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1

Geophysics: Building E5375 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Building E5375 was one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek area of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar (GPR), were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. Several anomalies wear, noted: (1) An underground storage tank located 25 ft east of Building E5375 was identified with magnetic, resistivity, and GPR profiling. (2) A three-point resistivity anomaly, 12 ft east of the northeast comer of Building E5374 (which borders Building E5375) and 5 ft south of the area surveyed with the magnetometer, may be caused by another underground storage tank. (3) A 2,500-gamma magnetic anomaly near the northeast corner of the site has no equivalent resistivity anomaly, although disruption in GPR reflectors was observed. (4) A one-point magnetic anomaly was located at the northeast comer, but its source cannot be resolved. A chaotic reflective zone to the east represents the radar signature of Building E5375 construction fill

1992-01-01

2

Evaluation of decommissioning alternatives for the Pilot Plant Complex, Aberdeen Proving Ground  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents an evaluation of four decommissioning alternatives for the Pilot Plant Complex (PPC), an inactive chemical weapons research, development, and production facility consisting of nine buildings located in the Edgewood Area of the Aberdeen Proving Ground in Maryland. Decommissioning the PPC involves six steps: (1) assessing existing conditions; (2) dismantling the aboveground portions of the buildings (including the floor slabs, paved roads, and sidewalks within the PPC); (3) reducing the size of the demolition debris and sealing the debris in containers for later testing and evaluation; (4) testing and evaluating the debris; (5) conducting site operation and maintenance activities; and (6) recycling or disposing of the debris with or without prior treatment, as appropriate.

Rueda, J.; Zimmerman, R.E.

1995-09-01

3

Interim progress report -- geophysics: Decommissioning of Buildings E5974 and E5978, Aberdeen Proving Ground  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Buildings E5974 and E5978, located near the mouth of Canal Creek, were among 10 potentially contaminated sites in the Westwood and Canal Creek areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including the complementary technologies of magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar, were conducted around the perimeters of the buildings to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. The magnetic anomalies and the electrically conductive areas around these buildings have a spatial relationship similar to that observed in low-lying sites in the Canal Creek area; they are probably associated with construction fill. Electrically conductive terrain is dominant on the eastern side of the site, and resistive terrain predominates on the west. The smaller magnetic anomalies are not imaged with ground radar or by electrical profiling. The high resistivities in the northwest quadrant are believed to be caused by a natural sand lens. The causes of three magnetic anomalies in the high-resistivity area are unidentified, but they are probably anthropogenic

1992-01-01

4

Preliminary assessment of risk from toxic materials that might be mobilized in the decommissioning of Aberdeen Proving Ground Building E5032  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aberdeen Proving Ground Building E5032 is scheduled for decommissioning, that is, for demolition. Because the building was formerly used for small-scale operations with incendiary and toxic chemical agents, it presents unusual concerns for occupational and public health safety during the demolition. For this reason, an anticipatory risk assessment was conducted, taking into consideration the building`s history, properties of potential residual contaminants (particularly chemical and incendiary agents), and assumptions relating to meteorological conditions and envisioned modes of demolition. Safe maximum levels in concrete floors for the worst case were estimated to be: white phosphorus, 3200 mg/kg; mustard, 94 mg/kg; nerve agent GA (tabun), 6 mg/kg; cyanide, 500 mg/kg; and sulfide, 1400 mg/kg. These values will serve as planning guidance for the activities to follow. It is emphasized that the estimates must be reviewed, and perhaps revised, after sampling and analysis are completed, the demolition methodology is chosen, and dust emissions are measured under operating conditions.

Rosenblatt, D.H.; Brubaker, K.L.

1991-12-01

5

Preliminary assessment of risk from toxic materials that might be mobilized in the decommissioning of Aberdeen Proving Ground Building E5032  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aberdeen Proving Ground Building E5032 is scheduled for decommissioning, that is, for demolition. Because the building was formerly used for small-scale operations with incendiary and toxic chemical agents, it presents unusual concerns for occupational and public health safety during the demolition. For this reason, an anticipatory risk assessment was conducted, taking into consideration the building's history, properties of potential residual contaminants (particularly chemical and incendiary agents), and assumptions relating to meteorological conditions and envisioned modes of demolition. Safe maximum levels in concrete floors for the worst case were estimated to be: white phosphorus, 3200 mg/kg; mustard, 94 mg/kg; nerve agent GA (tabun), 6 mg/kg; cyanide, 500 mg/kg; and sulfide, 1400 mg/kg. These values will serve as planning guidance for the activities to follow. It is emphasized that the estimates must be reviewed, and perhaps revised, after sampling and analysis are completed, the demolition methodology is chosen, and dust emissions are measured under operating conditions.

Rosenblatt, D.H.; Brubaker, K.L.

1991-12-01

6

Clean-ups at Aberdeen Proving Ground  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Department of Defense has utilized radiative material in numerous applications over several decades. Aberdeen Proving Ground has been an integral player in the Army's Research, Development, and Testing of items incorporating radionuclides, as well as developing new and innovative applications. As new information becomes available and society progresses, we find that the best management practices used decades, or even sometimes years earlier are inadequate to meet the current demands. Aberdeen Proving Ground is committed to remediating historic disposal sites, and utilizing the best available technology in current operations to prevent future adverse impact. Two projects which are currently ongoing at Aberdeen Proving Ground illustrates these points. The first, the remediation of contaminated metal storage areas, depicts how available technology has provided a means for recycling material whereby preventing the continued stock piling, and allowing for the decommissioning of the areas. The second, the 26Th Street Disposal Site Removal Action, shows how historic methods of disposition were inadequate to meet today's needs

1994-03-03

7

University of Aberdeen Electronics Research Group  

Science.gov (United States)

University of Aberdeen, Electronics Research Group. Topics include artificial neural networks, neural web, hybrid systems and applications, satellite communications - VSATs, site diversity networks, networking - ATM, TCP/IP & X.25 implementation, protocol benchmarking, spread spectrum, and fault tolerant communications. Services provided include online digest archives including Neuron Digest, TidBITS and Alife digest.

8

Geophysics: Building E5476 decommissiong, Aberdeen Proving Ground  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Building E5476 was one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek and Westwood areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar, were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. The large number of magnetic sources surrounding the building are believed to be contained in construction fill. The smaller anomalies, for the most part, were not imaged with ground radar or by electrical profiling. Large magnetic anomalies near the southwest comer of the building are due to aboveground standpipes and steel-reinforced concrete. Two high-resistivity areas, one projecting northeast from the building and another south of the original structure, may indicate the presence of organic pore fluids in the subsurface. A conductive lineament protruding from the south wall that is enclosed by the southem, high-resistivity feature is not associated with an equivalent magnetic anomaly. Magnetic and electrical anomalies south of the old landfill boundary are probably not associated with the building. The boundary is marked by a band of magnetic anomalies and a conductive zone trending northwest to southeast. The cause of high resistivities in a semicircular area in the southwest comer, within the landfill area, is unexplained

1992-01-01

9

Decommissioning Handbook  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Decommissioning Handbook is a technical guide for the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The decommissioning of a nuclear facility involves the removal of the radioactive and, for practical reasons, hazardous materials to enable the facility to be released and not represent a further risk to human health and the environment. This handbook identifies and technologies and techniques that will accomplish these objectives. The emphasis in this handbook is on characterization; waste treatment; decontamination; dismantling, segmenting, demolition; and remote technologies. Other aspects that are discussed in some detail include the regulations governing decommissioning, worker and environmental protection, and packaging and transportation of the waste materials. The handbook describes in general terms the overall decommissioning project, including planning, cost estimating, and operating practices that would ease preparation of the Decommissioning Plan and the decommissioning itself. The reader is referred to other documents for more detailed information. This Decommissioning Handbook has been prepared by Enserch Environmental Corporation for the US Department of Energy and is a complete restructuring of the original handbook developed in 1980 by Nuclear Energy Services. The significant changes between the two documents are the addition of current and the deletion of obsolete technologies and the addition of chapters on project planning and the Decommissioning Plan, regulatory requirements, characterization, remote technology, and packaging and transportation of the waste materials.

1994-03-01

10

Decommissioning handbook  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this paper is to provide information on the Handbook and its application as a resource in decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) work. The nature of the unique hazards contained in nuclear facilities demand a comprehensive step-by-step program to cover their design, licensing, and commissioning or start-up. Similarly, because of residual radioactivity, a termination of operations (decommissioning) also presents hazards that must be addressed from a technological and programmatic standpoint. To meet the needs raised by these issues, the original Decommissioning Handbook was prepared in 1980 by Nuclear Energy Services under contract to the United States Department of Energy (DOE). Its mission was to provide technical guidance on the D and D of both commercial and government-owned nuclear facilities, including characterization, decontamination, dismantling, and disposition (disposal or salvage) of a facility's equipment and structure. In addition, depending on the regulatory requirements for material disposal and/or the wastes generated by decontamination, the management of waste can also be considered as a decommissioning activity. Chapters are Operational and predecommissioning activities; Decommissioning project; Decommissioning plan; Regulations; Final project configuration; Characterization; Waste treatment; Decontamination; Dismantling, segmenting, and demolition; Remote handling equipment; Environmental protection; Packaging and transportation; and Decommissioning cost estimates. Appendices contain a prediction method for estimation of radiactive inventory and a glossary

1994-12-01

11

Decommissioning handbook  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document is a compilation of information pertinent to the decommissioning of surplus nuclear facilities. This handbook is intended to describe all stages of the decommissioning process including selection of the end product, estimation of the radioactive inventory, estimation of occupational exposures, description of the state-of-the-art in re decontamination, remote csposition of wastes, and estimation of program costs. Presentation of state-of-the-art technology and data related to decommissioning will aid in consistent and efficient program planning and performance. Particular attention is focused on available technology applicable to those decommissioning activities that have not been accomplished before, such as remote segmenting and handling of highly activated 1100 MW(e) light water reactor vessel internals and thick-walled reactor vessels. A summary of available information associated with the planning and estimating of a decommissioning program is also presented. Summarized in particular are the methodologies associated with the calculation and measurement of activated material inventory, distribution, and surface dose level, system contamination inventory and distribution, and work area dose levels. Cost estimating techniques are also presented and the manner in which to account for variations in labor costs as impacting labor-intensive work activities is explained

1980-01-01

12

Decommissioning handbook  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document is a compilation of information pertinent to the decommissioning of surplus nuclear facilities. This handbook is intended to describe all stages of the decommissioning process including selection of the end product, estimation of the radioactive inventory, estimation of occupational exposures, description of the state-of-the-art in re decontamination, remote csposition of wastes, and estimation of program costs. Presentation of state-of-the-art technology and data related to decommissioning will aid in consistent and efficient program planning and performance. Particular attention is focused on available technology applicable to those decommissioning activities that have not been accomplished before, such as remote segmenting and handling of highly activated 1100 MW(e) light water reactor vessel internals and thick-walled reactor vessels. A summary of available information associated with the planning and estimating of a decommissioning program is also presented. Summarized in particular are the methodologies associated with the calculation and measurement of activated material inventory, distribution, and surface dose level, system contamination inventory and distribution, and work area dose levels. Cost estimating techniques are also presented and the manner in which to account for variations in labor costs as impacting labor-intensive work activities is explained.

Manion, W.J.; LaGuardia, T.S.

1980-11-01

13

Unexploded ordnance issues at Aberdeen Proving Ground: Background information  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document summarizes currently available information about the presence and significance of unexploded ordnance (UXO) in the two main areas of Aberdeen Proving Ground: Aberdeen Area and Edgewood Area. Known UXO in the land ranges of the Aberdeen Area consists entirely of conventional munitions. The Edgewood Area contains, in addition to conventional munitions, a significant quantity of chemical-munition UXO, which is reflected in the presence of chemical agent decomposition products in Edgewood Area ground-water samples. It may be concluded from current information that the UXO at Aberdeen Proving Ground has not adversely affected the environment through release of toxic substances to the public domain, especially not by water pathways, and is not likely to do so in the near future. Nevertheless, modest but periodic monitoring of groundwater and nearby surface waters would be a prudent policy.

Rosenblatt, D.H.

1996-11-01

14

A sociophonetic study of Aberdeen English : Innovation and conservatism  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The current study describes and discusses patterns of variation and change in the urban accent of Aberdeen in North-East Scotland, which compared to the varieties of the Central Belt has so far received almost no attention by sociolinguists. Aberdeen is the commercial, cultural and industrial centre of the region, which is considered to be geographically remote and isolated. Therefore, its demographics and linguistic features have developed mostly independently from the rest of the country un...

Brato, Thorsten

2012-01-01

15

Aberdeen's 'Toun College': Marischal College, 1593-1623  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

While debate has arisen in the past two decades regarding the foundation of Edinburgh University, by contrast the foundation and early development of Marischal College, Aberdeen, has received little attention. This is particularly surprising when one considers it is perhaps the closest Scottish parallel to the Edinburgh foundation. Founded in April 1593 by George Keith, fifth Earl Marischal in the burgh of New Aberdeen ‘to do the utmost good to the Church, the Country and the Commonwealth?...

Reid, S. J.

2007-01-01

16

The Countess of Aberdeen's health promotion caravans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lady Aberdeen took up the leadership of the Women's National Health Association of Ireland on its foundation in 1907. The Association's main objective was to combat tuberculosis, which was a considerable health problem in Ireland at the beginning of the century. Exhibitions on tuberculosis prevention were organised and a horse-drawn caravan equipped with health education material was dispatched to the more remote parts of the island in 1908. It carried the Crusade to the north-west of Ireland until the caravan was unfortunately burnt in Co. Donegal in March 1909. Although there are ample reasons for suspecting that the fire might have been malicious, all the evidence points to an accidental cause. A local photographer took photographs of the caravan on fire. Its replacement, Phoenix, went on the road shortly afterwards, followed two years later by Blue Bird. PMID:11640062

Evans, A

1995-07-01

17

75 FR 67775 - Washington Department of Transportation, Olympic Division, Aberdeen Maintenance Office, Chehalis...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Maintenance Office, Chehalis Drawbridge Tenders, Aberdeen, WA; Notice of Negative Determination...Maintenance Office, Chehalis Drawbridge Tenders, Aberdeen, Washington, was based on...The petitioner alleged that the bridge tenders lost their jobs due to the closure...

2010-11-03

18

1982 International Decommissioning Symposium.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sixty-four papers were presented at the following sessions: policy, regulations, and standards; management of decommissioning wastes; decommissioning experience; decommissioning tooling and techniques; radiological concerns; and planning and engineering. ...

S. Mickelson

1982-01-01

19

1982 international decommissioning symposium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sixty-four papers were presented at the following sessions: policy, regulations, and standards; management of decommissioning wastes; decommissioning experience; decommissioning tooling and techniques; radiological concerns; and planning and engineering

1982-10-10

20

Workshop on decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Nordic workshop on decommissioning of nuclear facilities was held at Risoe in Denmark September 13-15, 2005. The workshop was arranged by NKS in cooperation with the company Danish Decommissioning, DD, responsible for decommissioning of nuclear facilities at Risoe. Oral presentations were made within the following areas: International and national recommendations and requirements concerning decommissioning of nuclear facilities Authority experiences of decommissioning cases Decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Denmark Decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Sweden Plans for decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Norway Plans for decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Finland Decommissioning of nuclear facilities in German and the UK Decommissioning of nuclear facilities in the former Soviet Union Results from research and development A list with proposals for future work within NKS has been prepared based on results from group-work and discussions. The list contains strategic, economical and political issues, technical issues and issues regarding competence and communication. (au)

2005-09-13

 
 
 
 
21

Decommissioning nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper begins with a discussion of the alternative decommissioning methods and associated issues. They follow with a review of actual decommissioning experience in the U.S. and abroad, environmental impacts, the transport of radioactive nuclear waste, and post-decommissioning land use options. The discussion concludes with future decommissioning problems and potential mitigation strategies

1984-01-01

22

Decommissioning ITER at Clarington  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A brief overview of the ITER fusion facility will be presented, followed by an outline of the decommissioning plan. The objective of the decommissioning plan is to provide a credible estimate for the eventual decommissioning of ITER at the end of its useful life more than 30 years from now. A detailed analysis was performed to establish a credible cost estimate for the eventual decommissioning of the ITER facility, in spite of many uncertainties and unknowns. (author)

2003-06-08

23

Genetic characterization of Aberdeen Angus cattle using molecular markers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aberdeen Angus beef cattle from the Brazilian herd were studied genetically using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP of the kappa-casein - HinfI (CSN3 - HinfI, beta-lactoglobulin - HaeIII (LGB - HaeIII and growth hormone AluI (GH- AluI genes, as well as four microsatellites (TEXAN15, CSFM50, BM1224 and BM7160. The RFLP genotypes were determined using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR followed by digestion with restriction endonucleases and electrophoresis in agarose gels. With the exception of the microsatellite BM7160, which was analyzed in an automatic sequencer, the PCR products were genotyped by silver staining. The allele and genotype frequencies, heterozygosities and gene diversity were estimated. The values for these parameters of variability were comparable to other cattle breeds. The genetic relationship of the Aberdeen Angus to other breeds (Caracu, Canchim, Charolais, Guzerath, Gyr, Nelore, Santa Gertrudis and Simmental was investigated using Nei's genetic distance. Cluster analysis placed the Aberdeen Angus in an isolated group in the Bos taurus breeds branch. This fact is in agreement with the geographic origin of this breed.

Luciana Pimentel de Mello Klocker Vasconcellos

2003-01-01

24

Genetic characterization of Aberdeen Angus cattle using molecular markers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Aberdeen Angus beef cattle from the Brazilian herd were studied genetically using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the kappa-casein - HinfI (CSN3 - HinfI), beta-lactoglobulin - HaeIII (LGB - HaeIII) and growth hormone AluI (GH- AluI) genes, as well as four microsatellites (TEXAN15, [...] CSFM50, BM1224 and BM7160). The RFLP genotypes were determined using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by digestion with restriction endonucleases and electrophoresis in agarose gels. With the exception of the microsatellite BM7160, which was analyzed in an automatic sequencer, the PCR products were genotyped by silver staining. The allele and genotype frequencies, heterozygosities and gene diversity were estimated. The values for these parameters of variability were comparable to other cattle breeds. The genetic relationship of the Aberdeen Angus to other breeds (Caracu, Canchim, Charolais, Guzerath, Gyr, Nelore, Santa Gertrudis and Simmental) was investigated using Nei's genetic distance. Cluster analysis placed the Aberdeen Angus in an isolated group in the Bos taurus breeds branch. This fact is in agreement with the geographic origin of this breed.

Vasconcellos, Luciana Pimentel de Mello Klocker; Tambasco-Talhari, Daniella; Pereira, Andréa Pozzi; Coutinho, Luiz Lehmann; Regitano, Luciana Correia de Almeida.

25

Recommended IAEA decommissioning levels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The areas covered by each of the two terms 'decommissioning' and 'dismantling' of a nuclear installation are defined in order to distinguish them with greater accuracy. Decommissioning is first an administrative decision and afterwards all the material operations involved by this decision. Dismantling is only one of the material operations of the decommissioning but it can be the most important. For the IAEA the possible outcomes for a decommissioned installation fall under three main headings (stages) which we call 'decommissioning levels'. - level 1: shut-down with surveillance, - level 2: conditional release for another use, - level 3: unconditional release of the site

1977-03-31

26

Nuclear power plant decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A number of issues have to be taken into account before the introduction of any nuclear power plant in any country. These issues include reactor safety (site and operational), waste disposal and, lastly, the decommissioning of the reactor inself. Because of the radioactive nature of the components, nuclear power plants require a different approach to decommission compared to other plants. Until recently, issues on reactor safety and waste disposal were the main topics discussed. As for reactor decommissioning, the debates have been academic until now. Although reactors have operated for 25 years, decommissioning of retired reactors has simply not been fully planned. But the Shippingport Atomic Power Plant in Pennysylvania, the first large scale power reactor to be retired, is now being decommissioned. The work has rekindled the debate in the light of reality. Outside the United States, decommissioning is also being confronted on a new plane. (author)

1986-01-01

27

Genetic characterization of Aberdeen Angus cattle using molecular markers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aberdeen Angus beef cattle from the Brazilian herd were studied genetically using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the kappa-casein - HinfI (CSN3 - HinfI), beta-lactoglobulin - HaeIII (LGB - HaeIII) and growth hormone AluI (GH- AluI) genes, as well as four microsatellites (TEXAN15, CSFM50, BM1224 and BM7160). The RFLP genotypes were determined using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by digestion with restriction endonucleases and electrophoresis in agarose gels. W...

Luciana Pimentel de Mello Klocker Vasconcellos; Daniella Tambasco-Talhari; Andréa Pozzi Pereira; Luiz Lehmann Coutinho,; Luciana Correia de Almeida Regitano

2003-01-01

28

Ascertainment of familial ovarian cancer in the Aberdeen Genetic Clinic.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ovarian cancer is the fifth most common malignancy in women in the UK. Patients with a family history including ovarian cancer make up nearly 15% of family cancer referrals to the Genetic Clinic in Aberdeen. To date, only one pedigree has been suitable for linkage studies, which has enabled us to target screening more accurately at those people at highest risk. Following discovery of a strong candidate for the BRCA1 gene, direct mutation testing may soon be possible. People who seek testing w...

Gregory, H.; Schofield, A.; Silva, D.; Semper, J.; Milner, B.; Allan, L.; Haites, N.

1996-01-01

29

Decommissioning of reprocessing plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper illustrates, with detailed reference to the BNFL programme at Sellafield, that the decommissioning of full scale reprocessing facilities can be achieved within predicted targets and with technologies and techniques available today. With the experience gained to date and with the organising research and development programmes there can be confidence that the currently operating reprocessing plants can be safely decommissioned. (Author).

Kelly, W.S.; Sheil, A.E. [British Nuclear Fuels plc, Sellafield (United Kingdom)

1995-12-31

30

International Decommissioning Strategies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The IAEA has been developing guidance and technical information relating to the decommissioning and decommissioning strategies of nuclear facilities for over 20 years. During this time, the international concept of decommissioning strategies, and its importance, has changed. Three basic decommissioning strategies are envisaged as possibilities for nuclear installations: immediate dismantling, deferred dismantling and entombment. All have advantages and disadvantages, but the International Conference on Safe Decommissioning for Nuclear Activities demonstrated that immediate dismantling is the generally preferred option. However, there are a number of factors that might lead operators to choose one of the other strategies, and each situation has to be examined individually to identify the optimal strategy for that situation. The basic approach of these three strategies is discussed in the paper. (author)

2005-06-01

31

Decommissioning of Olkiluoto power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A conceptual plan for decommissioning of Olkiluoto Power Plant is presented. Deferred dismantlement after a safe storage period of 30 years is regarded as the main alternative. The sequence of decommissioning tasks and the techniques for performing them are described, including the management and disposal of decommissioning wastes. Occupational and public radiation dose estimates are given. Manpower requirements and costs of decommissioning are evaluated

1982-01-01

32

Decommissioning at AWE  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

AWE (A) has been at the heart of the UK Nuclear deterrent since it was established in the early 1950's. It is a nuclear licensed site and is governed by the United Kingdoms Nuclear Installation Inspectorate (NII). AWE plc on behalf of the Ministry of Defence (MOD) manages the AWE (A) site and all undertakings including decommissioning. Therefore under NII license condition 35 'Decommissioning', AWE plc is accountable to make and implement adequate arrangements for the decommissioning of any plant or process, which may affect safety. The majority of decommissioning projects currently being undertaken are to do with Hazard category 3, 4 or 5 facilities, systems or plant that have reached the end of their operational span and have undergone Post-Operational Clean-Out (POCO). They were either built for the production of fissile components, for supporting the early reactor fuels programmes or for processing facility waste arisings. They either contain redundant contaminated gloveboxes associated process areas, process plant or systems or a combination of all. In parallel with decommissioning project AWE (A) are undertaking investigation into new technologies to aid decommissioning projects; to remove the operative from hands on operations; to develop and implement modifications to existing process and techniques used. AWE (A) is currently going thorough a sustained phase of upgrading its facilities to enhance its scientific capability, with older facilities, systems and plant being replaced, making decommissioning a growth area. It is therefore important to the company to reduce these hazards progressively and safety over the coming years, making decommissioning an important feature of the overall legacy management aspects of AWE PLC's business. This paper outlines the current undertakings and progress of Nuclear decommissioning on the AWE (A) site. (authors)

2008-02-24

33

Civilian Talent Management: A Proposed Approach for the Aberdeen Proving Ground Workforce.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) act of 2005 presents extraordinary challenges for the workforce at Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland. In total, over 5,000 government civilian positions will be relocated to APG, and many will arrive unencumbe...

R. S. Cozby

2010-01-01

34

The impact of oil on the Scottish economy with particular reference to the Aberdeen economy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The establishment of the North Sea oil industry over the last 20 years has had far reaching and dramatic effects upon the whole Scottish economy but especially upon those areas where oil related activity is geographically concentrated. This chapter discusses the impact of oil on the Scottish economy with particular reference to developments in the Aberdeen area. It is comprised of five main sections. The first outlines the way in which the oil industry has developed in Britain, noting that, despite rapid growth, there have been many lost opportunities. The impact of oil related developments in Scotland is discussed next before the focus narrows to the Aberdeen economy. The third section describes the familiar benefits of oil developments in Aberdeen while the fourth section analyses some of the less familiar costs. Finally, there is some discussion of the way in which the gains and losses of oil developments in Aberdeen have been distributed. (author)

1992-01-01

35

Geophysical study of the Building 103 Dump, Aberdeen Proving Ground  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Building 103 Dump is one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek and Westwood areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, resistivity, ground-penetrating radar, and seismic refraction, were conducted. These surveys indicate that much of the area is free of debris. However, prominent magnetic and resistivity anomalies occur along well-defined lineaments, suggestive of a dendritic stream pattern. Prior to the onset of dumping, the site was described as a ``sand pit,`` which suggests that headward erosion of Canal Creek tributaries cut into the surficial aquifer. Contaminants dumped into the landfill would have direct access to the surficial aquifer and thus to Canal Creek. Seismic refraction profiling indicates 6--12 ft of fill material now rests on the former land surface. Only the northern third of the former landfill was geophysically surveyed.

McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.

1992-12-01

36

Decommissioning and site remediation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Decommissioning/site remediation is the inevitable legacy of operation of nuclear installations, and needs timely and effective management. A high number of nuclear reactors and other nuclear facilities are reaching the end of their useful lifetimes and becoming candidates for decommissioning. Large-scale decontamination and dismantling technologies have not been used in many IAEA's Member States yet, and it is expected that optimization of such technologies to projects being launched will last for many years. In addition, early planning including inter alia timely allocation of funds is not a current practice in many Member States yet. Similarly, there are a number of sites contaminated by past nuclear activities, which require remediation. The International Atomic Energy Agency provides assistance to Member States to build the infrastructure to properly manage decommissioning/site remediation projects. This concerns basic guidance on planning and implementation aspects of those activities, and specialist aspects such as infrastructure to adequately manage materials/ waste arisings (including technologically-enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials- TENORMs) and establish mechanisms to allocate decommissioning/site remediation funds. The IAEA assists Member States in drafting/reviewing of their decommissioning/site remediation plans for individual operational or shutdown facilities and national programmes in this field including assessment of status, progress and trends of these activities. It further provides Member States with information and practical guidance to deal with operation-to decommissioning transition issues including organizational and societal changes. It provide information and guidance to support Member States' development on strategic, methodological and technological approaches to achieving best practice in decommissioning/site remediation. This concerns managerial, organizational and societal issues, decontamination/dismantling of critical systems/components, and cleanup of contaminated territories. The assistance aims at training of national experts to tackle specific decommissioning/site remediation tasks. This approach also helps with proper planning and decision making for long term management of nuclear liabilities

2005-01-01

37

Decommissioning and Decontamination  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objectives of SCK-CEN's decommissioning and decontamination programme are (1) to develop, test and optimise the technologies and procedures for decommissioning and decontamination of nuclear installations in order to minimise the waste arising and the distributed dose; (2) to optimise the environmental impact; (3) to reduce the cost of the end-of-life of the installation; (4) to make these new techniques available to the industry; (5) to share skills and competences. The programme and achievements in 1999 are summarised

2000-01-01

38

The decommissioning of nuclear facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This file includes five parts: the first part is devoted to the strategies of the different operators and includes the following files: the decommissioning of nuclear facilities Asn point of view, decommissioning of secret nuclear facilities, decommissioning at the civil Cea strategy and programs, EDF de-construction strategy, Areva strategy for decommissioning of nuclear facilities; the second one concerns the stakes of dismantling and includes the articles as follow: complete cleanup of buildings structures in nuclear facilities, decommissioning of nuclear facilities and safety assessment, decommissioning wastes management issues, securing the financing of long-term decommissioning and waste management costs, organizational and human factors in decommissioning projects, training for the decommissioning professions: the example of the Grenoble University master degree; the third part is devoted to the management of dismantling work sites and includes the different articles as follow: decommissioning progress at S.I.C.N. plant, example of decommissioning work site in Cea Grenoble: Siloette reactor decommissioning, matters related to decommissioning sites, decommissioning of french nuclear installations: the viewpoint of a specialist company, specificities of inspections during decommissioning: the Asn inspector point of view; the fourth part is in relation with the international approach and includes as follow: IAEA role in establishing a global safety regime on decommissioning, towards harmonization of nuclear safety practices in Europe: W.E.N.R.A. and the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, EPA superfund program policy for decontamination and decommissioning, progress with remediation at Sellafield, progress and experiences from the decommissioning of the Eurochemic reprocessing plant in Belgium, activities of I.R.S.N. and its daughter company Risk-audit I.r.s.n./G.r.s. international in the field of decommissioning of nuclear facilities in eastern countries,; the fifth part presents the external points of view on dismantling with: the decommissioning of Saint-Laurent A, as seen by the local information committee, decommissioning: the urge for a public consultation, an evaluation of the work of the 'conseil superieur de la surete et de linformation nucleaire' (C.S.S.I.N.) - a consultative body dealing with information in the field of nuclear safety) on the issue of decommissioning basic nuclear installations, monitoring the decommissioning of nuclear facilities and examining applications. (N.C.)

2008-11-01

39

Decommissioning plan - decommissioning project for KRR 1 and 2 (revised)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is the revised Decommissioning Plan for the license of TRIGA research reactor decommissioning project according to Atomic Energy Act No. 31 and No. 36. The decommissioning plan includes the TRIGA reactor facilities, project management, decommissioning method, decontamination and dismantling activity, treatment, packaging, transportation and disposal of radioactive wastes. the report also explained the radiation protection plan and radiation safety management during the decommissioning period, and expressed the quality assurance system during the period and the site restoration after decommissioning. The first decommissioning plan was made by Hyundai Engineering Co, who is the design service company, was submitted to the Ministry of Science and Technology, and then was reviewed by the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety. The first decommissioning plan was revised including answers for the questions arising from review process.

Jung, K. J.; Paik, S. T.; Chung, U. S.; Jung, K. H.; Park, S. K.; Lee, D. G.; Kim, H. R.; Kim, J. K.; Yang, S. H.; Lee, B. J

2000-10-01

40

Decommissioning plan - decommissioning project for KRR 1 and 2 (revised)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report is the revised Decommissioning Plan for the license of TRIGA research reactor decommissioning project according to Atomic Energy Act No. 31 and No. 36. The decommissioning plan includes the TRIGA reactor facilities, project management, decommissioning method, decontamination and dismantling activity, treatment, packaging, transportation and disposal of radioactive wastes. the report also explained the radiation protection plan and radiation safety management during the decommissioning period, and expressed the quality assurance system during the period and the site restoration after decommissioning. The first decommissioning plan was made by Hyundai Engineering Co, who is the design service company, was submitted to the Ministry of Science and Technology, and then was reviewed by the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety. The first decommissioning plan was revised including answers for the questions arising from review process

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

BNFL's decommissioning and decommissioning development programmes at Sellafield  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

BNFL is faced with a major decommissioning challenge at its largest site at Sellafield in Cumbria. The site has plants dating back to the late 1940's and associated with all aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle. A dedicated Decommissioning Unit is planning and implementing decommissioning on the site. The paper describes the problems, the approach being taken, some of the major projects and gives an outline of the structure of the supporting decommissioning development programme. (author)

1991-01-01

42

Decommissioning of offshore installations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

New legislation on the handling and storage of radioactive substances came into force 1 January 2011. This version of the report is updated to reflect this new regulation and will therefore in some chapters differ from the Norwegian version (see NEI-NO--1660). The Ministry of the Environment commissioned the Climate and Pollution Agency to examine the environmental impacts associated with the decommissioning of offshore installations (demolition and recycling). This has involved an assessment of the volumes and types of waste material and of decommissioning capacity in Norway now and in the future. This report also presents proposals for measures and instruments to address environmental and other concerns that arise in connection with the decommissioning of offshore installations. At present, Norway has four decommissioning facilities for offshore installations, three of which are currently involved in decommissioning projects. Waste treatment plants of this kind are required to hold permits under the Pollution Control Act. The permit system allows the pollution control authority to tailor the requirements in a specific permit by evaluating conditions and limits for releases of pollutants on a case-to-case basis, and the Act also provides for requirements to be tightened up in line with the development of best available techniques (BAT). The environmental risks posed by decommissioning facilities are much the same as those from process industries and other waste treatment plants that are regulated by means of individual permits. Strict requirements are intended to ensure that environmental and health concerns are taken into account. The review of the four Norwegian decommissioning facilities in connection with this report shows that the degree to which requirements need to be tightened up varies from one facility to another. The permit for the Vats yard is newest and contains the strictest conditions. The Climate and Pollution Agency recommends a number of measures and requirements that should be considered in the regulation of decommissioning facilities for offshore installations. These facilities need sound expertise to be able to identify and deal with different types of waste, including hazardous waste such as heavy metals, other hazardous substances, low specific activity (LSA) radioactive material and asbestos. Facilities must be designed to allow safe handling of such waste, with no risk of runoff or infiltration into the soil. In addition, a decommissioning facility should have an effective collection system and an on-site treatment plant for contaminated water, including surface water. Each facility must have a sampling and analysis programme to monitor releases of the most relevant pollutants. The need for an environmental monitoring programme to follow developments in the recipient should also be considered. Other factors that must be closely monitored include noise and releases to air in connection with metal cutting and other operations. Moreover, decommissioning contracts must ensure that the costs of handling hazardous waste are met by the offshore operators. When decommissioning facilities for offshore installations are being sited, other interests must also be taken into account; for example, the use of nearby areas for housing, holiday housing or recreation. In addition, the implications for other sectors such as fisheries and agriculture must be taken into consideration. These are important issues that the municipalities must consider when preparing zoning plans and drawing up environmental impact assessments. In many cases, a regional authority is in a better position than a national one to make overall, cross-sectoral assessments of developments within the region. Nevertheless, the report recommends transferring the authority for regulating decommissioning facilities for offshore installations from the County Governors to the Climate and Pollution Agency. Regulating these facilities requires special expertise and overall assessments, and is best dealt with at central level. When new regulations have

Oeen, Sigrun; Iversen, Per Erik; Stokke, Reidunn; Nielsen, Frantz; Henriksen, Thor; Natvig, Henning; Dretvik, Oeystein; Martinsen, Finn; Bakke, Gunnstein

2010-07-01

43

Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Shippingport Atomic Power Station was located on the Ohio River in Shippingport Borough (Beaver County), Pennsylvania, USA. The US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) constructed the plant in the mid-1950s on a seven and half acre parcel of land leased from Duquesne Light Company (DLC). The purposes were to demonstrate and to develop Pressurized Water Recovery technology and to generate electricity. DLC operated the Shippingport plant under supervision of (the successor to AEC) the Department of Energy (DOE)-Naval Reactors (NR) until operations were terminated on October 1, 1982. NR concluded end-of-life testing and defueling in 1984 and transferred the Station's responsibility to DOE Richland Operations Office (RL), Surplus Facility Management Program Office (SFMPO5) on September 5, 1984. SFMPO subsequently established the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project and selected General Electric (GE) as the Decommissioning Operations Contractor. This report is intended to provide an overview of the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project.

McKernan, M.L.

1989-12-22

44

2. decommissioning colloquium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In connection with the close-down of nuclear facilities after reaching their designed service life limit, or for safety reasons, decommissioning is gaining in importance for industry and research. One of the priorities in this regard, in addition to the safe containment and qualification of dismantling techniques for the removal of nuclear installations, are the conditioning and ultimate disposal of components and the recycling of materials for industrial purposes. In the Ferderal Republic of Germany there are 27 decommissioned nuclear facilities. In the old federal states those are, among others, the reactor plants HDR, KKN, KRB A, KWL, MZFR, VAK, KNK II, AVR, THTR, and in the new federal states, the 11 units of the Greifswald, Rheinsberg and Stendal sites, but also installations of the nuclear fuel cycle. For more than 20 years, operators and research institutions have been intensively concerned with the various aspects of decommissioning. (orig./HP). 13 figs

1992-11-19

45

Decommissioning licensing procedure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Decommissioning or closure of a nuclear power plant, defined as the fact that takes place from the moment that the plant stops producing for the purpose it was built, is causing preocupation. So this specialist meeting on Regulatory Review seems to be the right place for presenting and discusing the need of considering the decommissioning in the safety analysis report. The main goal of this paper related to the licensing procedure is to suggest the need of a new chapter in the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (P.S.A.R.) dealing with the decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. Therefore, after a brief introduction the problem is exposed from the point of view of nuclear safety and finally a format of the new chapter is proposed. (author)

1979-11-09

46

Decommissioning of nuclear power plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Someday in the future, all of operating nuclear power plants will be ceased the operating and the plants will be decommissioned. Overseas, several plants in the United States and Europe have already decommissioned. In Japan, the decommissioning of the Japan Power Demonstration Reactor (JPDR) was completed in 1996. Japan's first commercial nuclear power plant, Tokai Power Station (Gas-Cooled Reactor (GCR)), ceased the operation in 1998, and transferred to the decommissioning stage. (author)

Oguri, Daiichiro [Nuclear Power Engineering Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

2002-05-01

47

Decommissioning of nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Someday in the future, all of operating nuclear power plants will be ceased the operating and the plants will be decommissioned. Overseas, several plants in the United States and Europe have already decommissioned. In Japan, the decommissioning of the Japan Power Demonstration Reactor (JPDR) was completed in 1996. Japan's first commercial nuclear power plant, Tokai Power Station (Gas-Cooled Reactor (GCR)), ceased the operation in 1998, and transferred to the decommissioning stage. (author)

2002-05-01

48

Preparation for Ignalina NPP decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Latest developments of atomic energy in Lithuania, works done to prepare Ignalina NPP for final shutdown and decommissioning are described. Information on decommissioning program for Ignalina NPP unit 1, decommissioning method, stages and funding is presented. Other topics: radiation protection, radioactive waste management and disposal. Key facts related to nuclear energy in Lithuania are listed

2004-01-01

49

Decommissioning of IFEC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The IFEC nuclear fuel fabrication plant operated in Italy for more then thirty years and has now been successfully decommissioned. The rules and regulations relating to Quality Assurance established during the fabrication of Cirene reactor fuel have been adhered to during the decommissioning phase. The use of personnel with large experience in the nuclear field has resulted in vast majority of cares of material and apparatus to be reutilized in conventional activities without the need of calling on the assistance of external firms. The whole decontamination process was successfully completed on time and in particular the quantity of contaminated wastes was kept to eminimun

1995-01-01

50

Vinca nuclear decommissioning program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper a preliminary program for the nuclear decommissioning in The Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences is presented. Proposed Projects and Activities, planned to be done in the next 10 years within the frames of the Program, should improve nuclear and radiation safety and should solve the main problems that have arisen in the previous period. Project of removal of irradiated spent nuclear fuel from the RA reactor, as a first step in all possible decommissioning strategies and the main activity in the first two-three years of the Program realization, is considered in more details. (author)

2002-06-04

51

Platform decommissioning costs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are over 6500 platforms worldwide contributing to the offshore oil and gas production industry. In the North Sea there are around 500 platforms in place. There are many factors to be considered in planning for platform decommissioning and the evaluation of options for removal and disposal. The environmental impact, technical feasibility, safety and cost factors all have to be considered. This presentation considers what information is available about the overall decommissioning costs for the North Sea and the costs of different removal and disposal options for individual platforms. 2 figs., 1 tab

1997-08-26

52

An air quality survey and emissions inventory at Aberdeen Harbour  

Science.gov (United States)

A network of 10 stations, with passive sampling for VOCs (including benzene), NO 2, and SO 2, over 2-week periods, grab sampling for CO, and 48-h pumped sampling for PM 10, was set up to make an air quality survey for 12 months around Aberdeen Harbour. Benzene, CO, SO 2 and PM 10 were always well below the AQS target values. However, NO 2 frequently showed a pronounced gradient across the harbour reaching its highest concentrations at the city end, indicating that the road traffic was the principal source of the pollution. This was backed up by the predominance of aromatics in the VOCs in the city centre, derived from petrol engined vehicles, compared to the predominance of alkanes and alkenes around the docks, derived from diesel engined heavy trucks and possibly ships. Black carbon on the PM 10 filters also showed a gradient with highest levels in the city centre. It is proposed that for such surveys in future, NO 2 and black carbon would be the two most informative parameters. This emissions inventory has shown first, that trucks contribute very little to the total, and second, that the ro-ro ferries are the major contributors as they burn light fuel oil while the oil platform supply vessels burn low-sulphur marine gas oil with around 0.1% S. When the whole picture of the emissions from the city is considered, the emissions from the harbour constitute only a small part.

Marr, I. L.; Rosser, D. P.; Meneses, C. A.

