by an expert group  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Estimating decommissioning costs and collecting funds for eventual decommissioning of facilities that have used radioactive material is a prerequisite for safe, timely and cost effective decommissioning. A comprehensive overview of decommissioning costs and funding mechanisms was missing in the IAEA literature although the subject had been marginally dealt with in a few IAEA publications. Costing and funding issues were partially addressed by other international organizations, but there is a need to address the subject from the standpoint of the diverse social, economic and cultural environments that constitute IAEA membership. In its role of an international expert committee assisting the IAEA, the Technical Group on Decommissioning (TEGDE) debates and draws conclusions on topics omitted from general guidance. TEGDE members met in Vienna in 2003, 2004 and 2005 to develop the basis for this publication. The views expressed here reflect those of TEGDE and not necessarily those of the IAEA

357

Introduction to decommissioning activities implemented by EWN in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Germany stands among the front runners in the field old decommissioning of commercial nuclear power plants, from the standpoints of length of experience and scale of work. In Germany, EWN is now working on the decommissioning of six nuclear reactors. This is the largest decommissioning activity being performed in the world. JGC concluded a collaboration agreement with EWN in February 1999 with the aim of utilizing all the decommissioning-related information and technologies accumulated by EWN since 1991. This report introduces 1) the status of the decommissioning which EWN has implemented at the Greifswald NPP; 2) project management practices which are required for efficient work; and 3) remote techniques for the reactor dismantling, these being important from a schedule point of view. (author)

358

Standard Guide for Radiation Protection Program for Decommissioning Operations  

CERN Document Server

1.1 This guide provides instruction to the individual charged with the responsibility for developing and implementing the radiation protection program for decommissioning operations. 1.2 This guide provides a basis for the user to develop radiation protection program documentation that will support both the radiological engineering and radiation safety aspects of the decommissioning project. 1.3 This guide presents a description of those elements that should be addressed in a specific radiation protection plan for each decommissioning project. The plan would, in turn, form the basis for development of the implementation procedures that execute the intent of the plan. 1.4 This guide applies to the development of radiation protection programs established to control exposures to radiation and radioactive materials associated with the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The intent of this guide is to supplement existing radiation protection programs as they may pertain to decommissioning workers, members of...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

1987-01-01

359

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Process of V1 NPP Decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Through the adoption of Governmental Resolution No. 801/99 the Slovak Republic undertook a commitment to shutdown units 1 and 2 of Jaslovske Bohunice V 1 NPP (WWER 230 reactor type) in 2006 and 2008 respectively. Therefore the more intensive preparation of a decommissioning documentation has been commenced. Namely, the VI NPP Conceptual Decommissioning Plan and subsequently the Environmental Impact Assessment Report of VI NPP Decommissioning were developed. Thus, the standard environmental impact assessment process was performed and the most suitable alternative of V1 NPP decommissioning was selected as a basis for development of further decommissioning documents. The status and main results of the environmental impact assessment process and EIA report are discussed in more detail in this paper. (authors)

360

Decommissioning of a mixed oxide fuel fabrication facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Decommissioning of the coprecipitation plant, which made plutonium/uranium oxide fuel, is a lead project in the BNFL Sellafield decommissioning programme. The overall programme has the objectives of gaining data and experience in a wide range of decommissioning operations and hence in this specific project to pilot the decommissioning of plant heavily contaminated with plutonium and other actinides. Consequently the operations have been used to test improvements in temporary containment, contamination control and decontamination methods and also to develop in situ plutonium assay, plutonium recovery and size-reduction methods. Finally the project is also yielding data on manpower requirements, personnel radiation uptake and waste arisings to help in the planning of future decommissioning projects

361

Windscale advanced gas-cooled reactor (WAGR) decommissioning project overview  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current BNFL reactor decommissioning projects are presented. The projects concern power reactor sites at Berkely, Trawsfynydd, Hunterstone, Bradwell, Hinkley Point; UKAEA Windscale Pile 1; Research reactors within UK Scottish Universities at East Kilbride and ICI (both complete); WAGR. The BNFL environmental role include contract management; effective dismantling strategy development; implementation and operation; sentencing, encapsulation and transportation of waste. In addition for the own sites it includes strategy development; baseline decommissioning planning; site management and regulator interface. The project objectives for the Windscale Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor (WAGR) are 1) Safe and efficient decommissioning; 2) Building of good relationships with customer; 3) Completion of reactor decommissioning in 2005. The completed WAGR decommissioning campaigns are: Operational Waste; Hot Box; Loop Tubes; Neutron Shield; Graphite Core and Restrain System; Thermal Shield. The current campaign is Lower Structures and the remaining are: Pressure vessel and Insulation; Thermal Columns and Outer Vault Membrane. An overview of each campaign is presented

362

Project and feedback experience on nuclear facility decommissioning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This series of 6 short articles presents the feedback experience that has been drawn from various nuclear facility dismantling and presents 3 decommissioning projects: first, the WAGR project that is the UK demonstration project for power reactor decommissioning (a review of the tools used to dismantle the reactor core); secondly, the dismantling project of the Bugey-1 UNGG reactor for which the dismantling works of the reactor internals is planned to be done underwater; and thirdly, the decommissioning project of the MR reactor in the Kurchatov Institute. The feedback experience described concerns nuclear facilities in Spain (Vandellos-1 and the CIEMAT research center), in Belgium (the Eurochemic reprocessing plant), and in France (the decommissioning of nuclear premises inside the Fontenay-aux-roses Cea center and the decommissioning of the UP1 spent fuel reprocessing plant at the Marcoule site). (A.C.)

Santiago, J.L. [ENRESA (Spain); Benest, T.G. [United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Windscale, Cumbria (United Kingdom); Tardy, F.; Lefevre, Ph. [Electricite de France (EDF/CIDEN), 69 - Villeurbanne (France); Willis, A. [VT Nuclear Services (United Kingdom); Gilis, R.; Lewandowski, P.; Ooms, B.; Reusen, N.; Van Laer, W.; Walthery, R. [Belgoprocess (Belgium); Jeanjacques, M. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Bohar, M.P.; Bremond, M.P.; Poyau, C.; Mandard, L.; Boissonneau, J.F.; Fouquereau, A.; Pichereau, E.; Binet, C. [CEA Fontenay aux Roses, 92 (France); Fontana, Ph.; Fraize, G. [CEA Marcoule 30 (France); Seurat, Ph. [AREVA NC, 75 - Paris (France); Chesnokov, A.V.; Fadin, S.Y.; Ivanov, O.P.; Kolyadin, V.I.; Lemus, A.V.; Pavlenko, V.I.; Semenov, S.G.; Shisha, A.D.; Volkov, V.G.; Zverkov, Y.A. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation)

