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Sample records for e3640 decommissioning aberdeen

  1. Geophysics: Building E5375 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Building E5375 was one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek area of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar (GPR), were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. Several anomalies wear, noted: (1) An underground storage tank located 25 ft east of Building E5375 was identified with magnetic, resistivity, and GPR profiling. (2) A three-point resistivity anomaly, 12 ft east of the northeast comer of Building E5374 (which borders Building E5375) and 5 ft south of the area surveyed with the magnetometer, may be caused by another underground storage tank. (3) A 2,500-gamma magnetic anomaly near the northeast corner of the site has no equivalent resistivity anomaly, although disruption in GPR reflectors was observed. (4) A one-point magnetic anomaly was located at the northeast comer, but its source cannot be resolved. A chaotic reflective zone to the east represents the radar signature of Building E5375 construction fill

  2. Interim progress report -- geophysics: Decommissioning of Buildings E5974 and E5978, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buildings E5974 and E5978, located near the mouth of Canal Creek, were among 10 potentially contaminated sites in the Westwood and Canal Creek areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including the complementary technologies of magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar, were conducted around the perimeters of the buildings to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. The magnetic anomalies and the electrically conductive areas around these buildings have a spatial relationship similar to that observed in low-lying sites in the Canal Creek area; they are probably associated with construction fill. Electrically conductive terrain is dominant on the eastern side of the site, and resistive terrain predominates on the west. The smaller magnetic anomalies are not imaged with ground radar or by electrical profiling. The high resistivities in the northwest quadrant are believed to be caused by a natural sand lens. The causes of three magnetic anomalies in the high-resistivity area are unidentified, but they are probably anthropogenic

  3. Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main part of this deals with nuclear power station decommissioning. The reactors already decommissioned or partially so are listed. The most important are Elk River, the advanced gas cooled reactor at Windscale and Shippingport. The three stages of decommissioning are defined and the benefits of delaying decommissioning until the level of activity decreases are discussed. The wastes resulting from decommissioning, the cost and the packaging problems are considered. Some generalized comments are made on decommissioning active process plants. General features on simplifying plant decommissioning are listed. Although there are no major technical problems in decommissioning, the scale of the operation does make organization and logistics difficult. (U.K.)

  4. Environmental geophysics: Buildings E5485, E5487, and E5489 decommissioning - the open-quotes Ghost Townclose quotes complex, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buildings E5485, E5487, and E5489, referred to informally as the open-quotes Ghost Townclose quotes complex, are potentially contaminated sites in the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, EM-31, EM-61, and ground-penetrating radar, were conducted to assist a sampling and monitoring program prior to decommissioning and dismantling of the buildings. The buildings are located on a marginal wetland bordering the west branch of Canal Creek. The dominant geophysical signature in the open-quotes Ghost Town close quotes complex is a pattern of northeast-southwest and northwest-southeast anomalies that appear to be associated with a trench/pipe/sewer system, documented by the presence of a manhole. Combinations of anomalies suggest that line sources include nonmetallic and ferromagnetic materials in trenches. On the basis of anomaly associations, the sewer lines probably rest in a trench, back-filled with conductive, amphibolitic, crushed rock. Where the sewer lines connect manholes or junctions with other lines, ferromagnetic materials are present. Isolated, unidentified magnetic anomalies litter the area around Building E5487, particularly to the north. Three small magnetic sources are located east of Building E5487

  5. Preliminary assessment of risk from toxic materials that might be mobilized in the decommissioning of Aberdeen Proving Ground Building E5032

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenblatt, D.H.; Brubaker, K.L.

    1991-12-01

    Aberdeen Proving Ground Building E5032 is scheduled for decommissioning, that is, for demolition. Because the building was formerly used for small-scale operations with incendiary and toxic chemical agents, it presents unusual concerns for occupational and public health safety during the demolition. For this reason, an anticipatory risk assessment was conducted, taking into consideration the building's history, properties of potential residual contaminants (particularly chemical and incendiary agents), and assumptions relating to meteorological conditions and envisioned modes of demolition. Safe maximum levels in concrete floors for the worst case were estimated to be: white phosphorus, 3200 mg/kg; mustard, 94 mg/kg; nerve agent GA (tabun), 6 mg/kg; cyanide, 500 mg/kg; and sulfide, 1400 mg/kg. These values will serve as planning guidance for the activities to follow. It is emphasized that the estimates must be reviewed, and perhaps revised, after sampling and analysis are completed, the demolition methodology is chosen, and dust emissions are measured under operating conditions.