53

Decommissioning Work Modeling System for Nuclear Facility Decommissioning Design  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the decommissioning activities of the KRR-1 and 2 (Korea Research Reactor 1 and 2) and UCP (Uranium Conversion Plant), all information and data, which generated from the decommissioning project, were record, input and managed at the DECOMMIS (DECOMMissioning Information management System). This system was developed for the inputting and management of the data and information of the man-power consumption, operation time of the dismantling equipment, the activities of the radiation control, dismantled waste management and Q/A activities. When a decommissioning is planed for a nuclear facility, an investigation into the characterization of the nuclear facility is first required. The results of such an investigation are used for calculating the quantities of dismantled waste volume and estimating the cost of the decommissioning project. That is why, the DEFACS (DEcommissioning FAcility Characterization DB System) was established for the management of the facility characterization data. The DEWOCS (DEcommissioning WOrk-unit productivity Calculation System) was developed for the calculation of the workability on the decommissioning activities. The work-unit productivities are calculated through this system using the data from the two systems, DECOMMIS and DEFACS. This result, the factors of the decommissioning work-unit productivities, will be useful for the other nuclear facility decommissioning planning and engineering. For this, to set up the items and plan for the decommissioning of the new objective facility, the DEMOS (DEcommissioning work Modeling System) was developed. This system is for the evaluation the cost, man-power consumption of workers and project staffs and technology application time. The factor of the work-unit productivities from the DEWOCS and governmental labor cost DB and equipment rental fee DB were used for the calculation the result of the DEMOS. And also, for the total system, DES (Decommissioning Engineering System), which is now developing for the decommissioning design and plan

Park, S. K.; Cho, W. H.; Choi, Y. D.; Moon, J. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2012-05-15

54

New projects related to decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The PMU has been established in support of the KNPP Decommissioning Department. All of the Infrastructure Projects associated with Decommissioning have been identified and are being managed through the EBRD Procurement Process. The status of the following projects is presented: Evaluation of the Radiological Inventory for Units 1 to 4; Supply of Size Reduction and Decontamination Workshops; Dismantling Tools and Equipment; Heat Generation Plant; Environmental Assessment for Decommissioning; Decay Storage Site for Transitional RAW ; Information Centres for Decommissioning; Storage Site for Conventional Waste from Decommissioning; Inventory, Treatment an Conditioning of Contaminated Soil; Concrete Core Sampling Analysis; Asbestos Removal Equipment; Demolition Equipment

2008-05-28

55

Particle-accelerator decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Generic considerations involved in decommissioning particle accelerators are examined. There are presently several hundred accelerators operating in the United States that can produce material containing nonnegligible residual radioactivity. Residual radioactivity after final shutdown is generally short-lived induced activity and is localized in hot spots around the beam line. The decommissioning options addressed are mothballing, entombment, dismantlement with interim storage, and dismantlement with disposal. The recycle of components or entire accelerators following dismantlement is a definite possibility and has occurred in the past. Accelerator components can be recycled either immediately at accelerator shutdown or following a period of storage, depending on the nature of induced activation. Considerations of cost, radioactive waste, and radiological health are presented for four prototypic accelerators. Prototypes considered range from small accelerators having minimal amounts of radioactive mmaterial to a very large accelerator having massive components containing nonnegligible amounts of induced activation. Archival information on past decommissionings is presented, and recommendations concerning regulations and accelerator design that will aid in the decommissioning of an accelerator are given

1979-01-01

56

Challenges for decommissioning policies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the coming years, OECD member countries will be increasingly faced with the need to make appropriate provisions, in terms of policy, finance and management, for all aspects of decommissioning. Decommissioning requires regulatory approval and oversight, the directions of which are guided by national policy. In several instances, governments have only recently begun to address their approaches to decommissioning policy and regulation in national legislation, and international overviews of such approaches, which may eventually lead to international harmonization, are only now beginning to emerge. In parallel, policy and regulation have been evolving and a broadened competence has developed in relevant regulatory authorities. The challenge lying ahead is to establish a framework that will allow for the growth of nuclear industrial activities in competitive, globalized markets, while maintaining and assuring the safety of decommissioning for the public and for workers. Within this context, institutional arrangements, stakeholder issues, costs and funding, waste management and policies for release from regulatory control, as well as the availability of technologies and skills, need to be reviewed. (author)

2007-09-01

57

Decontamination and decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The project scope of work included the complete decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of the Westinghouse ARD Fuel Laboratories at the Cheswick Site in the shortest possible time. This has been accomplished in the following four phases: (1) preparation of documents and necessary paperwork; packaging and shipping of all special nuclear materials in an acceptable form to a reprocessing agency; (2) decontamination of all facilities, glove boxes and equipment; loading of generated waste into bins, barrels and strong wooden boxes; (3) shipping of all bins, barrels and boxes containing waste to the designated burial site; removal of all utility services from the laboratories; and (4) final survey of remaining facilities and certification for nonrestricted use; preparation of final report. These four phases of work were conducted in accordance with applicable regulations for D and D of research facilities and applicable regulations for packaging, transportation, and burial and storage of radioactive materials. The final result is that the Advanced Fuel Laboratories now meet requirements of ANSI 13.12 and can be released for unrestricted use. The four principal documents utilized in the D and D of the Cheswick Site were: (1) Plan for Fully Decontaminating and Decommissioning, Revision 3; (2) Environmental Assessment for Decontaminating and Decommissioning the Westinghouse Advanced Reactors Division Plutonium Fuel Laboratories, Cheswick, Pa.; (3) WARD-386, Quality Assurance Program Description for Decontaminating and Decommissioning Activities; and (4) Health Physics, Fire Control, and Site Emergency Manual. These documents are provided as Attachments 1, 2, 3 and 4

1982-01-01

58

Decommissioning of nuclear facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Collaborative studies are in progress in the U.K. between the U.K.A.E.A., the Generating Boards and other outside bodies, to identify the development issues and practical aspects of decommissioning redundant nuclear facilities. The various types of U.K.A.E.A. experimental reactors (D.F.R., W.A.G.R , S.G.H.W.R.) in support of the nuclear power development programme, together with the currently operating commercial 26 Magnox reactors in 11 stations, totalling some 5 GW will be retired before the end of the century and attention is focussed on these. The actual timing of withdrawal from service will be dictated by development programme requirements in the case of experimental reactors and by commercial and technical considerations in the case of electricity production reactors. Decommissioning studies have so far been confined to technical appraisals including the sequence logic of achieving specific objectives and are based on the generally accepted three stage progression. Stage 1, which is essentially a defuelling and coolant removal operation, is an interim phase. Stage 2 is a storage situation, the duration of which will be influenced by environmental pressures or economic factors including the re-use of existing sites. Stage 3, which implies removal of all active and non-active waste material and returning the site to general use, must be the ultimate objective. The engineering features and the radioactive inventory of the system must be assessed in detail to avoid personnel or environmental hazards during Stage 2. These factors will also influence decisions on the degree of Stage 2 decommissioning and its duration, bearing in mind that for Stage 3 activation may govern the waste disposal route and the associated radiation man-rem exposure during dismantling. Ideally, planning for decommissioning should be considered at the design stage of the facility. An objective of present studies is to identify features which would assist decommissioning of future systems

1977-05-13

59

CNEA decommissioning program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: According to chapter I, Art. 2.e of the National Law Nr. 24804 ruling nuclear activities in Argentina, CNEA is responsible for determining the procedure for decommissioning Nuclear Power Plants and any other relevant radioactive facilities'. The implementation the Nuclear Law, states that CNEA is responsible for deactivation and decommissioning of all relevant radioactive facilities in the country, at end of life. Consequently CNEA have created the D and D Branch in order to perform this activity. It is important point out that none of the 28 nuclear installations in Argentina is undergoing decommissioning. Nevertheless planning stages prior decommissioning have been started with the criterion of prioritising those that will probably generate the greatest volume of radioactive waste. Decommissioning plan for research reactors and Atucha I Nuclear Power Plant, radiological characterization, decontamination and treatment of miscellaneous equipment and components of the Atucha I Nuclear Power Plant and old installations are being carry out. The main task is to get the technical capability of the steps which must be followed. In order to accomplish this objective the main activities are: a) Coordinates the training of personnel and organizes the experience and technical knowledge already existing in CNEA and members of the Argentinean nuclear sector; b) Coordinates a R and D program on D and D technologies; c) Establishes close links with the operators of nuclear facilities, whose participation both in planning and in actual D and D work is considered extremely important; d)Preliminary planning and radiological characterization of significant nuclear installations. This paper summarizes general aspects of the activities which are currently in progress. (author)

2008-10-19

60

Ethics of nuclear decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

What to do with the numerous reactors that reach the end of their operating lives over the next 30 years involves ethical issues of an intergenerational kind. This essay examines various nuclear decommissioning options in the light of the ethical issues. Prompt dismantlement seems preferable to other options involving postponed dismantlement, entombment of some kind or doing nothing. It would avoid bequeathing future generations with the disamenity of entombed reactors or responsibility for dismantling other disused reactors. The choice of option also depends on the health risks through time and whether a sufficient decommissioning fund exists to avoid handing down debt and constrained choice. There is a strong case for supporting research and development from public funds to develop the technology and reduce both the health risks and the costs, especially if dismantlement is left to a future generation. (author)

1992-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Decommissioning nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the next three decade, over 300 nuclear power plants will be shut down. Eventually, the international nuclear community will have to dispose of more than 500 plants, including those currently under construction. Decommissioning is waste management on a new scale, in terms of both complexity and cost. Following plant closure, the company or agency responsible must first decide which of three courses to follow: decontaminate and dismantle the facility decay for 50-100 years before dismantling; or simply erect a permanent tomb. No one knows how much it will cost to decommission the hundreds of units in service or under construction around the world. Estimates range from $50 million to $3 billion per plant. The biggest stumbling block for all nations with nuclear plants is the lack of permanent disposal facilities for radioactive wastes. No country currently has the capability to permanently dispose of the high-level wastes now stored at a single reactor

1986-01-01

62

INTERNATIONAL DECOMMISSIONING SYMPOSIUM 2000  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of IDS 2000 was to deliver a world-class conference on applicable global environmental issues. The objective of this conference was to publicize environmental progress of individual countries, to provide a forum for technology developer and problem-holder interaction, to facilitate environmental and technology discussions between the commercial and financial communities, and to accommodate information and education exchange between governments, industries, universities, and scientists. The scope of this project included the planning and execution of an international conference on the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, and the providing of a business forum for vendors and participants sufficient to attract service providers, technology developers, and the business and financial communities. These groups, when working together with attendees from regulatory organizations and government decision-maker groups, provide an opportunity to more effectively and efficiently expedite the decommissioning projects.

M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

2001-01-01

63

Decommissioning a nuclear reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The process of decommissioning a facility such as a nuclear reactor or reprocessing plant presents many waste management options and concerns. Waste minimization is a primary consideration, along with protecting a personnel and the environment. Waste management is complicated in that both radioactive and chemical hazardous wastes must be dealt with. This paper presents the general decommissioning approach of a recent project at Los Alamos. Included are the following technical objectives: site characterization work that provided a thorough physical, chemical, and radiological assessment of the contamination at the site; demonstration of the safe and cost-effective dismantlement of a highly contaminated and activated nuclear-fuelded reactor; and techniques used in minimizing radioactive and hazardous waste. 12 figs

1991-09-08

64

Decommissioning Work Modeling System for Nuclear Facility Decommissioning Design  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

this, to set up the items and plan for the decommissioning of the new objective facility, the DEMOS (DEcommissioning work Modeling System) was developed. This system is for the evaluation the cost, man-power consumption of workers and project staffs and technology application time. The factor of the work-unit productivities from the DEWOCS and governmental labor cost DB and equipment rental fee DB were used for the calculation the result of the DEMOS. And also, for the total system, DES (Decommissioning Engineering System), which is now developing for the decommissioning design and plan

2012-05-01

65

Decommissioning and decontamination studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The decommissioning of retired Hanford facilities requires careful consideration of environmentally-related factors. Applicable ecology programs have been designed to: develop the technology associated with burial ground stabilization, thereby minimizing biotic access and transport of radioactive wastes and, characterize present 300 Area burial grounds to ascertain the potential biotic transport of waste materials away from managed facilities. Results are reported from studies on the role of plants, small mammals, and ants as potential transport vectors of radionuclides from radioactive waste burial grounds

1978-02-01

66

Decommissioning of nuclear facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The disposal of obsolete nuclear facilities, generally termed 'decommissioning', is a requirement which will grow with the world-wide expansion of nuclear energy programmes. It is therefore attracting increasing international attention. After all fissile material has been removed from the plant there is a number of options open for disposal of the remaining plant and buildings. As a minimum the plant may be closed down, made safe, and left intact on a care and maintenance basis. At the other extreme, all plant and buildings may be demolished and removed from the site which, after any necessary clean-up, is then available for unconditional reuse. The factors which govern the choice of option are identified together with the consequences which stem from the decision. Technical aspects are discussed under the headings of Decontamination, Demolition, and Disposal. Other aspects include costs and safety requirements. The current status of decommissioning is outlined in terms of practical experience, paper studies, and present legislation. The need for further information in all of these areas is recognized. Nevertheless, the conclusion is reached that the decommissioning of redundant nuclear plants can be safely accomplished, even to the cleared-site condition

1983-01-01

67

Decommissioning of nuclear submarines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The intention of this Report is to set out in simple terms the options open to the Ministry of Defence in disposing of nuclear submarines, and the extent of the problem. To this end oral evidence was taken from United Kingdom Nirex Limited (Nirex) and from the Ministry of Defence, and written evidence was taken from MoD, Nirex, the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority and Rolls-Royce and Associates Limited. The immediate problem is what to do with the nuclear submarine, DREADNOUGHT. Since decommissioning in 1982, the submarine has been lying at Rosyth Naval Base on the Firth of Forth. Upon decommissioning, the highly radioactive reactor core with the uranium fuel was removed and transported to the Sellafield reprocessing plant. The remaining radioactive part is the reactor compartment and it is the size of this, not its level of radioactivity which makes it hard to deal with. By the year 2000 a further seven nuclear submarines will have been decommissioned. There are three main options for disposing of the reactor compartments; dumping at sea, land burial in a shallow trench and land burial in a deep repository. Dumping at sea is the option favoured by the Ministry of Defence and Government, but shallow land burial remains an option. Deep burial is not an option which is available immediately as there will not be a repository ready until 2005. (author)

1989-01-01

68

IAEA decommissioning safety activities - 16397  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a summary of the recent, ongoing and planned safety related IAEA activities on planning, implementation and termination of decommissioning. Work related to the 'Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management' and to the development of the international safety standards for decommissioning of facilities using radioactive materials is described. The IAEA activities on the technical assistance to the Member States in the development and review of decommissioning plans through national and international Technical Cooperation Programme projects and through other projects (FaSa project, R2D2P Project, decommissioning of the Iraq former nuclear complex) are presented. Recently established IAEA peer review services on decommissioning are addressed, as well as the international decommissioning forum. (authors)

2009-10-11

69

Fort St. Vrain decommissioning project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCo), owner of the Fort St. Vrain nuclear generating station, achieved its final decommissioning goal on August 5, 1997 when the Nuclear Regulatory Commission terminated the Part 50 reactor license. PSCo pioneered and completed the world's first successful decommissioning of a commercial nuclear power plant after many years of operation. In August 1989, PSCo decided to permanently shutdown the reactor and proceed with its decommissioning. The decision to proceed with early dismantlement as the appropriate decommissioning method proved wise for all stake holders - present and future - by mitigating potential environmental impacts and reducing financial risks to company shareholders, customers, employees, neighboring communities and regulators. We believe that PSCo's decommissioning process set an exemplary standard for the world's nuclear industry and provided leadership, innovation, advancement and distinguished contributions to other decommissioning efforts throughout the world. (author)

1998-09-01

70

Decommissioning Facility Characterization DB System  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Basically, when a decommissioning is planed for a nuclear facility, an investigation into the characterization of the nuclear facility is first required. The results of such an investigation are used for calculating the quantities of dismantled waste and estimating the cost of the decommissioning project. In this paper, it is presented a computer system for the characterization of nuclear facilities, called DEFACS (DEcommissioning FAcility Characterization DB System). This system consists of four main parts: a management coding system for grouping items, a data input system, a data processing system and a data output system. All data is processed in a simplified and formatted manner in order to provide useful information to the decommissioning planner. For the hardware, PC grade computers running Oracle software on Microsoft Windows OS were selected. The characterization data results for the nuclear facility under decommissioning will be utilized for the work-unit productivity calculation system and decommissioning engineering system as basic sources of information

Park, S. K.; Ji, Y. H.; Park, J. H.; Chung, U. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2010-10-15

71

Decommissioning Facility Characterization DB System  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Basically, when a decommissioning is planed for a nuclear facility, an investigation into the characterization of the nuclear facility is first required. The results of such an investigation are used for calculating the quantities of dismantled waste and estimating the cost of the decommissioning project. In this paper, it is presented a computer system for the characterization of nuclear facilities, called DEFACS (DEcommissioning FAcility Characterization DB System). This system consists of four main parts: a management coding system for grouping items, a data input system, a data processing system and a data output system. All data is processed in a simplified and formatted manner in order to provide useful information to the decommissioning planner. For the hardware, PC grade computers running Oracle software on Microsoft Windows OS were selected. The characterization data results for the nuclear facility under decommissioning will be utilized for the work-unit productivity calculation system and decommissioning engineering system as basic sources of information

2010-10-01

72

ABERDEEN DRAIN, BINGHAM COUNTY, IDAHO - WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, 1978-1979  

Science.gov (United States)

A water quality survey was conducted on the Aberdeen Drain, Idaho (17040206) a tributary to American Falls Reservoir, during 1978 and 1979. During irrigation season, discharge is approximately 30 cfs and is reduced to approximately 2-5 cfs during non-irrigation season. The City ...

73

Tokai-1 decommissioning project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tokai-1 (GCR, Gas Cooled Reactor) nuclear power plant of JAPC (the Japan Atomic Power Company) started commercial operation in 1966 as the first commercial nuclear power plant in Japan. The unit had helped introduction and establishment of the construction and operation technologies regarding nuclear power plant at early stage in Japan by its construction and operating experiences. However, The Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC), the operator and owner of Tokai-1, decided to cease its operation permanently because of a fulfillment of its mission and economical reason. The unit was finally shut down in March 1998 after about 32 year operation. It took about three years for removal of all spent fuels from the site, and then decommissioning started in 2001. JAPC, always on the forefront of the nation's nuclear power generation, is now grappling Japan's first decommissioning of a commercial nuclear power plant, striving to establish effective, advanced decommissioning. The decommissioning for Tokai-1 was scheduled as 20 years project. At the beginning, the reactor was started to be in a static condition ('safe storage period'). While the reactor had been safely stored, the phased decommissioning works started from non-radioactive or low radioactive equipment toward high radioactive equipment. First five years of the project, JAPC concentrated to drain and clean spent fuel cartridge cooling pond and to remove conventional equipments such as turbine, feed water pump and fuel charge machine as planed and budgeted. From 2006, the project came into a new phase. JAPC has been trying to remove four Steam Raising Units (SRUs). The SRUs are huge component (750ton, ?6.3m, H24.7m) of the Gas Cooling Reactor (GCR) and inside of the SRUs are radioactively contaminated. Major concerns are workers safety and minimizing contamination areas during SRU removal. Therefore, JAPC is developing and introducing Jack-down method and remote control multi-functional dismantling system. This method is to cut and remove the SRUs in turn from the bottom to top remotely while lifting the SRU by a large jack system. The system enables cutting and holding not only the SRU body but also internals. This technology and experiences would be useful for the reactor removal in the near future. Skirt part of No.2 SRU cutting work was done carefully by well trained JAPC staff from August 2010 to December, 2010. (author)

2011-10-24

74

Decommissioning policy in Sweden  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Sweden the nuclear power program is, according to a parliamentary decision, limited to twelve power producing reactors. The last reactor shall be taken out of service no later than the year 2010. As a result of the Chernobyl accident the program for taking the reactors out of service will be accelerated. This report is the first approach by the Swedish authorities to formulate a decommissioning policy. It is not the final policy document but it discusses the principal questions from the special Swedish viewpoint. (orig.)

1987-10-04

75

BNFL decommissioning strategy and techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper provides an overview of the range of reactor decommissioning projects being managed by BNFL, both on its own sites and for other client organizations in the UK and abroad. It also describes the decommissioning strategies and techniques that have been developed by BNFL and adopted in order to carry out this work

2001-09-12

76

ORNL decontamination and decommissioning program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A program has been initiated at ORNL to decontaminate and decommission surplus or abandoned nuclear facilities. Program planning and technical studies have been performed by UCC-ND Engineering. A feasibility study for decommissioning the Metal Recovery Facility, a fuel reprocessing pilot plant, has been completed

1980-04-23

77

Nuclear power-reactor decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article summarizes the major findings of an evaluation of several alternatives for decommissioning 1100-MW(e) nuclear power reactors. The evaluation included the technical feasibility of decommissioning and the costs, schedule, environmental impacts, and occupational exposures for three decommissioning alternatives: mothballing, entombment, and prompt removal of radioactive components and dismantling. In addition, two combinations of these alternatives were evaluated: mothballing--delayed removal and dismantling and entombment--delayed removal and dismantling. The evaluation demonstrated that no new technology is required to safely decommission a large power reactor. The prompt removal of radioactive components and dismantling alternative is the highest in cost, requiring approximately $50 million and approximately 6 years to remove all structures at the end of useful life. The radiation exposures and environmental impacts are low for all the alternatives so that decommissioning can be accomplished without undue risk to public health and safety

1979-01-01

78

Decommissioning of nuclear power stations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the United Kingdom the Electricity Boards, the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) and BNFL cooperate on all matters relating to the decommissioning of nuclear plant. The Central Electricity Generating Board's (CEGB) policy endorses the continuing need for nuclear power, the principle of reusing existing sites where possible and the building up of sufficient funds during the operating life of a nuclear power station to meet the cost of its complete clearance in the future. The safety of the plant is the responsibility of the licensee even in the decommissioning phase. The CEGB has carried out decommissioning studies on Magnox stations in general and Bradwell and Berkeley in particular. It has also been involved in the UKAEA Windscale AGR decommissioning programme. The options as to which stage to decommission to are considered. Methods, costs and waste management are also considered. (U.K.)

1988-07-06

79

Decommissioning of VHTRC  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

JAERI modified the Semi-Homogeneous Experimental Critical Assembly (SHE) which had been used for reactor physical experiments of graphite moderated reactor since January 1961 to the Very High Temperature Reactor Critical Assembly (VHTRC) in 1985 in order to carry out nuclear safety evaluation etc. for the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). Since HTTR, which was constructed in the Oarai Research Establishment, achieved criticality in November 1998, JAERI decided to decommissioning VHTRC in 1999. The decommissioning project is planned to perform in two stages. At the first stage sampling and analysis were carried out for comparison of calculated results. Following these activities, reactor instruments, reactor control system and reactor itself were dismantled. The first stage was completed in FY2000. At the second stage, radiation shielding blocks and reactor building will be dismantled completely to green field conditions. These activities will be carried out after the clearance level is legislated in Japan. The first stage activities, which are the site characterization, radioactive inventory evaluation, surface contamination measurements for releasing the control room and the machine room from radiation controlled area to unrestricted area, neutron activation estimation on the basis of theoretical calculations, sampling and analyses of reactor components, and dismantling of reactor etc., are described in this report. (author)

Takeuchi, Motoyoshi; Nakajima, Katsutoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Fukumura, Nobuo; Nakayama, Fusao [Radioactive Waste Management and Nuclear Facility Decommissioning Technology Center (RANDEC), Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Ohhori, Hideshi [Taihei Dengyo Kaisha, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

2001-09-01

80

Remote operation in decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to reduce radiation exposure and occupational hazards during decommissioning tasks in nuclear facilities, and to allow intervention at an early stage after shutdown and in situation of accident, remotely controlled and, during execution of specific operations, autonomous systems are needed. This paper presents the results of two research programs on the subject of remote operation and robotics. One of these programs, was aimed at analyzing the tasks arising, at the review of applicable existing equipment and first conceptual studies of needed remotely operated equipment. Based on the evaluation of tasks and existing equipment, recommendation for future research and development was made. The second program concentrates mainly on advanced control and data transmission systems. This study reviews the present state-of-the-art in remote controlled robotics (REMCON) and gives total systems predictions for possible future applications within the nuclear industry. In decommissioning tasks, the main fields of application to be considered are: monitoring by visual inspection and radiation or position measurement, decontamination of assemblies or of work space, dismantling of metal or concrete structures, and possibly treatment and transport of resulting debris. (author)

1984-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project Start of Physical Decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Shippingport Atomic Power Station consists of the nuclear steam supply system and associated radioactive waste processing systems, which are owned by the United States Department of Energy, and the turbine-generator and balance of plant, which is owned by the Duquesne Light Company. The station is located at Shippingport, Pennsylvania on seven acres of land leased by DOE from Duquesne Light Company. The Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project is being performed under contract to the DOE by the General Electric Company and its integrated subcontractor, Morrison-Knudsen Company. as the Decommissioning Operations Contractor. This paper describes the current status of the physical decommissioning work, which started September 1985. The preparations required to start a major decommissioning work effort in a safe and cost effective manner are discussed including the development and implementation of a cost/schedule control system. The detailed plan required to ensure that people, property, and procedures are ready in sufficient time to support the start of physical decommissioning is also discussed. The total estimated cost of the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project should be $98.3 M, with the Project scheduled for completion in April 1990. As the decommissioning of the first commercial-scale nuclear power plant, the Shippingport Project is expected to set the standard for safe, cost-effective demolition of nuclear plants

1987-04-01

82

Funding Decommissioning - UK Experience  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

'Funding' started with CEGB and SSEB (state-owned electric utilities) in 1976 using the internal un-segregated fund route (i.e unfunded). This continued until privatisation of electricity industry (excluding nuclear) in 1990. Assets bought with the internal un-segregated fund were mostly transferred into non-nuclear private utilities. New state-owned Nuclear Electric (England and Wales) was given a 'Fossil Fuel Levy', a consumer charge of 10% on retail bills, amounting to c. BP 1 bn. annually. This allowed Nuclear Electric to trade legally (A reserve of BP 2.5 bn. was available from Government if company ran out of money). By 1996 the newer nuclear stations (AGRS plus PWR) were privatised as British Energy. British Energy started an external segregated fund, the Nuclear Decommissioning Fund, with a starting endowment of c. BP 225 m. - and BE made annual contributions of British Pound 16 m. into the Fund. Assumptions were that BE had 70 to accumulate cash and could get a 3.5% average annual real return. Older stations (Magnox) were left in private sector and went to BNFL in 1997. Magnox inherited the surplus cash in BE - mostly unspent Fossil Fuel Levy receipts - of c. BP 2.6 bn. Government gave an 'Undertaking' to pay BP 3.8 bn. (escalating at 4.5% real annually) for Magnox liabilities, should Magnox Electric run out of cash. BNFL inherited the BP 2.6 bn. and by 2000 had a 'Nuclear Liabilities Investment Portfolio' of c. BP 4 bn. This was a quasi-segregated internal fund for liabilities in general. [Note: overall UK nuclear liabilities in civilian sector were running at c. BP 48 bn. by now]. BE started profitable and paid BP 100 m. annually in dividends to private investors for several years. BE ran into severe financial problems after 2001 and Government organised restructuring aid, now approved by European Commission. Terms include: - BE now to contribute BP 20 m. a year into an expanded Nuclear Liabilities Fund; - A bond issue of BP 275 m. to go to Fund; - 65% of all BE free cash flow to go to the Fund; - Government would pay for all Stage 1/2/3 decommissioning expenses that BE could not meet. BE is still a private company in a formal sense but the UK Office of National Statistics classifies it as a public sector company, because it regards control (not ownership) as in State hands. Government is now setting up the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) to manage all public sector liabilities. Intention was to have a 'segregated account' to help give assurance that funding would be long-term and reliable. First draft Annual Plan does not mention segregation or any funding commitment beyond the first year (2005/6). The BNFL NLIP will presumably go to the Treasury. NLIP will presumably go to the Treasury. In conclusion, it is clean that the decommissioning funding system has been short term and has relied mainly on Government. Some consumer contributions have been made, but now that nuclear power competes in a private market place and is relatively expensive, there is no guarantee that consumers/polluters will pay for a significant proportion of decommissioning costs

2006-06-30

83

Investigations on the decommissioning of nuclear facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study discusses and evaluates safety and licensing related aspects associated with the decommissioning of nuclear power plants. Important decommissioning projects and experiences with relevance to decommissioning are analyzed. Recent developments in the field of decommissioning techniques with the potential of reducing the occupational dose to decommissioning workers are described and their range of application is discussed. The radiological consequences of the recycling of scrap metal arising during decommissioning are assessed. The results may be used to evaluate present licensing practices and may be useful for future licensing procedures. Finally the environmental impact of radionuclide release via air and water pathways associated with decommissioning activities is estimated. (orig.)

1985-02-01

84

International Radiation Safety Recommendations on Decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The IAEA Safety Standards for decommissioning state that the regulatory body shall establish requirements for the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, including conditions on the end points of decommissioning. One of the main important issues is that the operator shall be responsible for all aspects of safety of the facility during its lifetime, including the decommissioning activities. The paper mainly addresses the activities associated with the decommissioning of research reactors, primarily with decommissioning after planned final shutdown. It is intended to provide guidance to national authorities and operating organizations for the planning and safe management of the decommissioning of such installations. (author)

2005-06-01

85

Decommissioning challenges: an industrial reality?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The French Nuclear Energy Society (SFEN) is preparing the 2008 Avignon international conference on decommissioning, dismantling, decontamination and re-utilization which will be held in Avignon, France, September, 28 to October, 2, 2008.''Decommissioning challenges: an industrial reality?'' is a five-yearly forum, for the discussion of the regulatory, social, scientific and technical aspects of decontamination, decommissioning and associated material and waste management and site/building reuse. The 2008 conference programme will include commercial, government and international projects updates as well as present project management, technology and regulatory developments and improvements and the feedback experience

2008-10-02

86

Nuclear installations: decommissioning and dismantling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document is a compilation of seven talks given during the 1995 EUROFORUM conference about decommissioning and dismantling of Nuclear installations in the European Community. The first two papers give a detailed description of the legal, financial and regulatory framework of decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear facilities in the European Union and a review of the currently available decommissioning techniques for inventory, disassembly, decontamination, remote operations and management of wastes. Other papers describe some legal and technical aspects of reactor and plants dismantling in UK, Germany, Spain and France. (J.S.)

1995-01-01

87

Minimising the impact of decommissioning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The successful decommissioning of offshore structures depends on advances in technology together with economic safety and environmental acceptability. A review is presented of research into the technical problems in the decommissioning of steel and concrete platforms, especially new techniques for cutting steel and concrete underwater, innovations in vessel development for removal and disposal and advances in the non-linear dynamics of removal and refloating of gravity structures. Technology transfer from other industrial areas will provide a generation of new solutions to existing decommissioning and abandonment problems. (UK)

Al-Hassani, S.T.S. [University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology (United Kingdom)

1996-12-31

88

Decommissioning of multiple-reactor stations: facilitation by sequential decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reductions in cost and radiation dose can be achieved for decommissionings at multiple reactor stations because of factors not necessarily present at a single reactor station: reactors of similar design, the opportunity for sequential decommissioning, a site dedicated to nuclear power generation, and the option of either interim or permanent low-level radioactive waste storage facilities onsite. The cost and radiation dose reductions occur because comprehensive decommissioning planning need only be done once, because the labor force is stable and need only be trained once, because there is less handling of radioactive wastes, and because central stores, equipment, and facilities may be used. The cost and radiation dose reductions are sensitive to the number and types of reactors on the site, and to the alternatives selected for decommissioning

1982-10-14

89

Remedial investigation report for J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Volume 3: Ecological risk assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Environmental Management Division of the U.S. Army Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation (RI) and feasibility study (FS) of the J-Field area at APG, pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. As part of that activity, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted an ecological risk assessment (ERA) of the J-Field site. This report presents the results of that assessment.

Hlohowskyj, I.; Hayse, J.; Kuperman, R.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R.

2000-02-25

90

Decontamination & decommissioning focus area  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In January 1994, the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM) formally introduced its new approach to managing DOE`s environmental research and technology development activities. The goal of the new approach is to conduct research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE, utilizing the best talent in the Department and in the national science community. To facilitate this solutions-oriented approach, the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50, formerly the Office of Technology Development) formed five Focus AReas to stimulate the required basic research, development, and demonstration efforts to seek new, innovative cleanup methods. In February 1995, EM-50 selected the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to lead implementation of one of these Focus Areas: the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D & D) Focus Area.

NONE

1996-08-01

91

Decommissioning Cost Assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The future costs for dismantling, decommissioning and handling of associated radioactive waste of nuclear installations represents substantial liabilities. It is the generations that benefits from the use of nuclear installations that shall carry the financial burden. Nuclear waste programmes have occasionally encountered set-backs related to the trust from society. This has resulted in delayed, redirected or halted activities, which has the common denominator of costs increases. In modern democratic countries, information sharing, knowledge transfer and open communication about costs for the management of radioactive waste are prerequisites for the task to develop modern methods for public participation and thus to develop well-founded and justified confidence for further development of nuclear energy. Nuclear and radiation safety Authorities have a clear role to provide unbiased information on any health, safety, financial and environmental related issues. This task requires a good understanding of the values and opinion of the public, and especially those of the younger generation

2012-01-01

92

Energia líquida no leite e desempenho de bezerros de vacas primíparas Aberdeen Angus / Milk net energy and performance of calves from Aberdeen Angus primiparous cows  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a disponibilidade de energia líquida no leite de vacas primíparas Aberdeen Angus e sua relação com o desempenho ponderal dos bezerros. Foram utilizadas 47 vacas, criadas em condições extensivas, no município de Aceguá, RS, no período de setembro de 2005 a março de [...] 2006. A produção de leite foi avaliada pelo método pesagem do bezerro anterior e posterior à mamada, do nascimento à desmama (189 dias), em intervalos de 21 dias. Para análise dos resultados foram incluídos no modelo estatístico como efeitos fixos, o resultado do diagnóstico de gestação (G) e nível de produção de leite (NPL): NPLa Abstract in english The availability of net energy in the milk of Aberdeen Angus primiparous cows and his relationship with the calves performance was studied. Fourty seven cows, raised under a range condition, in Aceguá. RS county, were evaluated between September 2005 to April 2006. Milk production (PL) was estimated [...] by before and after suckle method, from birth to weaning (189days), every 21 days. Effects studied were pregnancy (G), and milk production level (NPL): NPLa

Lemes, J.S.; Pimentel, M.A.; Brauner, C.C.; Moraes, J.C.F..

93

Decommissioning challenges - an industrial reality  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sellafield Limited has undergone many transformations in previous years. The Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) has managed the site from April 2005, and a new Parent Body Organisation (PBO) is soon to be announced. In addition, it is an exciting time for the nuclear industry following the announcement of the UK government support new reactor builds. Should the site be selected for new build, the impact on Sellafield, its decommissioning program and economic impact on the local area can only be speculated at the current time. Every past, present and future decommissioning project at the Sellafield Limited site offers complex challenges, as each facility is unique. Specialist skills and experience must be engaged at pre-planned phases to result in a safe, efficient and successful decommissioning project. This paper provides an overview of a small selection of decommissioning projects, including examples of stakeholder engagement, plant and equipment dismantling using remote handling equipment and the application of innovative techniques and technologies. In addition, the final section provides a summary upon how future technologies required by the decommissioning projects are being assessed and developed. (authors)

Moore, H.; Mort, P.; Hutton, E. [Decommissioning Zones 2 and 3, Sellafield, Cumbria (United Kingdom)

2008-07-01

94

Phenix Decommissioning Project - Overview  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

uel (criticality hazard), Sodium, Radioactive equipment. The complexity of decommissioning a facility such as Phenix is increased by: - the lack of storage facility for high radioactive material, - the decision to treat all the radioactive sodium and sodium waste inside the plant, - the very high irradiation of the core structures due to the presence of cobalt alloys. On the other hand, Phenix plant is still under operating with a qualified staff and the radioactivity coming from structural activation is well known. After the final shutdown, the first operations will be conducted by the same staff under the same safety report. Another interesting fact is that the decommissioning funds project exist and are available. The CEA decided to begin the dismantling phase without waiting because after a period of decay it is not really cheaper or easier to work. This approach needs interim storage facilities not long after the final shutdown. For the low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste there are national storage centers but for the high-level wastes, each operator must manage its waste until a suitable disposal site is available. At Marcoule a new storage facility is now being designed and scheduled to begin operating after 2013-2014. After removal of the fuel and core elements, the primary sodium will be drained and eliminated by a carbonation process. To ensure biological shielding, the reference scenario calls for filling the primary vessel with water. The most radioactive structures (dia-grid and core support) will be cut up with remote tools, after which the rest of the structure will be cut up manually. Phenix contains about 1450 metric tons of sodium. The CEA initially planned to build ATENA, a new facility for all radioactive sodium waste from R and D and FBR facilities. For various reasons, but mainly to save money, the CEA decided to treat all radioactive sodium and sodium waste in the framework of the Phenix dismantling project. There are no real difficulties in the dismantling schedule because of the advanced state of development of the processes selected for the ATENA project. Because of the knowledge already obtained, the issues concern project management, waste management and human resources reduction more than technical challenge

2008-01-01

95

Current status of Chernobyl NPP decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Strategy of Chernobyl NPP decommissioning with the decommissioning license 2002-2064 is presented. The main activities at the stage of ChNPP units shutdown (2002 - 2012) are: units maintenance in safe state; decommissioning infrastructure construction; unloading of SNF – main activity determining the stage duration; systems and elements final shutdown; decommissioning life-support systems reconstruction; Comprehensive engineering and radiation survey (CERS); dismantling of the reactor facilities external equipment; removal of RAW from units; decommissioning documentation development. The decommissioning activities main results are presented

2009-05-27

96

National provisions for decommissioning and managing radioactive waste from decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Large quantities of radioactive waste resulting from decommissioning activities of nuclear research reactors and nuclear power plant units will be generated in Romania in the near and distant future. The actual policy and strategy in the field of the management of radioactive waste in Romania are based on the stipulations of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management, ratified in Romania by the Law No. 105/1999. The paper gives an introduction of the current policy and strategy applied in Romania for nuclear decommissioning process and management of radioactive waste. The paper points out some key aspects of the national provisions concerning the nuclear decommissioning activities and management of the resulting radioactive waste: the legal framework, the responsibilities of the national authorities and of the licence holders, the main radioactive waste generators, the financing and budgeting mechanisms, etc. (author)

2010-05-26

97

The Tokai NPP decommissioning technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tokai power station was closed down in March 1998 and started decommissioning from December 2001 as a pioneer of NPP decommissioning. This article presented current state of Tokai NPP decommissioning technique. As the second stage of decommissioning works, removal works of steam raising unit (four units of heat exchangers) were started from 2006 by jacking down method with decommissioning data accumulated. Each heat exchanger was divided into top head, seven 'tears' of shell and bottom head. Each 'tear' was out and separated into a cylinder, and then divided into two by remote-operated cutting equipment with manipulators for gas cutting and motor disk cutting under monitoring works by fixed and mobile cameras. Divided 'tear' was further cut into center baffle plate, heat transfer tubes and fine pieces of shell. Cutting works would produce radioactive fine particles, which were filtered by temporary ventilation equipment with exhaust fan and filters. Appropriate works using existing technique combined and their rationalization were important at this stage. (T. Tanaka)

2013-10-01

98

Decommissioning in Lithuania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lithuania has no primary energy sources of its own. From the late 1980s, the Ignalina NPP (INPP) produced a large percentage of Lithuania's electricity. The Lithuanian electricity and gas networks are closely interrelated to the north-west power sectors of the Russian Federation. The plant, when originally constructed, was intended to supply the northwest region of the former Soviet Union rather than Lithuania alone. The first unit of INPP was commissioned in 1983 and the second unit in 1987. Since Lithuania became independent in 1990, INPP has typically contributed around 80% of national power supply. The plant is located in the north-eastern corner of Lithuania, close to the borders with Belarus and Latvia - 130 km from Vilnius, on the shore of lake Druksiai. Lithuania gained its independence from the former Soviet Union in 1990, and from then on took full responsibility for the safe operation of INPP. The plant, with two Soviet designed RBMK-1500 reactor units, is the only NPP of its type in the EU. The G7 high level meeting in Munich in 1992 was crucial to Lithuania and operation at INPP. The political decision was made that these RBMK reactors should be closed, as the reactors were judged incapable of being upgraded to Western safety levels. The first step in the preparations to close INPP was the International Donors Conference in the year 2000 in Vilnius. Shortly afterwards, the Ignalina International Decommissioning Support Fund (IIDSF) operated by the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) has been established. The initial contributions to the fund were made by a number of European countries and by the EU. Since that time, only the EU has continued to contribute to the IIDSF, its contributions now totalling 389.5 million euros, equivalent to 93% of the fund

2008-04-01

99

Decommissioning planning of Swedish nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The technologies required for the decommissioning work are for the most part readily proven. Taken into account that there will be many more years before the studied reactor units will undergo decommissioning, the techniques could even be called conventional at that time. This will help bring the decommissioning projects to a successful closure. A national waste fund is already established in Sweden to finance amongst others all dismantling and decommissioning work. This will assure that funding for the decommissioning projects is at hand when needed. All necessary plant data are readily available and this will, combined with a reliable management system, expedite the decommissioning projects considerably. Final repositories for both long- and short-lived LILW respectively is planned and will be constructed and dimensioned to receive the decommissioning waste from the Swedish NPP:s. Since the strategy is set and well thought-through, this will help facilitate a smooth disposal of the radioactive decommissioning waste. (orig.)

2013-05-14

100

Waste management considerations in nuclear facility decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Decommissioning of nuclear facilities involves the management of significant quantities of radioactive waste. This paper summarizes information on volumes of waste requiring disposal and waste management costs developed in a series of decommissioning studies performed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. These studies indicate that waste management is an important cost factor in the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Alternatives for managing decommissioning wastes are defined and recommendations are made for improvements in waste management practices

1981-02-26

 
 
 
 
101

Decommissioning: a problem or a challenge?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With the ageing of nuclear facilities or the reduced interest in their further operation, a new set of problems, related to the decommissioning of these facilities, has come into forefront. In many cases it turns out that the preparations for decommissioning have come too late, and that financial resources for covering decommissioning activities have not been provided. To avoid such problems, future liailities should be thoroughly estimated in drawing up the decommissioning and waste manageme...

Mele Irena

2004-01-01

102

Community Environmental Response Facilitation Act (CERFA) report, Former Nike Site, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents the results of the Community Environmental Response Facilitation Act (CERFA) investigation conducted by Environmental Resources Management (ERM) at the former Nike site, Aberdeen Proving Ground, a U.S. Government property selected for closure by the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Commission. Under CERFA, Federal agencies are required to identify expeditiously real property that can be immediately reused and redeveloped. Satisfying this objective requires the identification of real property where no hazardous substances or petroleum products, regulated by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), were stored for one year or more, known to have been released, or disposed. NIKE, APG, CERFA, Base closure, BRAC.

1994-04-11

103

An apparatus for studying spallation neutrons in the Aberdeen Tunnel laboratory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, we describe the design, construction and performance of an apparatus installed in the Aberdeen Tunnel laboratory in Hong Kong for studying spallation neutrons induced by cosmic-ray muons under a vertical rock overburden of 611 m water equivalent (m.w.e.). The apparatus comprises six horizontal layers of plastic-scintillator hodoscopes for determining the direction and position of the incident cosmic-ray muons. Sandwiched between the hodoscope planes is a neutron detector filled with 650 kg of liquid scintillator doped with about 0.06% of Gadolinium by weight for improving the efficiency of detecting the spallation neutrons. Performance of the apparatus is also presented

2013-09-21

104

Development of decommissioning system engineering technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the decommissioning planning stage, it is important to select the optimized decommissioning process considering the cost and safety. Especially the selection of the optimized decommissioning process is necessary because it affects to improve worker's safety and decommissioning work efficiency. The decommissioning process evaluation technology can provide the optimized decommissioning process as constructing various decommissioning scenarios and it can help to prevent the potential accidents as delivering the exact work procedures to workers and to help workers to perform decommissioning work skillfully. It's necessary to measure the radioactive contamination in the highly contaminated facilities such as hot-cells or glove-boxes to be decommissioned for decommissioning planning. These facilities are very high radiation level, so it is difficult to approach. In this case the detector system is preferable to separate the sensor and electronics, which have to locate in the facility outside to avoid the electric noise and worker's radiation exposure. In this project, we developed the remote detection system for radiation measurement and signal transmission in the high radiation area. In order to minimize worker's exposure when decommissioning highly activated nuclear facilities, it is necessary to develop the remote handling tool to perform the dismantling work remotely. Especially, since cutting, measuring, and decontamination works should be performed remotely in the highly activated area, the remote handling tool for conducting these works should be developed. Therefore, the multi-purpose dismantling machine that can measuring dose, facility cutting, and remote handling for maintenance and decommissioning of highly activated facility should be needed

2012-01-01

105

Platform decommissioning. Environmental challenges and practical solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The publication gives a short introduction of platform decommissioning, followed by an overview of what to be decommissioned and removed. This will be followed by some of the vital technologies and methods within decommissioning, abandonment of wells, removal and handling of remains that is reuse and scrapping. A final presentation with a view of current research and developments is given. 3 figs

1997-08-26

106

Decommissioning Work-unit Productivity Calculation System  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The KRR-1 and 2 (Korea Research Reactor 1 and 2) and UCP (Uranium Conversion Plant), both are nuclear facilities at KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute), were decommissioned. During the decommissioning activities, all information and data, which generated from the decommissioning project, were record, input and managed at the DECOMMIS (DECOMMissioning Information management System). This system was developed for the inputting and management of the data and information of the man-power consumption, operation time of the dismantling equipment, the activities of the radiation control, dismantled waste management and Q/A activities. And it was also for the help of the understanding of the public peoples on the safety and management of the decommissioning work and radioactive waste control from the decommissioning site. When a decommissioning is planed for a nuclear facility, an investigation into the characterization of the nuclear facility is first required. The results of such an investigation are used for calculating the quantities of dismantled waste and estimating the cost of the decommissioning project. That is why, the DEFACS (DEcommissioning FAcility Characterization DB System), which was established for the management of the facility characterization data. The DEWOCS (DEcommissioning WOrk-unit productivity Calculation System) was developing of the workability on the decommissioning activities. The unit- work productivities are calculated through this system using the data from the two systems, DECOMMIS and DEFACS. This result, the factors of the decommissioning work-unit productivities, will be useful for the other nuclear facility decommissioning planning and engineering. And also, for the total system, DES (Decommissioning Engineering System), which is now developing for the decommissioning design and plan

Park, S. K.; Cho, W. H.; Park, J. H.; Moon, J. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2011-05-15

107

BNFL decommissioning--a practical success  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The presentation will cover 4 areas of BNFL's decommissioning experience: 1. The decommissioning experience on reprocessing site at Sellafield in West Cumbria, showing examples of some of the projects that have been undertaken and some of the tools and techniques that have developed and deployed to great effect; 2. Two quite different projects, that BNFL has undertaken away from its main reprocessing site; 3. The decommissioning and delicensing of a Universities research reactor and then the decommissioning of a diffusion plant at BNFL's Capenhurst site; 4. Describing BNFL's success in penetrating the large decommissioning market in the USA

1998-03-24

108

Decommissioning study of Forsmark NPP  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

By Swedish law it is the obligation of the nuclear power utilities to satisfactorily demonstrate how a nuclear power plant can be safely decommissioned and dismantled when it is no longer in service as well as calculate the estimated cost of decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (SKB) has been commissioned by the Swedish nuclear power utilities to meet the requirements of current legislation by studying and reporting on suitable technologies and by estimating the costs of decommissioning and dismantling of the Swedish nuclear power plants. The present report is an overview, containing the necessary information to meet the above needs, for the Forsmark NPP. Information is given for the plant about the inventory of materials and radioactivity at the time for final shutdown. A feasible technique for dismantling is presented and the waste management is described and the resulting waste quantities are estimated. Finally a schedule for the decommissioning phase is given and the costs associated are estimated as a basis for funding.