2008-11-15

363

U.S. experience with organizational issues during decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report provides information from a variety of sources, including interviews with US NRC management and staff, interviews and discussions with former employees of a decommissioned plant, discussions with subject matter experts, and relevant published documents. The NRC has modified its rule regarding decommissioning requirements. Two key reasons for these modifications are that plants have been decommissioning early and for economic reasons instead of at the end of their license period and, a desire for a more efficient rule that would more effectively use NRC staff. NRC management and staff expressed the opinion that resource requirements for the regulatory have been higher than anticipated. Key observations about decommissioning included that: The regulator faces new challenges to regulatory authority and performance during decommissioning. The public concern over decommissioning activities can be very high. There are changes in the types of safety concerns during decommissioning. It is important to balance planning and the review of plans with verification of activities. There are important changes in the organizational context at the plant during decommissioning. Retention of key staff is important. In particular, the organizational memory about the plant that is in the staff should not be lost. Six key areas of risk during decommissioning are fuel storage, potential accidents that could cause an offsite release, inappropriate release of contaminated material, radiation protection of workers, industrial accidents, and shipment of hazardous materials. Deconstruction of one unit while a co-located unit is still operating could create risks with regard to shared systems, specific risks of dismantling activities and coordination and management. Experience with co-located units at one site in the US was that there was a lack of attention to the decommissioning plant

364

Summary of Session 2.A. Decommissioning strategies and regulations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The discussion focused largely on the decommissioning of large nuclear facilities. Equivalent strategies and procedures need to be developed for the safe decommissioning of the many other applications in medicine, industry and research involving radioactive materials. Planning for decommissioning should start early. Ideally, decommissioning considerations should have been taken into account at the design stage. Three basic decommissioning strategies are envisaged as possibilities for nuclear installations: immediate dismantling; safe enclosure prior to deferred dismantling; and entombment. All have advantages and disadvantages, but immediate dismantling is the generally preferred option. Immediate dismantling typically has the fewest uncertainties. It also eliminates the risks associated with the facility as promptly as possible, normally costs less than delaying and allows the retention of operational staff who know the facility and its history to contribute their expertise and experience during decommissioning. Approaches to regulating the implementation of decommissioning plans vary, but the common aim is to provide effective regulatory control to ensure safe decommissioning. The transition from operation to decommissioning will usually be accompanied by organizational changes, particularly reductions in staff. Such reductions may be inevitable, but the operator must manage the change so as to retain the expertise needed and to guard against a degradation of safetyd to guard against a degradation of safety culture due to demotivation of the remaining staff. The absence of an available disposal route has been used as another argument for the safe enclosure strategy rather than immediate dismantling, the idea being that dismantling is delayed until a repository is available. The ultimate aim of decommissioning is to allow the removal of some or all regulatory control from a site, but internationally agreed criteria for the removal of such controls are needed

365

Decommissioning and abandonment of offshore installations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To the onlooker surprising little thought was given at the project planning stage to the fate of offshore facilities once their production lifetimes had come to an end. Throughout the 1970s at least, international law required the complete removal of all structures and installations one disused or abandoned. Fishermen's organisations were led to believe that such installations would be entirely removed yet many of the designs of these show that removal was not much in the minds of the engineers or project management during the design stages. Changes in the text of the United Nations' Convention on the Law of the Sea and (by their widespread legal adoption) in customary international law may now permit partial removal of installations subject to important safeguards for navigation, the environment and other users of the sea. Of the North Sea states at least one has adopted policies that will minimise the cost associated with offshore decommissioning and abandonment and both the UK and Norway are adopting legislation which will provide for a case by case approach to the decommissioning and abandonment of offshore facilities and allow partial removal options. There has thus been a recent and significant change in approach to the abandonment of offshore oil and gas installations. This chapter reviews the development of abandonment laws and policies, outlines the available removal options, and provides a consideration of the environmental and fishery implications of these nmental and fishery implications of these for the North Sea. (Author)

366

The Decommissioning Facility Characterization DB System (DEFACS)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The computer system for the characterization on the nuclear facilities is established as the name of the DEFACS (DEcommissioning FAcility Characterization DB System). his system is consist of the four main part with the grouping of the items and it's code creation and management system, data input system, data processing and data out put system. All the data was processed by a simplified and formatted manner to provide useful information to the decommissioning planner. The four nuclear facilities are objected for the system; the KRR-1 and 2 (Research reactor), Uranium conversion plant (Nuclear chemical plant), UF4 pilot plant and the North Korea nuclear facility (5MWe Research Reactor). All the data from a nuclear facility was categorized and inputted into the several data fields in the input system, which were chosen by considering the facility characteristics. All the hardware is workstation for Web and DB server and PC grade computers for the users and the software 'ORACLE, RDBMS 11g' operated on the WINDOW 2008 O/S, was selected

367

Human factors planning for nuclear plant decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new opportunity is arising for the application of human factors principles in the nuclear industry related to plant decommissioning. This paper describes the application of human factors in the planning for the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project (SSDP). As a systematic basis to assure proper preparation for the SSDP, the Management Oversight and Risk Tree (MORT) techniques were utilized to form the basis for a readiness model. The core ingredients of readiness -- property, people, and procedures -- were utilized to develop a readiness tree. Other applications of human factors techniques on the SSDP have included a task analysis to establish the training program for operations personnel, a procedures validation program, and a computer based configuration control system. Future applications at SSDP will include risk analysis for selected evolutions and the use of human factors methods for enhanced maintenance effectiveness to contribute to the reduction of radiation exposure. The results of the SSDP will be reported to the industry through a technology transfer program. It is expected that human factors planning will contribute to the safe and effective completion of the project

368

Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 576 abstracted references on nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the tenth in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types--technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions--have been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Major sections are (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (7) Technical Measurements Center, and (8) General Remedial Action Program Studies. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication description. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title work, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and keywords

369

Santo Amaro mineral sand mill decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This site of 16 503 m2 held a monazite processing plant and in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo, which is the largest city in Brazil. The plant operated for more than 60 years. As it has not been classified as a nuclear installation, the facility was not controlled by the national regulatory authority. As a consequence of the operations carried out at the site, it became contaminated with residues from mineral sands processing. Decommissioning activities started in 1994 and finished at the end of 1998. Decommissioning was carried out in five stages: (1) initially suitable packaging of contaminated material and waste removal took place; (2) decontamination and dismantling of equipment; (3) decontamination of floors and walls and demolition of the buildings (built area was about 13 000 m2); (4) land radiological characterization; 5) site clean-up. As long as Brazil does not have a national repository for low and intermediate level wastes, some of the generated wastes (about 60 m3) had to be stored in an adapted building at the Interlagos Mill site. Presently the most serious issue to be solved regards the final destination of the generated wastes

370

Decommissioning of the Ames Laboratory Research Reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Ames Laboratory Research Reactor (ALRR) was constructed between 1961 and 1965 on a 35 acre open site about 1 1/2 miles from the Iowa State University campus and the rest of the Ames Laboratory facilities. Initial criticality was attained in February and full power in July 1965. Full-time operation was initiated in June 1966. Final reactor shutdown occurred on December 31, 1977, with an accumulation of 1.52 x 104 megawatt days. The reactor decommmissioning program was initiated at that point, and was essentially completed by October 1, 1981. Total radiation exposure for the decommissioning program was 69.4 man-rem distributed among 92 persons. The total cost of the program was 4.335 million dollars. Although the initial intent was to be able to release the facility for unrestricted use on completion of decommissioning, the widely dispersed presence of low-level fixed radioactivity on reactor room surfaces and in imbedded piping resulted in the application of a monitored use criterion