  6. Preliminary assessment of risk from toxic materials that might be mobilized in the decommissioning of Aberdeen Proving Ground Building E5032

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenblatt, D.H.; Brubaker, K.L.

    1991-12-01

    Aberdeen Proving Ground Building E5032 is scheduled for decommissioning, that is, for demolition. Because the building was formerly used for small-scale operations with incendiary and toxic chemical agents, it presents unusual concerns for occupational and public health safety during the demolition. For this reason, an anticipatory risk assessment was conducted, taking into consideration the building`s history, properties of potential residual contaminants (particularly chemical and incendiary agents), and assumptions relating to meteorological conditions and envisioned modes of demolition. Safe maximum levels in concrete floors for the worst case were estimated to be: white phosphorus, 3200 mg/kg; mustard, 94 mg/kg; nerve agent GA (tabun), 6 mg/kg; cyanide, 500 mg/kg; and sulfide, 1400 mg/kg. These values will serve as planning guidance for the activities to follow. It is emphasized that the estimates must be reviewed, and perhaps revised, after sampling and analysis are completed, the demolition methodology is chosen, and dust emissions are measured under operating conditions.

  7. Clean-ups at Aberdeen Proving Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Defense has utilized radiative material in numerous applications over several decades. Aberdeen Proving Ground has been an integral player in the Army's Research, Development, and Testing of items incorporating radionuclides, as well as developing new and innovative applications. As new information becomes available and society progresses, we find that the best management practices used decades, or even sometimes years earlier are inadequate to meet the current demands. Aberdeen Proving Ground is committed to remediating historic disposal sites, and utilizing the best available technology in current operations to prevent future adverse impact. Two projects which are currently ongoing at Aberdeen Proving Ground illustrates these points. The first, the remediation of contaminated metal storage areas, depicts how available technology has provided a means for recycling material whereby preventing the continued stock piling, and allowing for the decommissioning of the areas. The second, the 26Th Street Disposal Site Removal Action, shows how historic methods of disposition were inadequate to meet today's needs

  8. Decommissioning Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    The Decommissioning Handbook is a technical guide for the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The decommissioning of a nuclear facility involves the removal of the radioactive and, for practical reasons, hazardous materials to enable the facility to be released and not represent a further risk to human health and the environment. This handbook identifies and technologies and techniques that will accomplish these objectives. The emphasis in this handbook is on characterization; waste treatment; decontamination; dismantling, segmenting, demolition; and remote technologies. Other aspects that are discussed in some detail include the regulations governing decommissioning, worker and environmental protection, and packaging and transportation of the waste materials. The handbook describes in general terms the overall decommissioning project, including planning, cost estimating, and operating practices that would ease preparation of the Decommissioning Plan and the decommissioning itself. The reader is referred to other documents for more detailed information. This Decommissioning Handbook has been prepared by Enserch Environmental Corporation for the US Department of Energy and is a complete restructuring of the original handbook developed in 1980 by Nuclear Energy Services. The significant changes between the two documents are the addition of current and the deletion of obsolete technologies and the addition of chapters on project planning and the Decommissioning Plan, regulatory requirements, characterization, remote technology, and packaging and transportation of the waste materials.

  9. Nuclear decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planning studies for decommissioning the Magnox, then the advanced gas cooled reactors, and much further in the future, the pressurized water reactors are in progress. Decommissioning will be in three stages. The first stage is the defuelling, removal of waste and decommissioning. This is done immediately the station is shut down. The second is the removal of the plant and buildings outside the reactor biological shield. This includes the boilers. The final stage is to take apart the reactor itself. The Magnox stations have graphite cores of over 2000 tonnes per reactor. These are also core supports, pressure vessel etc, all of which are active. An outline plan for decommissioning Sizewell-B (to make decommissioning easier when the time comes), is discussed briefly. (U.K.)