Anunti, Aake; Larsson, Helena; Edelborg, Mathias [Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB, Vaesteraas (Sweden)

2013-06-15

109

Decommissioning Study of Oskarshamn NPP  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

By Swedish law it is the obligation of the nuclear power utilities to satisfactorily demonstrate how a nuclear power plant can be safely decommissioned and dismantled when it is no longer in service as well as calculate the estimated cost of decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (SKB) has been commissioned by the Swedish nuclear power utilities to meet the requirements of current legislation by studying and reporting on suitable technologies and by estimating the costs of decommissioning and dismantling of the Swedish nuclear power plants. The present report is an overview, containing the necessary information to meet the above needs, for Oskarshamn NPP. Information is given for the plant about the inventory of materials and radioactivity at the time for final shutdown. A feasible technique for dismantling is presented and the waste management is described and the resulting waste quantities are estimated. Finally a schedule for the decommissioning phase is given and the costs associated are estimated as a basis for funding.

Larsson, Helena; Anunti, Aake; Edelborg, Mathias [Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB, Vaesteraas (Sweden)

2013-06-15

110

Design improvements to facilitate decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seven gas-cooled, graphite-moderate reactors are currently in various phases of decommissioning in France. None of the nuclear generating units with pressurized water reactors (PWR) operated by EdF will have reached the end of its useful life, and will have to be decommissioned and disposed of, before 2010. According to current plans, they are to be entombed after the end of their service life. Care was taken already in the design of the PWR plants to choose materials which would ensure minimum radiation exposure, i.e. a low collective dose, to the personnel during operation and in subsequent decommissioning activities. Plant sections exposed to radiation and those not exposed were separated strictly already in the design stage in order to minimize contamination. Valuable experience in decontamination work and remotely controlled activities in radiation areas was acquired especially in replacements of large components, such as steam generators or thermal neutron shields. Another important requirement is the complete documentation of all activities, especially in decontamination. The intention is to clear for reuse or recycling as much as possible of the materials and residues arising in decommissioning, and to minimize the volume of materials requiring repository storage. (orig.)

1995-04-01

111

Shippingport station decommissioning project overview  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station (SAPS), the first commercial-sized nuclear power plant in the United States to undergo complete dismantlement. SAPS is located near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, on approximately seven acres of land owned by Duquesne Light Company (DLC), and leased to the US Department of Energy. The Station consists of a 275' by 60' Fuel Handling Building containing the Reactor Containment Chamber, the Service Building, the Turbine Building, the Radioactive Waste Processing Building, the Administration Building, and other smaller support buildings. The Station has four coolant loops; most of the containment structures are located below grade. Shippingport Station was shutdown in October, 1982. Defueling operations began in 1983 and were completed by September 1984. At that time, responsibility for the plant was transferred from DOE Office of Assistant Secretary for Naval Reactors (NE-60) to DOE Office of Terminal Waste Disposal and Remedial Action (NE-20) and then to DOE Richland Operations Office (RL). Also at that time, responsibility for the operation/decommissioning of the station systems passed from DLC to General Electric Company (GE). A caretaker and site preparation period lasted from September, 1984 to September, 1985, at which time decommissioning activities started. The decommissioning period is scheduled as September, 1985 through April, 1990. Project total estimated cost is $98.3 million

1986-07-20

112

Decommissioning Study of Oskarshamn NPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By Swedish law it is the obligation of the nuclear power utilities to satisfactorily demonstrate how a nuclear power plant can be safely decommissioned and dismantled when it is no longer in service as well as calculate the estimated cost of decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (SKB) has been commissioned by the Swedish nuclear power utilities to meet the requirements of current legislation by studying and reporting on suitable technologies and by estimating the costs of decommissioning and dismantling of the Swedish nuclear power plants. The present report is an overview, containing the necessary information to meet the above needs, for Oskarshamn NPP. Information is given for the plant about the inventory of materials and radioactivity at the time for final shutdown. A feasible technique for dismantling is presented and the waste management is described and the resulting waste quantities are estimated. Finally a schedule for the decommissioning phase is given and the costs associated are estimated as a basis for funding

2013-01-01

113

Decommissioning study of Forsmark NPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By Swedish law it is the obligation of the nuclear power utilities to satisfactorily demonstrate how a nuclear power plant can be safely decommissioned and dismantled when it is no longer in service as well as calculate the estimated cost of decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (SKB) has been commissioned by the Swedish nuclear power utilities to meet the requirements of current legislation by studying and reporting on suitable technologies and by estimating the costs of decommissioning and dismantling of the Swedish nuclear power plants. The present report is an overview, containing the necessary information to meet the above needs, for the Forsmark NPP. Information is given for the plant about the inventory of materials and radioactivity at the time for final shutdown. A feasible technique for dismantling is presented and the waste management is described and the resulting waste quantities are estimated. Finally a schedule for the decommissioning phase is given and the costs associated are estimated as a basis for funding

2013-01-01

114

Information Support for Storage Decommission  

International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

Decision - Making Information Support of Territory Remediation in the Course of Decommissioning Temporary Radioactive Waste Storage Sites in the Northwestern Region of Russia. Elaboration of an Environmental Monitoring System for Enterprises Involved in Treating and Storing Low- and Intermediate- Radioactive Wastes in the Region

115

Ecological survey of M-Field, Edgewood Area Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An ecological survey was conducted on M-Field, at the Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. M-Field is used routinely to test army smokes and obscurants, including brass flakes, carbon fibers, and fog oils. The field has been used for testing purposes for the past 40 years, but little documented history is available. Under current environmental regulations, the test field must be assessed periodically to document the presence or potential use of the area by threatened and endangered species. The M-Field area is approximately 370 acres and is part of the US Army`s Edgewood Area at Aberdeen Proving Ground in Harford County, Maryland. The grass-covered field is primarily lowlands with elevations from about 1.0 to 8 m above sea level, and several buildings and structures are present on the field. The ecological assessment of M-Field was conducted in three stages, beginning with a preliminary site visit in May to assess sampling requirements. Two field site visits were made June 3--7, and August 12--15, 1991, to identify the biota existing on the site. Data were gathered on vegetation, small mammals, invertebrates, birds, large mammals, amphibians, and reptiles.

Downs, J.L.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Fitzner, R.E.; Rogers, L.E.

1991-12-01

116

Ecological survey of M-Field, Edgewood Area Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An ecological survey was conducted on M-Field, at the Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. M-Field is used routinely to test army smokes and obscurants, including brass flakes, carbon fibers, and fog oils. The field has been used for testing purposes for the past 40 years, but little documented history is available. Under current environmental regulations, the test field must be assessed periodically to document the presence or potential use of the area by threatened and endangered species. The M-Field area is approximately 370 acres and is part of the US Army's Edgewood Area at Aberdeen Proving Ground in Harford County, Maryland. The grass-covered field is primarily lowlands with elevations from about 1.0 to 8 m above sea level, and several buildings and structures are present on the field. The ecological assessment of M-Field was conducted in three stages, beginning with a preliminary site visit in May to assess sampling requirements. Two field site visits were made June 3--7, and August 12--15, 1991, to identify the biota existing on the site. Data were gathered on vegetation, small mammals, invertebrates, birds, large mammals, amphibians, and reptiles.

Downs, J.L.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Fitzner, R.E.; Rogers, L.E.

1991-12-01

117

Air monitoring for volatile organic compounds at the Pilot Plant Complex, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Army`s Aberdeen Proving Ground has been a test site for a variety of munitions, including chemical warfare agents (CWA). The Pilot Plant Complex (PPC) at Aberdeen was the site of development, manufacture, storage, and disposal of CWA. Deterioration of the buildings and violations of environmental laws led to closure of the complex in 1986. Since that time, all equipment, piping, and conduit in the buildings have been removed. The buildings have been declared free of surface CWA contamination as a result of air sampling using the military system. However, no air sampling has been done to determine if other hazardous volatile organic compounds are present in the PPC, although a wide range of toxic and/or hazardous materials other than CWA was used in the PPC. The assumption has been that the air in the PPC is not hazardous. The purpose of this air-monitoring study was to screen the indoor air in the PPC to confirm the assumption that the air does not contain volatile organic contaminants at levels that would endanger persons in the buildings. A secondary purpose was to identify any potential sources of volatile organic contaminants that need to be monitored in subsequent sampling efforts.

Schneider, J.F.; O`Neill, H.J.; Raphaelian, L.A.; Tomczyk, N.A.; Sytsma, L.F.; Cohut, V.J.; Cobo, H.A.; O`Reilly, D.P.; Zimmerman, R.E.

1995-03-01

118

A Comparative Perspective on Reactor Decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A comparative perspective on decommissioning, based on facts and figures as well as the national policies, is useful in identifying mutually beneficial 'lessons learned' from various decommissioning programs. In this paper we provide such a perspective on the US and European approaches based on a review of the programmatic experience and the decommissioning projects. The European countries selected for comparison, UK, France, and Germany, have nuclear power programs comparable in size and vintage to the US program but have distinctly different policies at the federal level. The national decommissioning scene has a lot to do with how national nuclear energy policies are shaped. Substantial experience exists in all decommissioning programs and the technology is in a mature state. Substantial cost savings can result from sharing of decommissioning information, technologies and approaches among various programs. However, the Achilles' heel for the decommissioning industry remains the lack of appropriate disposal facilities for the nuclear wastes. (authors)

2006-03-02

119

Nuclear decommissioning in Italy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Italy is in a unique position. Italy has been in the past among the leading countries in the pacific use of nuclear energy, but, as a consequence of the 1987 referendum decided to shutdown all operating power plants, to leave uncompleted the plants under construction and to stop all related research and industrial activities declaring a 5 years moratorium on any future initiative. The moratorium ended unnoticed in 1992, since there was no political move to restart nuclear power in Italy and, in practice, it is still acting. Therefore, now the major efforts in the nuclear field are focused on the closure of past liabilities assuring safety and security highest levels. This is a duty to be carried out by the generation that used this form of energy, but, at least for somebody, also a precondition for the acceptance of any future renaissance of nuclear energy in Italy. SOGIN is a Company carrying out a service for the country and fully committed to solve the liabilities left by the interrupted nuclear industry in Italy. To this aim SOGIN is managed as a private company to assure the highest possible efficiency, but, at the same time, is driven by moral and ethical objectives and the vision of protecting the environment and health and safety of the public. SOGIN blends in a synergic way the various ENEL experiences (design and operation of NPP's) and ENEA experiences (engineering and operation of R and D and industrial facilities supporting NPP's). Such a comprehensive combination of technical competences should not be dispersed in the medium and long term and the management is committed to facilitate the technical growth of the impressing number of motivated young people joining the Company, whose enthusiasm is contaminating every day also the 'veterans', to assure for the country an asset and a presidium of very specialized multi-disciplinary nuclear competences. Speaking of possible scenarios for the future, we should mention that the current international situation in the oil market, both in terms of barrel cost and in terms of security of supplies, and the severe black-outs that have plagued also Italy (the major one in September 2003 lasting in some areas for about 24 hours), have started a widespread discussion about energy alternatives and strategic energy plans. In this frame an increasing number of politicians and scientists are calling for a reconsideration of nuclear energy as a viable option also for Italy in a new energy mix. It is clear that public acceptance of nuclear energy is strictly connected not only to the demonstration of high safety standards of future plants, but also to the solution of radioactive waste disposal and of plant decommissioning. This is the link that could make the SOGIN mission even more strategic for the country

2005-11-03

120

Comparison of composition and quality traits of meat from young finishing bulls from Belgian Blue, Limousin and Aberdeen Angus breeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirty-six young finishing bulls from three breeds (Belgian Blue, Limousin and Aberdeen Angus) were fattened over five months with finishing diets based either on sugar-beet pulp or on cereals. Nutritional quality traits of meat - fat content and fatty acid composition with emphasis on the n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids - along with some organoleptic quality traits were measured. The Belgian Blue bulls had the lowest intramuscular fat content associated with lower saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid contents. The polyunsaturated fatty acid content did not differ to a large extent between the breeds, the Aberdeen Angus bulls showing slightly higher values. Relative to energy intake, the overall contribution of meat to the n-3 fatty acid recommended intake was small, whatever the breed. By contrast, the contribution of meat to daily fat intake was of greater importance, especially for the Aberdeen Angus bulls. The quality traits of meat varied also according to the breed: compared to the Aberdeen Angus, the Belgian Blue bull meat had the stablest colour, the highest drip and the lowest cooking losses. The meat of Limousin bulls had intermediate characteristics for all the parameters. PMID:22063057

Cuvelier, C; Clinquart, A; Hocquette, J F; Cabaraux, J F; Dufrasne, I; Istasse, L; Hornick, J L

2006-11-01

 
 
 
 
121

Decommissioning of a University Cyclotron  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the decommissioning of a university cyclotron, the cost estimate provided by a decommissioning company to carry out the entire project was in excess of Pounds 1million. This level of funding was not available, and a more modest budget of Pounds 125 thousand was provided (about US$ 250 000 or Euro 180 000). This made it essential that as much of the work as possible was carried out by existing staff. Whereas existing staff could be trained to draft all the required documentation, complete the characterization survey and deliver some aspects of the decontamination programme, their greatest contribution to the project was in sorting, segregation, measurement, packaging and consignment for disposal of all of the decommissioning wastes. This necessitated provision of additional training to existing operators. At an early stage it was identified that an experienced decommissioning consultant was needed to oversee the project. The Decommissioning Consultant appointed external contractors to carry out all the heavy dismantling and demolition work associated with the project. This work involved: -Assembly of a caged storage area adjacent to the cyclotron to hold the wastes from dismantling and demolition, pending characterization for segregation and disposal by existing staff at the facility; -Removal of the D's and cutting them up in situ ready for characterization for shipment to the low level waste repository; -Removal of all rotating machinery in the adjacent generator house, then dismantling the concrete block and brick wall between the inner vault and the generator house; -Removal of extra shielding supported by girder matrix to assist removal of the concrete block wall. Collect core samples of bricks and blocks for activity estimation by operators working at the facility; -Moving of the resonator into the generator house for dismantling, monitoring and characterization; -Dismantling of ancillary equipment such as beam lines, remote target handling system, vacuum tank and inner copper blankets; -Removal of water tanks above, after first removing the upper level shielding. The cost of this heavy dismantling work carried out by the external experienced contractors was Pounds 60 000 (approximately US$120 000 or Euro 87 000) and the work was completed over an eight month period. It was essential to have the services of an experienced Decommissioning Consultant to manage the project to secure value for money and optimized delivery of this aspect of the project. Whereas the magnitude of the heavy dismantling work required makes it unrealistic for the operators to undertake this work themselves, the situation may be different when considering decommissioning of a much smaller scale facility such as a radioimmunoassay laboratory. In such circumstances, removal of surface contamination may be all that is required, such that further removal of cupboards and benches, plumbing and electrical fittings can be carried out by routine tradesmen rather than specialist heavy demolition contractors. Where access to a new disposal option is required as a 'one off'; e.g. disposal of a single consignment of waste to a low level solid waste repository, the quality assurance documentation requirements may prove unduly onerous to a small facility. This was the experience of a university when it came to decommission a particle accelerator that had been used for isotope production and research. They wished to dispose of a single consignment of 15 t of solid low level waste in a 20 cubic metre 2/3 ISO container (the approved containers used at the repository). The waste had arisen from two streams - from the cyclotron and the target waste stream and had an overall activity of 1 GBq per t for beta/gammas and 73MBq per t for alphas. The decommissioning facility manager had to institute a whole series of new management and waste control procedures on-site, to include documented audits and training records, before his quality plan to make the 'one off' disposal to the low level waste repository was accepted. In total, it took just over a year to get an

2011-09-01

122

Atomics International's recent decommissioning experience  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A program for decommissioning eight nuclear facilities has been underway by the Atomics International (AI) Division of Rockwell International during the past five years. The facilities are located at the Rockwell Santa Susana Field Laboratory, approximately 30 miles from the center of Los Angeles. The facilities served experimental and development programs for space nuclear power, liquid metal technology, and commercial power generation. The land involved is under lease to the Federal government and may revert to private ownership. The programs conducted in these facilities were terminated in the 1960s, and the facilities were placed in a layaway status. They were designated as being surplus to programmatic needs in the early 1970s, and decommissioning project authorization was received from the government in 1974

1981-02-01

123

Decommissioning Swedish nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

'The problems of decommissioning nuclear power plants in Sweden and studying what to do with the wastes have been handed over to SKB, a subsidiary of the companies that produce electricity with atomic energy. Several general studies were conducted from 1979 to 1994. Between 2000-2005, studies are to be made of each plant. A methodology for dismantling these stations has been defined that uses proven techniques and entails assessing costs. It is based on the hypothesis that decommissioning should start once nuclear fuel has been removed. This approach is still theoretical since no timetable has been set for demolishing reactors; but Sweden already has the technical know-how and financial means necessary for these operations. (author)

1999-04-01

124

Decommissioning of Germany's Niederaichbach NPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Niederaichbach nuclear power station is ideally suited for a study of decommissioning, because it has been shut down for some time. It has also been converted into the safe enclosure condition and contains a relatively low radioactivity inventory. Disposal work begins with the 'safe enclosure' plant condition. The aim is to restore the site to original 'green field' condition so as to permit use for other purposes. Thus, the decommissioning of the plant will include: Dismantling and external disposal of non-radioactive (800 tons), contaminated (1700 tons) and activated (steel 500 tons, concrete 500 tons) components; demolition of all buildings; removal of roads, canals and fences; removal and dumping of refuse (approximately 130000 tons); levelling and grassing of the area. 1 fig

1988-01-01

125

Decommissioning of nuclear power stations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Government has offered British Energy plc for sale. This company operates the UK`s AGR and PWR reactors, the most modern in the nuclear inventory. The older Magnox stations run by Magnox Electric plc will remain in the public sector. This paper briefly describes the history of development of the UK nuclear industry including details of the main differences between the three principal reactor types -Magnox, AGR and PWR stations. Current strategy, both physical and financial, for decommissioning at the end of their economic lives is presented. Arrangements are outlined for spent fuel management from the AGRs and PWR, including possible arrangements for the siting of dry stores for spent fuel prior to reprocessing. Information about methods for dealing with the liabilities of radioactive waste disposal and decommissioning in other countries is also included. (UK).

Gore, D. [House of Commons, London (United Kingdom)

1996-07-18

126

Decommissioning - The keys to success  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) owns and operates five sites across the United Kingdom. The Winfrith site in Dorset was established in the late 1950's as a centre for development of prototype reactors. During its history, nine research reactors have operated on the site together with: a fuel fabrication facility; a post irradiation examination facility; radiochemistry laboratories, etc. The largest reactor, a 100MWe Steam Generating Heavy Water Reactor, was closed down in 1990 and the last research reactor was closed in 1995. Since the early 1990's the site has been undergoing a programme of progressive decommissioning with a view to releasing the site for alternative use unrestricted by the site's nuclear history. Key drivers for the design of the programme were safety, minimising adverse environmental effects, minimising costs and ensuring stakeholder support. One requirement of the stakeholders was to ensure that the site continued to provide high quality employment. This was successfully achieved by developing a Science and Technology Park on the nuclear site. Over 40 companies are now located on the Park providing over 1000 jobs. This paper will focus on the lessons learnt from over a decade of experience of decommissioning at Winfrith and will attempt to identify the 'keys to successful decommissioning'. These 'keys' will include: defining the site end-point; planning the programme; defining the commercial strategy; cost estimation; evaluation and management of risks; safety and environmental management; and stakeholder engagement. In particular, the paper will explore the very close relationship between: funding profiles; cost estimation; risk management and commercial strategy. It will show that these aspects of the programme cannot be considered separately. The paper will attempt to show that, with careful planning; decommissioning can be achieved safety and give good value for money to the funding authority. (author)

2006-12-01

127

Decommissioning of naval nuclear ships  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the next decade the two major nuclear powers will each have to decommission more than 100 naval nuclear vessels, in particular submarines. The problems connected with this task is considered in this report. Firstly the size of the task is considered, i.e. the number of nuclear vessels that has to be decommissioned. Secondly the reactors of these vessels, their fuel elements, their power level, the number of reactors per vessel and the amount of radioactivity to be handled are discussed. Thirdly the decommissioning procedures, i.e. The removal of fuel from the vessels, the temporary storage of the reactor fuel near the base, and the cleaning and disposal of the reactor and the primary circuit components are reviewed. Finally alternative uses of the newer submarines are briefly considered. It should be emphasizes that much of the detailed information on which this report is based, may be of dubious nature, and that may to some extent affect the validity of the conclusions of the report. (au)

1993-01-01

128

Nuclear decommissioning planning, execution and international experience  

CERN Document Server

A title that critically reviews the decommissioning and decontamination processes and technologies available for rehabilitating sites used for nuclear power generation and civilian nuclear facilities, from fundamental issues and best practices, to procedures and technology, and onto decommissioning and decontamination case studies.$bOnce a nuclear installation has reached the end of its safe and economical operational lifetime, the need for its decommissioning arises. Different strategies can be employed for nuclear decommissioning, based on the evaluation of particular hazards and their attendant risks, as well as on the analysis of costs of clean-up and waste management. This allows for decommissioning either soon after permanent shutdown, or perhaps a long time later, the latter course allowing for radioactivity levels to drop in any activated or contaminated components. It is crucial for clear processes and best practices to be applied in decommissioning such installations and sites, particular where any ...

2012-01-01

129

Decommissioning plans and activities in Slovenia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the ageing of nuclear facilities, or the reduced interest in their further operation, a new set of problems, related to the decommissioning of these facilities, has come into forefront. In many cases it turns out that the preparations for decommissioning have come too late, and that financial resources for covering decommissioning activities have not been provided. In this paper a presentation is given of current decommissioning experience in Slovenia. The main problems and difficulties in decommissioning of the Zirovski vrh Uranium Mine are exposed, and the lesson learned from this case is presented. The preparation of the decommissioning programme for the nuclear power plant Krsko is also described, and the situation at the TRIGA research reactor is briefly discussed. (author)

2005-10-01

130

Radwaste concerns during nuclear plant decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The expected issue in 1983 of new NRC rulemakings on decommissioning will require licensees to giv increased attention to planning the ultimate disposal of nuclear facilities. This paper addresses the radwaste management aspects of a nuclear plant decommissioning effort. Matters discussed include wast types and quantities, disposal approaches and some ideas for reduction in wastes quantities. Planning fo the decommissioning of the Shippingport Atomic Power Station in western Pennsylvania is the authors' principal point of reference

1983-02-01

131

Nuclear power plant decommissioning cost estimate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With a number of the nuclear installations in North America and around the world approaching retirement age, the task of safely decommissioning a plant to the appropriate stage for that plant and disposing of its radioactive waste is currently being studied with a great interest. This paper presents an approach which addresses the questions of decommissioning alternatives, man-rem exposure, escalation, discounting and outlines a simple, clear and practical methodology for estimating decommissioning costs

1985-07-03

132

Development of decommissioning system engineering technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the decommissioning planning stage, it is important to select the optimized decommissioning process considering the cost and safety. Especially the selection of the optimized decommissioning process is necessary because it affects to improve worker's safety and decommissioning work efficiency. The decommissioning process evaluation technology can provide the optimized decommissioning process as constructing various decommissioning scenarios and it can help to prevent the potential accidents as delivering the exact work procedures to workers and to help workers to perform decommissioning work skillfully. It's necessary to measure the radioactive contamination in the highly contaminated facilities such as hot-cells or glove-boxes to be decommissioned for decommissioning planning. These facilities are very high radiation level, so it is difficult to approach. In this case the detector system is preferable to separate the sensor and electronics, which have to locate in the facility outside to avoid the electric noise and worker's radiation exposure. In this project, we developed the remote detection system for radiation measurement and signal transmission in the high radiation area. In order to minimize worker's exposure when decommissioning highly activated nuclear facilities, it is necessary to develop the remote handling tool to perform the dismantling work remotely. Especially, since cutting, measuring, and decontamination works should be performed remotely in the highly activated area, the remote handling tool for conducting these works should be developed. Therefore, the multi-purpose dismantling machine that can measuring dose, facility cutting, and remote handling for maintenance and decommissioning of highly activated facility should be needed.

Lee, K. W.; Kim, S. K.; Seo, B. K.; and others

2012-02-15

133

An apparatus for studying spallation neutrons in the Aberdeen Tunnel laboratory  

CERN Document Server

In this paper, we describe the design, construction and performance of an apparatus installed in the Aberdeen Tunnel laboratory in Hong Kong for studying spallation neutrons induced by cosmic-ray muons under a vertical rock overburden of 611 meter water equivalent (m.w.e.). The apparatus comprises of six horizontal layers of plastic-scintillator hodoscopes for determining the direction and position of the incident cosmic-ray muons. Sandwiched between the hodoscope planes is a neutron detector filled with 650 kg of liquid scintillator doped with about 0.06% of Gadolinium by weight for improving the e?ciency of detecting the spallation neutrons. Performance of the apparatus is also presented.

Blyth, S C; Chen, X C; Chu, M C; Hahn, R L; Ho, T H; Hsiung, Y B; Hu, B Z; Kwan, K K; Kwok, M W; Kwok, T; Lau, Y P; Lee, K P; Leung, J K C; Leung, K Y; Lin, G L; Lin, Y C; Luk, K B; Luk, W H; Ngai, H Y; Ngan, S Y; Pun, C S J; Shih, K; Tam, Y H; Tsang, R H M; Wang, C H; Wong, C M; Wong, H L; Wong, H H C; Wong, K K; Yeh, M

2013-01-01

134

A short history of medical degrees in the University of Aberdeen.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aberdeen University was the first university in Great Britain to recognise the teaching of medicine by the creation of a teaching post, that of "mediciner." It was first occupied by James Cumyne, the burgh medical officer. The first medical degree granted by the university was doctus in medicina--learned in medicine. The degree was first awarded in 1630. The first examination paper for the M.D. was set in 1787 at the time of proposal to unit King's and Marischal Colleges and following criticism of the sale of degrees in medicine and midwifery "for ready money." The present degrees of M.B., ChB. were introduced in 1895. PMID:2237392

Rix, K J

1990-08-01

135

Field studies; analysis of urban air in the city of Aberdeen for volatile organic compounds (VOCs)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of suitable methodology described in this paper for twelve different VOCs or tropospheric interest is based on target compound analysis. Their characterization by GLC from more volatile to less volatile hydrocarbons adsorbed on charcoal with subsequent desorption in xylene solvent in described. The chromatography of this group of volatile organic compounds with detection limit sample injection volume and chromatographic performance of the packed column is critically discussed for urban air samples of Aberdeen City (UK), pumped sampling on charcoal was used with subsequent desorption into xylene. The only problem is the volume of solvent required in routine analysis, usually of the order of the milliliter, sine only a micro-litter of extracts is injected into the GLC, which reduces the sensitivity of the method compared to that of thermal desorption

1999-01-01

136

Experiences in teaching decommissioning - 16179  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper describes the experience gained by the author in teaching decommissioning in the Highlands of Scotland. Initially when asked to teach the subject of decommissioning to students sitting for a BSc degree in 'Electrical or Mechanical Engineering with Decommissioning Studies', the author was taken aback, not having previously taught degree students and there was no precedent since there was no previous material or examples to build on. It was just as difficult for the students since whilst some had progressed from completing HND studies, the majority were employed at the Dounreay site and were mature students with families who were availing themselves of the opportunity for career advancement (CPD). Some of the students were from the UKAEA and its contractors whilst others were from Rolls-Royce working at Vulcan, the Royal Navy's establishment for testing nuclear reactors for submarines. A number of the students had not been in a formal learning environment for many years. The College which had originally been funded by the UKAEA and the nuclear industry in the 1950's was anxious to break into the new field of Decommissioning and were keen to promote these courses in order to support the work progressing on site. Many families in Thurso, and in Caithness, have a long tradition of working in the nuclear industry and it was thought at the time that expertise in nuclear decommissioning could be developed and indeed exported elsewhere. In addition the courses being promoted by the College would attract students from other parts so that a centre of excellence could be established. In parallel with formal teaching, online courses were also developed to extend the reach of the College. The material was developed as a mixture of power point presentations and formal notes and was obtained from existing literature, web searches and interactive discussions with people in the industry as well as case studies obtained from actual situations. Assignments were set and examination papers prepared which were validated by internal and external assessors. The first course was started in 2004 (believed to be unique at that time) and attracted eight students. Subsequent courses have been promoted as well as a BEng (Hons) course which also included a course on Safety and Reliability. (authors)

2009-10-11

137

U.S. decommissioning requirements and recommendations on international principles and rules on decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

U.S. requirements for decommissioning nuclear power plants have been under development for the past seven years. During the year 1985, policies and requirements for the following areas will be developed: methods of decommissioning, timing, planning, and financial security. Due to the common nature of the problems with decommissioning, international exchange of information is highly desirable. (CW)

1985-10-02

138

Evaluating decommissioning costs for nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An overview is presented of the economic aspects of decommissioning of large nuclear power plants in an attempt to put the subject in proper perspective. This is accomplished by first surveying the work that has been done to date in evaluating the requirements for decommissioning. A review is presented of the current concepts of decommissioning and a discussion of a few of the uncertainties involved. This study identifies the key factors to be considered in the econmic evaluation of decommissioning alternatives and highlights areas in which further study appears to be desirable. 12 refs

1979-09-19

139

Decommissioning Technology Development for Nuclear Research Facilities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is predicted that the decommissioning of a nuclear power plant would happen in Korea since 2020 but the need of partial decommissioning and decontamination for periodic inspection and life extension still has been on an increasing trend and its domestic market has gradually been extended. Therefore, in this project we developed following several essential technologies as a decommissioning R and D. The measurement technology for in-pipe radioactive contamination was developed for measuring alpha/beta/gamma emitting nuclides simultaneously inside a in-pipe and it was tested into the liquid waste transfer pipe in KRR-2. And the digital mock-up system for KRR-1 and 2 was developed for choosing the best scenarios among several scenarios on the basis of various decommissioning information(schedule, waste volume, cost, etc.) that are from the DMU and the methodology of decommissioning cost estimation was also developed for estimating a research reactor's decommissioning cost and the DMU and the decommissioning cost estimation system were incorporated into the decommissioning information integrated management system. Finally the treatment and management technology of the irradiated graphites that happened after decommissioning KRR-2 was developed in order to treat and manage the irradiated graphites safely.

Lee, K. W.; Kang, Y. A.; Kim, G. H. (and others)

2007-06-15

140

Designing systems of the decommissioning database  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It has been reviewed and input and output system and chosen an items of input and output to embody of the decommissioning database. The relationship of the decommissioning informations has been found out using ERD(Entity Relationship Diagram) that is one of the major modeling tool. It has been expressed the process function of the decommissioning database system through DFD(Data Flow Diagram). These results will be used as the basic data to design the prototyping and graphic user interface for the decommissioning database

2002-10-01

 
 
 
 
141

26 CFR 1.88-1 - Nuclear decommissioning costs.  

Science.gov (United States)

...for the purpose of decommissioning the nuclear power plant owned by X. In that...include in gross income decommissioning costs that relate...20 percent of the plant operating costs, including decommissioning costs, incurred...

2009-04-01

142

The Dynamics of the Regional Innovation around the Oil and Gas Industries: Cases of Stavanger and Aberdeen / La dinámica de la innovación regional alrededor de las industrias del petróleo y el gas natural: Casos de Stavanger y Aberdeen  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Este artículo presenta el estudio comparativo entre las dos capitales petroleras de Europa, Aberdeen y Stavanger, realizado por IRIS y MIT, con el objetivo de analizar dos clusters exitosos de gas y petróleo. Se exhibe en detalle el sistema noruego de innovación. Asimismo, este artículo examina la r [...] elación intrínseca entre las universidades y el contexto industrial en el sistema regional de innovación. Abstract in english This paper presents the IRIS and MIT comparative study of the two oil capitals in Europe: Aberdeen and Stavanger, in order to analyze two successful oil and gas clusters. The Norwegian innovation system would be presented in detail. The article also examines the intrinsic role between the universiti [...] es and the industrial context in the regional innovation system.

Gjelsvik, Martin.

143

Decommissioning of Russian research facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When the most of our research facilities were built and put in operation more than 30 years ago there had been neither requirements no regulations concerning their future decommissioning (D and D). And due to that fact nobody thought of that in the initial designs of these facilities. The situation changed when in 1994 a top-level safety standard 'Safety Provision for Safety of Research Reactors' was issued by Gosatomnadzor of Russia with a special chapter 7, devoted to D and D issues. Unfortunately, it was just one page of requirements pertaining RR D and D in general terms and was not specific. Only in 2001 Gosatomnadzor of Russia developed and issued a more specific standard 'Rules for Safety Decommissioning of Nuclear Research Facilities'. From the total number of 85 Nuclear Research Facilities, including 34 research reactors, 36 critical assemblies and 15 subcritical assemblies, we have now 7 facilities under decommissioning. The situation is inevitably changing over the time. In the end of 2003 the decision was made to permanently shutdown two RR: AM, graphite type with channels, 15 MBt; BR-10, LMFR type, 10 MBt, and to start preparatory work for their future decommissioning, starting from 2005. It needs to be mentioned that from this list we have 6 reactors with which we face many difficulties in developing decommissioning technologies, namely: for TVR reactor: handling of heavy water and high radiation field in the core; for MR reactor: very complex reactor with many former radioactive spills, which is required a careful and expensive D and D work; AM: graphite utilization problem; BR-10: a problem of coolant poisoned with other heavy metals (like lead, bismuth); IBR-30: the fuel cannot be removed from the core prior the D and D project starts; RG-1M: location is above Arctic Circle, problem of transfer of irradiated parts of the reactor. The decision was made to bury then on the site thus creating a shallow-land radwaste storage facility. The established D and D standard explains in more or less detail the procedures to be accomplished before the actual decommissioning process can start. Basically these are: remove fuel from the reactor core to an interim SF storage facility at the reactor; after specified time of cooling, remove the fuel from the reactor building; drain coolant by using operational manual and remove it from the reactor building; conduct Engineering and Radiation Monitoring of the facility to get initial data on radiation conditions; Develop a Principal D and D Programme; develop a D and D documentation; develop a D and D SAR. Only after these procedures and documents have been accomplished and prepared an operating organization may apply for a D and D license to be issued by Gosatomnadzor of Russia. When a D and D project is fully accomplished by an operating organization the final results/conditions at the former RR site shall be evidenced by a special commission, including a Gosatomnadzor of Russia representative. A Final Report on D and D with the radiation data achieved in the end of its implementation shall be written and submitted to Gosatomnadzor of Russia for review and making decision on taking a research facility out of regulatory control

2003-11-10

144

Screening methods for chemical warfare agents in environmental samples at the Edgewood area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Army Edgewood Research, Development and Engineering Center, the U.S. Army Aberdeen Proving Ground Support Activity, Directorate of Safety, Health and the Environment and SciTech Services Inc., an independent contractor, have developed an approach for screening environmental samples for the presence of chemical warfare agents. Since 1918, the Edgewood area of Aberdeen Proving Ground has been a research and testing ground for toxic agent compounds. Since these materials are considered highly toxic, screening for their presence in environmental samples is necessary for safe shipment to contract laboratories for testing by EPA guidelines. The screening ensures worker safety and maintains U.S. Army standards for transportation of materials potentially contaminated with chemical warfare agents. This paper describes the screening methodology.

Jakubowski, E.M.; Borland, M.M.; Norris, L.; Lattin, F.G.; Wrobel, J. [Army Directorate of Safety, Health and Environment, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)

1995-06-01

145

AREVA decommissioning strategy and programme  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As with any industrial installation, a nuclear facility has an operating life that requires accounting for its shutdown. In compliance with its sustainable development commitments, AREVA accounts this via its own decommissioning resources to value and make sites fit for further use. These capabilities guarantee the reversibility of the nuclear industry. Thus, the nuclear site value development constitutes an important activity for AREVA, which contributes to the acceptance of nuclear in line with the AREVA continuous policy of sustainable development which is to be fully responsible from the creation, during the operation, to the dismantling of its facilities in all respects with safety, local acceptance and environment. AREVA has already performed a large variety of operation during the life-time of its installations such as heavy maintenance, equipment replacement, upgrading operation. Nowadays, a completely different dimension is emerging with industrial decommissioning operations of nuclear fuel cycle installations: enrichment gaseous diffusion plant, fuel assembly plants, recycling and reprocessing facilities. These activities constitute a major know-how for AREVA. For this reason, the group decided, beginning of 2008, to gather 4 projects in one business unit called Nuclear Site Value Development - a reprocessing plant UP2 400 on AREVA La Hague site, a reprocessing plant UP1 on AREVA Marcoule site, a MOX fuel plant on Cadarache and 2 sites (SICN Veurey and Annecy) that handled GCR fuel fabrication). The main objectives are to enhance the feed back, to contribute to performance improvements, to value professionals and to put innovation forward. The following article will describe in a first part the main decommissioning programmes managed by AREVA NC Nuclear Site Value Development Business Unit. The second part will deal with strategic approaches. A more efficient organization with integration of the supply chain and innovation will be part of the main drivers. (authors)

Gay, A. [AREVA NC - Nuclear Site Value Development Business Unit., 75 - Paris (France)

2008-07-01

146

AREVA decommissioning strategy and programme  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As with any industrial installation, a nuclear facility has an operating life that requires accounting for its shutdown. In compliance with its sustainable development commitments, AREVA accounts this via its own decommissioning resources to value and make sites fit for further use. These capabilities guarantee the reversibility of the nuclear industry. Thus, the nuclear site value development constitutes an important activity for AREVA, which contributes to the acceptance of nuclear in line with the AREVA continuous policy of sustainable development which is to be fully responsible from the creation, during the operation, to the dismantling of its facilities in all respects with safety, local acceptance and environment. AREVA has already performed a large variety of operation during the life-time of its installations such as heavy maintenance, equipment replacement, upgrading operation. Nowadays, a completely different dimension is emerging with industrial decommissioning operations of nuclear fuel cycle installations: enrichment gaseous diffusion plant, fuel assembly plants, recycling and reprocessing facilities. These activities constitute a major know-how for AREVA. For this reason, the group decided, beginning of 2008, to gather 4 projects in one business unit called Nuclear Site Value Development - a reprocessing plant UP2 400 on AREVA La Hague site, a reprocessing plant UP1 on AREVA Marcoule site, a MOX fuel plant on Cadarache and 2 sites (SICN Veurey and Annecy) that handled GCR fuel fabrication). The main objectives are to enhance the feed back, to contribute to performance improvements, to value professionals and to put innovation forward. The following article will describe in a first part the main decommissioning programmes managed by AREVA NC Nuclear Site Value Development Business Unit. The second part will deal with strategic approaches. A more efficient organization with integration of the supply chain and innovation will be part of the main drivers. (authors)

2008-10-02

147

Rancho Seco--Decommissioning Update  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Rancho Seco Nuclear Generating Station ceased operation in June of 1989 and entered an extended period of SAFSTOR to allow funds to accumulate for dismantlement. Incremental dismantlement was begun in 1997 of steam systems and based on the successful completion of work, the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) board of directors approved full decommissioning in July 1999. A schedule has been developed for completion of decommissioning by 2008, allowing decommissioning funds to accumulate until they are needed. Systems removal began in the Auxiliary Building in October of 1999 and in the Reactor Building in January of 2000. Systems dismantlement continues in the Reactor Building and should be completed by the end of 2003. System removal is near completion in the Auxiliary Building with removal of the final liquid waste tanks in progress. The spent fuel has been moved to dry storage in an onsite ISFSI, with completion on August 21, 2002. The spent fuel racks are currently being removed from the pool, packaged and shipped, and then the pool will be cleaned. Also in the last year the reactor coolant pumps and primary piping were removed and shipped. Characterization and planning work for the reactor vessel and internals is also in progress with various cut-up and/or disposal options being evaluated. In the year ahead the remaining systems in the Reactor Building will be removed, packaged and sent for disposal, including the pressurizer. Work will be started on embedded and underground piping and the large outdoor tanks. Building survey and decontamination will begin. RFP's for removal of the vessel and internals and the steam generators are planned to fix the cost of those components. If the costs are consistent with current estimates the work will go forward. If they are not, hardened SAFSTOR/entombment may be considered

2003-02-23

148

STANDARD OPERATING PROTOCOLS FOR DECOMMISSIONING  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Decommissioning projects at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) sites are conducted under project-specific decision documents, which involve extensive preparation time, public comment periods, and regulatory approvals. Often, the decision documents must be initiated at least one year before commencing the decommissioning project, and they are expensive and time consuming to prepare. The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) is a former nuclear weapons production plant at which hazardous substances and wastes were released or disposed during operations. As a result of the releases, RFETS was placed on the National Priorities List in 1989, and is conducting cleanup activities under a federal facilities compliance agreement. Working closely with interested stakeholders and state and federal regulatory agencies, RFETS has developed and implemented an improved process for obtaining the approvals. The key to streamlining the approval process has been the development of sitewide decision documents called Rocky Flats Cleanup Agreement Standard Operating Protocols or ''RSOPs.'' RSOPs have broad applicability, and could be used instead of project-specific documents. Although no two decommissioning projects are exactly the same and they may vary widely in contamination and other hazards, the basic steps taken for cleanup are usually similar. Because of this, using RSOPs is more efficient than preparing a separate project-specific decision documents for each cleanup action. Over the Rocky Flats cleanup life cycle, using RSOPs has the potential to: (1) Save over 5 million dollars and 6 months on the site closure schedule; (2) Eliminate preparing one hundred and twenty project-specific decision documents; and (3) Eliminate writing seventy-five closure description documents for hazardous waste unit closure and corrective actions.

Foss, D. L.; Stevens, J. L.; Gerdeman, F. W.

2002-02-25

149

Decontamination and decommissioning: a bibliography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This bibliography contain information on decontamination and decommissioning included in the Department of Energy's Data Base from January 1981 through October 1982. The abstracts are grouped by subject category. Within each category the arrangement is by report number for reports, followed by nonreports in reverse chronological order. These citations are to research reports journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: corporate author, personal author, subject, contract number, and report umber. (468 abstracts)

McLaren, L.H. (ed.)

1982-11-01

150

Decontamination and decommissioning: a bibliography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This bibliography contain information on decontamination and decommissioning included in the Department of Energy's Data Base from January 1981 through October 1982. The abstracts are grouped by subject category. Within each category the arrangement is by report number for reports, followed by nonreports in reverse chronological order. These citations are to research reports journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: corporate author, personal author, subject, contract number, and report umber. (468 abstracts)

1982-01-01

151

Residual activity limits for decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The staff analysis conducted to date indicates that residual activity levels which would be expected to result in exposures of 5 mrem per year to an individual from realistic exposure pathway conditions would both be consistent with existing guidance and result in activity levels which can be effectively monitored for enforcement. The radionuclides which are of particular importance to light water reactor decommissioning are Co-60, Cs-137, and Cs-134. The exposure pathways which are most significant for reactor sites are external irradiation from deposited radionuclides, with ingestion of contaminated foods and inhalation of resuspended activity of much smaller magnitude. 25 refs

1979-09-19

152

WASS cutting in decommissioning VAK  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the process of cutting with an abrasive water suspension jet (the so-called WASS process), a suspension of water and fine-grained solids particles is forced through a nozzle. With the support of the German Federal Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF), the process was first used in nuclear technology for decommissioning the Kahl Experimental Nuclear Power Station (VAK). The lower section of the core barrel was cut apart by this cold cutting technique. Other applications are to be investigated. (orig.)

1998-05-01

153

Project gnome decontamination and decommissioning plan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The document presents the operational plan for conducting the final decontamination and decommissioning work at the site of the first U.S. nuclear detonation designed specifically for peaceful purposes and the first underground event on the Plowshare Program to take place outside the Nevada Test Site. The plan includes decontamination and decommissioning procedures, radiological guidelines, and the NV concept of operations

1979-01-01

154

Survey of decontamination and decommissioning techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reports and articles on decommissioning have been reviewed to determine the current technology status and also attempt to identify potential decommissioning problem areas. It is concluded that technological road blocks, which limited decommissioning facilities in the past have been removed. In general, techniques developed by maintenance in maintaining the facility have been used to decommission facilities. Some of the more promising development underway which will further simplify decommissioning activities are: electrolytic decontamination which simplifies some decontaminating operations; arc saw and vacuum furnace which reduce the volume of metallic contaminated material by a factor of 10; remotely operated plasma torch which reduces personnel exposure; and shaped charges, water cannon and rock splitters which simplify concrete removal. Areas in which published data are limited are detailed costs identifying various components included in the total cost and also the quantity of waste generated during the decommissioning activities. With the increased awareness of decommissioning requirements as specified by licensing requirements, design criteria for new facilities are taking into consideration final decommissioning of buildings. Specific building design features will evolve as designs are evaluated and implemented

1977-01-01

155

Environmental issues and impacts of decommissioning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article defines the nature and scope of marine pollution and then identifies the principal sources of pollution resulting from decommissioning offshore platforms. The environmental impacts of both the decommissioning process and potential waste inventories from offshore installations are then quantified followed by a quantification of the routes, treatment and/or safe disposal for these wastes. (UK)

Mumaw, G.R. [University of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

1997-11-01

156

The decommissioning of light water reactors - experience  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

More than ten nuclear power plants in Germany have been decommissioned or are under dismantling. Objectives, strategies, preparatory work, licensing, technical dismantling and safety considerations are explained from the utility point of view, using the Stade (KKS) decommissioning as an example. Challenges with respect to characterisation, logistics and economy are discussed. (orig.)