371

Revised Analyses of Decommissioning Reference Non-Fuel-Cycle Facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cost information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of non-fuel-cycle nuclear facilities that represent a significant decommissioning task in terms of decontamination and disposal activities. This study is a re-evaluation of the original study (NUREG/CR-1754 and NUREG/CR-1754, Addendum 1). The reference facilities examined in this study are the same as in the original study and include: a laboratory for the manufacture of 3H-labeled compounds; a laboratory for the manufacture of 14C-labeled compounds; a laboratory for the manufacture of 123I-labeled compounds; a laboratory for the manufacture of 137Cs sealed sources; a laboratory for the manufacture of 241Am sealed sources; and an institutional user laboratory. In addition to the laboratories, three reference sites that require some decommissioning effort were also examined. These sites are: (1) a site with a contaminated drain line and hold-up tank; (2) a site with a contaminated ground surface; and (3) a tailings pile containing uranium and thorium residues. Decommissioning of these reference facilities and sites can be accomplished using techniques and equipment that are in common industrial use. Essentially the same technology assumed in the original study is used in this study. For the reference laboratory-type facilities, the study approach is to first evaluate the decommissioning of individual components (e.g., fume hoods, glove boxes, and building surfaces) that are common to many laboratory facilities. The information obtained from analyzing the individual components of each facility are then used to determine the cost, manpower requirements and dose information for the decommissioning of the entire facility. DECON, the objective of the 1988 Rulemaking for materials facilities, is the decommissioning alternative evaluated for the reference laboratories because it results in the release of the facility for restricted or unrestricted use as soon as possible. For a facility, DECON requires that contaminated components either be: (1) decontaminated to restricted or unrestricted release levels or (2) packaged and shipped to an authorized disposal site. This study considers unrestricted release only. The new decommissioning criteria of July 1997 are too recent for this study to include a cost analysis of the restricted release option, which is now allowed under these new criteria. The costs of decommissioning facility components are generally estimated to be in the range of $140 to $27,000, depending on the type of component, the type and amount of radioactive contamination, the remediation options chosen, and the quantity of radioactive waste generated from decommissioning operations. Estimated costs for decommissioning the example laboratories range from $130,000 to $205,000, assuming aggressive low-level waste (LLW) volume reduction. If only minimal LLW volume reduction is employed, decommissioning costs range from $150,000 to $270,000 for these laboratories. On the basis of estimated decommissioning costs for facility components, the costs of decommissioning typical non-fuel-cycle laboratory facilities are estimated to range from about $25,000 for the decommissioning of a small room containing one or two fume hoods to more than $1 million for the decommissioning of an industrial plant containing several laboratories in which radiochemicals and sealed radioactive sources are prepared. For the reference sites of this study, the basic decommissioning alternatives are: (1) site stabilization followed by long-term care and (2) removal of the waste or contaminated soil to an authorized disposal site. Cost estimates made for decommissioning three reference sites range from about $130,000 for the removal of a contaminated drain line and hold-up tank to more than $23 million for the removal of a tailings pile that contains radioactive residue from ore-processing operations in which tin slag is processed for the recovery of rare metals. Total occupational radiation doses generally range from 0.00007 person-rem to 13 person-rem for decommissioning the laboratory

372

Contamination source review for Building E5974, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents the results of a contamination source review of Building E5974 at the Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) in Maryland. The primary mission at APG has been the testing and evaluation of US Army warfare materials. Since its beginning in 1917, the Edgewood Area of APG has been the principal location for chemical warfare agent research, development, and testing in the US. APG was also used for producing chemical warfare agents during both world wars, and it has been a center for the storage of chemical warfare material. An attempt was made to identify and define areas of toxic or hazardous contaminants and to assess the physical condition and accessibility of APG buildings. The information obtained from this review may be used to assist the US Army in planning for the future use or disposition of the buildings. The contamination source review consisted of the following tasks: historical records search, physical inspection, photographic documentation, geophysical investigation, and collection of air samples.

Billmark, K.A.; Emken, M.E.; O`Reilly, D.P.; Smits, M.P.; Draugelis, A.K.; Rueda, J.; Zimmerman, R.E.

1995-09-01

373

An apparatus for studying spallation neutrons in the Aberdeen Tunnel laboratory  

CERN Document Server

In this paper, we describe the design, construction and performance of an apparatus installed in the Aberdeen Tunnel laboratory in Hong Kong for studying spallation neutrons induced by cosmic-ray muons under a vertical rock overburden of 611 meter water equivalent (m.w.e.). The apparatus comprises of six horizontal layers of plastic-scintillator hodoscopes for determining the direction and position of the incident cosmic-ray muons. Sandwiched between the hodoscope planes is a neutron detector filled with 650 kg of liquid scintillator doped with about 0.06% of Gadolinium by weight for improving the e?ciency of detecting the spallation neutrons. Performance of the apparatus is also presented.

Blyth, S C; Chen, X C; Chu, M C; Hahn, R L; Ho, T H; Hsiung, Y B; Hu, B Z; Kwan, K K; Kwok, M W; Kwok, T; Lau, Y P; Lee, K P; Leung, J K C; Leung, K Y; Lin, G L; Lin, Y C; Luk, K B; Luk, W H; Ngai, H Y; Ngan, S Y; Pun, C S J; Shih, K; Tam, Y H; Tsang, R H M; Wang, C H; Wong, C M; Wong, H L; Wong, H H C; Wong, K K; Yeh, M

2013-01-01

374

30 CFR 250.1754 - When must I remove a pipeline decommissioned in place?  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When must I remove a pipeline decommissioned in place? 250...Decommissioning § 250.1754 When must I remove a pipeline decommissioned in place? You must remove a pipeline decommissioned in place if...

2010-07-01

375

The Dynamics of the Regional Innovation around the Oil and Gas Industries: Cases of Stavanger and Aberdeen / La dinámica de la innovación regional alrededor de las industrias del petróleo y el gas natural: Casos de Stavanger y Aberdeen  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Este artículo presenta el estudio comparativo entre las dos capitales petroleras de Europa, Aberdeen y Stavanger, realizado por IRIS y MIT, con el objetivo de analizar dos clusters exitosos de gas y petróleo. Se exhibe en detalle el sistema noruego de innovación. Asimismo, este artículo examina la r [...] elación intrínseca entre las universidades y el contexto industrial en el sistema regional de innovación. Abstract in english This paper presents the IRIS and MIT comparative study of the two oil capitals in Europe: Aberdeen and Stavanger, in order to analyze two successful oil and gas clusters. The Norwegian innovation system would be presented in detail. The article also examines the intrinsic role between the universiti [...] es and the industrial context in the regional innovation system.

Martin, Gjelsvik.