  10. Decommissioning handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manion, W.J.; LaGuardia, T.S.

    1980-11-01

    This document is a compilation of information pertinent to the decommissioning of surplus nuclear facilities. This handbook is intended to describe all stages of the decommissioning process including selection of the end product, estimation of the radioactive inventory, estimation of occupational exposures, description of the state-of-the-art in re decontamination, remote csposition of wastes, and estimation of program costs. Presentation of state-of-the-art technology and data related to decommissioning will aid in consistent and efficient program planning and performance. Particular attention is focused on available technology applicable to those decommissioning activities that have not been accomplished before, such as remote segmenting and handling of highly activated 1100 MW(e) light water reactor vessel internals and thick-walled reactor vessels. A summary of available information associated with the planning and estimating of a decommissioning program is also presented. Summarized in particular are the methodologies associated with the calculation and measurement of activated material inventory, distribution, and surface dose level, system contamination inventory and distribution, and work area dose levels. Cost estimating techniques are also presented and the manner in which to account for variations in labor costs as impacting labor-intensive work activities is explained.

  11. Decommissioning handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a compilation of information pertinent to the decommissioning of surplus nuclear facilities. This handbook is intended to describe all stages of the decommissioning process including selection of the end product, estimation of the radioactive inventory, estimation of occupational exposures, description of the state-of-the-art in re decontamination, remote csposition of wastes, and estimation of program costs. Presentation of state-of-the-art technology and data related to decommissioning will aid in consistent and efficient program planning and performance. Particular attention is focused on available technology applicable to those decommissioning activities that have not been accomplished before, such as remote segmenting and handling of highly activated 1100 MW(e) light water reactor vessel internals and thick-walled reactor vessels. A summary of available information associated with the planning and estimating of a decommissioning program is also presented. Summarized in particular are the methodologies associated with the calculation and measurement of activated material inventory, distribution, and surface dose level, system contamination inventory and distribution, and work area dose levels. Cost estimating techniques are also presented and the manner in which to account for variations in labor costs as impacting labor-intensive work activities is explained

  12. Nuclear decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sufficient work has now been done, on a world-wide basis, to justify confidence that full decommissioning of nuclear installations, both plant and reactors, can be carried out safely and efficiently. Projects in several countries should confirm this in the next few years. In the United Kingdom, good progress has been made with the Windscale Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor and supporting development work is finding solutions to resolve uncertainties. Estimates from several sources suggest that decommissioning costs can be kept to an acceptable level. (author)

  13. 1982 international decommissioning symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixty-four papers were presented at the following sessions: policy, regulations, and standards; management of decommissioning wastes; decommissioning experience; decommissioning tooling and techniques; radiological concerns; and planning and engineering

  14. Workshop on decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Nordic workshop on decommissioning of nuclear facilities was held at Risoe in Denmark September 13-15, 2005. The workshop was arranged by NKS in cooperation with the company Danish Decommissioning, DD, responsible for decommissioning of nuclear facilities at Risoe. Oral presentations were made within the following areas: International and national recommendations and requirements concerning decommissioning of nuclear facilities Authority experiences of decommissioning cases Decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Denmark Decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Sweden Plans for decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Norway Plans for decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Finland Decommissioning of nuclear facilities in German and the UK Decommissioning of nuclear facilities in the former Soviet Union Results from research and development A list with proposals for future work within NKS has been prepared based on results from group-work and discussions. The list contains strategic, economical and political issues, technical issues and issues regarding competence and communication. (au)

  15. Geophysics: Building E5476 decommissiong, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Building E5476 was one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek and Westwood areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar, were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. The large number of magnetic sources surrounding the building are believed to be contained in construction fill. The smaller anomalies, for the most part, were not imaged with ground radar or by electrical profiling. Large magnetic anomalies near the southwest comer of the building are due to aboveground standpipes and steel-reinforced concrete. Two high-resistivity areas, one projecting northeast from the building and another south of the original structure, may indicate the presence of organic pore fluids in the subsurface. A conductive lineament protruding from the south wall that is enclosed by the southem, high-resistivity feature is not associated with an equivalent magnetic anomaly. Magnetic and electrical anomalies south of the old landfill boundary are probably not associated with the building. The boundary is marked by a band of magnetic anomalies and a conductive zone trending northwest to southeast. The cause of high resistivities in a semicircular area in the southwest comer, within the landfill area, is unexplained