2005-02-01

157

EPRI nuclear power plant decommissioning technology program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is a non-profit research organization that supports the energy industry. The Nuclear Power Plant Decommissioning Technology Program conducts research and develops technology for the safe and efficient decommissioning of nuclear power plants. (author)

2011-01-01

158

The decommissioning program of a nuclear reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A decommission project for one of the Chinese reactors has being done in recent years. It is doing in several aspects, the investigation, the feasibility study, the engineering design will be done in more detail for smooth decommissioning operation at the site in the near future

1993-10-18

159

Decommissioning strategy and waste management in Sweden  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The commercial nuclear power plants in Sweden will eventually be shut down and decommissioned. This paper describes the strategy in planning these future activities. It also describes the cost calculations and the funding mechanism. The paper contains the following sections: Nuclear power plants In Sweden; Decommissioning strategies; Waste management and availability of repositories; Cost calculations and funding; The current financing act

2003-11-23

160

The IAEA Safety Regime for Decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text of publication follows: The International Atomic Energy Agency is developing an international framework for decommissioning of nuclear facilities that consists of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management, and a hierarchy of Safety Standards applicable to decommissioning. The Joint Convention entered into force on 18 June 2001 and as of December 2001 had been ratified by 27 IAEA Member States. The Joint Convention contains a number of articles dealing with planning for, financing, staffing and record keeping for decommissioning. The Joint Convention requires Contracting Parties to apply the same operational radiation protection criteria, discharge limits and criteria for controlling unplanned releases during decommissioning that are applied during operations. The IAEA has issued Safety Requirements document and three Safety Guides applicable to decommissioning of facilities. The Safety Requirements document, WS-R-2, Pre-disposal Management of Radioactive Waste, including Decommissioning, contains requirements applicable to regulatory control, planning and funding, management of radioactive waste, quality assurance, and environmental and safety assessment of the decommissioning process. The three Safety Guides are WS-G-2.1, Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Plants and Research Reactors, WS-G-2.2, Decommissioning of Medical, Industrial and Research Facilities, an WS-G-2.4, Decommissioning of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities. They contain guidance on how to meet the requirements of WS-R-2 applicable to decommissioning of specific types of facilities. These Standards contain only general requirements and guidance relative to safety assessment and do not contain details regarding the content of the safety case. More detailed guidance will be published in future Safety Reports currently in preparation within the Waste Safety Section of the IAEA. Because much material arising during the decommissioning of nuclear facilities may be only slightly contaminated with radioactivity, an important matter for decommissioning of facilities is the level of contamination, which may be released from regulatory control. This issue is being addressed in a Safety Guide being prepared by the IAEA dealing with the Scope of Regulatory Control. This Safety Guide will attempt to rationalise levels of radioactivity subject to exclusion, exemption, discharge, recycle, contained in commodities, and released from regulatory control, taking into consideration levels of radioactivity in naturally occurring radioactive materials. This Safety Guide is scheduled to be completed late in 2002 or in 2003. The IAEA is organizing, in cooperation with the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, an International Conference on Safe Decommissioning for Nuclear Activities. The Conference will take place 14 to 18 October 2002 in Berlin, Germany

2002-07-05

 
 
 
 
161

Asbestos removal in Shippingport Decommissioning Project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project (SSDP) is being performed under contract to the DOE by the General Electric Company and its integrated subcontractor, MK-Ferguson Company, as the Decommissioning Operations Contractor (DOC). During the planning of this project, it was found that asbestos was the primary insulating material which was used on the nuclear steam supply system and the plant heating system. The original decommissioning plan required that each subcontractor remove the asbestos from the particular component(s) they had to remove. However, since removal of the radioactivity-contaminated asbestos would require special procedures and worker training, the original decommissioning plan was modified so that a single subcontractor removed all of the asbestos prior to other decommissioning tasks. IT Corporation was selected as the asbestos removal subcontractor. Their approach to the project is described

1987-10-04

162

The decommissioning of Tsing Hua Argonaut reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After 35 years' operation, the Tsing Hua Argonaut Reactor (THAR) will be decommissioned by the National Tsing Hua University (NTHU) under the Atomic Energy Council's (AEC) regulation. THAR is a water moderated and graphite reflected research reactor with peak thermal power 10 kW. Since this decommission project is the first one experienced in Taiwan rather completed planning work by NTHU and step by step regulative activities by AEC are performed regardless the structural simplicity of the THAR. Numerous information was gathered through the task which is believed to be valuable experience in preparing future decommissioning needs. The major work in the THAR decommissioning project will be finished within two months. The total man-hour devoted to the THAT decommissioning work was around 3693 and accumulated dose received during the work was about the total cost of the operation is estimated to be around half a million US dollars. 2 tab., 1 fig

1994-04-01

163

Public attitudes toward nuclear power plant decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A public workshop was conducted with a group of citizens to obtain the concerns and preferences of the group with respect to decommissioning. Seventeen concerns about decommissioning were identified and prioritized. The participants were most concerned about the potential health and safety effects from decommissioning. The potential impacts from the lost tax base and loss of employment were also rated highly. The estimated increase in electric utility rates was not a major concern. The participants were split fairly evenly on preferences about the methods of decommissioning. However, nine of the ten participants preferred power plant life extension over decommissioning by any method. Finally, the participants were given an evaluation questionnaire about the workshop. In general, they concluded that the process was effective, and they felt like they were a part of the Commission's planning process

1987-10-04

164

Decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objectives of this coordinated research programme (CRP) were to promote the exchange of information on the practical experience by Member States in decontamination and decommissioning. The scope of the programme included several areas of decontamination and decommissioning rather than focusing on a single aspect of it, in line with recommendation of the experts who participated in Phase 1 of the CRP. Experts felt that this format would generate better awareness of decontamination and decommissioning and would be more effective vehicle for the exchange of information by stimulating broader discussion on all aspects of decontamination and decommissioning. Special emphasis was given to the development of principles and methodologies to facilitate decommissioning and to the new methods and techniques for optimization of decontamination and disassembly of equipment. Refs, figs, tabs

1993-01-01

165

Conceptual data modeling on the decommissioning database  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ISP (Information Strategy Planning), which is the first step of the whole database development, has been studied to manage effectively information and data related to the decommissioning activities of the Korea Research Reactor 1 and 2 (KRR 1 and 2). A record management system (RMS) of large nuclear facilities of national experience such as in the U. S. A., Japan, Belgium, and Russian were reviewed. In order to establish the scope of the decommissioning DB, user requirement and the importance of the information were analyzed and set up the conceptual design of the decommissioning DB. The results have been reviewed an national experience were recognized to acquire the technology of the decommissioning DB for the whole decommissioning process. It has been extracted the principle information such as working information, facilities information, radioactive waste treatment, and radiological surveying and analysis during the interviewing with an experts. These information and data will be used as the basic data to design the prototyping

2002-05-01

166

The Wuergassen decommissioning and dismantling project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After detection of cracks in the core shroud and bad economic prognoses, the owner/operator of the Wuergassen reactor, PreussenElektra, decided for decommissioning and direct dismantling of the reactor station, also because experience has shown that the decommissioning work poses no problems in terms of technology, safety, and environmental protection. The licensing application documents for the first decommissioning phase describe the remaining operation and dismantling of some components. Detailed documentation is produced and presented to the supervisory authority in line with progressing decommissioning work, so that documentation is reduced to the necessary extent. Planning work for the second phase and decontrolling measurements at the UNS building are underway. The operational and the project organisation were tuned for the decommissioning phases. Evaluation of results of the first phase will show whether the approaches taken fulfill expectations, particularly with respect to economic efficiency. (orig.)

1996-09-26

167

Decommissioning of the CANDU-PHW reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A generic study has been completed in Canada to assess decommissioning of a typical 600 MW(e) CANDU-PHW reactor and to obtain estimates of the costs, environmental impact, quantities of radioactive wastes and man.rem exposure associated with each of the three decommissioning stages. The CANDU reactor is designed to facilitate decommissioning. The vessel and other highly radioactive components are comparatively light weight, provision is made for replacement of the pressure tubes and access is provided into the top of the vault that will facilitate the cutting-up and dismantling of the reactor vessel. In addition to the experience and knowledge gained from decommissioning of one reactor in the United States of America (Elk River), the rehabilitation of the NRX and NRU vessels at Chalk River, and the replacement of some pressure tubes in the Pickering reactor have provided confidence that the proposed decommissioning of a large CANDU-PHW reactor is practical. Also, it is expected that research associated with existing programmes for management of radioactive waste in Canada will provide sufficient data and the methodology for determining permissible Residual Activity Levels for a decommissioned site to be released for unrestricted use. The radioactive waste resulting from decommissioning will be of relatively low specific activity. The disposal facilities and techniques presently being developed in Canada for power reactor wastes will be used to cope with the wastes from decommissioning. Decommissioning costs are not high when compared to the total value of a nuclear generating station and there is little incentive to provide funding now to handle future decommissioning costs. (author)

1978-11-17

168

Uranium hexafluoride production plant decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Institute of Energetic and Nuclear Research - IPEN is a research and development institution, located in a densely populated area, in the city of Sao Paulo. The nuclear fuel cycle was developed from the Yellow Cake to the enrichment and reconversion at IPEN. After this phase, all the technology was transferred to private enterprises and to the Brazilian Navy (CTM/SP). Some plants of the fuel cycle were at semi-industrial level, with a production over 20 kg/h. As a research institute, IPEN accomplished its function of the fuel cycle, developing and transferring technology. With the necessity of space for the implementation of new projects, the uranium hexafluoride (UF6) production plant was chosen, since it had been idle for many years and presented potential leaking risks, which could cause environmental aggression and serious accidents. This plant decommission required accurate planning, as this work had not been carried out in Brazil before, for this type of facility, and there were major risks involving gaseous hydrogen fluoride aqueous solution of hydrofluoric acid (HF) both highly corrosive. Evaluations were performed and special equipment was developed, aiming to prevent leaking and avoid accidents. During the decommissioning work, the CNEN safety standards were obeyed for the whole operation. The environmental impact was calculated, showing to be not relevant.The radiation doses, after the work, were within the limits for the public and the area was released for new projects. (author)

2008-01-01

169

Shippingport Station decommissioning project overview  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The U.S. Department of Energy is in the process of decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station located on the Ohio River, 30 miles northwest of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The Shippingport Station is the first commercial size nuclear power plant to undergo decommissioning in the United Staes. The plant is located on approximately 7 acres of land owned by the Duquesne Light Company (DLC) and leased to the U.S. Government. DLC operates two nuclear power plants, Beaver Valley 1 and 2, located immediately adjacent to the site and the Bruce Mansfield coal-fired power plant is also within the immediate area. The Station was shutdown in October, 1982. Defueling operations began in 1983 and were completed by September, 1984. The Shippingport Station consists of a 275' x 60' fuel handling building containing the reactor containment chamber, the service building, the turbine building, the radioactive waste processing building, the administration building and other smaller support buildings. The Station has four coolant loops and most of the containment structures are located below grade. Structures owned by the U.S. Government including the fuel handling building, service building, contaminated equipment room, the boiler chambers, the radioactive waste processing building and the decontamination and laydown buildings will be dismantled and removed to 3 feet below grade. The area will then be filled with clean soil and graded. The turbine building, testing and training building and the administration building are owned by DLC and will remain

1985-01-01

170

Government Assigns New Supervisory Task. Safe Decommissioning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

When the Government decided to shutdown one of the two Barsebaeck reactors in February of 1998, it presented SKI with a task that came much earlier than expected; the supervision of the decommissioning of a reactor. As a result of proposals presented in Parliament, SKI began the formulation of a long-term strategy in 1997 for the inspection of a nuclear plant during the decommissioning process. As a preliminary task, SKI started a research programme dealing with the potential risks associated with the transition from normal operations through shutdown to final deconstruction of the power plant. Emphasis was laid on safety culture issues and on questions of organization, as opposed to an earlier stress on the purely technical aspects of decommissioning. After a long period of uncertainty, following much discussion, in July 1998 a Government decision was finally reached to shutdown the first reactor at Barsebaeck. This was carried out in November 1999. It is still uncertain as to when the other reactor will be decommissioned; a decision is expected at the earliest in 2004. This uncertainty, resulting from the prolonged decision making process, could be detrimental to the safety culture on the site; motivation could diminish, and key personnel could be lost. Decommissioning is a new phase in the life cycle of a plant, giving rise to new inspection issues of supervision. During the period of uncertainty, while awaiting SKI has identified ten key areas, dealing with the safety culture of the organization, in connection with the decommissioning of Barsebaeck 1. 1. Obtaining and retaining staff competence during decommissioning; 2. Sustaining organizational memory; 3. Identifying key organizational functions and management skills that are critical during the transition from operations to decommissioning. 4. Sustaining organizational viability and accountability for decommissioning; 5. Sustaining motivation and trust in management of dismantlement; 6. Overseeing contractors; 7. Decommissioning multi-unit sites when one unit continues to operate; 8. Delaying dismantling of decommissioning nuclear power plants; 9. Establishing organizational processes and control systems to identify and address emerging as well as known safety issues; 10. Determining and communicating the level of risk during decommissioning. The list of safety issues that can be linked to safety culture, and questions of organisation, illustrates the scope of supervision that must be performed during decommissioning of a nuclear power plant. Given the myriad of complex activities taking place, this focus is a useful way to assist the regulator to articulate concerns to the power plant management in terms of links to potential safety problems.

Lekberg, Anna [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)

2003-06-01

171

Government Assigns New Supervisory Task. Safe Decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When the Government decided to shutdown one of the two Barsebaeck reactors in February of 1998, it presented SKI with a task that came much earlier than expected; the supervision of the decommissioning of a reactor. As a result of proposals presented in Parliament, SKI began the formulation of a long-term strategy in 1997 for the inspection of a nuclear plant during the decommissioning process. As a preliminary task, SKI started a research programme dealing with the potential risks associated with the transition from normal operations through shutdown to final deconstruction of the power plant. Emphasis was laid on safety culture issues and on questions of organization, as opposed to an earlier stress on the purely technical aspects of decommissioning. After a long period of uncertainty, following much discussion, in July 1998 a Government decision was finally reached to shutdown the first reactor at Barsebaeck. This was carried out in November 1999. It is still uncertain as to when the other reactor will be decommissioned; a decision is expected at the earliest in 2004. This uncertainty, resulting from the prolonged decision making process, could be detrimental to the safety culture on the site; motivation could diminish, and key personnel could be lost. Decommissioning is a new phase in the life cycle of a plant, giving rise to new inspection issues of supervision. During the period of uncertainty, while awaiting SKI has identified ten key areas, dealing with the safety culture of the organization, in connection with the decommissioning of Barsebaeck 1. 1. Obtaining and retaining staff competence during decommissioning; 2. Sustaining organizational memory; 3. Identifying key organizational functions and management skills that are critical during the transition from operations to decommissioning. 4. Sustaining organizational viability and accountability for decommissioning; 5. Sustaining motivation and trust in management of dismantlement; 6. Overseeing contractors; 7. Decommissioning multi-unit sites when one unit continues to operate; 8. Delaying dismantling of decommissioning nuclear power plants; 9. Establishing organizational processes and control systems to identify and address emerging as well as known safety issues; 10. Determining and communicating the level of risk during decommissioning. The list of safety issues that can be linked to safety culture, and questions of organisation, illustrates the scope of supervision that must be performed during decommissioning of a nuclear power plant. Given the myriad of complex activities taking place, this focus is a useful way to assist the regulator to articulate concerns to the power plant management in terms of links to potential safety problems

2003-06-01

172

Project No. 9 - Unit 1 Decommissioning project (Decommissioning project for the shutdown phase of unit 1)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to the Law on Nuclear Energy before starting Ignalina NPP unit 1 decommissioning process, Ignalina NPP shall have an decommissioning license granted by the Lithuanian Nuclear Power Safety Inspectorate (VATESI). Together with an application to VATESI to obtain the licence, a number of documents specified in the Regulations on licensing of activities in nuclear energy field and General requirements for Ignalina NPP decommissioning, including the Safety Analysis Report and Decommissioning Project, should be submitted. The safety Analysis Report should contain the analysis of the following: envisaged conditions upon which Ignalina NPP decommissioning process could be safely performed and risky actions that may impact Ignalina NPP; limits for safe decommissioning such as ionising radiation levels at Ignalina NPP and beyond its boundaries, effluents; decommissioning process, preliminary work arrangements. The Decommissioning Project should include: Description of decommissioning activities (abandonment of technological pits and rooms, dismantling and handling of main and auxiliary equipment, systems, elements and activated parts of the reactor, decontamination, dismantling of protective barriers, laying-up of constructions, systems or elements); design basis decisions on Ignalina NPP decommissioning and or radiation consequences of the emergencies or incidents that occurred on the power unit. Estimated cost of the project - 3.75 M EURO

2000-01-01

173

The decommissioning plan of the Nuclear Ship MUTSU  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the review about the decommissioning plan and present state of the Nuclear Ship Mutsu. The decommissioning of the Mutsu is carried out by Removal and Isolation method. The procedure of the decommissioning works is presented in this paper. The decommissioning works started in April, 1992 and it takes about four years after her last experimental voyage. (author)

1995-07-01

174

Treatment of Decommissioning Waste at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Decommissioning of nuclear facilities gives rise to radioactive residues and wastes that strongly differ from operation waste. For the reuse or proper disposal of such waste, special techniques and equipment have to be available. This means that a waste treatment facility has to specialize for this work. Decommissioning waste differs from operation waste mainly by the type, size, and activity. Classical operation waste comprises burnable or compactable mixed waste from which radioactive waste products are produced by incineration and high-pressure compaction. Decommissioning does not only give rise to such mixed waste, but also to large components, reactor internals, and contaminated concrete structures that have to be managed properly. In 1979, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe began to dismantle the first of its five research reactors. In 1991, dismantling of the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant started. Meanwhile, all research reactors are being decommissioned or have already been dismantled completely. All radioactive wastes and residues from these decommissioning projects were and are transferred to the central waste treatment facility of Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, the Hauptabteilung Dekontaminationsbetriebe (HDB, Central Decontamination Department), for further treatment. Since the beginning of decommissioning work, HDB has accepted and processed large volumes of decommissioning waste. This also included dismantled large components, such as the steam generators and core internals of the Multi-purpose Research Reactor and the sodium discharge tank and rotary shield of the Compact Sodium-cooled Nuclear Reactor Facility or contaminated concrete structures from the hot cells of the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant. (authors)

2006-03-02

175

Waste management in decommissioning projects at KAERI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two decommissioning projects are carried out at the KAERI (Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute), one for the Korea research reactors, KRR-1 and KRR-2, and another for the uranium conversion plant (UCP). The concept of the management of the wastes from the decommissioning sites was reviewed with a relation of the decommissioning strategies, technologies for the treatment and the decontamination, and the characteristics of waste. All the liquid waste generated from KRR-1 and KRR-2 decommissioning site is evaporated by a solar evaporation facility and all the liquid waste from the UCP is treated together with lagoon sludge waste. The solid wastes from the decommissioning sites are categorized into three groups; not contaminated, restricted releasable and radioactive waste. The not-contaminated waste will be reused and/or disposed at an industrial disposal site, and the releasable waste is stored for the future disposal at the KAERI. The radioactive waste is packed in containers, and will be stored at the decommissioning sites till they are sent to a national repository site. The reduction of the radioactive solid waste is one of the strategies for the decommissioning projects and could be achieved by the repeated decontamination. By the achievement of the minimization strategy, the amount of radioactive waste was reduced and the disposal cost will be reduced, but the cost for manpower, for direct materials and for administration was increased

2005-11-01

176

Decommissioning of French nuclear submarines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the beginning of the sixties, France has developed a fleet of nuclear powered vessels. Insofar as the ships of the 2. generation are being built, the older ones are decommissioned and enter the dismantling process. The average rate is presently one submarine decommissioned every two or three years. The overall strategy for the decommissioning of French nuclear submarines can be brought down to 3 phases: 1. Level 1 dismantling which essentially consists in: - unloading the spent fuel and storing it in a pool ; - possibly emptying the circuits which contain radioactive liquids. The level 1 is easily achieved, as it is not very different from the plant situation during ship overhaul or major refits. 2. Level 2 dismantling which consists in isolating the nuclear reactor compartment from the rest of the submarine and conditioning it for interim storage on a ground facility located inside Cherbourg Naval Dockyard. The rest of the ship is decontaminated, controlled and set for scrap like any conventional submarine. Up to now, the policy has been to keep the reactor compartment in this intermediate storage facility for at least 20 years, a duration calculated to allow enough time for short life corrosion products to disappear and hence, reduce the radioactive dose to workers during the level 3 dismantling operations. 3. Level 3 dismantling of the nuclear reactor compartment after a storage period. These operations consist in cutting into pieces all remaining structures and equipment, conditioning and sending them to ANDRA for disposal. The SSBN Le Redoutable, first French nuclear submarine which was removed from active service en 1991, underwent the first two phases but, forward and stern parts after cutting of the reactor compartment have been sealed and turned into a museum which is now part of 'La Cite de la Mer' in Cherbourg. Among the three other SSBNs removed from active service, two are at the end of phase 1 just before the separation of the reactor compartment and one is waiting for phase 2. What kind of waste is produced and in what quantities? What means are used to condition and treat this waste? We propose giving some answers to these questions, by discussing firstly the spent fuels (the only high-level activity waste), and secondly the solid and liquid waste of low and medium activity

2003-11-23

177

Using DOE decommissioning benchmarking results for the development of a preferred decommissioning technologies guide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40) is initiating a benchmarking study and the development of a preferred decommissioning technologies guide to ultimately improve the performance of its decommissioning program. The benchmarking study will evaluate the cost and performance of the decommissioning program and identify best practices. The preferred decommissioning technologies guide will assist planners in selecting decommissioning technologies. The guide will feature qualitative comparisons among technologies for specific tasks. Although previous studies will be used to establish initial ratings, the benchmarking data will provide the most recent data. This paper will discuss the purpose and methodology of the benchmarking study. The paper will also discuss the purpose and structure of the preferred decommissioning technologies guide and how the results of the benchmarking study will be applied to the development of the guide.

Warren, S. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Daniel, P. [Booze-Allen & Hamilton, Germantown, MD (United States)

1996-12-31

178

Stakeholder involvement in decommissioning nuclear facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Significant numbers of nuclear facilities will need to be decommissioned in the coming decades. In this context, NEA member countries are placing increasing emphasis on the involvement of stakeholders in the associated decision procedures. This study reviews decommissioning experience with a view to identifying stakeholder concerns and best practice in addressing them. The lessons learnt about the end of the facility life cycle can also contribute to better foresight in siting and building new facilities. This report will be of interest to all major players in the field of decommissioning, in particular policy makers, implementers, regulators and representatives of local host communities

2007-01-01

179

TA-2 Water Boiler Reactor Decommissioning Project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This final report addresses the Phase 2 decommissioning of the Water Boiler Reactor, biological shield, other components within the biological shield, and piping pits in the floor of the reactor building. External structures and underground piping associated with the gaseous effluent (stack) line from Technical Area 2 (TA-2) Water Boiler Reactor were removed in 1985--1986 as Phase 1 of reactor decommissioning. The cost of Phase 2 was approximately $623K. The decommissioning operation produced 173 m"3 of low-level solid radioactive waste and 35 m"3 of mixed waste. 15 refs., 25 figs., 3 tabs

1991-01-01

180

Pipeline Decommissioning Trial AWE Berkshire UK - 13619  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Paper details the implementation of a 'Decommissioning Trial' to assess the feasibility of decommissioning the redundant pipeline operated by AWE located in Berkshire UK. The paper also presents the tool box of decommissioning techniques that were developed during the decommissioning trial. Constructed in the 1950's and operated until 2005, AWE used a pipeline for the authorised discharge of treated effluent. Now redundant, the pipeline is under a care and surveillance regime awaiting decommissioning. The pipeline is some 18.5 km in length and extends from AWE site to the River Thames. Along its route the pipeline passes along and under several major roads, railway lines and rivers as well as travelling through woodland, agricultural land and residential areas. Currently under care and surveillance AWE is considering a number of options for decommissioning the pipeline. One option is to remove the pipeline. In order to assist option evaluation and assess the feasibility of removing the pipeline a decommissioning trial was undertaken and sections of the pipeline were removed within the AWE site. The objectives of the decommissioning trial were to: - Demonstrate to stakeholders that the pipeline can be removed safely, securely and cleanly - Develop a 'tool box' of methods that could be deployed to remove the pipeline - Replicate the conditions and environments encountered along the route of the pipeline The onsite trial was also designed to replicate the physical prevailing conditions and constraints encountered along the remainder of its route i.e. working along a narrow corridor, working in close proximity to roads, working in proximity to above ground and underground services (e.g. Gas, Water, Electricity). By undertaking the decommissioning trial AWE have successfully demonstrated the pipeline can be decommissioned in a safe, secure and clean manor and have developed a tool box of decommissioning techniques. The tool box of includes; - Hot tapping - a method of breaching the pipe while maintaining containment to remove residual liquids, - Crimp and shear - remote crimping, cutting and handling of pipe using the excavator - Pipe jacking - a way of removing pipes avoiding excavations and causing minimal disturbance and disruption. The details of the decommissioning trial design, the techniques employed, their application and effectiveness are discussed and evaluated here in. (authors)

Agnew, Kieran [AWE, Aldermaston, Reading, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
181

Decommissioning costs: how much will be enough  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The problems of providing for the cost of decommissioning a nuclear power plant are discussed. The results are shown of a questionnaire sent to all utilities which own and operate nuclear reactors. Three stages in the dismantling process are considered. For one specific reactor, to be decommissioned by immediate dismantlement, a detailed summary of estimated costs is given. The uncertainties due to lack of experience, and the possible effect of high decommissioning cost on the economic competitivity of nuclear power, are discussed. (U.K.)

1984-01-01

182

Radionuclide source term measurements for decommission assessments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this project is to provide an up-to-date regulatory assessment of the radiological factors, criteria and problem areas associated with the technology, safety, and costs pertaining to reactor decommissioning and related waste disposal. This is being accomplished through a measurements and appraisal program focused in the following key areas: radiological characterization during Shippingport Station decommissioning; radiological characterization of intermediate-level wastes (highly activated reactor internal materials greater than Class C); evaluation of the accuracy of predictive activation codes and methods; and assessment of decommissioning waste disposal options

1988-06-01

183

Decommissioning and reclamation of ANHUA uranium mine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the late 1980s a number of uranium production facilities in China were closed and are in various stages of decommissioning. To date 5 mines have been decommissioned. ANHUA mine is situated in west part of Hunan province in South China. The production of uranium ore began in 1974 and stopped in 1986. Decommissioning and reclamation programme started in July 1992 and completed in May 1997. This paper describes the experience in sealing of drift entrances, covering of waste rock piles and rehabilitation of cadmium contaminated farmland with replantation. (author)

2005-01-01

184

Decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Decontamination and decommissioning features which are significantly different for non-reactor facilities as compared to nuclear reactors can be summarised as: potentially high levels of chemical toxicity and radiotoxicity of the alpha emitting radioisotopes, need for criticality control throughout, higher potential for spread of contamination, prompt decontamination/ decommissioning preferred over mothballing or entombing alternatives, complex radiological mapping and characterization situations and complex radiological protection requirements for occupational workers. A brief review of the various aspects of decommissioning of various nuclear installations are given. 7 refs

1995-12-01

185

Pipeline Decommissioning Trial AWE Berkshire UK - 13619  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Paper details the implementation of a 'Decommissioning Trial' to assess the feasibility of decommissioning the redundant pipeline operated by AWE located in Berkshire UK. The paper also presents the tool box of decommissioning techniques that were developed during the decommissioning trial. Constructed in the 1950's and operated until 2005, AWE used a pipeline for the authorised discharge of treated effluent. Now redundant, the pipeline is under a care and surveillance regime awaiting decommissioning. The pipeline is some 18.5 km in length and extends from AWE site to the River Thames. Along its route the pipeline passes along and under several major roads, railway lines and rivers as well as travelling through woodland, agricultural land and residential areas. Currently under care and surveillance AWE is considering a number of options for decommissioning the pipeline. One option is to remove the pipeline. In order to assist option evaluation and assess the feasibility of removing the pipeline a decommissioning trial was undertaken and sections of the pipeline were removed within the AWE site. The objectives of the decommissioning trial were to: - Demonstrate to stakeholders that the pipeline can be removed safely, securely and cleanly - Develop a 'tool box' of methods that could be deployed to remove the pipeline - Replicate the conditions and environments encountered along the route of the pipeline The onsite trial was also designed to replicate the physical prevailing conditions and constraints encountered along the remainder of its route i.e. working along a narrow corridor, working in close proximity to roads, working in proximity to above ground and underground services (e.g. Gas, Water, Electricity). By undertaking the decommissioning trial AWE have successfully demonstrated the pipeline can be decommissioned in a safe, secure and clean manor and have developed a tool box of decommissioning techniques. The tool box of includes; - Hot tapping - a method of breaching the pipe while maintaining containment to remove residual liquids, - Crimp and shear - remote crimping, cutting and handling of pipe using the excavator - Pipe jacking - a way of removing pipes avoiding excavations and causing minimal disturbance and disruption. The details of the decommissioning trial design, the techniques employed, their application and effectiveness are discussed and evaluated here in. (authors)

2013-02-24

186

Bankruptcy potential threatens decommissioning funds, says NRC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electric utilities and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) disagreed at an America Nuclear Society seminar on how reactor decommissioning should be financed. Industry and state regulators claim it should be handled by standard depreciation methods without involving the NRC, which argues that it must guard against safety risks from industry bankruptices and premature decommissioning. Both sides agreed that funds must be collected, but disagreed on the best method. Their options include the deposit method, external sinking fund, internal reserve, and insurance or surety bond. The NRC feels that too many utilities face possible bankruptcy unrelated to decommissioning or accidents, and that this possibility should outweigh other considerations. 1 table

1981-01-01

187

The decontamination and decommissioning debate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

DEcontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) of radioactively contaminated sites is one of the major issues in radioactive waste management. Emerging developments in this area involving the USNRC, the USEPA, the USDOE, and the USDOD, the states and the publish will soon result in generic regulatory programs determining who must decontaminated, to what level and how, when decontamination will take place, how much radioactive waste will be generated by D ampersand D, and the conditions for disposal of such waste. This article discusses the process of setting guidelines for D ampersand D and the potential for interagency conflict, duplicative regulation and infeasible control standards. Topics covered include: recent D ampersand D developments at the NRC and EPA; the NRC's D ampersand D rulemaking; the EPA's D ampersand D efforts; additional Agency Interplay; history - the Uranium Mill Tailing Experience; Dual Regulation under UMTRCA; Dual regulation under the Clean Air Acts

1994-04-01

188

Decommissioning of the Cintichem reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Cintichem nuclear reactor facility is located within the town of Tuxedo, New York, in the industrial park known as Sterling Forest. The reactor is a pool type research reactor and licensed to operate at thermal power levels of up to 5 MW. The reactor is a light water moderated, cooled, shielded, and reflected solid fuel reactor. It has graphite thermal column and numerous beam tubes arranged radially around the core centerline for experiments. The fuel core is supported and moved on rails by a core support bridge. The primary cooling system consists of a demineralized water system, heat exchangers, and pumps. Primary coolant piping is aluminum except for portions that penetrate concrete. Based on the on-site radiological characterization, Cintichem decided to shut down the facility permanently and begin decommissioning immediately

1992-11-15

189

Environmental geophysics at Kings Creek Disposal Site and 30th Street Landfill, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Geophysical studies on the Bush River Peninsula in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, delineate landfill areas and provide diagnostic signatures of the hydrogeologic framework and possible contaminant pathways. These studies indicate that, during the Pleistocene Epoch, alternating stands of high and low seal levels resulted in a complex pattern of shallow channel-fill deposits in the Kings Creek area. Ground-penetrating radar studies reveal a paleochannel greater than 50 ft deep, with a thalweg trending offshore in a southwest direction into Kings Creek. Onshore, the ground-penetrating radar data indicate a 35-ft-deep branch to the main channel, trending to the north-northwest directly beneath the 30th Street Landfill. Other branches are suspected to meet the offshore paleochannel in the wetlands south and east of the 30th Street Landfill. This paleochannel depositional system is environmentally significant because it may control the shallow groundwater flow regime beneath the site. Electromagnetic surveys have delineated the pre-fill lowland area currently occupied by the 30th Street Landfill. Magnetic and conductive anomalies outline surficial and buried debris throughout the study area. On the basis of geophysical data, large-scale dumping has not occurred north of the Kings Creek Disposal Site or east of the 30th Street Landfill.

Davies, B.E.; Miller, S.F.; McGinnis, L.D.; Daudt, C.R.; Thompson, M.D.; Stefanov, J.E.; Benson, M.A.; Padar, C.A.

1995-01-01

190

Environmental geophysics at the Southern Bush River Peninsula, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Geophysical studies have been conducted at five sites in the southern Bush River Peninsula in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The goals of the studies were to identify areas containing buried metallic objects and to provide diagnostic signatures of the hydrogeologic framework of the site. These studies indicate that, during the Pleistocene Epoch, alternating stands of high and low sea level resulted in a complex pattern of channel-fill deposits. Paleochannels of various sizes and orientations have been mapped throughout the study area by means of ground-penetrating radar and EM-31 techniques. The EM-31 paleochannel signatures are represented onshore either by conductivity highs or lows, depending on the depths and facies of the fill sequences. A companion study shows the features as conductivity highs where they extend offshore. This erosional and depositional system is environmentally significant because of the role it plays in the shallow groundwater flow regime beneath the site. Magnetic and electromagnetic anomalies outline surficial and buried debris throughout the areas surveyed. On the basis of geophysical measurements, large-scale (i.e., tens of feet) landfilling has not been found in the southern Bush River Peninsula, though smaller-scale dumping of metallic debris and/or munitions cannot be ruled out.

Davies, B.E.; Miller, S.F.; McGinnis, L.D. [and others

1995-05-01

191

Hydrogeology and soil gas at J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland  

Science.gov (United States)

Disposal of chemical warfare agents, munitions, and industrial chemicals in J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, has contaminated soil, groundwater and surface water. Seven exploratory borings and 38 observation wells were drilled to define the hydrogeologic framework at J-Field and to determine the type, extent, and movement of contaminants. The geologic units beneath J-Field consist of Coastal Plain sediments of the Cretaceous Patapsco Formation and Pleistocene Talbot Formation. The Patapsco Formation contains several laterally discontinuous aquifers and confining units. The Pleistocene deposits were divided into 3 hydrogeologic units--a surficial aquifer, a confining unit, and a confined aquifer. Water in the surficial aquifer flows laterally from topographically high areas to discharge areas in marshes and streams, and vertically to the underlying confined aquifer. In offshore areas, water flows from the deeper confined aquifers upward toward discharge areas in the Gunpowder River and Chesapeake Bay. Analyses of soil-gas samples showed high relative-flux values of chlorinated solvents, phthalates, and hydrocarbons at the toxic-materials disposal area, white-phosphorus disposal area, and riot-control-agent disposal area. The highest flux values were located downgradient of the toxic materials and white phosphorus disposal areas, indicating that groundwater contaminants are moving from source areas beneath the disposal pits toward discharge points in the marshes and estuaries. Elevated relative-flux values were measured upgradient and downgradient of the riot-control agent disposal area, and possibly result from soil and (or) groundwater contamination.

Hughes, W. B.

1993-01-01

192

Ecological risk assessment of depleted uranium in the environment at Aberdeen Proving Ground  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A preliminary ecological risk assessment was conducted to evaluate the effects of depleted uranium (DU) in the Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) ecosystem and its potential for human health effects. An ecological risk assessment of DU should include the processes of hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment, and risk characterization. Ecological risk assessments also should explicitly examine risks incurred by nonhuman as well as human populations, because risk assessments based only on human health do not always protect other species. To begin to assess the potential ecological risk of DU release to the environment we modeled DU transport through the principal components of the aquatic ecosystem at APG. We focused on the APG aquatic system because of the close proximity of the Chesapeake Bay and concerns about potential impacts on this ecosystem. Our objective in using a model to estimate environmental fate of DU is to ultimately reduce the uncertainty about predicted ecological risks due to DU from APG. The model functions to summarize information on the structure and functional properties of the APG aquatic system, to provide an exposure assessment by estimating the fate of DU in the environment, and to evaluate the sources of uncertainty about DU transport

1993-01-01

193

Remedial investigation report for J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Volume 1: Remedial investigation results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents the results of the remedial investigation (RI) conducted at J-Field in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), a U.S. Army installation located in Harford County, Maryland. Since 1917, activities in the Edgewood Area have included the development, manufacture, and testing of chemical agents and munitions and the subsequent destruction of these materials at J-Field by open burning and open detonation. These activities have raised concerns about environmental contamination at J-Field. This RI was conducted by the Environmental Conservation and Restoration Division, Directorate of Safety, Health and Environmental Division of APG, pursuant to requirements outlined under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (CERCLA). The RI was accomplished according to the procedures developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1988). The RI provides a comprehensive evaluation of the site conditions, nature of contaminants present, extent of contamination, potential release mechanisms and migration pathways, affected populations, and risks to human health and the environment. This information will be used as the basis for the design and implementation of remedial actions to be performed during the remedial action phase, which will follow the feasibility study (FS) for J-Field

2000-01-01

194

Remedial investigation report for J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Volume 1: Remedial investigation results  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents the results of the remedial investigation (RI) conducted at J-Field in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), a U.S. Army installation located in Harford County, Maryland. Since 1917, activities in the Edgewood Area have included the development, manufacture, and testing of chemical agents and munitions and the subsequent destruction of these materials at J-Field by open burning and open detonation. These activities have raised concerns about environmental contamination at J-Field. This RI was conducted by the Environmental Conservation and Restoration Division, Directorate of Safety, Health and Environmental Division of APG, pursuant to requirements outlined under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (CERCLA). The RI was accomplished according to the procedures developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1988). The RI provides a comprehensive evaluation of the site conditions, nature of contaminants present, extent of contamination, potential release mechanisms and migration pathways, affected populations, and risks to human health and the environment. This information will be used as the basis for the design and implementation of remedial actions to be performed during the remedial action phase, which will follow the feasibility study (FS) for J-Field.

Yuen, C. R.; Martino, L. E.; Biang, R. P.; Chang, Y. S.; Dolak, D.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R. A.; Patton, T. L.; Prasad, S.; Quinn, J.; Rosenblatt, D. H.; Vercellone, J.; Wang, Y. Y.

2000-03-14

195

Decommissioning information management in decommissioning planning and operations at AECL (Ref 5054)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As the AECL Decommissioning program has grown over the past few years, particularly with regard to long-term planning, so has its need to manage the records and information required to support the program. The program encompasses a diverse variety of facilities, including prototype and research reactors, fuel processing facilities, research laboratories, waste processing facilities, buildings, structures, lands and waste storage areas, many of which have changed over time. The decommissioning program involves planning, assessing, monitoring and executing projects to decommission the facilities. The efficient and effective decommissioning planning, assessment, monitoring and execution for the facilities and projects are dependent on a sound information base, upon which decisions can be made. A vital part of this Information Base is the ongoing management of historical facility records, including decommissioning records, throughout the full life cycle of the facilities. This paper describes AECL's and particularly DP and O's approach to: 1) Establishing a decommissioning records and information framework, which identifies what records and information are relevant to decommissioning, prioritizing the decommissioning facilities, identifying sources of relevant information and providing a user-friendly, electronic, search and retrieval tool for facility information accessible to staff. 2) Systematically, gathering, assessing, archiving and identifying important information and making that information available to staff to support their ongoing decommissioning work. 3) Continually managing and enhancing the records and information base and its support infrastructure to ensure its long-term availability. 4) Executing special information enhancement projects, which transform historic records into information for analysis. (author)

2005-05-08

196

Decommissioning cost estimates based on the international structure for decommissioning costing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Decommissioning cost estimates is essential part of decommissioning planning in all stages of nuclear installation lifetime. It has been recognized that there is a variety of formats, content and practice in decommissioning costing, due to the specific national requirement or to different assumptions. These differences make the process of decommissioning costing less transparent and more complicated to review. To solve these issues the document: 'A Proposed Standardised List of Items for Costing Purposes in the Decommissioning of Nuclear Installation' (known as 'Yellow Book') was jointly published by IAEA, OECD/NEA and EC in 1999. After a decade, the document was revised and issued by same organizations under the title: 'International Structure for Decommissioning Costing (ISDC) of Nuclear Installation. ISDC as the list of typical decommissioning activities (could be used also a check-list) provides s general cost structure suitable for use for all types of nuclear installations i.e. power plants, research reactors, fuel cycle facilities or laboratories. The purpose of the ISDC, is to facilitate the communication and to promote uniformity and to provide a common platform in presenting the decommissioning costs. Clear definition of ISDC items supports the common understanding of cost items, i.e. what is behind the cost. ISDC decommissioning activities are organised in a hierarchical structure, with the 1st and 2nd levels being aggregations of basic activities identified at the 3rd level. At (author)

2013-07-10

197

ECED 2013: Eastern and Central Europe Decommissioning. International Conference on Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities. Conference Guide and Book of Abstracts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Conference included the following sessions: (I) Opening session (2 contributions); (II) Managerial and Funding Aspects of Decommissioning (5 contributions); (III) Technical Aspects of Decommissioning I (6 contributions); (IV) Experience with Present Decommissioning Projects (4 contributions); (V) Poster Session (14 contributions); (VI) Eastern and Central Europe Decommissioning - Panel Discussion; (VII) Release of Materials, Waste Management and Spent Fuel Management (6 contributions); (VIII) Technical Aspects of Decommissioning II (5 contributions).

2013-06-18

198

Funding the decommissioning of nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The average age of nuclear power plants in OECD/ NEA member countries is now about 18 years. The average operating lifespan is estimated to be 30-50 years with a trend towards lifespan extensions. It follows that the rate of withdrawal from operation will peak somewhere after 2015. In several countries a number of commercial nuclear power plants have already been shut down. In some cases, decommissioning and dismantling have been completed or are in progress. In other cases, strategic, conceptual and/or detailed planning for such activities is currently taking place. The authors takes stock on the purpose of decommissioning and dismantling, the ethical principles for decommissioning funding, the establishment of a funding system, the uncertainties and conclude on three key messages derived from recent NEA activities addressing decommissioning. (A.L.B.)

2005-01-01

199

Decommissioning strategy for Trawsfynydd power station  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Following the decision to close Trawsfynydd power station, Nuclear Electric adapted its generic decommissioning plans to suit the particular local circumstances. This resulted in an early reduced height safestore strategy which is described in the paper. (Author).