2011-10-01

376

BN-350 nuclear power plant. Regulatory aspects of decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The BN-350 reactor is a fast breeder reactor using liquid sodium as a coolant [1]. This reactor was commissioned in 1973 and operated for its design life of 20 years. Thereafter, it was operated on the basis of annual licenses, and the final shutdown was initially planned in 2003. In 1999, however, the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan adopted Decree on the Decommissioning of BN-350 Reactor. This Decree establishes the conception of the reactor plant decommissioning. The conception envisages three stages of decommissioning. The first stage of decommissioning aims at putting the installation into a state of long term safe enclosure. The main goal is an achievement of nuclear-and radiation-safe condition and industrial safety level. The completion criteria for the stage are as follows: spent fuel is removed and placed in long term storage; radioactive liquid metal coolant is drained from the reactor and processed; liquid and solid radioactive wastes are reprocessed and long-term stored; systems and equipment, that are decommissioned at the moment of reactor safe store, are disassembled; radiation monitoring of the reactor building and environment is provided. The completion criteria of the second stage are as follows: 50 years is up; a decision about beginning of works by realization of dismantling and burial design is accepted. The goal of the third stage is partial or total dismantling of equipment, buildings and structure and burial. Since the decision on the decommissioning of BN-350 Reactor Facility was accepted before end of scheduled service life (2003), to this moment 'The Decommissioning Plan' (which in Kazakhstan is called 'Design of BN-350 reactor Decommission') was not worked out. For realization of the Governmental Decree and for determination of activities by the reactor safety provision and for preparation of its decommission for the period till Design approval the following documents were developed: 1. Special Technical Requirements 'General Provisions on Development of the Project on BN-350 Reactor Plant Decommissioning'; 2. Special Technical Conditions 'For Designing of the BN-350 Reactor Facility Decommissioning Project'; 3. Plan of priority measures for BN-350 reactor decommissioning. The documents 1 and 2 were prepared jointly by BN-350, technical institutes, KAEC and various other Kazakhstan Governmental agencies and departments, and they set out: stages in the development of the specifications for the Plan; applicable laws and regulations, and the procedure to follow if the regulations do not cover particular situations or issues; responsibilities of various organizations in the production, agreement and approval process; a recommended detailed list of contents for the Decommissioning Plan (Project); external factors, existing design and planning works which the Plan must take into account; other basic information which needs to be included into the Plan documentation. As the shutdown reactor continues to remain a source of nuclear and radioactive hazard, one have to take measures on putting the reactor to safe status, and thus 'Plan of priority measures for BN-350 reactor decommissioning' was developed. It includes following activities: measures on BN-350 decommissioning Project development; measures on provision of the reactor safety during transition period; measures on sodium drainage and utilization; measures on spent fuel disposal for a long term storage. KAEC was authorized to provide coordination of BN-350 decommissioning work. For example, some duties of KAEC in the Decommissioning Project are as follows: supervision of Project implementation by licensing and engagement of state licensed institutions only for decommissioning works; consideration, approval and authorization of technical documentation of enterprises and institutions implementing the Project within its competency. During the development and implementation of the Project all participants must act according to the laws and regulations valid in the Republic of Kazakhstan and to IAEA recommendations. In a case of

377

Decommissioning of NPP A-1 Phase I, Jaslovske Bohunice. Documentation for application for permission to Phase II of decommissioning of NPP A-1. Schedule stage II of decommissioning of NPP A-1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study documentation for application for permission to Phase II of decommissioning of NPP A-1 and the schedule stage II of decommissioning of NPP A-1 are presented. This study consists of ten appendixes.

378

Shippingport Atomic Power Station decommissioning program and applied technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Shippingport Station decommissioning project is the first decommissioning of a large scale nuclear power plant, and also the first nuclear power plant to be decommissioned which has continued the power operation as long as 25 years. The nuclear facilities which have been decommissioned so far have operated for shorter period and were small as compared with commercial power reactors, but the experience gained by those decommissioning as well as that gained by nuclear plant maintenance and modification has helped to establish the technology and cost basis for Shippingport and future decommissioning projects. In this paper, the current status of the preparation being made by the General Electric Co., its subcontractor and the US Department of Energy for starting the decommissioning phase of the Shippingport Atomic Power Station is described. Also remote metal cutting, decontamination, concrete removal, the volume reduction of liquids and solids and robotics which will be applied to the project are discussed. The Shippingport Station is a 72 MWe PWR plant having started the operation in 1957, and permanently shut down in 1982, after having generated over 7.4 billion kWh of electricity. (Kako, I.)

379

Development of decommissioning technologies in Sumitomo Mitsui Construction Co., Ltd  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The decommissioning program of nuclear reactors in Japan first started in December 2001 on the Japan's first commercial nuclear power station Tokai Power Plant. In February 2008, the decommissioning of 'Fugen' was first approved as the program on a large-scale water reactor in Japan, and was started. From now on, decommissioning programs of LWRs constructed in the early stage of nuclear development will gradually increase. Decommissioning projects are required more than 20 years for completing the entire processes, because of its characteristics to placing the utmost priority to safety. Diverse types of element technologies are fully utilized in decommissioning projects, such as technology of evaluating remaining radioactivity, decontamination, dismantling/remote control, and treatment/disposal/recycling. Also there are a lot of civil engineering or building technologies and its applied technologies in these element technologies. Sumitomo Mitsui Construction Co., Ltd. has been committed to contributing to the promotion of decommissioning projects in Japan, and has carried out investigation/evaluation of applicability of the existing dismantling technologies to dismantling of reactors, seismic evaluation of the buildings for dismantling the reactor zone, development of recycling of concrete, and discussion of rational waste treatment/disposal methods. In this thesis, we present our decommissioning technologies focusing on the element technologies that our company has ilement technologies that our company has investigated and developed so far. (author)

380

The French decommissioning program: a stakeholder point of view  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In January 2001, EDF owner of 56 plants in operation and 9 plants in decommissioning stage decided to accelerate the decommissioning of its first nine nuclear generation units in order to achieve final decommissioning in 25 years' time. An engineering center dedicated to decommissioning, radwaste management and environment was set up to implement this strategy. Four years after its creation, the first lessons learned in the fields of organization, project and program management can now be described. During the 4 years that have elapsed since the creation of CIDEN in 2001 to implement EDF's new decommissioning strategy, its organization has constantly improved to ensure success of its decommissioning projects. The aim has been to build an efficient organization with clearly defined roles for the key players. Simultaneously, the Program Management activities have received increasing consideration and specific mechanisms have been implemented to bring financing and licensing flexibility to the program. The continuous improvement of its organization and the development of new project or program management methodologies is a constant preoccupation of EDF. Its aim is to successfully implement its decommissioning strategy, one of the key issues for guaranteeing the future of a safe economic and environment friendly nuclear energy in France