  16. Training for decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plants entering decommissioning face many challenges One of the most important is the challenge of training for decommissioning This is important because: The facility operators and management have spent many years successfully operating the facility; The facility management arrangements are geared to operation; Decommissioning will include non-nuclear specialists and other stakeholders; Other skills are needed to decommission successfully. UKAEA has decommissioned many facilities at its sites in Dounreay, Windscale, Harwell and Winfrith in the UK. We have faced all of the challenges previously described and have developed many training methods for ensuring the challenges are met safely and effectively. We have developed courses for specialised skills such as safety cases which can be deployed to support any decommissioning. (author)

  17. International decommissioning strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The IAEA Safety Requirements for decommissioning states that the regulatory body shall establish requirements for the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, including conditions on the end points of decommissioning. One of the main important issues is that the operator shall be responsible for all aspects of safety of the facility during its lifetime and of the decommissioning activities until its completion. A mechanism for providing adequate financial resources shall be established to cover the costs of radioactive waste management and, in particular the cost of decommissioning. It shall be put in place before operation and shall be updated, as necessary. A safety assessment of the proposed decommissioning strategy shall be performed and its implementation shall not begin until approval has been received by the regulatory body. A decommissioning plan shall be prepared for each facility, to show that decommissioning can be accomplished safely. The decommissioning plan shall be reviewed regularly and shall be updated as required to reflect, in particular, changes in the facility or regulatory requirements, advances in technology and, finally, the needs of decommissioning operation. If it is intended to defer decommissioning, it shall be demonstrated in the final decommissioning plan that such an option is safe. Decontamination and dismantling techniques shall be chosen which minimizes waste and appropriate means shall be in place for safe managing any waste that might be generated during the decommissioning process. A quality assurance programme shall be established for the decommissioning process. Before a site may be released for unrestricted use, a survey shall be performed to demonstrate that the end point conditions, as established by regulatory body, have been met. If site cannot be released for unrestricted use, appropriate control shall be maintained to ensure protection of human health and environment. The IAEA Safety Guidance mainly addresses the radiological hazards resulting from the activities associated with the decommissioning of nuclear reactors, primarily with decommissioning after planned final shutdown. Many of the provisions are also applicable to decommissioning after an abnormal event that has resulted in serious facility damage or contamination. In this case, this Safety Guide may be used as a basis for developing special decommissioning provisions, although additional considerations will be necessary. Due to the short extension of the present paper, we will emphasize only on some critical tasks of decommissioning research reactors. The removal of nuclear fuel from the reactor installation at the end of its operational lifetime should preferably be performed as part of operations or as one of the initial activities in decommissioning. At the beginning of decommissioning, all readily removable radioactive sources (operational waste, sealed sources, liquids) should be removed for reuse, storage in approved location or disposal. The removal of sources will normally result in a significant reduction of the radiation hazards. The operating organization should have, or have access to, competent staff to cover areas such as: safety requirements of the licence, radiation protection, waste management, quality management etc. Personnel should be competent to perform their assigned work safely. The management and staff involved in the decommissioning project should be made aware of and trained, if necessary, in the methods of minimizing the waste generated in the tasks assigned. Appropriate levels of control and supervision should be provided to ensure safety. The organizational structure to be employed during decommissioning should be described in the decommissioning plan. In the description of the organizational structure, there should be a clear delineation of authorities and responsibilities amongst the various units. This is particularly necessary when the operating organization uses outside contractors. In this case all license conditions apply to them. The radiation protection programme shou

  18. Decommissioning nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the currently accepted alternatives for decommissioning retired light water reactor fuel cycle facilities and the current state of decommissioning technology. Three alternatives are recognized: Protective Storage; Entombment; and Dismantling. Application of these alternatives to the following types of facilities is briefly described: light water reactors; fuel reprocessing plants, and mixed oxide fuel fabrication plants. Brief descriptions are given of decommissioning operations and results at a number of sites, and recent studies of the future decommissioning of prototype fuel cycle facilities are reviewed. An overview is provided of the types of operations performed and tools used in common decontamination and decommissioning techniques and needs for improved technology are suggested. Planning for decommissioning a nuclear facility is dependent upon the maximum permitted levels of residual radioactive contamination. Proposed guides and recently developed methodology for development of site release criteria are reviewed. 21 fig, 32 references

  19. Radiometric tools for decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The family of radiometric tools described in this article have been an integral part of BNFL's plutonium facility decommissioning operations for several years. The information provided by these systems has allowed decommissioning managers and engineers to successfully plan and execute extensive programs within redundant plutonium facilities. Development work now continues to further enhance the capabilities of current systems, and new technologies are being developed to allow accurate and reliable assay of decommissioning waste for unrestricted release. 2 figs