Jones, H.M.; Ellis, A.T. [Nuclear Electric plc, Barnwood (United Kingdom)

1995-12-31

200

Decommissioning and disposal costs in Switzerland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Introduction Goal: Secure sufficient financial resources. Question: How much money is needed? Mean: Concrete plans for decommissioning and waste disposal. - It is the task of the operators to elaborate these plans and to evaluate the corresponding costs - Plans and costs are to be reviewed by the authorities Decommissioning Plans and Costs - Comprise decommissioning, dismantling and management (including disposal) of the waste. - New studies 2001 for each Swiss nuclear power plant (KKB 2 x 380 MWe, KKM 370 MWe, KKG 1020 MWe, KKL 1180 MWe). - Studies performed by NIS (D). - Last developments taken into account (Niederaichbach, Gundremmingen, Kahl). Decommissioning: Results and Review Results: Total cost estimates decreasing (billion CHF) 1994 1998 2001 13.7 13.1 11.8 Lower costs for spent fuel conditioning and BE/HAA/LMA repository (Opalinus Clay) Split in 2025: 5.6 bil. CHF paid by NPP 6.2 billion CHF in Fund Review: Concentrates on disposal, ongoing

2003-10-07

 
 
 
 
201

Decommissioning of DR 1, Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report describes the decommissioning activities carried out at the 2kW homogeneous reactor DR 1 at Risoe National Laboratory. The decommissioning work took place from summer 2004 until late autumn 2005. The components with the highest activity, the core vessel the recombiner and the piping and valves connected to these, were dismantled first by Danish Decommissioning's own technicians. Demolition of the control rod house and the biological shield as well as the removal of the floor in the reactor hall was carried out by an external demolition contractor. The building was emptied and left for other use. Clearance measurements of the building showed that radionuclide concentrations were everywhere below the clearance limit set by the Danish nuclear regulatory authorities. Furthermore, measurements on the surrounding area showed that there was no contamination that could be attributed to the operation and decommissioning of DR 1. (au)

202

NPP A-1 decommissioning - Phase I  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear power plant A-1 with output 150 MWe, with metallic natural uranium fuelled, CO2 cooled and heavy water moderated reactor had been prematurely finally shut down in 1977. It is necessary to mention that neither operator nor regulatory and other authorities have been prepared for the solution of such situation. During next two consecutive years after shutdown main effort of operator focused on technical and administrative activities which are described in the previous paper together with approach, condition and constraints for NPP A-1 decommissioning as well as the work and research carried out up to the development and approval of the Project for NPP A-1 decommissioning - I. phase. Subject of this paper is description of: (1) An approach to NPP A -1 decommissioning; (2) An approach to development of the project for NPP A-1 decommissioning; (3) Project - tasks, scope, objectives; (4) Mode of the Project realisation; (5) Progress achieved up to the 1999 year. (authors)

2000-03-15

203

Health physics considerations in decontamination and decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

These proceedings contain papers on legal considerations, environmental aspects, decommissioning equipment and methods, instrumentation, applied health physics, waste classification and disposal, and project experience. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers

1986-02-02

204

The total decommissioning of nuclear facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The following nuclear facilities in the Federal Republic of Germany are now ready for total decommissioning: the power plant Niederaichbach (KKN), the nuclear ship Otto Hahn and the research reactor FR2. Planning work on KKN commenced in 1979 and the approval procedure was begun in early 1980 when the approval contract was submitted. At the beginning of 1980 the contract for decommissioning the nuclear facilities on the Otto Hahn was awarded. Approval was received in December 1980 and work was begun on decommissioning the plant. FR2 is still in operation and will be shut down at the end of 1981. Planning work for decommissioning the nuclear part began at the end of 1980. The planning and the methods which are intended to be used for the three plants are described. (orig.)

1980-01-00

205

Commercialization of nuclear power plant decommissioning technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The commercialization of nuclear power plant decommissioning is presented as a step in the commercialization of nuclear energy. Opportunities for technology application advances are identified. Utility planning needs are presented

1983-01-01

206

Financing Strategies for Nuclear Power Plant Decommissioning.  

Science.gov (United States)

The report analyzes several alternatives for financing the decommissioning of nuclear power plants from the point of view of assurance, cost, equity, and other criteria. Sensitivity analyses are performed on several important variables and possible impact...

1980-01-01

207

Intact decommissioning alternative for nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Previous studies of decommissioning options for nuclear power plants have examined potential alternatives such as immediate dismantlement, entombment, and mothballing. Immediate dismantlement is usually the favored alternative from an economic viewpoint since the other two major options are burdened by maintenance and surveillance costs of the decommissioned facility extending into the distant future. This paper describes a study of an additional option; intact decommissioning. Under this alternative, an intact decommissioning boundary would be designed and seals established, and the radioactive systems and components contained inside would be left in place without maintenance or surveillance requirements. Radioactive components, systems and structures outside the boundary would be removed. Benefits in terms of lower costs and reduced radiation exposures are indicated for this approach

1985-05-03

208

Decommissioning in Germany. Current status and perspectives  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 2011 the German government decided as consequence of the Fukushima accident nuclear phase-out. Eight nuclear power plants were shut down, the operating license was withdrawn, nine nuclear power plants are still operated but have a defined shut-down schedule. In view of the NPP companies this decision is contrary to law, the first constitutional complaints were submitted. The decommissioning has not been planned since shortly before lifetime extension has been agreed by the government. A reference concept for the decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear power plants has been developed during the past, the decommissioning and dismantling technology is no more a challenge. The real challenge is the organization of the decommissioning of many plants at the same time, since manpower in the plants, but also in the authorities has to be increased.

2012-05-22

209

The cost of decommissioning nuclear facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the decommissioning costs of British nuclear installations. For all nuclear reactors, the process is normally carried out in three stages. Although the first stage of the decommissioning programme takes about four to five years, the final stage will be delayed for about 100 years after the end of the reactor's operating life. The Government's policy is that it is the responsibility of the nuclear licensees to decommission their own plants which includes managing and disposing of the resulting radioactive wastes. As part owner of certain nuclear industry companies the Government must accept some liability. The National Audit Office aimed to determine the extent of the Government's potential liabilities for such decommissioning, and how it should be financed with the possible implications to the British taxpayer. (author)

1993-01-01

210

Environmental impact assessment of NPP decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this presentation the following potential impacts of decommissioning of NPP are discussed: - Impacts on population; Impacts on natural environment; Land impacts; Impacts on urban complex and land utilisation; Possible impacts on area as a result of failure.

2009-10-01

211

Decommissioning of DR 1, Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report describes the decommissioning activities carried out at the 2kW homogeneous reactor DR 1 at Risoe National Laboratory. The decommissioning work took place from summer 2004 until late autumn 2005. The components with the highest activity, the core vessel the recombiner and the piping and valves connected to these, were dismantled first by Danish Decommissioning's own technicians. Demolition of the control rod house and the biological shield as well as the removal of the floor in the reactor hall was carried out by an external demolition contractor. The building was emptied and left for other use. Clearance measurements of the building showed that radionuclide concentrations were everywhere below the clearance limit set by the Danish nuclear regulatory authorities. Furthermore, measurements on the surrounding area showed that there was no contamination that could be attributed to the operation and decommissioning of DR 1. (au)

Lauridsen, Kurt

2006-01-15

212

Nuclear submarine decommissioning and related environmental problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The issue of nuclear powered submarines occupies a particular place among the problems related to nuclear wastes. Nuclear submarines that were withdrawn from military service as well as those intended fro utilization represent a potential source of both nuclear and radiation hazard. By the beginning of 1966 more than one hundred and fifty nuclear powered vessels were decommissioned in Russia both for the reason of expiration of their service life and due to treaties on reduction of strategic offensive weapons. By 200 this number is expected to increase to one hundred and seventy-eighty units. According to published data the number of nuclear submarines decommissioned in USA to date exceeds twenty units. Major problems associated with utilization of nuclear submarines are related to safety and special security measures are to undertaken for decommissioned nuclear submarines. One of the most significant problems is related with management and/or storage of spent fuel from decommissioned nuclear submarines

1997-06-27

213

Nuclear Materials Development Facility Decommissioning Final Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Nuclear Materials Development Facility (NMDF), building 055, was utilized for research, development, and production work on radiotoxic nuclear fuels, primarily (239) Pu. The decision was made in FY 1982 to decommission the facility as part of the Depa...

R. J. Frazier D. J. Harrison R. D. Meyer F. C. Schrag R. C. Wilson

1987-01-01

214

The cost of decommissioning uranium mill tailings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report identifies several key operations that are commonly carried out during decommissioning of tailings areas in the Canadian environment. These operations are unit costed for a generic site to provide a base reference case. The unit costs have also been scaled to the quantities required for the decommissioning of four Canadian sites and these scaled quantities compared with site-specific engineering cost estimates and actual costs incurred in carrying out the decommissioning activities. Variances in costing are discussed. The report also recommends a generic monitoring regime upon which both short- and longer-term environmental monitoring costs are calculated. Although every site must be addressed as a site-specific case, and monitoring programs must be tailored to fit a specific site, it would appear that for the conventional decommissioning and monitoring practices that have been employed to date, costs can be reasonably estimated when site-specific conditions are taken into account

1986-01-01

215

Decommissioning of AECL Whiteshell laboratories - 16311  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Whiteshell Laboratories (WL) is a Nuclear Research and Test Establishment near Winnipeg, Canada, operated by AECL since the early 1960's and now under decommissioning. WL occupies approximately 4400 hectares of land and employed more than 1000 staff up to the late-1990's, when the closure decision was made. Nuclear facilities at WL included a research reactor, hot cell facilities and radiochemical laboratories. Programs carried out at the WL site included high level nuclear fuel waste management research, reactor safety research, nuclear materials research, accelerator technology, biophysics, and industrial radiation applications. In preparation for decommissioning, a comprehensive environmental assessment was successfully completed [1] and the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission issued a six-year decommissioning licence for WL starting in 2003 - the first decommissioning licence issued for a Nuclear Research and Test Establishment in Canada. This paper describes the progress in this first six-year licence period. A significant development in 2006 was the establishment of the Nuclear Legacy Liabilities Program (NLLP), by the Government of Canada, to safely and cost effectively reduce, and eventually eliminate the nuclear legacy liabilities and associated risks, using sound waste management and environmental principles. The NLLP endorsed an accelerated approach to WL Decommissioning, which meant advancing the full decommissioning of buildings and facilities that had originally been planned to be decontaminated and prepared for storage-with-surveillance. As well the NLLP endorsed the construction of enabling facilities - facilities that employ modern waste handling and storage technology on a scale needed for full decommissioning of the large radiochemical laboratories and other nuclear facilities. The decommissioning work and the design and construction of enabling facilities are fully underway. Several redundant non-nuclear buildings have been removed and redundant nuclear facilities are being decontaminated and prepared for demolition. Along with decommissioning of redundant structures, site utilities are being decommissioned and reconfigured to reduce site operating costs. New waste handling and waste clearance facilities have been commissioned and a large shielded modular above ground storage (SMAGS) structure is in final design in preparation for construction in 2010. The eventual goal is full decommissioning of all facilities and infrastructure and removal of stored wastes from the site. (authors)

2009-10-11

216

A nationwide modelling approach to decommissioning - 16182  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper we describe a proposed UK national approach to modelling decommissioning. For the first time, we shall have an insight into optimizing the safety and efficiency of a national decommissioning strategy. To do this we use the General Case Integrated Waste Algorithm (GIA), a universal model of decommissioning nuclear plant, power plant, waste arisings and the associated knowledge capture. The model scales from individual items of plant through cells, groups of cells, buildings, whole sites and then on up to a national scale. We describe the national vision for GIA which can be broken down into three levels: 1) the capture of the chronological order of activities that an experienced decommissioner would use to decommission any nuclear facility anywhere in the world - this is Level 1 of GIA; 2) the construction of an Operational Research (OR) model based on Level 1 to allow rapid what if scenarios to be tested quickly (Level 2); 3) the construction of a state of the art knowledge capture capability that allows future generations to learn from our current decommissioning experience (Level 3). We show the progress to date in developing GIA in levels 1 and 2. As part of level 1, GIA has assisted in the development of an IMechE professional decommissioning qualification. Furthermore, we describe GIA as the basis of a UK-Owned database of decommissioning norms for such things as costs, productivity, durations etc. From level 2, we report on a pilot study that has successfully tested the basic principles for the OR numerical simulation of the algorithm. We then highlight the advantages of applying the OR modelling approach nationally. In essence, a series of 'what if...' scenarios can be tested that will improve the safety and efficiency of decommissioning. (authors)

2009-10-11

217

Decommissioning of nuclear activities. Indian perspective  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The process of decommissioning begins after the final shutdown of the facility or after an abnormal event when the facility is no longer considered viable for operation and ends with the release of the site for use by a responsible organization as authorised by AERB or for unrestricted use by the public. Decommissioning of a nuclear facility involves decontamination, dismantling, cutting, packaging and transportation of plant equipment and materials and handling, treatment, conditioning, storage/disposal of radioactive and inactive wastes generated. In India, AERB has issued a Safety manual AERB/SM/DECOM-1 on Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities which discusses various aspects of decommissioning including: criteria for occupational exposures, discharge of radionuclides to the environment, criteria for long term waste disposal and clearance levels. It also prescribes the requirements with regard to advance planning for decommissioning of nuclear facilities and quality assurance during decommissioning. The criteria for categorisation of wastes and their mode of disposal is also prescribed. In India, the complete decommissioning of a major nuclear activities has not been carried out. However, as a part of life extension programme, en-masse coolant channel replacement of RAPS-2 at Kota, Rajasthan has been performed. The irradiated reactor components coming out from the core of the reactor were safely disposed in tile holes at a near surface disposal facility at the solid waste management plant. This experience has provided confidence that, with modern technological developments, decommissioning of NPPs and other facilities can be carried out without undue risk to the occupational workers, members of the public and the environment. (author)

2002-10-14

218

SGDes project. Decommissioning management system of Enresa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ENRESA, the public company responsible for managing radioactive waste produced in spain and nuclear facilities decommissioning work, has developed a management information system (SGDes) for the decommissioning of nuclear power plants, critical for the company. SGDes system is capable of responding to operational needs for efficient, controlled and secure way. Dismantling activities require a rigorous operations control within highly specialized, process systematization and safety framework, both the human and technological point of view. (Author)

2013-01-01

219

Decommissioning Project Manager's Implementing Instructions (PMII)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Decommissioning Project personnel are responsible for complying with these PMII. If at any time in the performance of their duties a conflict between these instructions and other written or verbal direction is recognized or perceived, the supervisor or worker shall place his/her work place in a safe condition, stop work, and seek resolution of the conflict from the Decommissioning Project Manager or his designee

1998-01-01

220

NRC looks to speed decommissioning decisions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The US NRC has proposed new generic rules designed to speed the decommissioning of NRC-licensed nuclear facilities. The new rules propose moving aways from the commissions's current site-specific decommissioning policy and using radiological criteria for determining when a site can be considered cleaned. The proposal would establish 15 millirems per years as the total effective dose equivalent as the threshold for cleanup

1994-08-23

 
 
 
 
221

Intact decommissioning option for nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Intact decommissioning has been proposed as an alternative method for decommissioning nuclear power plants complying with NRC license termination requirements as set forth in 10 CFR 50 and Regulatory Guide 1.86. Under this method, after the fuel and radioactive liquid and wastes are removed, highly radioactive systems and components, such as the reactor vessel and internals and the primary coolant system, would be sealed inside a designated boundary (e.g., the containment building) and left indefinitely. Radioactive materials outside the intact decommissioning boundary would be removed. Minimization of preparatory work, no consolidation of radioactive components in a particular location, and no maintenance or surveillance of the decommissioned facility distinguish this from the entombment option. The associated occupational radiation exposure should be significantly lower, and the public exposure no greater - and quite likely less - than the currently favored decommissioning method, immediate dismantlement. This paper presents the results of a study, sponsored by the National Environmental Studies Project of the Atomic industrial Forum (AIF/NESP), examining the viability and radiological consequences of intact decommissioning

1986-12-01

222

An outsider`s view of decommissioning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The decommissioning of nuclear facilities is not just a technical or even a financial issue. Presenting decommissioning as a technically difficult task overcome by superhuman effort on the part of the industry will not gain much credit amongst sophisticated consumers who now require that any complex technology will work and work safely. Any engineering problems are surmountable given the money to find the solution. Some of the financial aspects of decommissioning are worrying, however, given their open-ended nature. The cost of waste disposal is one of these. Despite a lapse of fifty years since the start-up of its first reactor, the United Kingdom is unlikely to have available a repository for the disposal of intermediate level waste until about 2020. Waste disposal is a large consideration in decommissioning and the industry`s forecasts of cost in this area lack credibility in the light of a poor track record in financial prediction. Financial engineering in the form of the segregated fund set up in March 1996 to cover the decommissioning of nuclear power stations in the United Kingdom is likely to provide only short term reassurance in the light of doubts about a credible future for nuclear power. This lack of confidence over the wider problems of nuclear power creates particular problems for decommissioning which go beyond technical difficulties and complicate financial considerations. (UK).

Wilkie, T. [The Independent and The Independent on Sunday Newspapers, London (United Kingdom)

1996-10-01

223

Safety in decommissioning of research reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Guide covers the technical and administrative considerations relevant to the nuclear aspects of safety in the decommissioning of reactors, as they apply to the reactor and the reactor site. While the treatment, transport and disposal of radioactive wastes arising from decommissioning are important considerations, these aspects are not specifically covered in this Guide. Likewise, other possible issues in decommissioning (e.g. land use and other environmental issues, industrial safety, financial assurance) which are not directly related to radiological safety are also not considered. Generally, decommissioning will be undertaken after planned final shutdown of the reactor. In some cases a reactor may have to be decommissioned following an unplanned or unexpected event of a series or damaging nature occurring during operation. In these cases special procedures for decommissioning may need to be developed, peculiar to the particular circumstances. This Guide could be used as a basis for the development of these procedures although specific consideration of the circumstances which create the need for them is beyond its scope

1986-01-01

224

ASTM standards in radiological decontamination and decommissioning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Subcommittee E10.03 was formed following a steering committee meeting held in April 1980. The meeting was initiated as a result of labor union concern for the safety of workers on decommissioning projects. Of particular concern at that time was the need for proper training of the workers and a means of tracking worker radiation-exposure records as they traveled to various decommissioning job sites. The steering committee concluded not only that worker protection standards were necessary for decommissioning activities but also that all phases of a decommissioning project could benefit from the appropriate guides or standards. These would provide worker protection, technical guidance, and consistency for decommissioning work. It recommended that Subcommittee E10.03 be formed and dedicated to the preparation of guides and standards that would support all phases of nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning. Subcommittee E10.03 has met regularly on a semiannual basis since that time.

Meservey, R.H. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1994-12-31

225

Investigation on decommissioning of smelting conversion facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To carry out decommissioning of smelting and conversion plant (containing apparatuses) in future, it is required to develop planned businesses. As JNC constructed a general WBS on the decommissioning on last fiscal years, further detailed investigations on WBS is necessary for promotion of its operations. Therefore, aiming at construction of detailed WBS with less than the fourth level, intention of updating on subdivision and radioactive decommission, and addition of data on determining methods on polluting condition of uranium series wastes, here were reported results on four items, such as reviewing of WBS on the decommissioning, construction of detailed WBS with less than the fourth level, updating of databases on subdivision and decommission, and data addition on determining methods on polluting conditions of uranium series wastes to the subdivision and the decommission databases. On this fiscal year, it was carried out investigation on contents of WBS on the 'Construction of investigating items on subdivision and removal engineerings (sixteen sheets of construction figure)' to consult WBS with less than the fourth level for eight sheets of figure in details on the second item, to carry out literature retrieval on reuse since 1998, to input sixty extracted data to database on the third item, and to carry out literature retrieval on the determining method since 1990, to input eight extracted data to database by preparing a new term in 'testing'. (G.K.)

2000-01-01

226

Medical imaging by nuclear magnetic resonance. A review of the Aberdeen physical and biological programme  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging as used in the Aberdeen machine involves placing the subject in a static magnetic field and applying a sequence of radiofrequency pulses (1.7 MHz) and magnetic field gradient pulses in three orthogonal directions. Images are formed of any transverse section across the body, which display either the distribution of protons in water (and fat) in tissues, or the spin-lattice relaxation time T1. Thus two new imaging parameters can be used to characterize normal and diseased tissue. The method has the advantage of not using ionizing radiation, and it appears to be a safe, non-invasive procedure. A 128-s scan gives two arrays, one of proton concentration, and one of T1. Each transverse section is 18.5-mm thick with elements 7.5 mm by 7.5 mm (1 cm3). Simultaneously with the machine development, a biological programme has been followed. In vitro measurements have been made of T1 for rabbit tissues at 24 MHz and 2.5 MHz: soft tissues range from 141 ms for liver to 463 ms for testis. Malignant tumours generally have longer T1, and rat thigh muscle immediately surrounding implanted Yoshida sarcoma shows longer T1 due to reactions. Also, it is expected that conditions which affect the water content of a tissue, e.g. oedema, should increase its T1. Tomographic sections from head, thorax and abdomen (including the pelvis) have been examined on healthy volunteers. No adverse effect was experienced. The cerebral cortex, pineal gland, choroid plexes, sagittal sinus, cerebellum, fourth ventricle, brain stem, paranasal sinuses, orbits, eyes and ocular muscles have been seen. Major blood vessels in the trunk, right and left ventricles of the heart, lungs, breasts and chest wall, liver, spleen, kidneys, stomach, colon, vertebral canal, lumbar muscles, rectum and bladder have all been imaged. The clinical role remains to be explored. (author)

1980-09-05

227

Potential health impacts from range fires at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study uses atmospheric dispersion computer models to evaluate the potential for human health impacts from exposure to contaminants that could be dispersed by fires on the testing ranges at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. It was designed as a screening study and does not estimate actual human health risks. Considered are five contaminants possibly present in the soil and vegetation from past human activities at APG--lead, arsenic, trichloroethylene (TCE), depleted uranium (DU), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT); and two chemical warfare agents that could be released from unexploded ordnance rounds heated in a range fire--mustard and phosgene. For comparison, dispersion of two naturally occurring compounds that could be released by burning of uncontaminated vegetation--vinyl acetate and 2-furaldehyde--is also examined. Data from previous studies on soil contamination at APG are used in conjunction with conservative estimates about plant uptake of contaminants, atmospheric conditions, and size and frequency of range fires at APG to estimate dispersion and possible human exposure. The results are compared with US Environmental Protection Agency action levels. The comparisons indicate that for all of the anthropogenic contaminants except arsenic and mustard, exposure levels would be at least an order of magnitude lower than the corresponding action levels. Because of the compoundingly conservative nature of the assumptions made, they conclude that the potential for significant human health risks from range fires is low. The authors recommend that future efforts be directed at fire management and control, rather than at conducting additional studies to more accurately estimate actual human health risk from range fires.

Willians, G.P.; Hermes, A.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Hartmann, H.M.; Tomasko, D.

1998-03-01

228

A deer study at Aberdeen Proving Ground: Project planning, data assimilation, and risk assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For more than 75 years, Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) has been in the business of research, development, and testing of munitions and military vehicles for the US Army. Currently, APG is on the National Priorities List and an installation wide human health risk assessment is underway. Like many Department of the Army facilities, APG has an active hunting program. Hunters harvest approximately 800 whitetail deer (Odocoileus virginanus) from APG annually. To assure public safety, the authors completed a study during the 1993 hunting season to identify any potential human health hazards associated with consumption of venison from APG. This paper will discuss the unique strategy behind the experimental design, the actual assimilation of the data, and the results of the human health risk assessment to establish an appropriate contaminant levels in APG deer. Also, based on information in the literature, the authors considered gender, age, and season in the study design. The list of chemicals for residue analysis included explosives, PCBs, organochlorine pesticides, and metals (As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg). Of the 150 deer sampled, metals were the only chemicals detected. The authors compared these data to metal levels in deer collected from an off post background site. Metal levels did not differ significantly between APG deer and off post deer. Finally, the authors completed a health risk assessment of eating deer harvested from both APG and off post. From a survey distributed to the hunters, they incorporated actual consumption data into the exposure assessment. Their findings concluded that the risk of eating APG deer was no higher than eating off post deer; however, total arsenic levels in muscle did appear to elevate the risk.

Whaley, J.; Leach, G.; Lee, R. [Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)

1995-12-31

229

Decommissioning of an irradiation unit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Distributed throughout hospital, research establishments in the United Kingdom and many other countries are Irradiation Units and Teletherapy machines used for either research purposes or treatment of patients for radiotherapy. These Irradiation Units and Teletherapy machines are loaded with radioactive sources of either Cobalt 60 or Caesium 137. The activity of these sources can range from 1 Terabecquerel up to 100 Terabecquerels or more. Where it is possible to load the radioactive sources without removal from the shielded container into a transport package which is suitable for transport decommissioning of a Teletherapy machine is not a major exercise. When the radioactive sources need to be unloaded from the Irradiation Unit or Teletherapy machine the potential exists for very high levels of radiation. The operation outlined in the paper involved the transfer from an Irradiation Unit to a transport package of two 3.25 Terabecquerel sources of Cobalt 60. The operation of the removal and transfer comes within the scope of the United Kingdom Ionising Radiation Regulations 1985 which were made following the Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. This paper illustrates a safe method for this operation and how doses received can be kept within ALARA. (author)

2000-05-01

230

Decommissioning of nuclear power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is preferable to grasp the possible selection of disposing method and the extent of expense in decommissioning nuclear power plants after their durable years have expired, and also to establish the countermeasure if necessary. The following discussion is made mainly on light water reactors. As the measures for the reactors after the durable years have expired, (1) mothballing, (2) in-place entombment, and (3) dismantling are considered in the Regulatory Guide 1.86 of US AEC. Mothballing is advantageous in case that the administration of a reactor is not a heavy burden after mothballing as, for example, other reactor facilities are still in operation at that site. In-place entombment is superior in the point that the dismantling of a pressure vessel and biological shields is avoidable, which is most difficult in the whole station dismantling. Dismantling is the most satisfactory method but most expensive. More than 10,000 million yen will be needed in the complete dismantling of a large light water reactor. The dismantling techniques for in-reactor construction, a pressure vessel and biological shields are instructed together with the disposal of waste material and radiation exposure by dismantling works. However, exposure is supposed to be the same as that in normal reactor operation or less. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

1976-01-01

231

Evaluation of nuclear facility decommissioning projects. Status report. Humboldt Bay Power Plant Unit 3, SAFSTOR decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document explains the purpose of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) Evaluation of Nuclear Facility Decommissioning Projects (ENFDP) program and summarizes information concerning the decommissioning of the Humboldt Bay Power Plant (HBPP) Unit 3 facility. Preparations to put this facility into a custodial safe storage (SAFSTOR) mode are currently scheduled for completion by June 30, 1986. This report gives the status of activities as of June 1985. A final summary report will be issued after completion of this SAFSTOR decommissioning activity. Information included in this status report has been collected from the facility decommissioning plan, environmental report, and other sources made available by the licensee. This data has been placed in a computerized data base system which permits data manipulation and summarization. A description of the computer reports that can be generated by the decommissioning data system (DDS) for Humboldt Bay and samples of those reports are included in this document

1986-01-01

232

Systems engineering for decommissioning the Japan Power Demonstration Reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Japan Power Demonstration Reactor (JPDR) decommissioning program is in progress of developing new technology for reactor decommissioning and establishing a decommissioning database. Various data about the JPDR dismantling have been accumulated in the database. The data collected in the program are being used for : (1) managing on-going dismantling activities, (2) verifying the code system for management of reactor decommissioning (COSMARD) developed for the use of forecasting management information, and (3) planning future decommissioning of commercial nuclear power reactors. COSMARD and the database are expected to be useful for planning of future decommissioning of commercial nuclear power reactors. (author)

1991-01-01

233

IAEA decommissioning Initiatives: strategy and programme  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over the past decade, the IAEA has strengthened and consolidated its efforts to respond to the needs of member states in the provision of decommissioning services. The need for these services is evidenced by the large number of nuclear facilities that are either shut-down or approaching the end of their useful lives and seen in the growing demands on the IAEA for decommissioning support. The objectives of the IAEA's decommissioning programme are to: Strengthen the safe and timely decommissioning of installations and the release or remediation of sites affected by radioactive residues Update and disseminate information on strategies, methodologies and state-of-the-art practices and technologies Provide advice and assistance to develop and strengthen national capabilities for decommissioning The role of the IAEA in promoting and facilitating international co-operation amongst its member states is put forward in Article VIII(C) of the Statute, which says that the IAEA shall take positive steps to encourage the exchange among its members of information relating to the nature and peaceful uses of atomic energy and shall serve as an intermediary among its members for this purpose. This role is supported by the Member States, as noted for example in Resolutions 46 and 47 of the 2007 General Conference, which welcomed the outcomes of the International Conference on Lessons Learned from the Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities and the launch of the International Decommissioning Network to serve as a mechanism for exchanging information and providing practical training and demonstrations with a regional or thematic focus. (authors)

2008-10-02

234

Decommissioning Challenges, strategy and programme development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document gathers 4 short articles. The first one presents the IAEA decommissioning activities. These activities include: -) the development and implementation of the international action on decommissioning, -) the provision of experts and equipment to assist member states, -) networking activities such as training or exchange of knowledge and experience. The second article presents the work program of the Nea (nuclear energy agency) in the field of decommissioning and reports on the lessons that have been learnt. Among these lessons we can quote: -) selecting a strategy for decommissioning and funding it adequately, -) regulating the decommissioning of nuclear activities, -) thinking of the future in terms of reusing materials, buildings and sites, -) involving local and regional actors in the decommissioning process from decision-making to dismantling work itself, and -) increasing transparency in decision-making in order to build trust. The third article presents the management of radioactive wastes in France. This management is based on the categorization of wastes in 6 categories according to both the activity level and the radioactive half-life T: 1) very low activity, 2) low activity and T 31 years, 4) intermediate activity and T 31 years, and 6) high activity. For categories 1, 2, 3 and 5, the waste treatment process and the disposal places have been operating for a long time while for categories 4 and 6, the disposal places are still being studied: low-depth repository and deep geological repository respectively. The last article presents the action of the US Department of energy in decommissioning activities and environmental remediation, the example of the work done at the ancient nuclear site of Rocky Flats gives an idea of the magnitude and complexity of the operations made. (A.C.)

2008-01-01

235

Decommissioning of fast reactors after sodium draining  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Acknowledging the importance of passing on knowledge and experience, as well mentoring the next generation of scientists and engineers, and in response to expressed needs by Member States, the IAEA has undertaken concrete steps towards the implementation of a fast reactor data retrieval and knowledge preservation initiative. Decommissioning of fast reactors and other sodium bearing facilities is a domain in which considerable experience has been accumulated. Within the framework and drawing on the wide expertise of the Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG-FR), the IAEA has initiated activities aiming at preserving the feedback (lessons learned) from this experience and condensing those to technical recommendations on fast reactor design features that would ease their decommissioning. Following a recommendation by the TWG-FR, the IAEA had convened a topical Technical Meeting (TM) on 'Operational and Decommissioning Experience with Fast Reactors', hosted by CEA, Centre d'Etudes de Cadarache, France, from 11 to 15 March 2002 (IAEA-TECDOC- 1405). The participants in that TM exchanged detailed technical information on fast reactor operation and decommissioning experience with various sodium cooled fast reactors, and, in particular, reviewed the status of the various decommissioning programmes. The TM concluded that the decommissioning of fast reactors to reach safe enclosure presented no major difficulties, and that this had been accomplished mainly through judicious adaptation of processes and procedures implemented during the reactor operation phase, and the development of safe sodium waste treatment processes. However, the TM also concluded that, on the path to achieving total dismantling, challenges remain with regard to the decommissioning of components after sodium draining, and suggested that a follow-on TM be convened, that would provide a forum for in-depth scientific and technical exchange on this topic. This publication constitutes the Proceedings of this follow-up TM held in Cadarache, France, 26-30 September 2005

2002-03-15

236

Overview of decommissioning activities in the US  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The U.S. has been involved the successful decontamination, decommissioning and reutilization of nuclear facilities for over 20 years. A number of commercial power plants in the United States have either completed their decommissioning, or will be in the next few years. In addition, the U.S. DOE has taken an aggressive approach to site remediation focusing on site closures so as to better utilize its financial resources. The U.S. initiative to deregulate the electrical generation industry to promote competition and presumably to reduce electricity prices to the consumer, is again in flux. Some utilities, facing the real or perceived threat of competition in its markets decided to shut down the 'costly' nuclear plants to alleviate the drain on their financial reserves. The older nuclear units experienced serious mechanical problems, entailing expensive repairs and replacements. Such difficulties have caused owner-operator utilities to decide to decommission these facilities rather than incur the expense of upgrading or repairing the plants to meet current regulatory and design criteria. Plants that were marginally cost-competitive, or not at all competitive, were shut down and decommissioned. Other utilities have bought some of the older nuclear plants in the Northeast (a high power demand region) to operate them and to extend their licenses for continued life. This paper will discuss the decommissioning lessons learned, management approaches, site characterization and challenges faced in disposition of radioactive waste and large components, contracting practice, and the status of several of these shut down reactor-decommissioning programs. The industry has proven that nuclear power plants can be cost effectively and safely decommissioned. (author)

2005-05-08

237

Qualidade do sêmen de touros das raças Aberdeen Angus e Brangus-Ibagé em frente à degeneração testicular experimental induzida por dexametasona / Bulls semen quality of Aberdeen Angus and Brangus-Ibagé breeds after experimental testicular degeneration induced by dexamethasone  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foi administrada dexametasona para indução de degeneração testicular experimental em touros de uma raça taurina pura (Aberdeen Angus) e de sua sintética derivada (Brangus-Ibagé). O objetivo deste estudo foi o de averiguar a diferença de sensibilidade na função gametogênica em frente à degeneração ex [...] perimental. Para tal, foram avaliados os aspectos físicos e morfológicos do sêmen. Os dados obtidos foram analisados considerando o dia de coleta e genótipo. Os resultados revelaram que os dois grupos raciais comportaram-se semelhantemente ao longo das coletas. A despeito do número de animais empregados, o uso da degeneração testicular experimental possibilitou evidenciar que não há diferença entre as duas raças quanto à intensidade da degeneração e tempo necessário para o restabelecimento do quadro espermático normal. Abstract in english Testicular degeneration was induced by dexamethasone injection in bulls from a European breed Aberdeen Angus and a derived synthetic crossbreed (Brangus-Ibagé). Aiming to investigate differential sensibility on gametogenic function in these genotypes, physical and morphological semen characteristics [...] were evaluated. The data analysed considered the day of the semen samples and the breed. Our results reveal that both breeds behave similarly during the experimental period. Even considering the number of bulls used in this experiment, the employed methodology gives no evidence of any difference between breeds, intensity of degeneration or time required to the reestablishment of normal sperm frequencies after experimental induction of testicular degeneration.

Horn, Marilise Mesquita; Moraes, José Carlos Ferrugem; Galina, Carlos Salvador.

238

Verification for radiological decommissioning - Lessons learned  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the past 10 years, the Environmental Survey and Site Assessment Program (ESSAP) at Oak ridge Associated Universities has performed radiological surveys to confirm the adequacy of cleanup and/or decommissioning actions at sites and facilities where radioactive materials have been handled. These surveys are part of the independent oversight programs of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Results of verification activities have been discouraging. Numerous independent surveys have identified residual contamination requiring further remediation; in some cases, initial decontamination and postremedial action monitoring were totally inadequate. While participating in decommission projects, ESSAP learned valuable lessons and has given this information to regulating agencies and decommissioning sites. The goal of this presentation is to highlight the difficulties encountered by ESSAP in its involvement with NRC and DOE decommissioning projects. Decommissioning projects require teamwork, and success depends to a large degree on the communication, cooperation, and coordination of efforts among the individual organizations involved. This information could be used by organizations involved in future decontamination projects to avoid some of the pitfalls associated with this process

1990-11-11

239

Systematic Approach for Decommissioning Planning and Estimating  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear facility decommissioning, satisfactorily completed at the lowest cost, relies on a systematic approach to the planning, estimating, and documenting the work. High quality information is needed to properly perform the planning and estimating. A systematic approach to collecting and maintaining the needed information is recommended using a knowledgebase system for information management. A systematic approach is also recommended to develop the decommissioning plan, cost estimate and schedule. A probabilistic project cost and schedule risk analysis is included as part of the planning process. The entire effort is performed by a experienced team of decommissioning planners, cost estimators, schedulers, and facility knowledgeable owner representatives. The plant data, work plans, cost and schedule are entered into a knowledgebase. This systematic approach has been used successfully for decommissioning planning and cost estimating for a commercial nuclear power plant. Elements of this approach have been used for numerous cost estimates and estimate reviews. The plan and estimate in the knowledgebase should be a living document, updated periodically, to support decommissioning fund provisioning, with the plan ready for use when the need arises

2002-02-24

240

Economical aspect of the decommissioning for NPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The estimated, analysed and founding of the economical aspect at decommissioning of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) have been studied. The data that have been obtained from literature, then the calculation and analysing have been done base to the future condition. The cost for NPP decommissioning depend on the internal factor such as type, capacity and safe storage time, and the external factor such as policy, manpower and the technology preparation. The successfulness of funding, depend on the rate of inflation, discount rate of interest and the currency fluctuation. For the internal factor, the influence of the type of the reactor (BWR or PWR) to the decommissioning cost is negligible, the big reactor capacity (±1100 MW), and the safe storage between 30 to 100 years are recommended, and for the external factor, specially Indonesia, to meet the future need the ratio of decommissioning cost and capital cost will be lower than in develop countries at the present (10%). The ratio between decommissioning fund and electricity generation cost relatively very low, are more less than 1.79 % for 30 years safe storage, and discount rate of interest 3%, or more less than 0.30 % for safe storage 30 years, and discount rate of interest 6%. (author)

1998-12-01

 
 
 
 
241

Management of Sellafield site decommissioning - recent experiences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

History of the British Nuclear Site Sellafield - located in Western Cambria goes back to 1940, when it served for military and energy independence tasks in the Great Britain. Since then Sellafield served as the major British nuclear site providing wide range of services to the British nuclear industry, including fuel and waste storage/management, nuclear fuel reprocessing, electricity production and decommissioning. Currently the Sellafield site is one of the largest site under decommissioning facing serious challenges associated with the process and cost management. In November 2008 the Nuclear Management Partners, the consortium consisting URS Washington Group, AMEC and AREVA NC, were awarded the contract as the new Parent Body Organization of Sellafield Ltd. that provides management expertise and governance to the client (Nuclear Decommissioning Authority). Since 2008 AMEC has gained extensive experiences from management of complex decommissioning projects that are applicable across different geographies and projects of similar nature. Presentation describes the development of the process system of the project management from the side of PBO as well as complex scheme of the Sellafield site decommissioning project. (author)

2013-07-10

242

Decommissioning of the Iraq former nuclear complex  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: A number of sites in Iraq have some degree of radiological contamination and require decommissioning and remediation in order to ensure radiological safety. Many of these sites in Iraq are located at the nuclear research centre at Al Tuwaitha. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Board of Governors has approved a project to assist the Government of Iraq in the evaluation and decommissioning of former facilities that used radioactive materials. The project is divided into three phases: Phase 1: collect and analyze all available data and conduct training of the Iraqi staff, Phase 2: develop a decommissioning and remediation plan, and Phase 3: implement field activities relating to decommissioning, remediation and site selection suitable for final disposal of waste. Four working groups have been established to complete the Phase 1 work and significant progress has been made in drafting a new nuclear law which will provide the legal basis for the licensing of the decommissioning of the former nuclear complex. Work is also underway to collect and analysis existing date, to prioritize future activities and to develop a waste management strategy. This will be a long-term and costly project. (authors)

2007-09-02

243

Decommissioning database of V1 NPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since 2001, the preparation of V1 NPP practical decommissioning has been supported and partly financed by the Bohunice International Decommissioning Support Fund (BIDSF), under the administration of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. AMEC Nuclear Slovakia, together with partners STM Power and EWN GmbH, have been carrying out BIDSF B6.4 project - Decommissioning database development (June 2008 until July 2010). The main purpose of the B6.4 project is to develop a comprehensive physical and radiological inventory database to support RAW management development of the decommissioning studies and decommissioning project of Bohunice V1 NPP. AMEC Nuclear Slovakia was responsible mainly for DDB design, planning documents and physical and radiological characterization including sampling and analyses of the plant controlled area. After finalization of all activities DDB includes over 75.000 records related to individual equipment and civil structures described by almost 3.000.000 parameters. On the basis of successful completion of the original contract the amendment was signed between JAVYS and Consultant's Consortium related to experimental characterization of NPP activated components. The works within this amendment have been still running. (authors)

2011-11-01

244

Managing Decommissioning Projects Using D&D TRAK.  

Science.gov (United States)

Numerous buildings throughout the DOE complex are being decommissioned. The decommissioning process typically includes dismantling equipment and utility systems for disposal, decontaminating remaining surfaces to meet regulatory limits, demolishing the bu...

R. L. Stegen R. H. Wilkinson P. G. Frink

2003-01-01

245

78 FR 64028 - Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Reactors  

Science.gov (United States)

...NRC-2012-0035] Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Reactors AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Regulatory...guide (RG) 1.184 ``Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Reactors.'' This guide describes a method NRC...

2013-10-25

246

Problem of nuclear power plant decommissioning and radiation safety  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Problems dealing with NPP decommissioning are discussed. A plan of measures for NPP decommissioning, cost of works and radiation doses of the population during the liquid radioactive effluent disposed into water cooling ponds, is presented

1985-01-01

247

Treatment of mine-water from decommissioning uranium mines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Treatment methods for mine-water from decommissioning uranium mines are introduced and classified. The suggestions on optimal treatment methods are presented as a matter of experience with decommissioned Chenzhou Uranium Mine

2002-02-01

248

American National Standard: for decommissioning of research reactors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This standard provides requirements and guidance for the decommissioning of research reactors and includes decommissioning alternatives, planning, radiation criteria, surveillance and maintenance, environmental impacts, quality assurance, and reports and documentation.

1981-01-01

249

Decommissioning of research nuclear reactor WWR-S Bucharest. Analysis, justification and selection of decommissioning strategy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The decommissioning of Research Nuclear Reactor WWR-S Bucharest involves the removal of the radioactive and hazardous materials to enable the facility to be released and not represent a further risk to human health and the environment. The National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering has overall responsibilities in decommissioning including actions of contractors, submit a decommissioning plan to the regulatory body for approval and no decommissioning activities shall begin without the appropriate approval of the regulatory body. A very important aspect of decommissioning is analysis, justification and selection of decommissioning strategy. There are three strategies: Immediate Dismantling, Safe Enclosure, and Entombment. These strategies have been analyzed taking into account: - Future use of site and facilities; - Infrastructure of the specific site and facilities; - Waste storage and disposal options; - Financial aspects; - Geographical Location; - National, Local and International Legislation; - Facility characterization; Identification of decommissioning objectives; - Description of alternatives: scope, features, specific end points, release criteria, risks and safety issues, effectiveness, feasibility, nature and amount of waste of generated and disposal plans, material recycling/reusing opportunities, cost, schedule, comparative analysis; - Rationale for selecting the preferred alternative. (authors)

2003-09-07

250

Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project. Final project report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Shippingport Atomic Power Station was located on the Ohio River in Shippingport Borough (Beaver County), Pennsylvania, USA. The US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) constructed the plant in the mid-1950s on a seven and half acre parcel of land leased from Duquesne Light Company (DLC). The purposes were to demonstrate and to develop Pressurized Water Recovery technology and to generate electricity. DLC operated the Shippingport plant under supervision of (the successor to AEC) the Department of Energy (DOE)-Naval Reactors (NR) until operations were terminated on October 1, 1982. NR concluded end-of-life testing and defueling in 1984 and transferred the Station`s responsibility to DOE Richland Operations Office (RL), Surplus Facility Management Program Office (SFMPO5) on September 5, 1984. SFMPO subsequently established the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project and selected General Electric (GE) as the Decommissioning Operations Contractor. This report is intended to provide an overview of the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project.

McKernan, M.L.

1989-12-22

251

Mound's decommissioning experience, tooling, and techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Monsanto Research Corporation (MRC), which operates Mound for the Department of Energy (DOE), has been decommissioning radioactively contaminated facilities since 1949. We are currently decommissioning three plutonium-238 contaminated facilities (approximately 50,000 ft"2) that contained 1100 linear ft of gloveboxes; 900 linear ft of conveyor housing; 2650 linear ft of dual underground liquid waste lines; and associated contaminated piping, services, equipment, structures, and soil. As of June 1982, over 29,000 Ci of plutonium-238 have been removed in waste and scrap residues. As a result of the current and previous decommissioning projects, valuable experience has been gained in tooling and techniques. Special techniques have been developed in planning, exposure control, contamination control, equipment removal, structural decontamination, and waste packaging

1982-10-14

252

Decommissioning the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) will complete its experimental lifetime with a series of deuterium-tritium pulses in 1994. As a result, the machine structures will become radioactive, and vacuum components will also be contaminated with tritium. Dose rate levels will range from less than 1 mr/h for external structures to hundreds of mr/h for the vacuum vessel. Hence, decommissioning operations will range from hands on activities to the use of remotely operated equipment. After 21 months of cool down, decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) operations will commence and continue for approximately 15 months. The primary objective is to render the test cell complex re-usable for the next machine, the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX). This paper presents an overview of decommissioning TFTR and discusses the D and D objectives

1993-10-11

253

Decommissioning trust funds ordered by PSC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Wisconsin public service commission ordered four electric utilities to set up external trust funds for decommissioning expenses instead of collecting the money from its ratepayers to offset current borrowing needs. The change is to assure that funds will be available when they are needed for the Point Beach 1 and 2 and the Kewaunee plants, which are due for relicensing and possible decommissioning in 2007 and 2008. The external fund will be available at a time when ratepayers will likely be paying for replacement power plants. Critics claim the order will cost utility customers $800 million over the next 23 years, and note that Wisconsin Electric Power Co. has a reputation for financial health. One area of concern is the treatment of funds already collected for decommissioning

1986-01-01

254

The decommissioning of the UKAEA's SGHWR ponds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Five ponds were associated with the UKAEA's Steam Generating Heavy Water Reactor which closed down in October 1990. Each approximately 10 metres deep and forming part of the main primary containment concrete structure, the ponds had three main functions: fuel storage, heat sinks in the event of reactor trips, and pressure relief and suppression in the event of a loss of coolant accident. Prior to decommissioning investigations were carried out to establish the conditions of the ponds. Four major areas of removal work were identified: pond furniture; sludge and debris which had accumulated on the pond floors; installed fuel handling plant and systems; the concrete structures. The methods employed in carrying out these discrete tasks are described. The pond decommissioning has been completed successfully as part of an integrated overall strategy for the decommissioning of the reactor. (UK)

1997-01-01

255

Economical aspects of nuclear power plant decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of studies on economical aspects of the BWR and PWR type reactor decommissioning conducted in the USA and FRG are presented. Factors affecting the value of expenditures and problems of work financing are considered. By estimates of 1982 the cost of the PWR type reactor decommissioning varies within the range of 3.46-121.98 mln. dollars, for the BWR type reactors this value appears slightly higher and it makes up 4.9-145.83 mln. dollars. Expenditures for NPP decommissioning are determined by the time and conditions of operation, local conditions and peculiarities of the plant layout. Volume of dismounting works, radiation situation as well as the cost of radioactive waste processing, package and removal are most important factors determining the expenditures

1986-01-01

256

Decommissioning of DR 2. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the work of dismantling and demolishing reactor DR 2, the waste volumes generated, the health physical conditions and the clearance procedures used for removed elements and waste. Since the ultimate goal for the decommissioning project was not clearance of the building, but downgrading the radiological classification of the building with a view to converting it to further nuclear use, this report documents how the lower classification was achieved and the known occurrence of remaining activity. The report emphasises some of the deliberations made and describes the lessons learned through this decommissioning project. The report also intends to contribute towards the technical basis and experience basis for further decommissioning of the nuclear facilities in Denmark. (au)

2009-01-01

257

Decommissioning of DR 2. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes the work of dismantling and demolishing reactor DR 2, the waste volumes generated, the health physical conditions and the clearance procedures used for removed elements and waste. Since the ultimate goal for the decommissioning project was not clearance of the building, but downgrading the radiological classification of the building with a view to converting it to further nuclear use, this report documents how the lower classification was achieved and the known occurrence of remaining activity. The report emphasises some of the deliberations made and describes the lessons learned through this decommissioning project. The report also intends to contribute towards the technical basis and experience basis for further decommissioning of the nuclear facilities in Denmark. (au)

Strufe, N.