381

Decontamination and Decommissioning project for the Nuclear Facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The final goal of this project is to complete the decommissioning of the Korean Research Reactor no.1 and no.2(KRR-1 and 2) and uranium conversion plant safely and successfully. The decommissioning the five incidental facilities was successfully carried out and the scoping survey and characterization survey of radioactivity on KRR-1 and KRR-2 site were proven as basic steps for the final evaluation of the residual radioactivity and assessment of the rehabilitation of the KRR-1 and KRR-2 site in 2008. After this works, the FSSR(Final Status Survey Report) will be submitted to the regulatory body for the release of the site from the regulation in 2009. The first decommissioning project of a domestic nuclear facility is now in its closing stages. The decommissioning for nuclear facility may demand the high technologies, remote control equipment and radioactivity assessment. So the developed technologies and the obtained experiences could be applied to new decommissioning projects of the nuclear facilities in the future, including north Korea nuclear facilities. At the decommissioning site of the uranium conversion plant, the decontamination of the stainless steel waste was performed and the all the sludge of the lagoon-2 waste was completely treated in this year. The technologies and experiences obtained from the UCP dismantling works are expected to apply to other fuel cycle facilities. The lagoon sludge treatment technology was the technology firstly tried in actual decommissioning sites in Korea and it is expected that this technology could be applied to other country

382

Technology development of decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Decontamination and decommissioning technology of nuclear reactors is in the stage of technical demonstration even in advanced countries in the nuclear field. The retired TRIGA MARK II research reactor at KAERI was selected to demonstrate the relevant technologies. The results of the study carried this year can be summarized as the following three parts; 1. State of the arts of decontamination and dismantling technology 1) Examining the methods for radionuclide inventory estimation 2) Comparing and analyzing the methods and applications for decontamination and dismantling technologies. 3) Examining the present status of decommissioning activities for commercial and research reactor in the world. 2. Study of TRIGA reactor decommissioning plan. The decommissioning study for the retired TRIGA MARK II research reactor at KAERI has been carried out and two decommissioning plans were prepared: one is for complete dismantling and the other for conversion to museum. The radionuclide inventory and the man-rem exposures for workers were also estimated in the study by using ANISN computer code. The Korea regulations concerning decommissioning has been analyzed compared with the U.S. regulations, 10 CFR and Reg. Guide. The decommissioning cost, schedule and manpower development including organization for two alternatives were also prepared. 3. Study of decontamination for radioactively contaminated metals. Experimental works for the decontamination of the contaminated stainless steel metal were carried out. The experimental results shows that the chemical ultrasonic method gives acceptable decontamination factor of around 20 for metals. (Author)

383

Procedures and Practices - Challenges for Decommissioning Management and Teamwork  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The mental and practical approach to a decommissioning project is often not the same at all levels of an organization. Studies indicate that the early establishment of a decommissioning mindset throughout an organization is an important and frequently overlooked process. It is not enough to establish procedures, if practices and mental approaches are overlooked; and for decommissioning projects that are more often than not dominated by one of a kind problem solving, procedure design is challenging, and new requirements are put on communication. Our research considers stakeholder involvement in these processes in the wider sense of the term; however the main stakeholders in focus are regulators and the work force that will perform or lead the tasks related to decommissioning. Issues here treated include: Decommissioning mindset and the manifestation of mindset issues in decommissioning projects, including challenges and prospective solutions; trust building and trust breaking factors in communication and collaboration relevant to transition and decommissioning; new technologies for collaboration and communication and how these may impair or empower participants - experiences from several domains. This paper is based on work done in collaboration with the OECD NEA Halden Reactor Project. (author)

384

Development of decommissioning-recycle simulator for nuclear power station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Japan's first commercial nuclear power station is to be dismantled from 2008 onward. On the other hand, with the occurrence of the global environmental problem as well as the problem of natural environment conservation and wastes as a turning point, an approach is being made toward the creation of a circulation society in the future. When decommissioning the nuclear power station, therefore, it is necessary that any plan for the disposal and recycling of dismantling wastes which are temporarily produced in large quantities be carried out under a social consensus. In Japan, there has been a lack of experience in decommissioning the nuclear power station, and in this field there are not many skilled hands. In the decommissioning plan, therefore, it is necessary to grasp the precautions which must be taken in such decommissioning and which are interwined complicatedly, and their interrelationships as well. Furthermore, a streamlined decommissioning plan must be formulated after taking int consideration the various case studies which are judged beforehand to be feasibly applicable. The objective of this research is to develop a comprehensive planning verification tool called Decommissioning-Recycle Simulator in which power station local conditions, environmental and other technical conditions, as well as their interrelationships are considered. This paper indicates the necessity of the Decommissioning-Recycle Simulator and its concepts. (author)cepts. (author)

385

Safety Oversight of Decommissioning Activities at DOE Nuclear Sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (Board) is an independent federal agency established by Congress in 1988 to provide nuclear safety oversight of activities at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) defense nuclear facilities. The activities under the Board's jurisdiction include the design, construction, startup, operation, and decommissioning of defense nuclear facilities at DOE sites. This paper reviews the Board's safety oversight of decommissioning activities at DOE sites, identifies the safety problems observed, and discusses Board initiatives to improve the safety of decommissioning activities at DOE sites. The decommissioning of former defense nuclear facilities has reduced the risk of radioactive material contamination and exposure to the public and site workers. In general, efforts to perform decommissioning work at DOE defense nuclear sites have been successful, and contractors performing decommissioning work have a good safety record. Decommissioning activities have recently been completed at sites identified for closure, including the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, the Fernald Closure Project, and the Miamisburg Closure Project (the Mound site). The Rocky Flats and Fernald sites, which produced plutonium parts and uranium materials for defense needs (respectively), have been turned into wildlife refuges. The Mound site, which performed R and D activities on nuclear materials, has been converted into an industrial and technology park called an industrial and technology park called the Mound Advanced Technology Center. The DOE Office of Legacy Management is responsible for the long term stewardship of these former EM sites. The Board has reviewed many decommissioning activities, and noted that there are valuable lessons learned that can benefit both DOE and the contractor. As part of its ongoing safety oversight responsibilities, the Board and its staff will continue to review the safety of DOE and contractor decommissioning activities at DOE defense nuclear sites

386

When a plant shuts down: The psychology of decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Within the next decade, 10 to 25 nuclear plants in the United States may be taken off line. Many will have reached the end of their 40-year life cycles, but others will be retired because the cost of operating them has begun to outweigh their economic benefit. Such was the case at Fort St. Vrain, the first decommissioning of a US commercial plant under new Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. Two major problems associated with decommissioning plants have been obvious: (1) the technical challenges and costs of decommissioning, and (2) the cost of maintaining and finally decommissioning a plant after a safe storage (SAFSTOR) period of approximately 60 years. What has received little attention is the challenge that affects not only the people who make a plant work, but the quality of the solutions to these problems: how to maintain effective organizational performance during the process of downsizing and decommissioning and/or SAFSTOR. The quality of technical solutions for closing a plant, as well as how successfully the decommissioning process is held within or below budget, will depend largely on how effectively the nuclear organization functions as a social unit. Technical and people issues are bound together. The difficulty is how to operate a plant effectively when plant personnel have no sense of long-term security. As the nuclear power industry matures and the pace for closing operating plants accelerates, the time has come to prepare for the widespre time has come to prepare for the widespread decommissioning of plants. The industry would be well served by conducting a selective, industry-wide evaluation of plants to assess its overall readiness for the decommissioning process. A decommissioning is not likely to be trouble free, but with a healthy appreciation for the human side of the process, it will undoubtedly go more smoothly than if approached as a matter of dismantling a machine