2009-02-15

258

The Ministry of Dilemmas [decommissioning nuclear submarines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A consultant for Greenpeace, the anti-nuclear campaigners, looks at the United Kingdom Government's problems with decommissioning of its nuclear submarine fleet as the vessels become obsolete, and at the transport and storage of spent fuels from the submarine's propulsion reactors. It is argued that no proper plans exist to decommission the vessels safely. The Ministry of Defence sites such as Rosyth and Devonport are immune from inspection by regulatory bodies, so there is no public knowledge of any potential radioactive hazards from the stored out-of-service carcasses, floating in dock, awaiting more active strategies. The author questions the wisdom of building new nuclear submarines, when no proper program exists to decommission existing vessels and their operational waste. (U.K.)

1995-01-01

259

Colloquium on the decommissioning of the NS Otto Hahn  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After successful conclusion of the decommissioning of NS Otto Hahn during the summer of 1982 a specialists meeting was organized by GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH in order to give information about planning, procedures used and experience resulting from the decommissioning process. The state-of-the-art decommissioning techniques as used for this first German nuclear powered merchant ship are shown by experts from licensing authorities, the decommissioning company and the ship operator. (orig./HP)

1983-01-26

260

Some regulatory aspects on the decommissioning on nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The situation in Sweden regarding decommissioning of nuclear facilities is described as well as the different roles of the safety authorities. Complete removal of all radioactive material from a nuclear facility at decommissioning would probably be required. Of the two reactors shut down in Sweden, the research reactor R1 is now ready for final decommissioning. The Agesta nuclear power plant, shut down in 1974, may be subject for an international cooperation on decommissioning

1980-03-19

 
 
 
 
261

Engineering and planning for the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project is currently in the engineering and planning phase. Decommissioning activities are scheduled to begin in the fall of 1984 and end mid-1988. This paper discusses: the purpose and status of the project; the organizations involved; the overall cost, schedule, and technical approach; the management, preplanning, engineering, and decommissioning techniques associated with the project; and its general relevance to commercial nuclear plant decommissioning

1982-10-14

262

Waste from decommissioning of nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report is based on the assumption that all twelve nuclear power plants will be shut down no later than A.D. 2010, as was decided by the parliament after the referendum on the future of nuclear power in Sweden. The recent 'Party agreement on the energy policy' of January 15, 1991 does, indeed, leave the door open for an extension of the operational period for the nuclear reactors. This will, however, not change the recommendations and conclusions drawn in this report. The report consists of two parts. Part 1 discusses classification of waste from decommissioning and makes comparisons with the waste arising from reactor operation. Part 2 discusses the documentation required for decommissioning waste. Also this part of the report draws parallels with the documentation required by the authorities for the radioactive waste arising from operation of the nuclear power plants. To some extent these subjects depend on the future use of the nuclear power plant sites after decommissioning of the plants. The options for future site use are briefly discussed in an appendix to the report. There are many similarities between the waste from reactor operations and the waste arising from dismantling and removal of decommissioned nuclear power plants. Hence it seems natural to apply the same criteria and recommendations to decommissioning waste as those presently applicable to reactor waste. This is certainly true also with respect to documentation, and it is strongly recommended that the documentation requirements on decommissioning waste are made identical, or at least similar, to the documentation requirements for reactor waste in force today. (au)

1992-01-01

263

Decommissioning of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A conceptual plan is presented for the decommissioning of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant. Deferred dismantlement after a storage period of 30 years is the main alternative. No detailed work plan for the demolition of structures is included. However, the world-wide development of demolition techniques for nuclear facilities has proven that the task can be performed using the existing technology. The decommissioning waste will be packed into concrete containers and wooden boxes. The total package volume is estimated at 8.000 and 30.000 m3 depending on the treatment method. The higher figure stands for packing without any volume reduction. The activated reactor core components (fuel channels, control rods, neutron flux detectors) from the operational time of the Olkiluoto power plant are included in the decommissioning plan. The total activity of the contaminated and activated structures to be dismantled will be about 1x1016 Bq after 30 years from the shut-down. The corresponding figure for the activated core components will be about 2x1016 Bq. The radiation doses to personnel can be kept very low if the surface contamination of the large systems remains at a low level as it has done so far. The decommissioning waste is planned to be disposed of at the Olkiluoto site next to the reactor waste repository in the granitic bedrock at a depth of 50-100 m. The decommissioning waste repository will consist of two silos for the low-level waste and a hall for the activated metal waste. The barriers in the case of the metal waste hall will consist of the waste packages themselves, of 0.75 and 1 m thick concrete walls, of the 1 m thick bentonite/crushed rock backfill, and of the bedrock. The dismantlement will be finished by the year 2050, and the repository can be closed and sealed by 2055. The estimated decommissioning cost is FIM 808 million including the long-term storage and disposal

1987-01-01

264

Decommissioning waste disposal in France - The issues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For a waste management agency as ANDRA that designs and operates disposal facilities, some important issues must be dealt with to enable an efficient management of wastes that are generated by decommissioning activities: - Which inventory of wastes has to be disposed of Quantities, radioactive content waste forms? Good estimates of forecast deliveries are required in order to design accurately new disposal facilities or to adapt existing facilities to waste streams. In France the National Inventory of radioactive is a tool to provide data for operational and decommissioning wastes in the range of 15 years. - Are disposal routes available? Are they designed for the forecast waste streams? Considering the French decommissioning program, in particular for Natural Uranium Gas Cooled Reactors, the graphite waste disposal facility construction is a condition to enable the dismantling of these reactors. Start up is planned in the next ten years. As few long lived intermediate level wastes will also be generated and as a deep geological repository will not be available before 2025, storage facilities are presently necessary. However presently disposal routes are available for about 80% of generated radioactive wastes: Centre de l'Aube facility for low and intermediate level short lived wastes and Morvilliers disposal facility for very low level wastes. The flexibility of these facilities enable to take in charge various waste forms, as large wastes. These topics demonstrate that a tight cooperation is necessary between the waste management agency and the waste generators in order to search the most relevant conditioning modes and identify the most relevant decommissioning strategies. This cooperation should therefore start at the very beginning of decommissioning projects. It should take into consideration the need to save as much as possible disposal capacities as rare resources. Taking into account international experience is also likely to facilitate successful decommissioning projects, not only for works on sites but also for disposal strategies. Information exchanges on that topic are to be encouraged, for instance in the framework of IAEA or OECD-NEA. (author)

2008-10-02

265

Fertility traits in spring-calving Aberdeen Angus cattle. 2. Model comparison.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to investigate the possible superiority of a threshold-linear (TL) approach for calving day (CD) and calving success (CS) analysis in beef cattle over 2 multiple-trait (MT), censored models, considering CD at the first 3 calving opportunities. The CD observations on animals that failed to calve in the latter models were defined as cows being assigned a penalty value of 21 d beyond the last observed CD record within contemporary group (PEN model) or censored CD values that were randomly obtained from a truncated normal distribution (CEN-model). In the TL model, CD records were treated as missing if a cow failed to calve, and parameters were estimated in a TL analysis including CS traits (TLMISS-model). The models included the effects of contemporary group (herd x year of calving x mating management), age at calving, physiological status at mating (lactating or nonlactating cow), animal additive genetic effects, and residual. Field data included 6,763 calving records obtained from first, second, and third parities of 3,442 spring-calving Uruguayan Aberdeen Angus cows. Models were contrasted using a data splitting technique, analyzing correlations between predicted breeding values (PBV) for each pair of subsamples, by rank correlations between PBV obtained with the different models, and by inspecting percentage of sires selected in common using the different approaches at 10 and 25% hypothetical percentages of animals selected. Breeding value correlations of CD between the subsamples for the TLMISS approach were greater (0.67 to 0.68) than correlations for the censored MT models (0.49 to 0.54). Average correlations between PBV of CD in 1 subsample obtained by CEN (PEN, TLMISS) and PBV of CS in the other subsample were -0.53 (-0.55, -0.60) in the first calving opportunity (CO), -0.54 (-0.58, -0.63) in the second CO, and -0.50 (-0.49, -0.58) in the third CO. Rank correlations between PBV for CD in PEN and CEN were high (0.93 to 0.97), but correlations of either method with PBV of CD in TLMISS ranged from 0.50 to 0.71. Common identification of bulls for the top 10% of sires (25% of sires), when selected with PEN/CEN models or the TLMISS model, varied between 50 (44%) and 60 (52%). The use of the TL animal model for genetic evaluation seems attractive for genetic evaluation of fertility traits in beef cattle. PMID:17686900

Urioste, J I; Misztal, I; Bertrand, J K

2007-11-01

266

Fertility traits in spring-calving Aberdeen Angus cattle. 1. Model development and genetic parameters.  

Science.gov (United States)

Calving records (n = 6,763) obtained from first, second, and third parities of 3,442 spring-calving, Uruguayan Aberdeen Angus cows were used to estimate heritabilities and genetic correlations for the linear trait calving day (CD) and the binary trait calving success (CS), using models that considered CD and CS at 3 calving opportunities as separate traits. Three approaches were defined to handle the CD observations on animals that failed to calve: 1) the cows were assigned a penalty value of 21 d beyond the last observed CD record within contemporary group (PEN); 2) the censored CD values were randomly obtained from a truncated normal distribution (CEN); and 3) the CD records were treated as missing, and the parameters were estimated in a joint threshold-linear analysis including CS traits (TLMISS). The models included the effects of contemporary group (herd x year of calving x mating management), age at calving (3 levels), physiological status at mating (nonlactating or lactating), animal additive genetic effects, and residual. Estimates of heritability for CD traits in the PEN and CEN data sets ranged from 0.20 to 0.31, with greater values in the first calving opportunity. Genetic correlations were positive and medium to high in magnitude, 0.57 to 0.59 in the PEN data set and 0.38 to 0.91 in the CEN data set. In the TLMISS data set, heritabilities ranged from 0.19 to 0.23 for CD and 0.37 to 0.42 for CS. Genetic correlations between CD traits varied between 0.82 and 0.88; between CS traits, genetic correlations varied between 0.56 and 0.80. Negative (genetically favorable), medium to high genetic correlations (-0.54 to -0.91) were estimated between CD and CS traits, suggesting that CD could be used as an indicator trait for CS. Data recording must improve in quality for practical applications in genetic evaluation for fertility traits. PMID:17504968

Urioste, J I; Misztal, I; Bertrand, J K

2007-11-01

267

NEA activities in economics and funding of decommissioning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There are three main aspects of this topic that have been studied by the NEA under auspices of its Nuclear Development Committee. They are the estimated costs of decommissioning; the burden of decommissioning on electricity generation costs; and the mechanisms for ensuring that resources will be available when decommissioning expenditures fall due. (Author).

Stevens, G.H. [International Energy Agency, 75 - Paris (France). Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations

1995-12-31

268

Decommissioning plan for a radioactive research facility in China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to implement a final decommissioning of a radioactive research facility, a detailed decommissioning plan/design was drafted before the operation, and got permission from the Chinese safety authority. This paper describes the plan/design in its principle and operational framework. It is concluded that a careful management and design will be important for a decommissioning operation. (author)

2006-12-01

269

Development of database system for decommissioning of nuclear facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A wide range of information and technical knowledge is required for decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The database system for decommissioning information has been developed for this reason. The information is systematically ordered, and the necessary information is deleted from this database in a timely manner during decommissioning planning and practice sessions

1996-11-10

270

Technical and legal aspects of the decommissioning of nuclear installations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many of the plants licensed at the start of nuclear power programmes will require decommissioning in the 1990's and this issue should now be confronted by the nuclear industry, its regulators and governments. This paper deals with the United States programme and experience in the decommissioning of nuclear installations and describes alternative decommissioning methods including safety and financial aspects. (NEA)

1983-09-11

271

Decommissioning of a tritium-contaminated laboratory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A tritium laboratory facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, was decommissioned in 1979. The project involved dismantling the laboratory equipment and disposing of the equipment and debris at an on-site waste disposal/storage area. The laboratory was constructed in 1953 and was in service for tritium research and fabrication of lithium tritide components until 1974. The major features of the laboratory included some 25 meters of gloveboxes and hoods, associated vacuum lines, utility lines, exhaust ducts, electrodryers, blowers, and laboratory benches. This report presents details on the decommissioning, health physics, waste management, environmental surveillance, and costs for the operation

1981-01-01

272

Ignalina NPP pre-decommissioning projects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Description of the main projects for the preparation to the decommissioning of unit 1 of Ignalina NPP is presented. These projects are to be financed by international donors as one of the conditions to shutdown unit before the year 2005. These projects were presented during Donors conference held in 21-22 June 2000 in Vilnius. The conference was organized jointly by Lithuanian Government and European Commission. Projects are devoted to the construction of radioactive waste management facilities and improvement of existing waste management practices at Ignalina NPP as well for the general management of decommissioning process preparation of necessary documentation

2000-01-01

273

Decommissioning of the Salaspils Research Reactor  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In May 1995, the Latvian government decided to shut down the Salaspils Research Reactor and to dispense with nuclear energy in the future. The reactor has been out of operation since July 1998. A conceptual study on the decommissioning of the Salaspils Research Reactor was drawn up by Noell-KRC-Energie- und Umwelttechnik GmbH in 1998-1999. On October 26th, 1999, the Latvian government decided to start the direct dismantling to “green-field” in 2001. The upgrading of the decommission...

Abramenkovs Andris

2011-01-01

274

Optimization in the decommissioning of uranium tailings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report examines in detail the problem of choosing the optimal decommissioning approach for uranium and mill tailings sites. Various decision methods are discussed and evaluated, and their application in similar decision problems are summarized. This report includes, by means of a demonstration, a step by step guide of how a number of selected techniques can be applied to a decommissioning problem. The strengths and weaknesses of various methods are highlighted. A decision system approach is recommended for its flexibility and incorporation of many of the strengths found in other decision methods

1987-01-01

275

The decommissioning of the Windscale pile chimneys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The two pile chimneys on the Windscale site have been part of the landscape since 1957. The piles were originally built to produce weapon - grade plutonium. Subsequent nuclear accidents led to the deposition of radioactive material in the chimneys mainly in the filters near the top of the stacks. The decision to decommission the top sections of both chimneys was taken in 1985/86 mainly because of rising maintenance costs. The work which has been undertaken by British Nuclear Fuels Limited to date associated with decommissioning is described in this article. Future plans to complete the task are also noted. (UK)

1991-01-01

276

Good practices in decommissioning planning and pre-decommissioning activities for the Magurele VVR-S nuclear research reactor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The VVR-S Nuclear Research Reactor at the “Horia Hulubei” National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering in Magurele, Bucharest, will be decommissioned applying the immediate dismantling strategy. The implementation of the decommissioning project started in 2010 and is planned for completion within 11 years. Good practices in decommissioning planning, organization, funding, and logistics are described in this paper.

Dragusin Mitica

2011-01-01

277

Good practices in decommissioning planning and pre-decommissioning activities for the Magurele VVR-S nuclear research reactor  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The VVR-S Nuclear Research Reactor at the “Horia Hulubei” National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering in Magurele, Bucharest, will be decommissioned applying the immediate dismantling strategy. The implementation of the decommissioning project started in 2010 and is planned for completion within 11 years. Good practices in decommissioning planning, organization, funding, and logistics are described in this paper.

Dragusin Mitica; Pavelescu Octavian Alexandru; Iorga Ioan

2011-01-01

278

Conceptual and numerical models of the glacial aquifer system north of Aberdeen, South Dakota  

Science.gov (United States)

This U.S. Geological Survey report documents a conceptual and numerical model of the glacial aquifer system north of Aberdeen, South Dakota, that can be used to evaluate and manage the city of Aberdeen's water resources. The glacial aquifer system in the model area includes the Elm, Middle James, and Deep James aquifers, with intervening confining units composed of glacial till. The Elm aquifer ranged in thickness from less than 1 to about 95 feet (ft), with an average thickness of about 24 ft; the Middle James aquifer ranged in thickness from less than 1 to 91 ft, with an average thickness of 13 ft; and the Deep James aquifer ranged in thickness from less than 1 to 165 ft, with an average thickness of 23 ft. The confining units between the aquifers consisted of glacial till and ranged in thickness from 0 to 280 ft. The general direction of groundwater flow in the Elm aquifer in the model area was from northwest to southeast following the topography. Groundwater flow in the Middle James aquifer was to the southeast. Sparse data indicated a fairly flat potentiometric surface for the Deep James aquifer. Horizontal hydraulic conductivity for the Elm aquifer determined from aquifer tests ranged from 97 to 418 feet per day (ft/d), and a confined storage coefficient was determined to be 2.4x10-5. Estimates of the vertical hydraulic conductivity of the sediments separating the Elm River from the Elm aquifer, determined from the analysis of temperature gradients, ranged from 0.14 to 2.48 ft/d. Average annual precipitation in the model area was 19.6 inches per year (in/yr), and agriculture was the primary land use. Recharge to the Elm aquifer was by infiltration of precipitation through overlying outwash, lake sediments, and glacial till. The annual recharge for the model area, calculated by using a soil-water-balance method for water year (WY) 1975-2009, ranged from 0.028 inch in WY 1980 to 4.52 inches in WY 1986, with a mean of 1.56 inches. The annual potential evapotranspiration, calculated in soil-water-balance analysis, ranged from 21.8 inches in WY 1983 to 27.0 inches in WY 1985, with a mean of 24.6 inches. Water use from the glacial aquifer system primarily was from the Elm aquifer for irrigation, municipal, and suburban water supplies, and the annual rate ranged from 1.0 to 2.4 cubic feet per second (ft3/s). The MODFLOW-2005 numerical model represented the Elm aquifer, the Middle James aquifer, and the Deep James aquifer with model layers 1-3 respectively separated by confining layers 1-2 respectively. Groundwater flow was simulated with 75 stress periods beginning October 1, 1974, and ending September 30, 2009. Model grid spacing was 200 by 200 ft and boundaries were represented by specified-head boundaries and no-flow boundaries. The model used parameter estimation that focused on minimizing the difference between 954 observed and simulated hydraulic heads for 135 wells. Calibrated mean horizontal hydraulic conductivity values for model layers 1-3 were 94, 41, and 30 ft/d respectively. Vertical hydraulic conductivity values for confining layers 1 and 2 were 0.0002 and 0.0003 ft/d, respectively. Calibrated specific yield for model layer 1was 0.1 and specific storage ranged from 0.0003 to 0.0005 per foot. Calibrated mean recharge rates ranged from 2.5 in/yr where glacial till thickness was less than 10 ft to 0.8 in/yr where glacial till thickness was greater than 30 ft. Calibrated mean annual evapotranspiration rate was 8.8 in/yr. Simulated net streamflow gain from model layer 1 was 3.1 ft3/s.

Marini, Katrina A.; Hoogestraat, Galen K.; Aurand, Katherine R.; Putnam, Larry D.

2012-01-01

279

The planning of decommissioning activities within nuclear facilities - Generating a Baseline Decommissioning Plan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

BNFL Environmental Services has developed planning tools to meet the emerging need for nuclear liabilities management and decommissioning engineering both in the UK and globally. It can provide a comprehensive baseline planning service primarily aimed at nuclear power stations and nuclear plant. The paper develops the following issues: Decommissioning planning; The baseline decommissioning plan;The process; Work package; Compiling the information; Deliverables summary; Customer Benefits; - Planning tool for nuclear liability life-cycle management; - Robust and reliable plans based upon 'real' experience; - Advanced financial planning; - Ascertaining risk; - Strategy and business planning. The following Deliverables are mentioned:1. Site Work Breakdown Structure; 2. Development of site implementation strategy from the high level decommissioning strategy; 3. An end point definition for the site; 4. Buildings, operational systems and plant surveys; 5. A schedule of condition for the site; 6. Development of technical approach for decommissioning for each work package; 7. Cost estimate to WBS level 5 for each work package; 8. Estimate of decommissioning waste arisings for each work package; 9. Preparation of complete decommissioning programme in planning software to suit client; 10. Risk modelling of work package and overall project levels; 11. Roll up of costs into an overall cost model; 12. Cash flow, waste profiling and resource profiling against the decommissioning programme; 13. Preparation and issue of Final Report. Finally The BDP process is represented by a flowchart listing the following stages: [Power Station project assigned] ? [Review project and conduct Characterisation review of power station] ? [Identify work packages] ? [Set up WBS to level 3] ? [Assign work packages] ? [Update WBS to level 4] ?[Develop cost model] ? [Develop logic network] ? [Develop risk management procedure] ] ? [Develop project strategy document]? [Work package process? [Compile all work packages into overall programme, cost model and risk register (draft BDP)] ? [Carry out project risk assessment] ? [Review and update draft BDP] ? [Peer Review BDP] ? [Power Station project assigned] ?[Issue BDP to customer for comment

2003-11-23

280

The market opportunity for decommissioning oil and gas platforms on the United Kingdom continental shelf; Decommissioning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

'The UKCS offshore decommissioning market report 2010-2040' recently released, reveals that the total cost of decommissioning the 260+ offshore oil and gas platforms - together with associated wells, manifolds, pipelines and umbilicals - located on the UK Continental Shelf (UKCS) could be in excess of USD 30 billion over the next 30 years. This article investigates the scale of work required and the market opportunity for the oil services industry - especially vessel operators and well service companies. (AG)

Sanderson, Oliver

2011-07-01

 
 
 
 
281

Decommissioning of the nuclear merchant ship OTTO HAHN  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With NS OTTO HAHN for the first time in the world a nuclear merchant ship and for the first time in FRG a nuclear power plant was decommissioned. Starting from the existing technical and radiological state of the plant the decommissioning concept is shown. Licensind and release procedures including the applied measuring techniques are described and the single phases of the decommissioning work are dealt with. The total masses and activities are balanced and the results of the decommissioning are discussed. With the suspension of the control area and the release of the ship the decommissioning work was finished in June 1982. (orig.)

1982-06-00

282

Estimation of decommissioning costs: History and status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the mid-1970s. the subject of the cost of decommissioning nuclear power stations became a topic of considerable interest to the industry. A number of early demonstration plants in the US had been retired and most had been entombed. Only one plant, the Elk River Reactor (a small boiling water facility) had been totally dismantled and removed from the site (Welsh 1974). Thus, there was a very limited data base from which to develop estimates for decommissioning the much larger stations then under construction and coming into service. The nuclear industry sponsored another study for estimating decommissioning costs using an approach known as the Unit Cost Factor (UCF) method. This methodology is documented in AIF/NESP-0036 (LaGuardia 1986). and forms the basis for many of the estimates prepared by (or for) utilities for usein making submissions to their utility rate commissions to recover future decommissioning costs through current rates. This and other estimating approaches mentioned above are discussed in more detail in this paper

1992-11-12

283

Decontamination and decommissioning focus area. Technology summary  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents details of the facility deactivation, decommissioning, and material disposition research for development of new technologies sponsored by the Department of Energy. Topics discussed include; occupational safety, radiation protection, decontamination, remote operated equipment, mixed waste processing, recycling contaminated metals, and business opportunities

1995-01-01

284

CECP, Decommissioning Costs for PWR and BWR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1 - Description of program or function: The Cost Estimating Computer Program CECP, designed for use on an IBM personal computer or equivalent, was developed for estimating the cost of decommissioning boiling water reactor (BWR) and light-water reactor (PWR) power stations to the point of license termination. 2 - Method of solution: Cost estimates include component, piping, and equipment removal costs; packaging costs; decontamination costs; transportation costs; burial volume and costs; and manpower staffing costs. Using equipment and consumables costs and inventory data supplied by the user, CECP calculates unit cost factors and then combines these factors with transportation and burial cost algorithms to produce a complete report of decommissioning costs. In addition to costs, CECP also calculates person-hours, crew-hours, and exposure person-hours associated with decommissioning. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The program is designed for a specific waste charge structure. The waste cost data structure cannot handle intermediate waste handlers or changes in the charge rate structures. The decommissioning of a reactor can be divided into 5 periods. 200 different items for special equipment costs are possible. The maximum amount for each special equipment item is 99,999,999$. You can support data for 10 buildings, 100 components each; ESTS1071/01: There are 65 components for 28 systems available to specify the contaminated systems costs (BWR). ESTS1071/02: There are 75 components for 25 systems available to specify the contaminated systems costs (PWR)

1997-01-01

285

WAK decommissioning - description of dismantling stages  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As of July 1, 1991 the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center, in coordination with the Federal Government and state, has been in charge of this project and has entrusted the WAK BGmbH, against reimbursement of prime cost, with the zero and residual plant operation and HAW storage, and with decommissioning and HAWC management measures to be specified. (orig.)

1992-11-19

286

BNFL nuclear decommissioning liabilities management program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this paper is to describe BNFL's policy and strategy for decommissioning and also to summarize the overall scope of nuclear liabilities in the wider field of waste retrieval and storage, as well as the dismantling and demolition aspects of decommissioning. BNFL's recently established organisational arrangements for discharging all types of these liabilities are explained, together with a review of practical progress in dealing with them. Organisational changes in recent years have amalgamated decommissioning work with operations covering waste storage and retrieval operations. A strategy of minimising residual activity in shutdown plants is pursued, followed by dismantling and demolition on appropriate time scales to minimise risk and cost. Since April 1995, a new BNFL subsidiary, Nuclear Liabilities Management Company Limited has taken responsibility for discharge of BNFL's Waste Retrieval and Decommissioning liabilities on all BNFL sites. NLM has the objectives of optimal and lowest cost management of liabilities and much clearer segregation of physical operations from project specification and planning. The Ministry of Defense (MoD) policy, strategy, work programmes and progress for the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) are also outlined. MoD/AEA has established an equivalent strategy for dealing with its liabilities. (J.S.). 5 refs., 2 figs., 4 appends

1995-01-01

287

Financing strategies for nuclear power decommissioning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report analyzes several alternatives for financing the decommissioning of nuclear power plants from the point of view of assurance, cost, equity, and other criteria. Sensitivity analyses are performed on several important variables and possible impacts on representative companies' rates are discussed and illustrated.

None,

1980-07-01

288

Spent fuel disposal impact on plant decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Regardless of the decommissioning option selected (DECON, SAFSTOR, or ENTOMB), a 10 CFR 50 license cannot be terminated until the spent fuel is either removed from the site or stored in a separately 10 CFR 72 licensed Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI). Humboldt Bay is an example of a plant which has selected the SAFSTOR option. Its spent fuel is currently in wet storage in the plant's spent fuel pool. When it completes its dormant period and proceeds with dismantlement, it will have to dispose of its fuel or license an ISFSI. Shoreham is an example of a plant which has selected the DECON option. Fuel disposal is currently critical path for license termination. In the event an ISFSI is proposed to resolve the spent fuel removal issue, whether wet or dry, utilities need to properly determine the installation, maintenance, and decommissioning costs for such a facility. In considering alternatives for spent fuel removal, it is important for a utility to properly account for ISFSI decommissioning costs. A brief discussion is presented on one method for estimating ISFSI decommissioning costs

1993-08-15

289

Decontamination and decommissioning of Shippingport commercial reactor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To a certain degree, the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of the Shippingport reactor was a joint venture with Duquesne Light Company. The structures that were to be decommissioned were to be removed to at least three feet below grade. Since the land had been leased from Duquesne Light, there was an agreement with them to return the land to them in a radiologically safe condition. The total enclosure volume for the steam and nuclear containment systems was about 1.3 million cubic feet, more than 80% of which was below ground. Engineering plans for the project were started in July of 1980 and the final environmental impact statement (EIS) was published in May of 1982. The plant itself was shut down in October of 1982 for end-of-life testing and defueling. The engineering services portion of the decommissioning plans was completed in September of 1983. DOE moved onto the site and took over from the Navy in September of 1984. Actual physical decommissioning began after about a year of preparation and was completed about 44 months later in July of 1989. This paper describes the main parts of D and D.

Schreiber, J. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1989-11-01

290

Nuclear Materials Development Facility decommissioning final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Nuclear Materials Development Facility (NMDF), building 055, was utilized for research, development, and production work on radiotoxic nuclear fuels, primarily 239Pu. The decision was made in FY 1982 to decommission the facility as part of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Surplus Facilities Management Program. The intent was to decontaminate and decommission (D and D) the NMDF to the extent it would be suitable for unrestricted use. A project plan was prepared to describe the scope of the work, the techniques used, and the equipment needed for D and D. Activity requirements and detailed work procedures were prepared to define the work required on each major segment of the decommissioning. A facility description, history, and the special techniques used during D and D are given in this report. The more significant D and D activities, which include glovebox decontamination, support area contamination, and HVAC decontamination, are summarized in this document. The NMDF was decontaminated to levels that were as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), but in all cases to levels below the limits prescribed for unrestricted use. The disposal of potentially contaminated NaK, contained in 10 bubblers that were used to purify the inert atmosphere of the glove boxes, also is discussed. The decommissioning of Rockwell's NMDF began in October 1982 and was completed in October 1986. Final surveys, waste shipments, and the final report were completed by March 1987. The final schedule for the project is shown in Section 5.0 (Figure 46). 48 figs., 8 tabs

1987-01-01

291

Heterose sobre os pesos de bovinos Canchim e Aberdeen Angus e de seus cruzamentos recíprocos / Heterosis upon weights in Canchim and Aberdeen Angus calves and in their reciprocal crosses  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O trabalho foi conduzido para estimar a heterose sobre os pesos ao nascimento (PNT), à desmama (P210) e ao ano (P365) e sobre os ganhos de pesos médios diários do nascimento à desmama (G210) e da desmama ao ano (G365) nas quatro primeiras gerações do sistema de cruzamentos alternados entre as raças [...] Canchim (C) e Aberdeen Angus (A). Os dados de 1.147 bezerros nascidos de 1981 a 1998 foram analisados pelo método dos mínimos quadrados, ajustando-se um modelo linear que incluiu os efeitos linear e quadrático da idade da mãe do bezerro e os efeitos fixos de sexo, grupo genético, mês e ano de nascimento do bezerro. Estimativas de heterose e de outras diferenças genéticas foram estimadas por contrastes entre médias e testadas pelo teste t. O contraste "CA" foi positivo e significativo (P Abstract in english The study was conducted to estimate heterosis upon birth weight (PNT), weaning weight (P210), yearling weight (P365) and daily weight gain from birth to weaning (G210) and from weaning to one year of age (G365) in the first, second, third and fourth generations of a rotational crossbreeding system b [...] etween Canchim (C) and Aberdeen Angus (A). Data from 1,147 calves born from 1981 to 1998 were analyzed by least squares procedures fitting a linear model that included the linear and the quadratic effects of age of the dam of the calf plus the fixed effects of sex, genetic group, month and year of birth of calf. Estimates of heterosis and of other genetic differences were obtained by linear contrasts of appropriate means and tested by the t test. The contrast CA was positive and significant (P

PEROTTO, DANIEL; CUBAS, ANTONIO CARLOS; MOLETTA, JOSÉ LUIZ; LESSKIU, CARLOS.

292

Decommissioning of NPP A1 - HWGCR type  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Prototype nuclear power plant A-1 located at Jaslovske Bohunice, was a HWGCR with channel type reactor KS 150 (refuelling during operation) and capacity of 143 MWe. Single unit has been constructed with reactor hall building containing reactor vessel, heavy water system and equipment for spent fuel handling. Another compartment of main building contents coolant system piping, six steam generators and six turbo compressors, the turbine hall was equipped by three turbines. Unit also shares liquid radwaste treatment and storage buildings and ventilation systems including chimney. It started operation in 1972 and was shutdown in 1977 after primary coolant system integrity accident. In 1979 a final decision was made to decommission this plant. The absence of waste treatment technologies and repository and not sufficient storage capacity affected the planning and realization of decommissioning for NPP A-1. The decommissioning policy for the first stage is for lack of regulations based on 'case by case' strategy. For these reasons and for not existence of Decommissioning Found until 1995 the preferred decommissioning option is based on differed decommissioning with safe enclosure of confinement. Transfer of undamaged spent fuel cooled in organic coolant to Russia was finished in 1990. It was necessary to develop new technology for the damaged fuel preparation for transport. The barriers check-up and dismantling of secondary circuit and cooling towers was performed during 1989/90. The complex plan for the first phase of A-1 decommissioning - the status with treated operational radwaste, removed contamination and restored treated waste and spent fuel (in case of interruption of transfer to Russia) was developed in 1993-1994. Under this project bituminization of all liquid operational radwaste (concentrates) was performed during 1995/96, vitrification of inorganic spent fuel coolant started at 1996, decontamination of spent fuel pool coolant occurs (under AEA Technology support) in 1997 as well as preparation for bituminization of organic spent fuel coolant. The new equipment for spent fuel handling including new storage (semi dry) for spent fuel was projected and should be built up in 1997. The decontamination and dismantling of auxiliary equipment (radwaste tanks, evaporation plant and original solid storage) should start after the commissioning of conditioning centre and bituminization plant with new evaporation plant in 1998 and finish at 2000. The decontamination and dismantling of original spent fuel storage should finish at 2007/8. Supporting activities to these works started at 1994/95. (author)

1998-09-01

293

Development of computer program for estimating decommissioning cost - 59037  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The programs for estimating the decommissioning cost have been developed for many different purposes and applications. The estimation of decommissioning cost is required a large amount of data such as unit cost factors, plant area and its inventory, waste treatment, etc. These make it difficult to use manual calculation or typical spreadsheet software such as Microsoft Excel. The cost estimation for eventual decommissioning of nuclear power plants is a prerequisite for safe, timely and cost-effective decommissioning. To estimate the decommissioning cost more accurately and systematically, KHNP, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. Ltd, developed a decommissioning cost estimating computer program called 'DeCAT-Pro', which is Decommission-ing Cost Assessment Tool - Professional. (Hereinafter called 'DeCAT') This program allows users to easily assess the decommissioning cost with various decommissioning options. Also, this program provides detailed reporting for decommissioning funding requirements as well as providing detail project schedules, cash-flow, staffing plan and levels, and waste volumes by waste classifications and types. KHNP is planning to implement functions for estimating the plant inventory using 3-D technology and for classifying the conditions of radwaste disposal and transportation automatically. (authors)

2011-09-25

294

Decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Feasibility, needs and costs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reactor decommissioning activities generally are considered to begin after operations have ceased and the fuel has been removed from the reactor, although in some countries the activities may be started while the fuel is still at the reactor site. The three principal alternatives for decommissioning are described. The factors to be considered in selecting the decommissioning strategy, i.e. a stage or a combination of stages that comprise the total decommissioning programme, are reviewed. One presents a discussion of the feasibility of decommissioning techniques available for use on the larger reactors and fuel cycle facilities. The numbers and types of facilities to be decommissioned and the resultant waste volumes generated for disposal will then be projected. Finally, the costs of decommissioning these facilities, the effect of these costs on electricity generating costs, and alternative methods of financing decommissioning are discussed. The discussion of decommissioning draws on various countries' studies and experience in this area. Specific details about current activities and policies in NEA Member Countries are given in the short country specific Annexes. The nuclear facilities that are addressed in this study include reactors, fuel fabrication facilities, reprocessing facilities, associated radioactive waste storage facilities, enrichment facilities and other directly related fuel cycle support facilities. The present study focuses on the technical feasibility, needs, and costs of decommissioning the larger commercial facilities in the OECD member countries that are coming into service up to the year 2000. It is intended to inform the public and to assist in planning for the decommissioning of these facilities

1986-01-01

295

Recent trend of dismantling techniques for nuclear reactor decommissioning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes the recent trend of dismantling techniques and decontamination methods for nuclear reactor decommissioning. Recent decommissioning techniques will be described in Section 2 through 5, such as the decontamination methods, the one-piece removal method, the dismantling methods for the reactor pressure vessel and internals, the dismantling and removal of concrete structures. In Section 6 are presented the recent progresses and achievement of individual BR-3, KRB-A, MZFR, Greifswald, Trojan, and Connecticut Yankee decommissioning projects, with special reference to decontamination and decommissioning techniques including remotely operated robots, for the immediate dismantling of reactors. The planning and implementation of decommissioning for nuclear reactor plant should refer recent dismantling techniques and many decommissioning experiences. The technical lessons learned from many projects will help in the planning for future decommissioning projects. (author)

Miyasaka, Yasuhiko [Radioactive Waste Management and Nuclear Facility Decommissioning Technology Center (RANDEC), Tokyo (Japan)

2002-03-01

296

A database structure for radiological optimization analyses of decommissioning operations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The structure of a database for decommissioning experiences is described. Radiological optimization is a major radiation protection principle in practices and interventions, involving radiological protection factors, economic costs, social factors. An important lack of knowledge with respect to these factors exists in the domain of the decommissioning of nuclear power plants, due to the low number of decommissioning operations already performed. Moreover, decommissioning takes place only once for a installation. Tasks, techniques, and procedures are in most cases rather specific, limiting the use of past experiences in the radiological optimization analyses of new decommissioning operations. Therefore, it is important that relevant data or information be acquired from decommissioning experiences. These data have to be stored in a database in a way they can be used efficiently in ALARA analyses of future decommissioning activities

1995-01-01

297

Development of the Decommissioning Project Management System, DECOMMIS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI), two projects for decommissioning of the research reactors and uranium conversion plant are carried out. The management of the projects can be defined as 'the decision of the changes of the decommissioning methodologies for the more efficient achievement of the project at an adequate time and to an improved method'. The correct decision comes from the experiences on the decommissioning project and the systematic experiences can be obtained from the good management of the decommissioning information. For this, a project management tool, DECOMMIS, was developed in the D and D Technology Division, which has the charge of the decommissioning projects at the KAERI, and its purpose was extended to following fields; generation of reports on the dismantling waste for WACID, record keeping for the next decommissioning projects of nuclear facilities, provision of fundamental data for the R and D of the decommissioning technologies

2007-01-01

298

The BR-3 decommissioning project, Belgium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

BR-3 was a small 10 MW(e) PWR which was shut down in 1987 after 25 years of operation. It was selected as an EU pilot project for the research and development programme on decommissioning of nuclear installations. The decommissioning project started in 1989. The optimization of the management of waste material generated by decommissioning activities has always been an intensive task and the minimization of the radioactive waste a priority. Over the past 16 years, the factors influencing the management of waste have been constantly evolving in Belgium, steered mainly by the following changes in technologies, regulations and economic conditions: - The publication of the Royal Decree of 20 July 2001, establishing a legal frame on decommissioning and including a set of clearance levels; - The improvement of the instrumentation used for characterization; - The increase in the performance of decontamination techniques; - The cost increase of the waste disposal paths; - The implementation of international recommendations in areas such as environmental impact, waste categorization, human aspects, ethics, etc.; -The strengthening of the legislation related to industrial safety and environmental release; - The diminution of the background radiation level at the decommissioning site itself. The first part of this annex gives a description of relevant influencing factors in order to define the context in which the dismantling activities took place. The second part puts in perspective the strategy chosen for the management of the waste, recognizing the influencing factors. As mentioned in the scope of this report, the focus is LLW. High and intermediate level wastes for which disposal in dedicated repositories is assumed are outside the scope of this report. They are therefore not examined in detail here

2008-03-01

299

European Nuclear Decommissioning Training Facility II  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

SCK-CEN co-ordinates a project called European Nuclear Decommissioning Training Facility II (EUNDETRAF II) in the Sixth Framework Programme on Community activities in the field of research, technological development and demonstration for the period 2002 to 2006. This was a continuation of the FP5 project EUNDETRAF. EUNDETRAF II is a consortium of main European decommissioners, such as SCK-CEN, EWN (Energie Werke Nord, Greifswald Germany), Belgatom (Belgium), SOGIN Societa Gestione Impiantio Nucleari, Italy), Universitaet Hannover (Germany), RWE NUKEM (United Kingdom), DECOM Slovakia Slovakia), CEA Centre d'Energie Atomique, France), UKAEA (United Kingdom's Atomic Energy Agency, United Kingdom) and NRG (Nuclear Research and consultancy Group, Netherlands). The primary objective of this project is to bring together this vast skill base and experience; to consolidate it for easy assimilation and to transfer to future generations by organising a comprehensive training programme.Each training course has a one-week theoretical and a one-week practical component. The theoretical part is for a broader audience and consists of lectures covering all the main aspects of a decommissioning. The practical part of the course includes site visits and desk top solutions of anticipated decommissioning problems. Due to operational constraints and safety considerations, the number of participants to this part of the course is strictly limited. The partners intend to organise altogether two two-week EUNDETRAF II training courses over a period of three years. Another goal is to disseminate the existing theory as well as the practical know-how to personnel of the third countries. Finally it is important to bring together the principal decommissioning organisations undertaking various decommissioning activities. The project creates a forum for regular contacts to exchange information and experiences for mutual benefit of these organisations as well as to enhance skill base in Europe to strengthen the European position in the world

2005-04-01

300

International Decommissioning Network as a Forum to Support Decommissioning Activities In Countries with Limited Resources and Experience: the Serbian Case  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Vinca Institute Nuclear Decommissioning Program (VIND Program) is aimed to improve nuclear and radiation safety in the Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Serbia, by repatriation of the leaking spent nuclear fuel, expanding the capabilities for radioactive waste treatment and storage, and the decommissioning of several nuclear legacy sites. In this paper the case of heavy water research reactor decommissioning is considered, some specific needs for the support through IAEA International Decommissioning Network are elaborated, and proposals for events and activities which could help the preparation and implementation of key decommissioning tasks are made. (authors)

2009-03-01

 
 
 
 
301

Management of Decommissioning on a Multi-Facility Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The management of the decommissioning of multi-facility sites may be inadequate or inappropriate if based on approaches and strategies developed for sites consisting of only a single facility. The varied nature of activities undertaken, their interfaces and their interdependencies are likely to complicate the management of decommissioning. These issues can be exacerbated where some facilities are entering the decommissioning phase while others are still operational or even new facilities are being built. Multi-facility sites are not uncommon worldwide but perhaps insufficient attention has been paid to optimizing the overall site decommissioning in the context of the entire life cycle of facilities. Decommissioning management arrangements need to be established taking a view across the whole site. A site-wide decommissioning management system is required. This should include a project evaluation and approval process and specific arrangements to manage identified interfaces and interdependencies. A group should be created to manage decommissioning across the site, ensuring adequate and consistent practices in accordance with the management system. Decommissioning management should be aimed at the entire life cycle of facilities. In the case of multi facility sites, the process becomes more complex and decommissioning management arrangements need to be established with a view to the whole site. A site decommissioning management system, a group that is responsible for decommissioning on site, a site project evaluation and approval process and specific arrangements to manage the identified interfaces are key areas of a site decommissioning management structure that need to be addressed to ensure adequate and consistent decommissioning practices. A decommissioning strategy based on single facilities in a sequential manner is deemed inadequate

2008-01-01

302

De brest à Aberdeen, la croisière 48 du Glomar Challenger From Brest to Aberdee, Glomar Challenger Sails on Leg 48  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La croisière 48 du Glomar Challenger s'est déroulée en 1976 entre Brest et Aberdeen sur la marge septentrionale du Golfe de Gascogne et le Banc de Rockall. Les sept sites forés ont permis de comparer la structure et l'histoire géologique de deux marges de types différents, formées par rifting, l'une dans une mer épicontinentale, l'autre dans un craton. L'histoire de la subsidence a pu être établie. De nombreux hiatus ont été mis en évidence dans les séries déposées en mer profonde, dont certains sont contemporains d'événements connus sur le plateau continental. Des marnes noires riches en matière organique d'origine détritique ont été trouvées dans le golfe de Gascogne. Elles ont pu se déposer aussi bien en mer profonde que sur le plateau continental. Des mesures de paléomagnétisme, de flux de chaleur et des diagraphies ont été effectuées avec succès. Leg 48 by the Glomar Challenger took place in 1976, between Brest and Aberdeen, on the northern margin of the Bay of Biscay and the Rockall Bank. The seven drilling sites enabled a comparison ta be made of the structure and geological history of two different types of margins, both formed by rifting, one in an epicontinental sea and the other in a craton. The history of subsidence was determined. A great many gaps were revealed in the series deposited in deep water, including some that are contemporary with events known on the continental shelf. Blackshales rich in organic motter of detrital origin were found in the Bay of Biscay. They may have been deposited either in deep water or on the continental shelf. Successful paleomagnetism and heat flow measurements were made, along with well logging.