387

Estimation of the Decommissioning Waste Arising for a PWR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Korea, Kori Unit 1(Pressurized Water Reactor, 587MW) began the first life extension operation since 2008 and Wolsong Unit 1(Canadian Deuterium Uranium Reactor, 679MW) has waited for the admission of life extension after license expiration since November 2012. However, after Fukushima Daichi nuclear power plant accident happened March 2011, the public support for the nuclear power plant life extension has been faded. This is reason why the preparation of nuclear power plant decommissioning is significant in this time. When it comes to the decommissioning cost estimation, the waste treatment and disposal possess about 17% ? 43% in the total decommissioning expense. Hence, the accurate analysis of the decommissioning cost has the immense influence on the determination of decommissioning strategy in later. Namely, as the fundamental investigation of the decommissioning outlay, the approach to the expected waste weight estimation is worth of study. In this study, the arising of waste weight during the decommissioning of Kori Unit 1 was estimated with some documents listed in the reference. Finally, the total expected waste amount during the Kori Unit 1 decommissioning is about 49,139 tons. Among them, assumed radioactive waste material is 1,915,214 kg(869 tons). Based on IAEA standard, these wastes are divided in HLW, ILW, LLW, VLLW and EW respectively. Future plan is to assess the radioactivity of primary side components and dose rate distribution of Kori Unit 1 using MCNP and ORIGEN-2 codes. This action will be helpful to design the reasonable decommissioning scenario in the future 4 session

388

Decommissioning and building demolition: Harmful substances and heavy metals during decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At present there is no sufficient information in nuclear facilities on the harmful substances and heavy metals which arise during the decommissioning and achieving of the original state. Aim of the present work is the compilation and characterization of the harmful substances which are the waste produced during the decommissioning of nuclear facilities or the waste arising and being released in the treatment of such waste. For this purpose in a first step the selection criteria for the harmful substances and the nuclear facilities to be investigated according to the objective and extent of the task were stipulated. The assimilation of the required data was carried out using the relevant literature as well cooperating with the operators of the respective nuclear facilities. For this purpose the computer code 'TOXI' was developed and tested. The evaluation of the data was carried out corresponding to the task in a purely quantitative way, whereby not only the harmful substances from decommissioning were registered but also the newly defined 'precursor harmful substances'. It was discovered that only a small number of special waste types is to be expected (especially neon tubes as well as material contaminated with harmful impurities such as ion exchange resins, filters and oils). These materials can already be specifically removed in a very early stage in the demolish of the facility and transferred for treatment as special waste. Due to the barrier systems of nuclear fe. Due to the barrier systems of nuclear facilities a stronger increase of the burden to man and environment from harmful substances and heavy metals arising and being released during decommissioning is not to be expected. (orig./DG)

389

Waste management for the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project (SSDP) is being performed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) with the objectives of placing the station in a radiologically safe condition, demonstrating safe and cost effective dismantlement and providing useful data for future decommissioning projects. This paper describes the development of the Waste Management Plan which is being used for the accomplishment of the SSDP. Significant aspects of the Plan are described, such as the use of a process control and inventory system. The current status of waste management activities is reported. It is concluded that SSDP has some unique aspects which will provide useful information for future decommissioning projects

390

Relative evaluation on decommissioning accident scenarios of nuclear facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? This paper suggests relative importance on accident scenarios during decommissioning of nuclear facilities. ? The importance of scenarios can be performed by using AHP and Sugeno fuzzy method. ? The AHP and Sugeno fuzzy method guarantee reliability of the importance evaluation. -- Abstract: This paper suggests the evaluation method of relative importance on accident scenarios during decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The evaluation method consists of AHP method and Sugeno fuzzy integral method. This method will guarantee the reliability of relative importance evaluation for decommissioning accident scenarios.

391

The decommissioning of nuclear plant: timing, cost and regulation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The feasibility, costs and timing of decommissioning full-scale nuclear reactors is examined in the context of the tighter environmental regulation that will inevitably grow up in this area. It is concluded that delayed decommissioning may result from waste disposal site constraints rather than conscious intention, that taking account of the interests of future generations is unlikely to place very heavy burdens on the present generation, and that a balance of environmental considerations, mediated through regulatory and political processes, is likely to predominate in determining the future course of decommissioning decisions. (Author)

392

Radiological planning and implementation for nuclear-facility decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The need and scope of radiological planning required to support nuclear facility decommissioning are issues addressed in this paper. The role of radiation protection engineering and monitoring professionals during project implementation and closeout is also addressed. Most of the discussion focuses on worker protection considerations; however, project support, environmental protection and site release certification considerations are also covered. One objective is to identify radiological safety issues that must be addressed. The importance of the issues will vary depending on the type of facility being decommissioned; however, by giving appropriate attention to these issues difficult decommissioning projects can be accomplished in a safer manner with workers and the public receiving minimal radiation exposures

393

A study on the decommissioning of research reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As the result of study on decommissioning, discussion has made and data have been collected about experiences, plannings, and techniques for decommissioning through visit to GA and JAERI. GA supplied our Research Reactor No. 1 and No. 2, and JAERI made a memorial museum after dicommissioning of JRR-1 and is dismentling JPDR now. Also many kinds of documents are collected and arranged such as documents related to TRIGA reactor dicommissioning, 30 kinds of documents including decommissioning plan, technical criteria and related regulatory, and 1,200 kinds of facility description data. (Author)

394

Decommissioning and demolition of the Greifswald nuclear power station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The unexpected decision to decommission the plants in Greifswald makes the management and disposal of fuels and plant waste a major issue to be solved as a precondition for decommissioning and dismantling. The decisive point in waste management is the existence of an interim store or repository of sufficient capacity to accept both the nuclear fuel and the plant waste and the considerable volumes of radioactive residues arising in dismantling. Current major activities include planning for decommissioning and demolition, and drafting of the licensing documents; removal of the fuel elements from the reactor units; construction of the northern interim store for fuel elements and residues. (orig./HP)

395

Decommissioning update: the view at the end of the line  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper review the current status of decommissioning within the international nuclear energy industry, from a standpoint 'at the end of the line'. It discusses the industry's history of poor public relations regarding nuclear waste and its disposal. By drawing on examples of successful decommissioning projects, the paper aims to show that the industry has, in fact, demonstrated its ability to meet all the challenges. This is followed by a brief discussion of the various decommissioning policy factors and how these apply to different plant types. Finally there is a look ahead to what the future is likely to hold. (Author)

396

All-cause mortality in the Aberdeen 1921 birth cohort: Effects of socio-demographic, physical and cognitive factors  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Childhood intelligence predicts mortality throughout most of the life span. However, it is unknown whether its effect persists into advanced old age. Methods The Aberdeen Birth Cohort born in 1921 (n = 354) and that had an IQ test as part of the national Scottish Mental Survey of 1932 were seen in 1997 at age 76 years when childhood and adult socio-environmental, medical and cognitive data were collected. Participants were followed until May ...

Whalley Lawrence J; Deary Ian J; Starr John M

2008-01-01

397

Constructing Predictive Estimates for Worker Exposure to Radioactivity During Decommissioning: Analysis of Completed Decommissioning Projects - Master Thesis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An analysis of completed decommissioning projects is used to construct predictive estimates for worker exposure to radioactivity during decommissioning activities. The preferred organizational method for the completed decommissioning project data is to divide the data by type of facility, whether decommissioning was performed on part of the facility or the complete facility, and the level of radiation within the facility prior to decommissioning (low, medium, or high). Additional data analysis shows that there is not a downward trend in worker exposure data over time. Also, the use of a standard estimate for worker exposure to radioactivity may be a best estimate for low complete storage, high partial storage, and medium reactor facilities; a conservative estimate for some low level of facility radiation facilities (reactor complete, research complete, pits/ponds, other), medium partial process facilities, and high complete research facilities; and an underestimate for the remaining facilities. Limited data are available to compare different decommissioning alternatives, so the available data are reported and no conclusions can been drawn. It is recommended that all DOE sites and the NRC use a similar method to document worker hours, worker exposure to radiation (person-rem), and standard industrial accidents, injuries, and deaths for all completed decommissioning activities.

Dettmers, Dana Lee; Eide, Steven Arvid

2002-10-01

398

Decommissioning of the Shippingport Atomic Power Station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Shippingport reactor was originally designed as a pressurized water reactor and operated for approximately 10 years in that mode. Later, in 1967 it was converted to a light water breeder reactor and continued its operation until 1985, when the reactor was shut down. However, the decommissioning planning for Shippingport was begun in 1979. Detailed engineering and planning was undertaken to look at alternatives for disposal of the reactor vessel, the overall detailed estimated costs, the exposure to the workers and the waste volume generated and to prepare activity specifications for performance of the work. The program scope and component removal are detailed. The scarification of contaminated concrete, building demolition, special tools and equipment needed and work performance data are described. The successful removal of the primary system components and piping has been completed. (author)

399

Remote methods for decontamination and decommissioning operations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three methods for the decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities are described along with operational experience associated with each method. Each method described in some way reduces radiation exposure to the operating personnel involved. Electrochemical decontamination of process tanks is described using an in-situ method. Descriptions of two processes, electropolishing and cerium redox decontamination, are listed. A method of essentially smokeless cutting of process piping using a plasma-arc cutting torch is described. In one technique, piping is cut remotely from a distance using a specially modified torch holder. In another technique, cutting is done with master-slave manipulators inside a hot cell. Finally, a method for remote cutting and scarification of contaminated concrete is described. This system, which utilizes high-pressure water jets, is coupled to a cutting head or rotating scarification head. The system is suited for cutting contaminated concrete for removal or removing a thin layer in a controlled manner for decontamination

400

Remote control: Decommissioning RTGs [radioisotope theromelectric generators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several hundred radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) are deployed along the Russian Federation's Arctic coast to power remote lighthouses and navigation beacons. Similar RTGs were also used as power sources in other remote locations in the Russian Federation and elsewhere in the former Soviet Union. All Russian RTG's have out-lived their lifespan and are in need of decommissioning. The RTGs typically contain one or more radionuclide heat sources (RHS) each with an activity of thousands of TBq of strontium-90. This means that they are Category 1 sources as defined in the IAEA international 'Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources'. According to the Federal Atomic Energy Agency of the Russian Federation (Rosatom), there are 651 RTGs at various locations in the Russian Federation which are subject to decommissioning or replacement with alternative sources of energy. The Norwegian Government has played a significant role in international efforts, fully cooperating with Russian authorities to safely decommission RTGs and provide alternative power sources. Norway has actively supported improvement of nuclear safety and security in northwest Russia for more then ten years. Over this period, the Norwegian Government has spent approximately $150 million on a variety of industrial projects, including specific improvements in radioactive waste treatment and storage, physical security, and infrastructure support. The national authority, the Norw support. The national authority, the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA), takes an active part advising the Government regarding prioritization and quality assurance of all these activities. In addition, the Plan of Action places great emphasis on adequate regulatory supervision. Accordingly, the NRPA programme includes a variety of regulatory support projects. These are designed to assist the Russian authorities in ensuring that work is properly carried out within the framework of Russian law, taking into account international standards and recommendations from bodies such as the IAEA. The regulatory cooperation between NRPA and various Russian regulatory bodies is critical in maintaining an effective and efficient regulatory process. The Norwegian Government has been operating an industrial project to support decommissioning of RTGs in northwest Russia since 1997. Since project initiation, more than 60 RTGs have been removed from lighthouses on the Kola Peninsula. They are being replaced with solar panels and nickel-cadmium battery packs. As part of this project, inspection and preparatory work took place before the RTGs were transferred by helicopter, boat and road to a temporary storage point at ATP 'Atomflot' near Murmansk. The RTGs were then transported via road and rail to the dismantling point in the Moscow Region, where the heat sources (RHS) were removed. The RHS were then transported by road and rail to FSUE PA 'Mayak', where they are stored pending final disposal. NRPA has provided support to regulators in the Russian Federation. The general goal of regulatory support is to help Russian bodies develop guidelines and requirements for planning, licensing and implementing industry projects. The NRPA's main partner in the RTG Regulatory Support Project (RSP) is the Nuclear, Industrial and Environmental Regulatory Authority of the Russian Federation (Rost-echnadzor). In order to provide the most relevant international inputs to Russian regulators, the NRPA involves regulators and technical support organizations from other countries, including France, Sweden and the UK. Topics like assessing the threats, defining tasks, closing gaps, application and enforcement are discussed. One lesson is clear: regulatory support is a vital adjunct to carrying out such industrial projects so that the whole process is safe and efficient for everyone involved

401

Decommissioning of the Risoe hot cell facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Concise descriptions of actions taken in relation to the decommissioning of the hot cell facility at Risoe National Laboratory are presented. The removal of fissile material, of large contaminated equipment from the concrete cell line and a separate shielded storage facility, and the removal of large contaminated facilities such as out cell parts of a tube transport system between a concrete cell and a lead shielded steel box and a remotely operated Reichert Telatom microscope housed in a lead shielded glove box is described in addition to the initial mapping of radiation levels related to the decontamination of concrete cells. The dose commitment of 17.7 mSv was ascribed to 12 persons in the 2nd half of 1991. The work resulting in these doses was mainly handling of waste together with the frogman entrances in order to repair the in-cell crane and power manipulator. The overall time schedule for the project still appears to be applicable. (AB)