L'équipe Scientifique Embarquée

2006-11-01

303

On Decommissioning Costs of the Ranstad Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main objective of this study has been to extend the review of the future cost to decommission and dismantling the industrial area at the site of the old uranium mine at Ranstad in Sweden. The feedback of experience and actual costs from a decommissioning project in the United Kingdom (A26 in Springfields) has been used to help in the assessment of the reasonableness of the estimated costs for decommissioning of the old uranium mine in Ranstad. A quantitative (albeit subjective) statement about the accuracy of the Ranstad cost estimate has been developed. Also, the factors relevant to the allocation of costs between the Swedish state and the current owners of the old uranium mine site have been evaluated and presented. The study has developed the following main conclusions: - The importance of thorough characterization/radiological mapping to the selection of the optimum decommissioning approach (technique) has been reinforced very strongly. - Thorough characterization has the related consequence of being able to better define the costs of decommissioning, in terms of equipment needed, labour hours required and, importantly, the volumes of different categories of waste requiring different routes (and associated different unit costs) for ultimate disposition. - Uncertainties in the Ranstad decommissioning cost estimate nevertheless remain, in particular relating to the viability of the proposed approach to dismantling and decontaminating the acid proof bricks that line the pools in the Large Leaching Hall; a method that is acknowledged to be not proven. The outcome could have an impact on actual dismantling and decontamination costs, as well as on the costs of ultimate waste disposition. The KB2010 cost estimate report does not offer an alternative in the event that the base plan proves to be unfeasible. - On balance it would appear that the continued presence of RMA at the Ranstad site ultimately will provide a net cost benefit to the program. The extra costs that RMA operations may cause are assessed to be more than offset by the benefits of having a functioning RMA Leach Hall facility, as well as the historical benefits of general site management

2010-01-01

304

Nuclear submarine decommissioning. Radiation risk assessments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Decommissioning of the ships and vessels with nuclear power installations is a problem of primary and worldwide importance. It is essential for both the naval fleet and the military industrial complex as a whole. Nuclear submarines decommissioning is accompanied by a number of questions concerning the development and performance of the safe technologies for managing radioactive equipment and nuclear waste from the vessels with the nuclear power facilities. Decommissioning of nuclear submarines including unloading of the spent fuel should take place at the operating ship yards and repairing plants that are usually situated close to the densely populated areas and living blocks. Decommissioning includes a series of the potentially dangerous operations with radioactive materials, e.g. fuel unloading, disposal of coolant, dismantling of the contaminated equipment, cutting out the reactor compartment, etc. As a result a great amount of highly radioactive liquid and solid wastes are formed including the cut-out reactor compartment and spent fuel that produce additional radioactive load on the local environment and population. Estimation of the radiation risk for the environment and population due to decommissioning becomes an actual and necessary question. Apart from this the process of decommissioning may cause accidents followed by complicated radiation situation with high dose rates and contamination of the environment. Analysis of the most probable scenarios of the accident development and estimation of the expected radiation consequences should help to assess the risk rate for radiation impact on the environment and population as well as to develop an adequate environmental monitoring and to undertake measures for the accident localisation and liquidation of its consequences. A separate problem is management of the reactor compartment containing radioactive equipment of the steam producing installation and biological protection. Since there are no specialised facilities with an adequate equipment for decomposition of reactor compartments incorporating highly active equipment they need to be stored in special containers for a long period until radiation level decreases to the level safe for decomposing operations without special remote and protection equipment. Various storage techniques are discussed, e.g. in floating regime, burial in shallow waters, open ground, etc. (author)

2000-05-01

305

NMSS handbook for decommissioning fuel cycle and materials licensees  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission amended its regulations to set forth the technical and financial criteria for decommissioning licensed nuclear facilities. These regulations were further amended to establish additional recordkeeping requirements for decommissioning; to establish timeframes and schedules for the decommissioning; and to clarify that financial assurance requirements must be in place during operations and updated when licensed operations cease. Reviews of the Site Decommissioning Management Plan (SDMP) program found that, while the NRC staff was overseeing the decommissioning program at nuclear facilities in a manner that was protective of public health and safety, progress in decommissioning many sites was slow. As a result NRC determined that formal written procedures should be developed to facilitate the timely decommissioning of licensed nuclear facilities. This handbook was developed to aid NRC staff in achieving this goal. It is intended to be used as a reference document to, and in conjunction with, NRC Inspection Manual Chapter (IMC) 2605, ''Decommissioning Inspection Program for Fuel Cycle and Materials Licensees.'' The policies and procedures discussed in this handbook should be used by NRC staff overseeing the decommissioning program at licensed fuel cycle and materials sites; formerly licensed sites for which the licenses were terminated; sites involving source, special nuclear, or byproduct material subject to NRC regulation for which a license was never issued; and sites in the NRC's SDMP program. NRC staff overseeing the decommissioning program at nuclear reactor facilities subject to regulation under 10 CFR Part 50 are not required to use the procedures discussed in this handbook

1997-01-01

306

In Situ Decommissioning (ISD) Concepts and Approaches for Excess Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning End State - 13367  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The United States Department of Energy (DOE) currently has numerous radiologically contaminated excess nuclear facilities waiting decommissioning throughout the Complex. The traditional decommissioning end state is complete removal. This commonly involves demolishing the facility, often segregating various components and building materials and disposing of the highly contaminated, massive structures containing tons of highly contaminated equipment and piping in a (controlled and approved) landfill, at times hundreds of miles from the facility location. Traditional demolition is costly, and results in significant risks to workers, as well as risks and costs associated with transporting the materials to a disposal site. In situ decommissioning (ISD or entombment) is a viable alternative to demolition, offering comparable and potentially more protective protection of human health and the environment, but at a significantly reduced cost and worker risk. The Savannah River Site (SRS) has completed the initial ISD deployment for radiologically contaminated facilities. Two reactor (P and R Reactors) facilities were decommissioned in 2011 using the ISD approach through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. The SRS ISD approach resolved programmatic, regulatory and technical/engineering issues associated with avoiding the potential hazards and cost associated with generating and disposing of an estimated 124,300 metric tons (153,000 m{sup 3}) of contaminated debris per reactor. The DOE Environmental Management Office of Deactivation and Decommissioning and Facility Engineering, through the Savannah River National Laboratory, is currently investigating potential monitoring techniques and strategies to assess ISD effectiveness. As part of SRS's strategic planning, the site is seeking to leverage in situ decommissioning concepts, approaches and facilities to conduct research, design end states, and assist in regulatory interactions in broad national and international government and private industry decommissioning applications. SRS offers critical services based upon the SRS experience in decommissioning and reactor entombment technology (e.g., grout formulations for varying conditions, structural and material sciences). The SRS ISD approach follows a systems engineering framework to achieve a regulatory acceptable end state based on established protocols, attains the final end state with minimal long stewardship requirements, protects industrial workers, and protects groundwater and the environment. The ISD systems engineering framework addresses key areas of the remedial process planning, technology development and deployment, and assessment to attain the ultimate goal of natural resource stewardship and protecting the public. The development and deployment of the SRS ISD approach has established a path for ISD of other large nuclear facilities in the United States and around the globe as an acceptable remedial alternative for decommissioning nuclear facilities. (authors)

Serrato, Michael G. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Musall, John C.; Bergren, Christopher L. [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

2013-07-01

307

4. Hannover decommissioning colloquium and 3. status report decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear plants. Proceedings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Federal Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Technology (BMBF) currently supports and supervises 10 large-scale projects in the field of nuclear installations decommissioning, as well as several small-scale projects for decommissioning of nuclear pilot plants or experimental facilities. The spectrum of work performed under these projects ranges from safe isolation of radioactive materials and plant components from the biosphere to complete dismantling of the plant and creation of a ''green field'' site. The 38 papers of the colloquium discuss aspects and the current state of progress of these activities. The ''Niederaichbach'' project is the large-scale project that successfully has proven the feasibility of decommissioning strategies and methods covering the whole range of tasks involved, showing that conversion to ''green field'' site is achievable without adverse effects on man and the environment. The project likewise has been giving impetus to further development and new applications of decommissioning techniques, particularly relating to remote-controlled manipulators. The successful performance of the Niederaichbach project to a large extent is due to the excellent and pin-pointed preparation of the legal basis for licensing of decommissioning activities under atomic energy law by the Bavarian State Government, which hopefully will set a good example to be followed by other State Governments. (orig./DG)

1995-11-08

308

The Greifswald WWER decommissioning project: strategy selection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the Greifswald site, 8 units of Russian pressurized water reactors type WWER 440 are located, including several facilities to handle and store fuel and radwaste. After the reunification of Germany in 1990, the operating units 1-5 were switched off and the construction work at the units 6-8 was stopped. After serious considerations to refit and restart some reactors, in 1990/91 the decision was taken finally to decommission all reactors. Due to this decision, the Energiewerke Nord GmbH was faced with a major and multi-faceted decommissioning task. This paper outlines the strategic approach taken and offers some key lessons which have been learnt to-date. (author)

2004-01-01

309

Decommissioning of an uranium hexafluoride pilot plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Institute of Nuclear and Energetic Researches has completed fifty years of operation, belongs to the National Commission for Nuclear Energy, it is situated inside the city of Sao Paulo. The IPEN-CNEN/SP is a Brazilian reference in the nuclear fuel cycle, researches in this field began in 1970, having dominance in the cycle steps from Yellow Cake to Uranium Hexafluoride technology. The plant of Uranium Hexafluoride produced 35 metric tonnes of this gas by year, had been closed in 1992, due to domain and total transference of know-how for industrial scale, demand of new facilities for the improvement of recent researches projects. The Institute initiates decommissioning in 2002. Then, the Uranium Hexafluoride pilot plant, no doubt the most important unit of the fuel cycle installed at IPEN-CNEN/SP, beginning decommissioning and dismantlement (D and D) in 2005. Such D and D strategies, planning, assessment and execution are described, presented and evaluated in this paper. (author)

2009-10-02

310

Decommissioning of an uranium hexafluoride pilot plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Institute of Nuclear and Energetic Researches has completed fifty years of operation, belongs to the National Commission for Nuclear Energy, it is situated inside the city of Sao Paulo. The IPEN-CNEN/SP is a Brazilian reference in the nuclear fuel cycle, researches in this field began in 1970, having dominance in the cycle steps from Yellow Cake to Uranium Hexafluoride technology. The plant of Uranium Hexafluoride produced 35 metric tonnes of this gas by year, had been closed in 1992, due to domain and total transference of know-how for industrial scale, demand of new facilities for the improvement of recent researches projects. The Institute initiates decommissioning in 2002. Then, the Uranium Hexafluoride pilot plant, no doubt the most important unit of the fuel cycle installed at IPEN-CNEN/SP, beginning decommissioning and dismantlement (D and D) in 2005. Such D and D strategies, planning, assessment and execution are described, presented and evaluated in this paper. (author)

Santos, Ivan; Abrao, Alcidio; Carvalho, Fatima M.S.; Ayoub, Jamil M.S., E-mail: isantos@ipen.b, E-mail: aabrao@ipen.b, E-mail: fatimamc@ipen.b, E-mail: jmsayoub@ipen.b [Institute of Nuclear and Energetic Researches (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Center of Chemistry and Environment (CQMA)

2009-07-01

311

Decommissioning of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory was operated from 1982 until 1997. The last several years included operations with mixtures of deuterium and tritium. In September 2002, the three year Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) Project for TFTR was successfully completed. The need to deal with tritium contamination as well as activated materials led to the adaptation of many techniques from the maintenance work during TFTR operations to the D and D effort. In addition, techniques from the decommissioning of fission reactors were adapted to the D and D of TFTR and several new technologies, most notably the development of a diamond wire cutting process for complex metal structures, were developed. These techniques, along with a project management system that closely linked the field crews to the engineering staff who developed the techniques and procedures via a Work Control Center, resulted in a project that was completed safely, on time, and well below budget

2003-01-01

312

Criteria development for DOE decommissioning operations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This project was initiated in the third quarter of FY 1979 to prepare guidance for DOE staff and contractors in the planning and implementation of decommissioning operations and in the certification of decommissioned DOE sites. A working draft of a radiological guide was prepared and forwarded for sponsor review in FY 1980. During 1981, the guide was completed and all comments were incorporated early in FY 1982. Although the Guide had been expected to be published in FY 1982, DOE management had not yet authorized its publication prior to the end of the fiscal year. The major effort in FY 1982 involved preparation of an assessment methodology and applying that methodology to assessing the inventory of chemical wastes and disposal sites on the Hanford Reservation

1983-02-01

313

Decommissioning of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory was operated from 1982 until 1997. The last several years included operations with mixtures of deuterium and tritium. In September 2002, the three year Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Project for TFTR was successfully completed. The need to deal with tritium contamination as well as activated materials led to the adaptation of many techniques from the maintenance work during TFTR operations to the D&D effort. In addition, techniques from the decommissioning of fission reactors were adapted to the D&D of TFTR and several new technologies, most notably the development of a diamond wire cutting process for complex metal structures, were developed. These techniques, along with a project management system that closely linked the field crews to the engineering staff who developed the techniques and procedures via a Work Control Center, resulted in a project that was completed safely, on time, and well below budget.

E. Perry; J. Chrzanowski; C. Gentile; R. Parsells; K. Rule; R. Strykowsky; M. Viola

2003-10-28

314

Decommissioning? Why not use a robot  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tasks which may be accomplished by robots alone or in conjunction with human workers in decommissioning nuclear facilities include: routine surveillance in contaminated areas; radiation surveys and sampling; preparation of work area; decontamination of walls and floors; disassembly of contaminated equipment and piping; internal decontamination of piping and waste storage/processing tanks; sorting materials; removal of large activated/contaminated structures; asbestos removal and packaging; transport of waste from disassembly areas; tending waste processing equipment; waste packaging for storage. The status of the technology is briefly reviewed and examples of the use of robots in decommissioning work in the USA are described. Although the use of robots in this field is not extensive so far, that use is increasing and information on its costs and benefits are becoming available. (UK)

1995-03-01

315

Licensing and decommissioning; Autorisation et declassement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This part is relative to licensing and decommissioning. It includes: legal and policy issues relating to the burning of Mox fuel in licensed nuclear power reactors, government liability under German law, the overview on development of nuclearlegislation in Latvia, the regulatory approaches in Ukraine relative to the decommissioning of nuclear installations, the development of nuclear legislation in Slovakia, Study on legal issue concerning the policy to construct nuclear power plant and a local referendum: the result of the MAKI town referendum, new development in the nuclear legislation of the Czech Republic, the system of related laws for the peaceful use of nuclear energy in the Republic of Korea and its prospects. (N.C.)

Shapar, H.K. [Shaw, Pittman, Potts and Trowbridge (United States); Kunth, B. [Partner Bruckhaus Westrick Stegemann (Country Unknown); Schattke, H. [and others

1998-07-01

316

Design of user interface on decommissioning DB  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It has been designed GUI(Graphic user interface) to consult the convenience of a input data and the flexibility that can be retrieved dismantling information relation to decommissioning DB of KRR1 and 2. The GUI can proceed an input materials and a search and output of a saved data in server based on a facility code and also have a function of explorer which can find the lower dismantling objects in each facilities. It has added the structure of the multimedia that could be showed a series of dismantling activities with a Mpeg and pictures into the GUI. In the future work, decommissioning DB and user interface are intend to contribute a functions that could be evaluate and analyze for a dismantling activities with a engineering theory

2003-11-27

317

Reactor decommissioning in a deregulated market  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Deregulation of the electricity markets in North America and Western Europe has had many profound effects on the electric utilities and the nuclear industry. Deregulation has led to cost transparency, increased competition, and a drive by the utilities to reduce costs in order to maintain market share and margins. In the context of this more competitive and dynamic market having a clear picture of decommissioning liabilities and their successful discharge has a material impact on the financial performance of a utility. This paper will summarise BNFL Environmental Services' experience with regard to its experience in both the planning and implementation phases of a reactor decommissioning project. In particular it will demonstrate how commercial projects in crucial areas of strategy development, project implementation and site restoration, can be combined with an approach that is both commercial and innovative to reduce the risks to a utility. This paper sets out to demonstrate this viewpoint. (author)

2002-10-06

318

System for remotely controlled decommissioning operations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of the study was to analyse the possibilities of reducing radiation exposure during the decommissioning of nuclear facilities by employing remotely operated systems. All types of nuclear reactors and reprocessing plants that exist in the countries of the European Communities are included. In decommissioning tasks the main fields to be considered for remote control are monitoring by visual inspection and radiation or position measurement, decontamination of assemblies or work space, dismantling of metal or concrete structures and, possibly, treatment and transport of resulting debris. As a result of this study three general purpose robotic systems are proposed in conceptual design form. Most of the technology needed already exists but some further developments in hardware and computer software are suggested for greater efficiency. (U.K.)

1986-01-01

319

Decommissioning of aqueous homogeneous critical facility (AHCF)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aqueous Homogeneous Critical Facility (AHCF), constructed to investigate the characteristics of a heavy water moderated homogeneous reactor, had been operated until 1966 since it was reached to the critical state in 1961. As it performed its mission, the license for the operation of the facility was revoked at December 25, 1962, and thereafter the facility has been mothballed safely. This critical facility was determined to remove and dismantle at this time in order to obtain some information for decommissioning of a nuclear power reactor and utilize the area thereof effectively. This paper describes the program and methods for this decommissioning work, the amount of wastes generated, treatment of nuclear fuel, removal of fuel handling facility, and radiation protection and safety during this work. (author)

1982-01-01

320

Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a reference pressurized water reactor power station: Technical support for decommissioning matters related to preparation of the final decommissioning rule  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Preparation of the final Decommissioning Rule by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has been assisted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff familiar with decommissioning matters. These efforts have included updating previous cost estimates developed during the series of studies on conceptually decommissioning reference licensed nuclear facilities for inclusion in the Final Generic Environmental Impact Statement (FGEIS) on decommissioning; documenting the cost updates; evaluating the cost and dose impacts of post-TMI-2 backfits on decommissioning; developing a revised scaling formula for estimating decommissioning costs for reactor plants different in size from the reference pressurized water reactor (PWR) described in the earlier study; defining a formula for adjusting current cost estimates to reflect future escalation in labor, materials, and waste disposal costs; and completing a study of recent PWR steam generator replacements to determine realistic estimates for time, costs and doses associated with steam generator removal during decommissioning. This report presents the results of recent PNL studies to provide supporting information in four areas concerning decommissioning of the reference PWR: updating the previous cost estimates to January 1986 dollars; assessing the cost and dose impacts of post-TMI-2 backfits; assessing the cost and dose impacts of recent steam generator replacements; and developing a scaling formula for plants different in size than the reference plant and an escalation formula for adjusting current cost estimates for future escalation

1988-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Decommissioning a tritium glove-box facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A large glove-box facility for handling reactive metal tritides was decommissioned. Major sections of the glove box were decontaminated and disassembled for reuse at another tritium facility. To achieve the desired results, decontamnation required repeated washing, first with organic liquids, then with water and detergents. Worker protection was provided by simple ventilation combined with careful monitoring of the work areas and employees. Several innovative techniques are described

1979-09-19

322

Decommissioning a nuclear fuel reprocessing support facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lessons learned during decontamination and dismantling of a plutonium nitrate loadout facility, highly contaminated with transuranics, suggest the development of improved design features for future nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Part of the Hanford Redox Plant, the 233-S Building contains systems formerly used for the final purification and concentration of plutonium solutions. Specific design ideas stem from experiences in decontamination and dismantling of the 233-S product Removal Can Loadout Facility (Loadout Hood). These ideas could influence the magnitude of future decommissioning projects

1980-03-19

323

The WAK decommissioning and dismantling program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The decommissioning and dismantling of the german pilot plant for reprocessing of nuclear fuel (WAK) is performed in six steps with the task of recultivation the site at the Research Centre in Karlsruhe to became a {open_quotes}green meadow{close_quotes}. Since 70 m{sup 3} of high active waste concentrate (HAWC) are still stored on the site presently all dismantling measures arc concentrated on the former reprocessing building.

Eiben, K.; Fritz, P. [Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage Karlsruhe (Germany)

1996-12-31

324

The WAK decommissioning and dismantling program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The decommissioning and dismantling of the german pilot plant for reprocessing of nuclear fuel (WAK) is performed in six steps with the task of recultivation the site at the Research Centre in Karlsruhe to became a open-quotes green meadowclose quotes. Since 70 m3 of high active waste concentrate (HAWC) are still stored on the site presently all dismantling measures arc concentrated on the former reprocessing building

1996-08-18

325

Decommissioning experience with Whiteshell Reactor 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Whiteshell Reactor 1 (WR-1) is an organic-cooled heavy-water-moderated research reactor that operated from 1965 to 1985. The reactor is owned by AECL, and is located at Whiteshell Laboratories at Pinawa, Manitoba. The reactor was shut down in 1985. Fuel was removed from the reactor and placed in the fuel storage bays, system fluids were removed or transferred to drain tanks, and some selective dismantling and refurbishment of space has take place as part of the post-operational cleanup. An overall decommissioning plan was prepared, and formal decommissioning operations commenced in 1989. The first-phase work essentially completes Stage 2 decommissioning as defined by IAEA guidelines. To optimize use of the reactor building by the Whiteshell site during a proposed deferment period of 50 a, dismantling and decontamination of premium space consistent with Stage 2 criteria is included in Phase 1. The primary objective of Phase 1 is to complete shutdown and cleanup activities and to secure the reactor and contaminated process systems to reduce the monitoring and surveillance requirements during the deferment period. This paper addresses the actual operations carried out to date. It includes the work techniques and emphasizes the manner in which these apply specifically to a research reactor. The end state for the Phase 1 work will be documented to describe the building and facility condition in support of a license for the reactor in a mothballed state. End-state documentation includes procedures for meeting monitoring and surveillance requirements. The overall decommissioning plan will be maintained and updated, as required by the regulator, throughout the deferment period

1993-09-05

326

Decommissioning the N.S. Otto Hahn  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After more than ten years of troublefree operation the German commercial nuclear vessel N.S. Otto Hahn was decommissioned in Februar 1979 following the burnup of its second core, because the scientific results expected from another four years of operation with a third core would no longer have justified the financial expenditure. The activated components of the reactor will now be dismantled and removed, the other systems decontaminated; in this way the ship can subsequently be used for conventional operation. (orig.)

1980-01-01

327

Decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since 1973, when the IAEA first introduced the subject of decontamination and decommissioning into its programme, twelve Agency reports reflecting the needs of the Member States on these topics have been published. These reports summarize the work done by various Technical Committees, Advisory Groups, and International Symposia. While the basic technology to accomplish decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) is fairly well developed, the Agency feels that a more rapid exchange of information and co-ordination of work are required to foster technology, reduce duplication of effort, and provide useful results for Member States planning D and D activities. Although the Agency's limited financial resources do not make possible direct support of every research work in this field, the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) creates a forum for outstanding workers from different Member States brought into closer contact with one another to provide for more effective interaction and, perhaps subsequently, closer collaboration. The first IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on decontamination and decommissioning was initiated in 1984. Nineteen experts from 11 Member States and two international organizations (CEC, OECD/NEA) took part in the three Research Co-ordination Meetings (RCM) during 1984-87. The final RCM took place in Pittsburgh, USA, in conjunction with the 1987 International Decommissioning Symposium (sponsored by the US DOE and organized in co-operation with the IAEA and OECD/NEA). The present document summarizes the salient features and achievements of the co-ordinated research work performed during the 1984-87 programme period. The document consists of two parts: Part 1, Summary of the three research co-ordination meetings and Part 2, Final submissions by participants on the research work performed during 1984-1987. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 7 reports presented. Refs, figs and tabs

1989-01-01

328

Decommissioning of the BR3 PWR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dismantling and the decommissioning of nuclear installations at the end of their life-cycle is a new challenge to the nuclear industry. Different techniques and procedures for the dismantling of a nuclear power plant on an existing installation, the BR-3 pressurized-water reactor, are described. The scientific program, objectives, achievements in this research area at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN for 1997 are summarized

1998-01-01

329

Engineering problems associated with decommissioning WAGR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper concerns the decommissioning of the Windscale Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor (WAGR). The five work packages into which the dismantling work is separated includes: removal of fuel, removal of four heat exchangers, establishing the waste disposal route, removal of the reactor internals and pressure vessel, and removal of outer shells. These five topics are discussed, including various areas which have needed development work and new design. (U.K.)

1985-01-01

330

Decommissioning Cost Estimating -The ''Price'' Approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over the past 9 years UKAEA has developed a formalized approach to decommissioning cost estimating. The estimating methodology and computer-based application are known collectively as the PRICE system. At the heart of the system is a database (the knowledge base) which holds resource demand data on a comprehensive range of decommissioning activities. This data is used in conjunction with project specific information (the quantities of specific components) to produce decommissioning cost estimates. PRICE is a dynamic cost-estimating tool, which can satisfy both strategic planning and project management needs. With a relatively limited analysis a basic PRICE estimate can be produced and used for the purposes of strategic planning. This same estimate can be enhanced and improved, primarily by the improvement of detail, to support sanction expenditure proposals, and also as a tender assessment and project management tool. The paper will: describe the principles of the PRICE estimating system; report on the experiences of applying the system to a wide range of projects from contaminated car parks to nuclear reactors; provide information on the performance of the system in relation to historic estimates, tender bids, and outturn costs

2002-02-24

331

Lessons learned on stakeholder issues in decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Issues of public concern during decommissioning and dismantling (D and D) are partly the same and partly different from those of the preceding phases (planning, construction and operation). While in the course of construction and operation the main challenges include meeting expectations of a higher quality of life, accommodating a growing population, mitigating construction nuisances, and assuring the safe operation of the facility, the main concerns in the D and D phase are decreasing employment rate, the eventual reduction of revenues for the municipality, the future use of the affected land and negative social impacts (e.g., out-migration). The decommissioning phase is characterised by heterogeneity of stakeholder interests and values, difficulties of reaching consensus or compromise, and difficulties in connection with the harmonization of energy production, environmental protection and sustainable socio-economic development considerations. Typically, there might also be tensions between local and regional decisions. As in other phases, the building of trust between stakeholder is crucial from the point of view of conflict management, and social lessons learnt from the siting and developments of nuclear facilities are widely applicable in the field of D and D as well. A review is presented of major lessons to be learnt from NEA activities in the field of decommissioning and stakeholder involvement. (author)

2008-10-02

332

The use of managing agencies in decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On 1 April 1994 UKAEA Government Division was formed and one of its main responsibilities is the safe and cost effective management of the facilities which have already closed and the fuel reprocessing and radioactive waste management plant required to assist in the current programme of decommissioning. UKAEA Government Division, working on behalf of DTI, is intended to be a lean and efficient programme management and procurement organisation. Rather than build up its own project management capability it intends to use external resources for this function, obtained in future by competitive tendering. For each major facility undergoing decommissioning a Managing Agency has been, or will be, appointed to act on behalf of UKAEA Government Division. The responsibilities of each Managing Agency will be to assist in the definition of tasks, the commissioning of option studies and safety studies, the specification of individual contracts, management of the tendering processes and the subsequent management of the Implementation Contractors carrying out the decommissioning work, including the associated safety and training responsibilities. Teams involved in Managing Agency work require skills in project management, relevant technical issues, contract and safety management. (author)

1994-04-01

333

Investment management for nuclear decommissioning trusts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

According to Nuclear Regulatory Commission estimates, and assuming a 4 percent annual inflation rate, minimum decommissioning requirements for a single reactor could total almost $350 million after 30 years. Consequently, reducing customer contributions to decommissioning funds is a potentially rewarding activity. In fact, improving the after-tax return earned on an NDT fund by as little as one percentage point can reduce customer contributions to the fund by 15% over its life. Unfortunately, many electric utilities are headed in the wrong direction and are unlikely to achieve satisfactory results. The main problem is the prevalence of the conventional wisdom, most of which has been appropriated from the area of pension fund management. This is an area which is familiar to most utility managements, but which has only superficial similarity to the issue of NDT investing. The differences are pronounced: NDTs, unlike pensions, are fully taxable at corporate income tax rates. In addition, NDT managers should be concerned with protecting the inflation-adjusted or real value of fund investments at a single, future decommissioning date. Pension managers, on the other hand, may be concerned with satisfying nominal contractual obligations spread over an extended future time horizon. In view of the large stakes involved in the management of NDTs, the authors summarize five key tenets of the conventional wisdom in this area and demonstrate where they feel they are in error.

Stimes, P.C.; Flaherty, R.T. (Flaherty and Crumrine Inc., Pasadena, CA (USA))

1990-11-22

334

Decommissioning of the Salaspils Research Reactor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In May 1995, the Latvian government decided to shut down the Salaspils Research Reactor and to dispense with nuclear energy in the future. The reactor has been out of operation since July 1998. A conceptual study on the decommissioning of the Salaspils Research Reactor was drawn up by Noell-KRC-Energie- und Umwelttechnik GmbH in 1998-1999. On October 26th, 1999, the Latvian government decided to start the direct dismantling to “green-field” in 2001. The upgrading of the decommissioning and dismantling plan was carried out from 2003-2004, resulting in a change of the primary goal of decommissioning. Collecting and conditioning of “historical” radioactive wastes from different storages outside and inside the reactor hall became the primary goal. All radioactive materials (more than 96 tons were conditioned for disposal in concrete containers at the radioactive wastes depository “Radons” at the Baldone site. Protective and radiation measurement equipment of the personnel was upgraded significantly. All non-radioactive equipment and materials outside the reactor buildings were released for clearance and dismantled for reuse or conventional disposal. Contaminated materials from the reactor hall were collected and removed for clearance measurements on a weekly basis.

Abramenkovs Andris

2011-01-01

335

Large transport packages for decommissioning waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main tasks performed during the period related to the influence of manufacture, transport and disposal on the design of such packages. It is deduced that decommissioning wastes will be transported under the IAEA Transport Regulations under either the Type B or Low Specific Activity (LSA) categories. If the LSA packages are self-shielded, reinforced concrete is the preferred material of construction. But the high cost of disposal implies that there is a strong reason to investigate the use of returnable shields for LSA packages and in such cases they are likely to be made of ferrous metal. Economic considerations favour the use of spheroidal graphite cast iron for this purpose. Transport operating hazards have been investigated using a mixture of desk studies, routes surveys and operations data from the railway organisations. Reference routes were chosen in the Federal Republic of Germany, France and the United Kingdom. This work has led to a description of ten accident scenarios and an evaluation of the associated accident probabilities. The effect of disposal on design of packages has been assessed in terms of the radiological impact of decommissioning wastes, an in addition corrosion and gas evolution have been examined. The inventory of radionuclides in a decommissioning waste package has low environmental impact. If metal clad reinforced concrete packages are to be used, the amount of gas evolution is such that a vent would need to be included in the design. Similar unclad packages would be sufficiently permeable to gases to prevent a pressure build-up. (author)

1988-01-01

336

Yankee Nuclear Power Station - analysis of decommissioning costs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The preparation of decommissioning cost estimates for nuclear power generating stations has received a great deal of interest in the last few years. Owners are required by regulation to ensure that adequate funds are collected for the timely decommissioning of their facilities. The unexpected premature shutdown of several facilities and uncertainties associated with radioactive waste disposal and long-term spent-fuel storage, when viewed in the light of a deregulated electric utility industry, has caused many companies to reevaluate their decommissioning cost estimates. The decommissioning of the Yankee Nuclear Power Station represents the first large-scale project involving the complete decontamination and dismantlement of a commercial light water nuclear power generation facility in the United States. Since this pressurized water reactor operated for 32 yr at a respectable 74% lifetime capacity factor, the actual costs and resources required to decommission the plant, when compared with decommissioning estimates, will yield valuable benchmarking data

1996-11-10

337

Research reactor back-end options - decommissioning: a necessary consideration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Decommissioning is a challenge, which all radioactive site licensees eventually need to face and research reactors are no exception. BNFL has completed numerous major decommissioning projects at its own operational sites and has undertaken similar works at customers' sites including the decommissioning of the Universities Research Reactor (URR), Risley and the ICI TRIGA 1-Mk I Reactor at Billingham. Based on the execution of such projects BNFL has gained an understanding of the variety of customer requirements and the effectiveness of specific decommissioning techniques for research reactors. This paper addresses factors to be considered when reviewing the way forward following shut down and how these affect the final decisions for fuel management and the extent of decommissioning. Case studies are described from BNFL's recent experience decommissioning both the URR and ICI TRIGA reactors. (author)

1998-03-29

338

Training practices to support decommissioning of nuclear facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Adequate numbers of competent personnel must be available during any phase of a nuclear facility life cycle, including the decommissioning phase. While a significant amount of attention has been focused on the technical aspects of decommissioning and many publications have been developed to address technical aspects, human resource management issues, particularly the training and qualification of decommissioning personnel, are becoming more paramount with the growing number of nuclear facilities of all types that are reaching or approaching the decommissioning phase. One of the keys to success is the training of the various personnel involved in decommissioning in order to develop the necessary knowledge and skills required for specific decommissioning tasks. The operating organisations of nuclear facilities normally possess limited expertise in decommissioning and consequently rely on a number of specialized organisations and companies that provide the services related to the decommissioning activities. Because of this there is a need to address the issue of assisting the operating organisations in the development and implementation of human resource management policies and training programmes for the facility personnel and contractor personnel involved in various phases of decommissioning activities. The lessons learned in the field of ensuring personnel competence are discussed in the paper (on the basis of information and experiences accumulated from various countries and organizations, particularly, through relevant IAEA activities). Particularly, the following aspects are addressed: transition of training from operational to decommissioning phase; knowledge management; target groups, training needs analysis, and application of a systematic approach to training (SAT); content of training for decommissioning management and professional staff, and for decommissioning workers; selection and training of instructors; training facilities and tools; and training as the integral part of management of human resources. (author)

2006-12-01

339

Initial decommissioning planning for the Budapest research reactor  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Budapest Research Reactor is the first nuclear research facility in Hungary. The reactor is to remain in operation for at least another 13 years. At the same time, the development of a decommissioning plan is a mandatory requirement under national legislation. The present paper describes the current status of decommissioning planning which is aimed at a timely preparation for the forthcoming decommissioning of the reactor.

Toth Gabor

2011-01-01

340

Initial decommissioning planning for the Budapest research reactor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Budapest Research Reactor is the first nuclear research facility in Hungary. The reactor is to remain in operation for at least another 13 years. At the same time, the development of a decommissioning plan is a mandatory requirement under national legislation. The present paper describes the current status of decommissioning planning which is aimed at a timely preparation for the forthcoming decommissioning of the reactor.

Toth Gabor

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Decommissioning nuclear power plants - the wave of the future  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper discusses the project controls developed in the decommissioning of a nuclear power plant. Considerations are given to the contaminated piping and equipment that have to be removed and the spent and used fuel that has to be disposed of. The storage issue is of primary concern here. The cost control aspects and the dynamics of decommissioning are discussed. The effects of decommissioning laws on the construction and engineering firms are mentioned. 5 refs

1994-06-19

342

Administrative requirements of financial securities to cover decommissioning operations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper points out that the lack of experience in decommissioning of nuclear power plants is reflected by the absence of specific legislation regarding the economic, fiscal and accounting aspects of the process. The author suggests that a fund be created for decommissioning costs through contributions deriving from plant operation. The paper analyses the procedures to be followed and draws attention to the need for clear legislation on decommissioning. (NEA)

1983-09-11

343

Provision for decommissioning LWR power plants by the German utilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the Federal Republic of Germany the licensing procedure for nuclear power plants under the Atomic Energy Act requires provision of proof that the plants can be decommissioned and removed at the end of their operating time. In particular, the requirement is specified that the design of the plants must take account of decommissioning. The German utilities which operate nuclear power plants have long concerned themselves with aspects of decommissioning, and they have especially studied the question of whether there are aspects of decommissioning which could necessitate a change in the concept of the plant. For this purpose, an engineering company was given a contract to make a study with the objective of analysing the entire spectrum of decommissioning, ranging from determination of the decommissioning techniques and extending to the calculation of the masses of decommissioning wastes and the costs expected to be incurred during the decommissioning. Initial results of this study are now available and are described in this paper. These results already indicate that changes in the concept of the plant for decommissioning reasons are not necessary. Using these results of the study it is possible to indicate to the licensing authorities what range of techniques can be applied to decommission a nuclear power plant. The purpose of these studies is not to establish the decommissionability of every plant individually, but instead to point out the feasibility in general of decommissioning a large-scale plant. Finally, an estimate will be presented of the maximum costs which can be expected in a decommissioning operation and of what influence these costs will have on power production costs. (author)

1978-11-17

344

Decommissioning the UT TRIGA reactor - Meeting technical and regulatory requirements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the most significant findings and features contained in the Decommissioning Plan which accompanied The University of Texas's termination of license application for its TRIGA reactor. Key topics which distinguish this plan from past research reactor decommission applications and which reflect the latest NRC regulatory requirements, are presented. This includes biological shield activation calculations, decommissioning tasks and schedule for the DECON alternative, collective dose equivalent, occupational health and environmental provisions, radioactive waste management, preliminary cost estimates and funding requirements. (author)

1986-04-06

345

Decommissioning of nuclear installations - regulations - financing - responsibility - insurance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper highlights three aspects of decommissioning of nuclear installations which relate, more or less directly, to legal options already applied or advocated. It reviews the regulatory conditions for decommissioning a nuclear installation and indicates legal provisions for financing decommissioning expenditures. It also describes the legal provisions to determine liabilities in case of nuclear damage and the assistance which insurers may provide to cover the consequences of such liabilities. (NEA)

1983-09-11

346

Unrestricted re-use of decommissioned nuclear laboratories  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A decommissioning strategy was developed by the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN. In this strategy decommissioning works are limited to the radioactive parts of the nuclear installation. After obtaining an attestation for unrestricted reuse of the building after removal of all radioactivity, the building can be used for new industrial purposes outside the nuclear field. The decommissioning activities according to this strategy have been applied in four buildings. The results are described.

Cornelissen, R.; Noynaert, L.; Harnie, S.; Marien, J.

1996-09-18

347

The Northern Ireland peace process and the impact of decommissioning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper examines the impact that the decommissioning of paramilitary arms has had, and continues to have, on the Northern Ireland peace process. It selects the beginning of the paramilitary group ceasefires in 1994 as the beginning of that pro-cess, and examines how decommissioning has affected progress in it up to the present date. It looks at the involvement of the Independent Body, the International Chairmen and the Independent International Commission on Decommissioning throughout the ...

Chastelain, John

2001-01-01

348

Decommissioning of six German fuel cycle facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The decommissioning of six fuel cycle facilities from Siemens AG and Nukem Hanau GmbH located at Hanau and Karlstein, Germany, provides a unique platform of experience. Five fuel fabrication plants, which had supplied fuel for research and pilot reactors as well as to commercial nuclear power plants, are in various stages of decommissioning. The fuel processed in the relevant facility, had either been Thorium, low and high enriched Uranium or even Plutonium. A hot cell research complex complemented these fuel facilities, where post-irradiation examinations on all kind of fuel had been performed. Research on plutonium-bearing fuel started as early as in 1965 and since then about 9 000 kg, Plutonium has been processed. In the late sixties fuel fabrication commenced on a commercial basis under license agreement with US-based companies General Electric and Westinghouse. The pilot fuel fabrication plants of Nukem were mainly involved in the fabrication of fuel for research reactors, including of coated particles for spherical HTR fuel. Late Eighties, beginning Nineties, the facilities were shut, partly due to political reasons and cleaned out, and decommissioning started immediately thereafter. No advantage can be gained by mothballing fuel cycle facilities because of the long-lived fissile isotopes. More than 2 000 highly specialized engineers and workers as well as a similar number of employees in the supporting industries lost their job. In total more than EUR 1 billion will be spent for- obtaining 'green meadow' including disposition of radioactive waste in deep underground disposal. Except for the hot cell complex, where local dose rate could be as high as several hundreds of Sv/h the major challenge in decommissioning of nuclear fuel facilities, is the predominance of a-particle contamination rather than high radiation fields. All effort has to be focused on preventing a-particles leaking outside their foreseen containment and thus, reducing the risk of incorporation. To a lesser extent, special criticality precautions may be required also during the decommissioning phase. Another tricky item is the procedure of free release measurement. Free release applications of buildings, concrete rubble, metals and other material belonging to a nuclear facility has not only to step over high technological thresholds, but also over public acceptance hurdles. (author)

2004-01-01

349

The decommissioning program of JAERI's Reprocessing Test Facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Decommissioning program of JAERI's Reprocessing Test Facility (JRTF) has been carried out to establish decommissioning techniques for nuclear fuel facilities. The project consists of 2 phases ; phase 1 is preparatory stage of decommissioning project, and phase 2 is execution stage of the JRTF decommissioning. The project started in 1990 under a contract with the Science and Technology Agency, and will be finished in 2001. Up to now, treatment of some radioactive liquid waste and physical inventory estimation were carried out. In addition to the technical development for dismantling, the design for treatment of the unpurified uranium solution and high level liquid waste are in progress steadily. (author)

1995-07-01

350

Computer System Analysis for Decommissioning Management of Nuclear Reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear reactor decommissioning is a complex activity that should be planed and implemented carefully. A system based on computer need to be developed to support nuclear reactor decommissioning. Some computer systems have been studied for management of nuclear power reactor. Software system COSMARD and DEXUS that have been developed in Japan and IDMT in Italy used as models for analysis and discussion. Its can be concluded that a computer system for nuclear reactor decommissioning management is quite complex that involved some computer code for radioactive inventory database calculation, calculation module on the stages of decommissioning phase, and spatial data system development for virtual reality. (author)

2008-06-01

351

Use of data processing tools in decommissioning nuclear facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the present level of electronic data processing technology, no project of the scale of nuclear reactor decommissioning could be carried out without the use of data processing systems. On the contrary, a reactor decommissioning project requires essential support not only for the technical but also the economic side through the use of proper data processing programs, and not only general applications in the area of personal computers such as MS-EXCEL or MS Project, but also special data processing systems designed for the reactor decommissioning tasks. Various data processing supports are required depending upon the progress of a reactor decommissioning project. (orig./DG)

1995-11-01

352

Decommissioning wind energy projects: An economic and political analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wind energy is the fastest-growing segment of new electrical power capacity in the United States, with the potential for significant growth in the future. To facilitate such growth, a number of concerns between developers and landowners must be resolved, including assurance of wind turbine decommissioning at the end of their useful lives. Oklahoma legislators enlisted the authors to develop an economically-sound proposal to ensure developers complete their decommissioning obligations. Economic analysis of turbine decommissioning is complicated by a lack of operational experience, as few U.S. projects have been decommissioned. This leads to a lack of data regarding decommissioning costs. Politically, the negotiation leading to the finally-enacted solution juxtaposed economic theory against political pragmatism, leading to a different but hopefully sound solution. This article will provide background for the decommissioning issue, chronicle the development of the decommissioning component of the Oklahoma Wind Energy Act, and frame issues that remain for policymakers in regulating wind power development. - Highlights: ? Wind energy is the fastest-growing component of U.S. power generation. ? Decommissioning wind projects is policy concern for wind development. ? Little public information on wind turbine decommissioning costs exists. ? Oklahoma’s solution attempts to account for both costs and risks. ? Additional research is needed to create a more precise policy solution.