402

Development of plasma jet torch for decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Plasma jet torch to cut both metal and non metal has been developed, as the cutting technique for the decommissioning of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. 'The plasma fluid analysis code' was developed to make clear the physical behavior of plasma fluid to influence the electromagnetic field, material constant of neuter gas, flow rate and fluid velocity, shape of torch nozzle such as. This code is applied for the design of smaller size plasma jet torch which has high endurance and cutting ability. The plasma fluid was analyzed by this code to investigate the influence of nozzle shape on the plasma. The most suitable nozzle shape of plasma jet torch was designed as the results of numerical analysis. The plasma jet torch of which practicality was confirmed by experiment was made according to this design. The cutting ability and endurance of this plasma jet torch were enough. (author)

403

Large packages for reactor decommissioning waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was carried out jointly by the Atomic Energy Establishment at Winfrith (now called the Winfrith Technology Centre), Windscale Laboratory and Ove Arup and Partners. The work involved the investigation of the design of large transport containers for intermediate level reactor decommissioning waste, ie waste which requires shielding, and is aimed at European requirements (ie for both LWR and gas cooled reactors). It proposes a design methodology for such containers covering the whole lifetime of a waste disposal package. The design methodology presented takes account of various relevant constraints. Both large self shielded and returnable shielded concepts were developed. The work was generic, rather than specific; the results obtained, and the lessons learned, remain to be applied in practice

404

The DR-2 decommissioning project, Denmark  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The DR-2 reactor of the Risoe National Laboratory was closed down in 1975, the fuel removed, the circuits drained and the reactor sealed. In 1997 the DR-2 Study Project was initiated to determine the remaining radioactivity in the reactor and to plan the final decommissioning. So far all movable components have been removed from the reactor tank, measured and stored. The same is true, with two exceptions, for the hold-up tank room and work is under way on the components of the igloo at the thermal column. Later the thermal column, beam tubes and the interior of the primary circuit will be examined and holes will be drilled through the concrete shield. The lessons learned during the project are discussed. (author)

405

Lessons learnt from Ignalina NPP decommissioning project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP) is located in Lithuania, 130 km north of Vilnius, and consists of two 1500 MWe RBMK type units, commissioned respectively in December 1983 and August 1987. On the 1. of May 2004, the Republic of Lithuania became a member of the European Union. With the protocol on the Ignalina Nuclear Power in Lithuania which is annexed to the Accession Treaty, the Contracting Parties have agreed: - On Lithuanian side, to commit closure of unit 1 of INPP before 2005 and of Unit 2 by 31 December 2009; - On European Union side, to provide adequate additional Community assistance to the efforts of Lithuania to decommission INPP. The paper is divided in two parts. The first part describes how, starting from this agreement, the project was launched and organized, what is its present status and which activities are planned to reach the final ambitious objective of a green field. To give a global picture, the content of the different projects that were defined and the licensing process will also be presented. In the second part, the paper will focus on the lessons learnt. It will explain the difficulties encountered to define the decommissioning strategy, considering both immediate or differed dismantling options and why the first option was finally selected. The paper will mention other challenges and problems that the different actors of the project faced and how they were managed and solved. The paper will be written by representatives of the Ignalie written by representatives of the Ignalina NPP and of the Project Management Unit. (author)

406

Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project (SSDP). A progress report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Shippingport Atomic Power Station was shutdown in October, 1982 by the Plant Operator, Duquesne Light Company, for decommissioning by the US Department of Energy. The planning for decommissioning was completed in September, 1983. In September, 1984 operational responsibility for the station was transferred to the DOE's Decommissioning Operations Contractor - the General Electric Company (assisted by an integrated subcontractor, MK Ferguson Company). Significant accomplishments to date include the completion of all prerequisites for decommissioning, the removal of asbestos from plant systems, loading of irradiated reactor components into the reactor vessel for shipment, the commencement of electrical deactivations and the commencement of piping/component removal. Decontamination and waste processing are progressing in support of the project schedule. The reactor vessel will be shipped as one piece on a barge for burial at Hanford, Washington. The final release of the site is scheduled for April, 1990. A technology transfer program is being utilized to disseminate information about the project

407

The AHP Approach for Selecting a Decommissioning Scenario  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The evaluation of decommissioning scenarios is critical to the successful development and execution of a decommissioning project. This paper presents the logical method that is the analytic hierarchy process for selecting a decommissioning scenario. The AHP provides a structure on decision-making processes where there are a limited numbers of choices but each as a number of attributes. In this study, the AHP model to evaluate decommissioning scenarios reflecting quantitative and qualitative considerations is presented. This AHP model is implemented for the two candidate scenarios of the thermal column in KRR-1 to find the better scenario. The weightings of each criteria and subcriteria and the quantitative figures about both scenarios were obtained

408

Developing Integrated Decommissioning Information Management System (IDIMS) of nuclear facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Taiwan, the Taiwan Research Reactor (TRR) was shut down in January 1988, and a few nuclear facilities were accompanied to stop operation within Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER). For public health and safety reasons, INER dismantled step by step its expired nuclear facilities. Integrated Decommissioning Information Management System (IDIMS) was developed to ensure safety of dismantling and to record all activity data during the decommissioning project. These recorded activity data range from data of planning, licensing, post-operation to those of radioactive waste management and storage. In addition, IDIMS was expected to preserve decommissioning knowledge using information technology from practical data and problem solving. It also is anticipated that IDIMS will be an important knowledge repository and design base for decommissioning projects of nuclear power plants in Taiwan. (author)

409

Procedures, costs, and rate structures for decommissioning nuclear reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear plant licensing procedures do not require applicants, usually utilities, to include a program for decommissioning, which means that utilities can delay developing these plans until the plant's useful life is ending. Because this can be harmful to public health and the environment and penalize future rattepayers, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is considering a comprehensive criteria for license application. The goals of decommissioning procedures should be for the protection of human health and the environment, a provision for financing decommissioning costs, and a uniform and equitable rate structure. After reviewing current procedures, the author recommends a coordinated information system on all facilities and sites where radioactive materials are used or stored, a standardized decomissioning plant as part of the licensing procedure, and an annual tax allowance of recommissioning funds to be applied to decommissioning costs. Costs should not override health and environmental protection in decisions to dismantle or store radioactive materials. 112 references

410

Decommissioning a nuclear power plant: the tax effects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tax treatment of decommissioning costs is as important a consideration as construction costs. The principles also apply to offshore operations and pipeline systems having a negative salvage value. Estimates place the cost at somewhere between 15 and 100% of construction costs, depending on how the decommissioning is done. It is essential to find an accurate way to project decommissioning costs and to decide how they should be reported for tax purposes. The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) does not plan to apply Section 167, which deals with negative net salvage. Utility customers will ultimately provide the funds, but current IRS rulings count these funds as ordinary income and do not allow matching the additional revenue with decommissioning expenses

411

Decommissioning of the ICI TRIGA Mark I reactor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper considers the fuel removal, transportation and subsequent decommissioning of the ICI TRIGA Mark I Reactor at Billingham, UK. BNFL Waste Management and Decommissioning carried out this work on behalf of ICI. The decommissioning methodology was considered in the four stages to be described, namely Preparatory Works, Reactor Defueling, Intermediate Level Waste Removal and Low Level Waste Removal. This paper describes the principal methodologies involved in the defueling of the reactor and subsequent decommissioning operations, highlighting in particular the design and safety