2013-02-01

353

Funding nuclear-power-plant decommissioning. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report is organized according to the steps that one might go through when analyzing funding of decommissioning costs. The first step in analyzing decommissioning costs might be to review the present regulatory framework within which decommissioning cost decisions must be made. A description is presented of the present NRC regulations that address the decommissioning of a nuclear power plant. A description is also presented of recent public utility commission activities concerning funding the costs of decommissioning. Possible future trends in NRC regulation are also discussed. The estimation of decommmissioning costs is analyzed. A description of each of the possible decommissoining options is presented. The options of decommissioning include immediate dismantlement, various types of safe storage, and entombment. A discussion is presented of cost estimations for each decommissioning option for nuclear units containing pressurized water reactors and boiling water reactors. A description is included of the various methods of collecting funds for decommissioning as well as a discussion of their possible regulatory treatment. Material is presented which will provide the reader with background information that might assist state utility commissioners or their staffs in choosing or evaluating one of the financial mechanisms for covering decommissioning costs

1982-01-01

354

SGN's Dismantling and Decommissioning engineering, projects experience and capabilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Its experience in waste treatment, conditioning, storage and disposal, its cooperation with CEA and COGEMA Group in license agreements give SGN expertise in the decommissioning field. SGN's experience and background in all areas of nuclear facility decommissioning, such as chemical and mechanical cells, nuclear advanced reactors, reprocessing facilities result in fruitful references to the customers. The poster is presenting different achievements and projects with SGN's participation such as: - The decommissioning of Windscale Advanced Gas cooled Reactors (WAGR), in particular providing methodology and equipment to dismantle the Pressure and Insulation Vessel of the reactor. - The decommissioning plan of Ignalina (Lithuania) and Paldiski (Estonia), defining strategies, scenarios, necessary equipments and tools and choosing the best solutions to decommission the site under different influencing parameters such as cost, dose rate exposure, etc... - Th One Site Assistance Team (OSAT) at Chernobyl regarding the preparation works for the waste management and decommissioning of the plant. - The decommissioning of French nuclear facilities such as reprocessing (UP1) and reactor (EL4) plants. The important experience acquired during the facility management and during the first dismantling and decommissioning operations is an important factor for the smooth running of these techniques for the future. The challenge to come is to control all the operations, the choice of strategies, the waste management, the efficiency of tools and equipments, and to provide nuclear operators with a full range of proven techniques to optimise costs and minimize decommissioning personnel exposure. (Author)

1998-01-01

355

Development of a decommissioning strategy for the MR research reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A description of the selected decommissioning strategy for the research reactor MR at the site of the Kurchatov Institute in Moscow is presented. The MR reactor hall is planned to be used as a temporary fuel store for the other research reactors on the site. On the basis of the site-specific conditions and over-all decommissioning goals, it was identified that phased immediate decommissioning is the preferable option. The current status of the reactor, expected final conditions and the sequence of decommissioning works are shown. (orig.)

2010-03-01

356

Decommissioning of nuclear facilities: Feasibility, needs and costs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Nuclear Energy Agency's Working Group on Decommissioning is preparing a study entitled ''Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities: Feasibility, Needs and Costs.'' The study addresses the economics, technical feasibility and waste management aspects of decommissioning larger commercial reactors and nuclear support facilities. Experience on decommissioning small reactors and fuel cycle facilities shows that current technology is generally adequate. Several major projects that are either underway or planned will demonstrate decommissioning of the larger and more complex facilities. This experience will provide a framework for planning and engineering the decommissioning of the larger commercial reactors and fuel cycle facilities. Several areas of technology development are desired for worker productivity improvement, occupational exposure reduction, and waste volume reduction. In order to assess and plan for the decommissioning of large commercial nuclear facilities, projections have been made of the capacity of these facilities that may be decommissioned in the future and the radioactive waste that would be produced from the decommissioning of these facilities. These projections through the year 2025 are based on current data and the OECD reactor capacity forecast through the year 2000. A 25-year operating lifetime for electrical power generation was assumed. The possibilities of plant lifetime extension and the deferral of plant dismantlement make this projection very conservative

1985-01-01

357

Status of the decommissioning of nuclear facilities around the world  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the end of their useful life, nuclear facilities of all types must be decommissioned to render them safe and to remove and dispose of any associated material that could harm present and future generations. At this time, the first generation of nuclear power plants is gradually being taken out of service and decommissioned. Similarly, many of the research reactors around the world are being closed down and are candidates for decommissioning. The present report has been produced in order to evaluate the magnitude of the worldwide decommissioning task. Its scope extends beyond consideration of nuclear power plants and research reactors to include all facilities that use radioactive material. The report reviews and summarizes the decommissioning activities that have been performed to date, those currently under way and those that will need to be performed in the future. An attempt is made to quantify the costs associated with implementing the necessary decommissioning activities. These cost estimates provide an indication of the level of effort that will be needed to safely effect decommissioning activities. The IAEA has prepared a number of safety standards and technical reports pertaining to decommissioning. These publications can be used as a basis for developing a regulatory infrastructure and implementing a decommissioning programme

2004-01-01

358

Tasks and problems at the decommissioning of WWER-440 reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Decommissioning is the final and very important phase in the life cycle of nuclear reactors and covers all activities from shutdown and removal of the fuel to environmental restoration of the site. The main characteristics and problems of the decommissioning process are outlined in this paper. The paper presents the tasks of scientific and methodical base elaboration for the purposes of performing expert analysis in INRNE-BAS on decommissioning process of WWER reactors /1/ and related problems of nuclear safety and radiation protection. Results of preliminary design calculations for the possible reuse of the fuel discharged from a decommissioned WWER-440 reactor are given in the paper (Authors)

2002-11-01

359

EC decommissioning information network (EC-DB-NET2)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The EC Decommissioning Information Network is the platform to effectively share the achievements, techniques and principles that have been developed under previous and the current EC programmes and also the knowledge drawn from practical decommissioning projects. The strategic tools of the EC-DB-NET2 project are first the database on technical and cost aspects on decommissioning of nuclear installations which is a consequent enhancement of the former databases EC-DB-COST and EC-DB-TOOL and second the EC Decommissioning Web Site being an essential part of this network. (authors)

2004-03-29

360

Decommissioning of fuel cycle facilities in South Africa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experience gained in South Africa on the decommissioning of uranium conversion, enrichment and fuel fabrication facilities is briefly summarized with emphasis on the lessons learned. The South African Nuclear Energy Corporation (Necsa) has consolidated its nuclear decommissioning and waste management activities at Pelindaba and introduced a comprehensive, all-embracing nuclear liability management approach. The paper describes the experience gained on various aspects of decommissioning and waste management including the social impacts of the decommissioning and waste related activities during the decade from 1995 to 2005. Certain technological difficulties arose during this period and the approaches adopted to resolve these difficulties are also addressed. (author)

2007-09-01

 
 
 
 
361

30 CFR 285.902 - What are the general requirements for decommissioning for facilities authorized under my SAP, COP...  

Science.gov (United States)

...requirements for decommissioning for facilities...Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...CONTINENTAL SHELF Decommissioning Decommissioning...all facilities, projects, cables, pipelines...including your project easement, or... (b) Before decommissioning the...

2009-07-01

362

10 CFR 50.75 - Reporting and recordkeeping for decommissioning planning.  

Science.gov (United States)

...life), or for plants involved in mergers...status of its decommissioning funding for each...life), or for plants involved in mergers...a preliminary decommissioning cost estimate...Governing Nuclear Plant Decommissioning Trust...

2009-01-01

363

26 CFR 1.468A-4T - Treatment of nuclear decommissioning fund (temporary).  

Science.gov (United States)

...d)(1), a nuclear decommissioning fund is in existence for...actually made to such nuclear decommissioning fund; and (ii) Ends...interest in the nuclear power plant to which the nuclear decommissioning fund relates (other...

2010-04-01

364

26 CFR 1.468A-0T - Nuclear decommissioning costs; table of contents.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Termination of nuclear decommissioning fund upon substantial completion of decommissioning. (1) In general...Substantial completion of decommissioning defined. § 1.468A-6TDisposition...interest in a nuclear power plant (temporary)....

2009-04-01

365

26 CFR 1.468A-1T - Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules (temporary).  

Science.gov (United States)

...or State law for decommissioning such portion of the nuclear power plant; and (B) No...establishes a nuclear decommissioning fund with respect...with respect to the plant after the actual decommissioning occurs,...

2010-04-01

366

Eficiência produtiva em vacas primíparas das raças Aberdeen Angus e Charolês Productive efficiency of Angus and Charolais primiparous cows  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho produtivo de vacas de corte. Foram utilizadas 30 vacas da raça Aberdeen Angus e 32 da raça Charolês primíparas, prenhes no início do experimento, com bezerros puros ou mestiços Nelore. As vacas foram submetidas a diferentes tratamentos alimentares durante o inverno e a primavera: T1 - pastagem natural, T2 - pastagem cultivada por 60 dias (24 horas/dia, do início de setembro ao início de novembro, T3 - acesso à pastagem cultivada por duas horas diárias, por um período de 60 dias (de início de julho ao início de setembro, T4 - acesso à pastagem cultivada por duas horas diárias, por um período de 60 dias (de início de julho ao início de setembro, e mais 60 dias (24 horas/dia de pastagem cultivada do início de setembro ao início de novembro. As medidas de eficiência produtiva foram: EPPARTO = (P205/PVP*100; EPDESMAME = (P205/PVD*100; EPMBPARTO = (P205/PVP0,75; EPMBDESMAME = (P205/PVD0,75; e EPNDT = NDTTOTAL/P205, em que P205 é o peso ao desmame dos bezerros; PVP e PVD, os pesos das vacas ao parto e ao desmame, respectivamente; e NDTTOTAL, a exigência em energia para manutenção e produção de leite das vacas. As vacas Aberdeen Angus, com bezerros machos e aquelas com bezerros mestiços, foram mais eficientes. Vacas que utilizaram a pastagem cultivada por um período de tempo maior (T4 tiveram melhor desempenho do que aquelas que permaneceram apenas em pastagem natural(T1; as vacas dos outros tratamentos tiveram desempenhos intermediários.The objective of this work was to evaluate the productive efficiency of beef cows. Thirty Angus and 32 Charolais primiparous cows, pregnant at the beginning of the experiment with straightbred or crossbred calves, were evaluated. The cows were submitted to different feeding management during winter and spring: T1 -- Native pasture, T2 -- Cultivated pasture for 60 days (24 hours/day, from early September to early November, T3 -- Cultivated pasture for two hours a day, for 60 days, from early July to early September, T4 - Cultivated pasture for two hours a day, for 60 days, from early July to early September, and more 60 days on cultivated pasture (24 hours/day, from early September to early November. Productive efficiency was measured by CALVINGPE = (W205/CWC*100, WEANINGPE = (W205/CWW*100, CALVINGMBPE = (W205/CWC.75, WEANINGMBPE = (W205/CWW.75 and TDNPE = TDNTOTAL/W205, where W205 is the calf weaning weight and CWC and CWW are the cow weight at calving and weaning, respectively. TDNTOTAL is the total energy requirement (maintenance + milk production of the cow. Aberdeen Angus cows, cows with male calves and cows with crossbred calves were more efficient. Cows that had access to cultivated pasture for a long period of time (T4 had better performance than those that were maintained on native pasture only (T1. Cows of the other treatments had intermediate performance.

Edson Luis de Azambuja Ribeiro

2001-02-01

367

Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a refernce boiling water reactor power station: Technical support for decommissioning matters related to preparation of the final decommissioning rule  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Preparation of the final Decommissioning Rule by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has been assisted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff familiar with decommissioning matters. These efforts have included updating previous cost estimates developed during the series of studies of conceptually decommissioning reference licensed nuclear facilities for inclusion in the Final Generic Environmental Impact Statement (FGEIS) on decommissioning; documenting the cost updates; evaluating the cost and dose impacts of post-TMI-2 backfits on decommissioning; developing a revised scaling formula for estimating decommissioning costs for reactor plants different in size from the reference boiling water reactor (BWR) described in the earlier study; and defining a formula for adjusting current cost estimates to reflect future escalation in labor, materials, and waste disposal costs. This report presents the results of recent PNL studies to provide supporting information in three areas concerning decommissioning of the reference BWR: updating the previous cost estimates to January 1986 dollars; assessing the cost and dose impacts of post-TMI-2 backfits; and developing a scaling formula for plants different in size than the reference plant and an escalation formula for adjusting current cost estimates for future escalation

1988-01-01

368

IAEA Assistance on Decommissioning of Small Facilities with Limited Resources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The number of facilities reaching their lifetime is increasing and drawing the attention of operators, regulators, public and other interested parties (potential users of the site after decommissioning) on the importance of adequate planning, funding and implementation of decommissioning activities in compliance with regulatory requirements and criteria. Specific attention is required for small facilities that have been used for research purposes and in most cases state owned by and dependent on state funding. With the current tendency for expansion of the nuclear industry such small facilities could become less of importance for the operators which can increase the probability that these facilities become abandoned, hazardous and imposing undue burden to future generations. This concern is more related to countries with limited human and financial resources at the operating organizations and the regulatory body. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been working on the; (i) establishment of internationally recognized safety standards on decommissioning and (ii) providing Member States with assistance on the application of these standards. The recent international conference on Lessons Learned from the Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities and the Safe Termination of Practices (Athens, Greece, 2006) has demonstrated that the set of IAEA standards is almost complete and that the International Action Plan on Decommissioning (2004), that is addressing decommissioning of small facilities, is being successfully implemented. However the need for further assistance on decommissioning of small facilities in countries with limited resources was also recognized and the Agency is planning its future work in this field. The IAEA also addresses the needs of small nuclear countries that have only a limited number of nuclear facilities, e.g. a research reactor, in its Research Reactor Decommissioning Demonstration Project (R2D2P. The Philippine Research Reactor (PRR-1) was selected as a model for the demonstration of decommissioning of a research reactor, including 'hands-on' demonstrations. The regulatory framework and the overall decommissioning approach have already been addressed in this project. The characterization survey and the decommissioning plan will follow. In addition it is planned to complement the project with a demonstration of the transfer from operation to decommissioning on the example of High Flux Australian Reactor. This paper summarizes the outcomes of the Athens conference and the outcomes of the ongoing international projects on Evaluation and Demonstration of Safety during Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities (DeSa) and the Research Reactor Decommissioning Demonstration Project (R2D2P) that are related to the decommissioning of small facilities. It also presents the planned IAEA work in this field

2007-04-22

369

76 FR 65541 - Assuring the Availability of Funds for Decommissioning Nuclear Reactors  

Science.gov (United States)

...the Availability of Funds for Decommissioning Nuclear Reactors AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Regulatory...the Availability of Funds for Decommissioning Nuclear Reactors.'' This guide provides guidance to...

2011-10-21

370

FAMS DECOMMISSIONING END-STATE ALTERNATIVE EVALUATION  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nuclear Material Management (NMM) completed a comprehensive study at the request of the Department of Energy Savannah River Operations Office (DOE-SR) in 2004 (Reference 11.1). The study evaluated the feasibility of removal and/or mitigation of the Pu-238 source term in the F-Area Material Storage (FAMS) facility during on-going material storage operations. The study recommended different options to remove and/or mitigate the Pu-238 source term depending on its location within the facility. During April 2005, the Department of Energy (DOE) sent a letter of direction (LOD) to Washington Savannah River Company (WSRC) directing WSRC to implement a new program direction that would enable an accelerated shutdown and decommissioning of FAMS (Reference 11.2). Further direction in the LOD stated that effective December 1, 2006 the facility will be transitioned to begin deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) activities. To implement the LOD, Site D&D (SDD) and DOE agreed the planning end-state would be demolition of the FAMS structure to the building slab. SDD developed the D&D strategy, preliminary cost and schedule, and issued the deactivation project plan in December 2005 (Reference 11.3). Due to concerns and questions regarding the FAMS planning end-state and in support of the project's Critical Decision 1, an alternative study was performed to evaluate the various decommissioning end-states and the methods by which those end-states are achieved. This report documents the results of the alternative evaluation which was performed in a structured decision-making process as outlined in the E7 Manual, Procedure 2.15, ''Alternative Studies'' (Reference 11.4).

Grimm, B; Stephen Chostner, S; Brenda Green, B

2006-05-25

371

Calculation Study of the Wwer Decommissioning Problem  

Science.gov (United States)

Several Russian WWER units are to be removed from service in the near future. To study the main calculation problems concerned with decommissioning, the typical WWER-440 unit was selected. The 1D & 2D models of a core, vessel and shielding were designed to apply in transport and inventory calculations. The 2D KASKAD code based on the discrete ordinates technique was applied in criticality and transport calculations. To confirm the results at the mid-plane, the 1D ROZ-6 discrete ordinates code was used as well as the MCNP Monte-Carlo code. The most important inventory calculations were performed with the ORIGEN-S code.

Grudzevich, Oleg; Klinov, Dmitry; Kurachenko, Yury; Yavshits, Sergei

2003-06-01

372

Refurbishment of power plants -- Alternatives to decommissioning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The examples described in this paper show that it is possible to modernize aging power plants via retrofitting with good results for safety, profitability, environmental compatibility and smooth operation. In certain cases the use of innovative power plant components even enables them to reach top performance values. It is only when the general state of the installation, the infrastructure, the state of emission, the supply of fuel or existing pollution of sites would require such exorbitant sums that a new construction would be cheaper than retrofitting that decommissioning should be envisaged. Such a decision should be made after comparison of the cost-effectiveness of several technical solutions.

Haessler, G.H.J.

1998-07-01

373

Decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Korea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1996, it was concluded that the first Korea research reactor (KRR-1) and the second Korea research reactor (KRR-2) would be shut down and decommissioned. The main reason for the decommissioning was that the facilities became old and has become surrounded by the urbanised community. And many difficulties, including the higher cost, were faced according to the enhanced regulations. Another reason was the introduction of a new research reactor 'HANARO' in 1995. A project to decommission the reactors was launched on January of 1997 with a goal of release of the site and buildings for unrestricted use by 2008. All the radioactive wastes generated are to be transported to the national repository, planned by the Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Company (KHNP), and the final evaluation of the residual radioactivity will be made before the clearance of the site. As a first step of the project, a decommissioning plan, including the assessment of the environmental impact and the quality assurance program, was prepared and submitted to the government in 1998. It was approved, after its safety evaluation, by the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS) in November of 2000. After some preparative works such as documentation of procedures, the decontamination and dismantling works for the laboratories and hot cells of KRR-2 were started in September, 2001 and finished in December, 2002. The spent fuels that had been generated from the reactors were transferred to the United States in 1998 and no spent fuel remained at the site. All the liquid waste, both operational and decommissioning, was very low in its radioactivity and was treated in a natural evaporation facility of 200 m3/year capacity, developed by KAERI. Especially the laundry waste was treated in a membrane filtering unit for the removal of surfactants before being introduced to the natural evaporator. The solid wastes were segregated and packed in the container of 4 m3, designed according to the ISO-1496, and also in the normal 200-liter drums. The containers and drums will be stored in the reactor room of KRR-2 until they are transferred to the repository in 2008. The total amount of the radioactive solid waste, to be generated during the decommissioning, was estimated to be 168 m3 for KRR-1 and 453 m3 for KRR-2. Much of the radioactive waste was due to the removable surface contamination and it can further be re-segregated after chemical decontamination. In Korea, there has not been any clearance level, defined in the regulation, but a criterion of 0.4 Bq/g for beta-gamma was approved by the authority and is to be applied to the project. The releasable waste will then be discarded according to the prescribed route after the assessment of environmental impact and the evaluation of dose rate to the public. The uranium conversion facility was commissioned in 1982 for the development of the production technologies of nuclear fuels. And the facility was later modified for more automatic operation and the AUC process was added to meet the enhanced specification of nuclear fuels of PHWR till 1998. Around 350 tones of uranium dioxide were produced and supplied to KEPCO for the fuels of Wolseong-1 before it was shut down in 1993. Finally it was decided that the facility would be dismantled because of the deterioration of equipment and of the higher production cost due to its small scale. A project for the decommissioning was started in 2001. According to the article 55 of the Korea Atomic Energy Act, a decommissioning plan, including the environmental assessment and quality assurance program, has been prepared, submitted to the government and is being evaluated by KINS. After the approval, the decontamination and dismantling works is anticipated to start before the October of 2003 and will be finished in 2007. The total amount of radioactive solid waste, to be generated during the decommissioning, was estimated to be 380 m3, including the treated lagoon sludge waste. In this facility, only natural uranium was handled and therefore all the radioactivities were due to the removable s

2003-10-07

374

Decommissioning of nuclear power plants - safety aspects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The stages of decommissioning a nuclear power plant are presented in popular form. There exist two alternatives: Safe containment of activated and highly contaminated components within the nuclear power plant unit or dismantling of all components and buildings. Stage 1 provides for safe containment in a) previously sealed buildings without any dismantling; b) containment resp. reactor building; c) underground structures. Stage 2 provides for partial dismantling with safe containment of the remaining parts a) within the biological shield, b) underground, after dismantling the parts above ground level. Stage 3 provides for total dismantling. (orig.)

1979-01-01

375

Decontamination and decommissioning techniques for research reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Evaluation of soil decontamination process and the liquid decontamination waste treatment technology are investigation of organic acid as a decontamination agent, investigation of the liquid waste purification process and identification of recycling the decontamination agents. Participation on IAEA CRP meeting are preparation of IAEA technical report on 'studies on decommissioning of TRIGA reactors and site restoration technologies' and exchange the research result, technology, experience and safety regulation of the research reactor D and D of USA, Great Britain, Canada, Belgium, Italy, India and so forth

2002-01-01

376

Decommissioning and material recycling. Radiation risk management issues  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Once nuclear fuel cycle facilities have permanently stopped operations they have to be decommissioned. The decommissioning of a nuclear facility involves the surveillance and dismantling of the facility systems and buildings, the management of the materials resulting from the dismantling activities and the release of the site for further use. The management of radiation risks associated with these activities plays an important role in the decommissioning process. Existing legislation covers many aspects of the decommissioning process. However, in most countries with nuclear power programmes legislation with respect to decommissioning is incomplete. In particular this is true in the Netherlands, where government policy with respect to decommissioning is still in development. Therefore a study was performed to obtain an overview of the radiation risk management issues associated with decommissioning and the status of the relevant legislation. This report describes the results of that study. It is concluded that future work at the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation on decommissioning and radiation risk management issues should concentrate on surveillance and dismantling activities and on criteria for site release. (orig.).

Dodd, D.H.

1996-09-01

377

Licensing requirements for decommissioning a monazite processing plant in Malaysia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A monazite processing plant was shutdown after 12 years of operation. In order to decommission and decontaminate the plant facilities, the plant operator is required to apply for suitable classes of licence from Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB). This paper focuses mainly on the licensing requirements imposed on the licensee to decommission a monazite processing plant in Malaysia. (author)

2006-12-01

378

Decontamination and decommissioning project for the nuclear facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The final goal of this project is to complete the decommissioning of the Korean Research Reactor no.1 and no. 2(KRR-1 and 2) and uranium conversion plant safely and successfully. The goal of this project in 2006 is to complete the decontamination of the inside reactor hall of the KRR-2 which will be operating as a temporary storage for the radioactive waste until the construction and operation of the national repository site. Also the decommissioning work of the KRR-1 and auxiliary facilities is being progress. As the compaction of decommissioning project is near at hand, a computer information system was developed for a systematically control and preserve a technical experience and decommissioning data for the future reuse. The nuclear facility decommissioning, which is the first challenge in Korea, is being closed to the final stages. We completed the decommissioning of all the bio-shielding concrete for KRR-2 in 2005 and carried out the decontamination and waste material grouping of the roof, wall and bottom of the reactor hall of the KRR-2. The decommissioning for nuclear facility were demanded the high technology, remote control equipment and radioactivity analysis. So developed equipment and experience will be applied at the decommissioning for new nuclear facility in the future

2007-01-01

379

Manual for collecting management data concerning decommissioning of nuclear facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency), the decommissioning engineering system (DENESYS) has been developed to support examination of decommissioning plan aiming to use management data and experiences obtained through decommissioning of nuclear facilities effectively. In the development of the DENESYS, it is important efficiently to collect, and to analyze management data obtained from actual decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Then, collecting items of management data needed to examine decommissioning plan were extracted. And en efficient collecting method of the extracted collecting items was examined based on the JPDR (Japan Power Demonstration Reactor) decommissioning project. As a result, collecting items are work management data such as manpower and weight of components, waste management data such as weight and radioactivity in drums. These data would be collected by using daily work management report, waste record, and secondary record data in each JAEA site. In this report outline of collecting items and collecting method for decommissioning of nuclear facilities were described. And manual for collecting management data concerning decommissioning of nuclear facilities was introduced. (author)

2010-01-01

380

Case Histories/Episodes Involving the Use of Decommissioning Indicators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Examples of lessons learned outline the problems encountered at the nuclear facilities involved. The situations point out at occurrences denoting trends that can arise when implementing a decommissioning project, and can be viewed as performance indicators. Although the information is not intended to be exhaustive, the reader is encouraged to evaluate the applicability of the lessons learned to a specific decommissioning project

2011-07-01

 
 
 
 
381

Decommissioning and treatment for external uranium tailings impoundment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to developmental conditions of uranium mining and metallurgy industry, the author analyzes deeply the experience and lessons involved with decommissioning and treatment for external uranium tailings impoundment, introduces the decommissioning policies, treatment principles, models and technologies about the current external uranium tailings impoundment, and presents some opinions and advices

1998-05-01

382

IPR-R1 TRIGA research reactor decommissioning plan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is concerning to establish or adopt standards of safety for the protection of health, life and property in the development and application of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. In this way the IAEA recommends that decommissioning planning should be part of all radioactive installation licensing process. There are over 200 research reactors that have either not operated for a considerable period of time and may never return to operation or, are close to permanent shutdown. Many countries do not have a decommissioning policy, and like Brazil not all installations have their decommissioning plan as part of the licensing documentation. Brazil is signatory of Joint Convention on the safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management, but until now there is no decommissioning policy, and specifically for research reactor there is no decommissioning guidelines in the standards. The Nuclear Technology Development Centre (CDTN/CNEN) has a TRIGA Mark I Research Reactor IPR-R1 in operation for 47 years with 3.6% average fuel burn-up. The original power was 100 kW and it is being licensed for 250 kW, and it needs the decommissioning plan as part of the licensing requirements. In the paper it is presented the basis of decommissioning plan, an overview and the end state / final goal of decommissioning activities for the IPR-R1, and the Brazilian ongoing activities about this subject. (author)

2010-05-01

383

IPR-R1 TRIGA research reactor decommissioning plan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is concerning to establish or adopt standards of safety for the protection of health, life and property in the development and application of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. In this way the IAEA recommends that decommissioning planning should be part of all radioactive installation licensing process. There are over 200 research reactors that have either not operated for a considerable period of time and may never return to operation or, are close to permanent shutdown. Many countries do not have a decommissioning policy, and like Brazil not all installations have their decommissioning plan as part of the licensing documentation. Brazil is signatory of Joint Convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management, but until now there is no decommissioning policy, and specifically for research reactor there is no decommissioning guidelines in the standards. The Nuclear Technology Development Centre (CDTN/CNEN) has a TRIGA Mark I Research Reactor IPR-R1 in operation for 47 years with 3.6% average fuel burn-up. The original power was 100 k W and it is being licensed for 250 k W, and it needs the decommissioning plan as part of the licensing requirements. In the paper it is presented the basis of decommissioning plan, an overview and the end state / final goal of decommissioning activities for the IPR-R1, and the Brazilian ongoing activities about this subject. (author)

2008-10-19

384

Decontamination and Decommissioned Small Nuclear AIP Hybrid Systems Submarines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Being equipped with small reactor AIP is the trend of conventional submarine power in 21st century as well as a real power revolution in conventional submarine. Thus, the quantity of small reactor AIP Submarines is on the increase, and its decommissioning and decontamination will also become a significant international issue. However, decommissioning the small reactor ...

2013-01-01

385

Studies on future decommissioning of the Swiss nuclear power plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The financing of future decommissioning of the Swiss nuclear power plants and the permanent, safe disposal of the wastes arising therefrom is secured by payments into a legally established decommissioning fund. In order to update the required level of payments into the fund, which have been ongoing since 1984, 20 years after the first study the costs of decommissioning have been re-calculated from scratch using complete decommissioning studies for each plant. Following the specification of boundary conditions which take into account the specific situation in Switzerland, decommissioning concepts are drawn up for the individual plants. The measures outlined in these concepts are integrated into a cost structuring plan and the decommissioning costs are then calculated using standard models (e.g. STILLKO). The radiological inventory, which is re-calculated for each plant, has a significant influence on costs. Furthermore, the disposal costs which can be allocated to decommissioning waste have to be determined; these are based on a concept in which only two types of containers are considered for disposal. The studies have resulted in decommissioning costs which, with a range between 200 and 390 million Euro, are comparable with costs in other countries. (orig.)

Achermann, H. [Elektrizitaetswerk Laufenburg AG (Switzerland); Gunten, A. von [Bernische Kraftwerke A.G., Muehleberg (Switzerland); Heep, W. [Nationale Genossenschaft fuer die Lagerung Radioaktiver Abfaelle (NAGRA), Baden (Switzerland); Kaiser, P. [Kernkraftwerk Leibstadt A.G. (Switzerland); Maxeiner, H. [Nationale Genossenschaft fuer die Lagerung Radioaktiver Abfaelle (NAGRA), Baden (Switzerland); Paul, R. [Nuklear-Ingenieur Service GmbH, Hanau (Germany); Utzinger, E. [ATEL Aare-Tessin Ltd. for Electricity, Otten (Switzerland)

2001-07-01

386

Studies on future decommissioning of the Swiss nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The financing of future decommissioning of the Swiss nuclear power plants and the permanent, safe disposal of the wastes arising therefrom is secured by payments into a legally established decommissioning fund. In order to update the required level of payments into the fund, which have been ongoing since 1984, 20 years after the first study the costs of decommissioning have been re-calculated from scratch using complete decommissioning studies for each plant. Following the specification of boundary conditions which take into account the specific situation in Switzerland, decommissioning concepts are drawn up for the individual plants. The measures outlined in these concepts are integrated into a cost structuring plan and the decommissioning costs are then calculated using standard models (e.g. STILLKO). The radiological inventory, which is re-calculated for each plant, has a significant influence on costs. Furthermore, the disposal costs which can be allocated to decommissioning waste have to be determined; these are based on a concept in which only two types of containers are considered for disposal. The studies have resulted in decommissioning costs which, with a range between 200 and 390 million Euro, are comparable with costs in other countries. (orig.)

2001-03-28

387

The regulatory process for the decommissioning of nuclear facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this publication is to provide general guidance to Member States for regulating the decommissioning of nuclear facilities within the established nuclear regulatory framework. The Guide should also be useful to those responsible for, or interested in, the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The Guide describes in general terms the process to be used in regulating decommissioning and the considerations to be applied in the development of decommissioning regulations and guides. It also delineates the responsibilities of the regulatory body and the licensee in decommissioning. The provisions of this Guide are intended to apply to all facilities within the nuclear fuel cycle and larger industrial installations using long lived radionuclides. For smaller installations, however, less extensive planning and less complex regulatory control systems should be acceptable. The Guide deals primarily with decommissioning after planned shutdown. Most provisions, however, are also applicable to decommissioning after an abnormal event, once cleanup operations have been terminated. The decommissioning planning in this case must take account of the abnormal event. 28 refs, 1 fig

1990-01-01

388

Evaluation of depleted uranium in the environment at Aberdeen Proving Grounds, Maryland and Yuma Proving Grounds, Arizona. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report represents an evaluation of depleted uranium (DU) introduced into the environment at the Aberdeen Proving Grounds (APG), Maryland and Yuma Proving Grounds (YPG) Arizona. This was a cooperative project between the Environmental Sciences and Statistical Analyses Groups at LANL and with the Department of Fishery and Wildlife Biology at Colorado State University. The project represents a unique approach to assessing the environmental impact of DU in two dissimilar ecosystems. Ecological exposure models were created for each ecosystem and sensitivity/uncertainty analyses were conducted to identify exposure pathways which were most influential in the fate and transport of DU in the environment. Research included field sampling, field exposure experiment, and laboratory experiments. The first section addresses DU at the APG site. Chapter topics include bioenergetics-based food web model; field exposure experiments; bioconcentration by phytoplankton and the toxicity of U to zooplankton; physical processes governing the desorption of uranium from sediment to water; transfer of uranium from sediment to benthic invertebrates; spead of adsorpion by benthic invertebrates; uptake of uranium by fish. The final section of the report addresses DU at the YPG site. Chapters include the following information: Du transport processes and pathway model; field studies of performance of exposure model; uptake and elimination rates for kangaroo rates; chemical toxicity in kangaroo rat kidneys.

Kennedy, P.L.; Clements, W.H.; Myers, O.B.; Bestgen, H.T.; Jenkins, D.G. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Fishery and Wildlife Biology

1995-01-01

389

Evaluation of depleted uranium in the environment at Aberdeen Proving Grounds, Maryland and Yuma Proving Grounds, Arizona. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report represents an evaluation of depleted uranium (DU) introduced into the environment at the Aberdeen Proving Grounds (APG), Maryland and Yuma Proving Grounds (YPG) Arizona. This was a cooperative project between the Environmental Sciences and Statistical Analyses Groups at LANL and with the Department of Fishery and Wildlife Biology at Colorado State University. The project represents a unique approach to assessing the environmental impact of DU in two dissimilar ecosystems. Ecological exposure models were created for each ecosystem and sensitivity/uncertainty analyses were conducted to identify exposure pathways which were most influential in the fate and transport of DU in the environment. Research included field sampling, field exposure experiment, and laboratory experiments. The first section addresses DU at the APG site. Chapter topics include bioenergetics-based food web model; field exposure experiments; bioconcentration by phytoplankton and the toxicity of U to zooplankton; physical processes governing the desorption of uranium from sediment to water; transfer of uranium from sediment to benthic invertebrates; spead of adsorpion by benthic invertebrates; uptake of uranium by fish. The final section of the report addresses DU at the YPG site. Chapters include the following information: Du transport processes and pathway model; field studies of performance of exposure model; uptake and elimination rates for kangaroo rates; chemical toxicity in kangaroo rat kidneys

1995-01-01

390

Environmental geophysics of the Pilot Plant on the west branch of Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Plans to demolish and remediate the Pilot Plant complex in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground have served to initiate a series of nonintrusive, environmental-geophysical studies. The studies are assisting in the location and identification of pipes, tanks, trenches, and liquid waste in the subsurface. Multiple databases have been integrated to provide support for detection of underground utilities and to determine the stratigraphy and lithology of the subsurface. The studies were conducted within the double security fence and exterior to the double fence, down gradient toward the west branch of Canal Creek. To determine if contaminants found in the creek were associated with the Pilot Plant, both the east and west banks were included in the study area. Magnetic, conductivity, inductive emf, and ground-penetrating-radar anomalies outline buried pipes, trenches, and various pieces of hardware associated with building activities. Ground-penetrating-radar imagery also defines a paleovalley cut 30 ft into Potomac Group sediments of Cretaceous age. The paleovalley crosses the site between Building E5654 and the Pilot Plant fence. The valley is environmentally significant because it may control the pathways of contaminants. The Pilot Plant complex was used to manufacture CC2 Impregnite and incapacitating agents; it also served as a production facility for nerve agents.

McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.; Daudt, C.R.; Thompson, M.D.; Borden, H.; Benson, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Reclamation Engineering and Geosciences Section; Wrobel, J. [Directorate of Safety, Health, and Environment, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)

1994-05-01

391

Interações entre monensina sódica, óleo de soja e fontes de nitrogênio no desempenho de novilhos Aberdeen Angus em confinamento  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Quarenta novilhos Aberdeen Angus foram usados para avaliar o efeito da monensina, óleo de soja e fontes de nitrogênio (farelo de soja ou uréia sobre o desempenho de novilhos em dietas com 90% de concentrado. A monensina diminuiu o consumo de matéria seca em dietas contendo farelo de soja e o peso corporal aos 56 e 112 dias. O óleo diminuiu o ganho de peso nos períodos de 57-112 dias e 1-112 dias, enquanto a monensina diminuiu o ganho de peso nestes períodos nas dietas contendo farelo de soja como fonte de nitrogênio. O óleo de soja piorou a eficiência alimentar em todos os períodos e o farelo de soja, comparado com dietas com uréia, nos períodos de 57-112 dias e 1-112 dias. A monensina melhorou a eficiência alimentar em 7,4% para as dietas contendo farelo de soja, na ausência de óleo de soja, mas não alterou a eficiência alimentar para as dietas contendo uréia. Por outro lado, a monensina piorou a eficiência alimentar em 13% para as dietas contendo farelo de soja e óleo de soja.

Lana Rogério de Paula

2001-01-01

392

An optimized groundwater extraction system for the toxic burning pits area of J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Testing and disposal of chemical warfare agents, munitions, and industrial chemicals at the J-Field area of the Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) have resulted in contamination of soil and groundwater. The discharge of contaminated groundwater to on-site marshes and adjacent estuaries poses a potential risk to ecological receptors. The Toxic Burning Pits (TBP) area is of special concern because of its disposal history. This report describes a groundwater modeling study conducted at J-Field that focused on the TBP area. The goal of this modeling effort was optimization of the groundwater extraction system at the TBP area by applying linear programming techniques. Initially, the flow field in the J-Field vicinity was characterized with a three-dimensional model that uses existing data and several numerical techniques. A user-specified border was set near the marsh and used as a constraint boundary in two modeled remediation scenarios: containment of the groundwater and containment of groundwater with an impermeable cap installed over the TBP area. In both cases, the objective was to extract the minimum amount of water necessary while satisfying the constraints. The smallest number of wells necessary was then determined for each case. This optimization approach provided two benefits: cost savings, in that the water to be treated and the well installation costs were minimized, and minimization of remediation impacts on the ecology of the marsh.

Quinn, J.J.; Johnson, R.L.; Patton, T.L.; Martino, L.E.

1996-06-01

393

A state-of-the art on decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

While proceeding the KRR-1 and 2 decommissioning project, we are carried out study for the state of the art on decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Japan. Also, we are studied for the research reactors and commercial power plant that has the object of decommissioning, and for the government and the organization related on decommissioning operation. We are investigated for decommissioning activities of nuclear facilities achieved by JAERI, and collected the information and data for decommissioning techniques and computational system through the JPDR(Japan Power Demonstration Reactor) decommissioning activities. Such techniques are applying for Tokai Power Station began the decommissioning project from last year, and for Fugen Nuclear Power Station to be planned the decommissioning from 2003. Recent techniques for decommissioning was acquired by direct contact. The status of the treatment for decommissioning waste and the disposal facility for the very low-level radioactive concrete wastes was grasped

394

Program change management during nuclear power plant decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Decommissioning a nuclear power plant is a complex project. The project involves the coordination of several different departments and the management of changing plant conditions, programs, and regulations. As certain project Milestones are met, the evolution of such plant programs and regulations can help optimize project execution and cost. This paper will provide information about these Milestones and the plant departments and programs that change throughout a decommissioning project. The initial challenge in the decommissioning of a nuclear plant is the development of a definitive plan for such a complex project. EPRI has published several reports related to decommissioning planning. These earlier reports provided general guidance in formulating a Decommissioning Plan. This Change Management paper will draw from the experience gained in the last decade in decommissioning of nuclear plants. The paper discusses decommissioning in terms of a sequence of major Milestones. The plant programs, associated plans and actions, and staffing are discussed based upon experiences from the following power reactor facilities: Maine Yankee Atomic Power Plant, Yankee Nuclear Power Station, and the Haddam Neck Plant. Significant lessons learned from other sites are also discussed as appropriate. Planning is a crucial ingredient of successful decommissioning projects. The development of a definitive Decommissioning Plan can result in considerable project savings. The decommissioning plants in the U.S. have planned and executed their projects using different strategies based on their unique plant circumstances. However, experience has shown that similar project milestones and actions applied through all of these projects. This allows each plant to learn from the experiences of the preceding projects. As the plant transitions from an operating plant through decommissioning, the reduction and termination of defunct programs and regulations can help optimize all facets of decommissioning. This information, learned through trial in previous plants, can be incorporated into the decommissioning plan of future projects so that the benefits of optimization can be realized from the beginning of the projects. This process of the collection of information and lessons learned from plant experiences is an important function of the EPRI Decommissioning Program. (author)

2010-10-03

395

Operators' view of key issues confronting nuclear power plant decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Within some UNIPEDE member countries the first generation of nuclear power plants are reaching, or have reached, the end of their working lives after more than 25-years successful operating time. In the past in the UNIPEDE countries many studies are available, which demonstrate the technical and financial feasibility of decommissioning. The more the decommissioning becomes concrete the more it is time to strike the balance and to look deeper on probable key issues, which could have an influence on realization of decommissioning. From the operators' viewpoint all relevant factors will be discussed and the key issues confronting the present planning of decommissioning of nuclear power plant decommissioning will be identified. It will be shown that all the possible options at present can not be used because the necessary requirements have not been met so far. (author)

1990-01-01

396

Guidelines for producing commercial nuclear power plant decommissioning cost estimates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objectives of the study were: 1. To develop guidelines to facilitate estimating the cost of nuclear power plant decommissioning alternatives on a plant-specific basis and to facilitate comparing estimates made by others. The guidelines are expressed in a form that could be readily adapted by technical specialists from individual utilities or by other users; 2. To enhance the industry's credibility with decision-makers at the state and federal levels during rate/regulatory processes involving decommissioning costs. This is accomplished by providing a detailed, systematic breakdown of how decommissioning cost estimates are prepared; 3. To increase the validity, realism and accuracy of site-specific decommissioning cost estimates. This is accomplished by pulling together the experiences and practices of several nuclear utilities and consultants in conducting past decommissioning cost estimates

1985-01-01

397

Windscale advanced gas-cooled reactor (WAGR) decommissioning project overview  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current BNFL reactor decommissioning projects are presented. The projects concern power reactor sites at Berkely, Trawsfynydd, Hunterstone, Bradwell, Hinkley Point; UKAEA Windscale Pile 1; Research reactors within UK Scottish Universities at East Kilbride and ICI (both complete); WAGR. The BNFL environmental role include contract management; effective dismantling strategy development; implementation and operation; sentencing, encapsulation and transportation of waste. In addition for the own sites it includes strategy development; baseline decommissioning planning; site management and regulator interface. The project objectives for the Windscale Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor (WAGR) are 1) Safe and efficient decommissioning; 2) Building of good relationships with customer; 3) Completion of reactor decommissioning in 2005. The completed WAGR decommissioning campaigns are: Operational Waste; Hot Box; Loop Tubes; Neutron Shield; Graphite Core and Restrain System; Thermal Shield. The current campaign is Lower Structures and the remaining are: Pressure vessel and Insulation; Thermal Columns and Outer Vault Membrane. An overview of each campaign is presented

2003-06-17

398

DECOMMISSIONING OF HOT CELL FACILITIES AT THE BATTELLE COLUMBUS LABORATORIES  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Battelle Columbus Laboratories (BCL), located in Columbus, Ohio, must complete decontamination and decommissioning activities for nuclear research buildings and grounds at its West Jefferson Facilities by 2006, as mandated by Congress. This effort includes decommissioning several hot cells located in the Hot Cell Laboratory (Building JN-1). JN-1 was originally constructed in 1955, and a hot cell/high bay addition was built in the mid 1970s. For over 30 years, BCL used these hot cell facilities to conduct research for the nuclear power industry and several government agencies, including the U.S. Navy, U.S. Army, U.S. Air Force, and the U.S. Department of Energy. As a result of this research, the JN-1 hot cells became highly contaminated with mixed fission and activation products, as well as fuel residues. In 1998, the Battelle Columbus Laboratories Decommissioning Project (BCLDP) began efforts to decommission JN-1 with the goal of remediating the site to levels of residual contamination allowing future use without radiological restrictions. This goal requires that each hot cell be decommissioned to a state where it can be safely demolished and transported to an off-site disposal facility. To achieve this, the BCLDP uses a four-step process for decommissioning each hot cell: (1) Source Term Removal; (2) Initial (i.e., remote) Decontamination; (3) Utility Removal; and (4) Final (i.e., manual) Decontamination/Stabilization. To date, this process has been successfully utilized on 13 hot cells within JN-1, with one hot cell remaining to be decommissioned. This paper will provide a case study of the hot cell decommissioning being conducted by the BCLDP. Discussed will be the methods used to achieve the goals of each of the hot cell decommissioning stages and the lessons learned that could be applied at other sites where hot cells need to be decommissioned.

Weaver, Patrick; Henderson, Glenn; Erickson, Peter; Garber, David

2003-02-27

399

U.S. experience with organizational issues during decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report provides information from a variety of sources, including interviews with US NRC management and staff, interviews and discussions with former employees of a decommissioned plant, discussions with subject matter experts, and relevant published documents. The NRC has modified its rule regarding decommissioning requirements. Two key reasons for these modifications are that plants have been decommissioning early and for economic reasons instead of at the end of their license period and, a desire for a more efficient rule that would more effectively use NRC staff. NRC management and staff expressed