  20. NPP Krsko decommissioning concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the end of the operational lifetime of a nuclear power plant (NPP) it is necessary to take measures for the decommissioning as stated in different international regulations and also in the national Slovenian law. Based on these requirements Slovenian authorities requested the development of a site specific decommissioning plan for the NPP KRSKO. In September 1995, the Nuklearna Elektrarna Krsko (NEK) developed a site specific scope and content for decommissioning plan including the assumptions for determination of the decommissioning costs. The NEK Decommissioning Plan contains sufficient information to fulfill decommissioning requirements identified by NRC, IAEA and OECD - NEA regulations. In this paper the activities and the results of development of NEK Decommissioning Plan consisting of the development of three decommissioning strategies for the NPP Krsko and selection of the most suitable strategy based on site specific, social, technical, radiological and economical aspects, cost estimates for the strategies including the costs for construction of final disposal facilities for fuel/high level waste (fuel/HLW) and low/intermediate level waste (LLW/ILW) and scheduling all activities necessary for the decommissioning of the NPP KRSKO are presented. (author)

  1. NPP Krsko decommissioning concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the end of the operational lifetime of a nuclear power plant (NPP) it is necessary to take measures for the decommissioning as stated in different international regulations and also in the national Slovenian law. Based on these requirements Slovenian authorities requested the development of a site specific decommissioning plan for the NPP Krsko. In September 1995, the Nuklearna Elektrarna Krsko (NEK) developed a site specific scope and content for a decommissioning plan including the assumptions for determination of the decommissioning costs. The NEK Decommissioning Plan contains sufficient information to fulfill the decommissioning requirements identified by NRC, IAEA and OECD - NEA regulations. In this paper the activities and results of development of NEK Decommissioning Plan consisting of the development of three decommissioning strategies for the NPP Krsko and selection of the most suitable strategy based on site specific, social, technical, radiological and economic aspects, cost estimates for the strategies including the costs for construction of final disposal facilities for fuel/high level waste (fuel/HLW) and low/intermediate level waste (LLW/ILW) and scheduling of all activities necessary for the decommissioning of the NPP Krsko are presented. (author)

  2. Odin - lessons learnt. Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article relates briefly to the abandoned natural gas field of Odin on the Norwegian continental shelf. The platform could be seen as the benchmark by which all other decommissioning activity in the North Sea takes place, since it is the first significantly large structure to have been decommissioned in deep water. 1 fig

  3. International Decommissioning Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA has been developing guidance and technical information relating to the decommissioning and decommissioning strategies of nuclear facilities for over 20 years. During this time, the international concept of decommissioning strategies, and its importance, has changed. Three basic decommissioning strategies are envisaged as possibilities for nuclear installations: immediate dismantling, deferred dismantling and entombment. All have advantages and disadvantages, but the International Conference on Safe Decommissioning for Nuclear Activities demonstrated that immediate dismantling is the generally preferred option. However, there are a number of factors that might lead operators to choose one of the other strategies, and each situation has to be examined individually to identify the optimal strategy for that situation. The basic approach of these three strategies is discussed in the paper. (author)

  4. Decommissioning of Olkiluoto power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A conceptual plan for decommissioning of Olkiluoto Power Plant is presented. Deferred dismantlement after a safe storage period of 30 years is regarded as the main alternative. The sequence of decommissioning tasks and the techniques for performing them are described, including the management and disposal of decommissioning wastes. Occupational and public radiation dose estimates are given. Manpower requirements and costs of decommissioning are evaluated

  5. Decommissioning: an insurance perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear insurance pools, through American Nuclear Insurers (ANI) and the Mutual Atomic Energy Liability Underwriters (MAELU), have been providing third-party nuclear liability insurance to the nuclear industry since 1957. Third-party liability and property damage coverage resulting from the nuclear hazard are provided by separate insurance policies issued by the nuclear insurance pools. A liability insurer's view of decommissioning is addressed by discussing the following: insurer's perspective of potential nuclear liability; insurance claim experience and trends; objectives and accomplishments of ANI/MAELU's involvement with facility decommissioning; and important nuclear liability considerations for facility decommissioning

  6. Unexploded ordnance issues at Aberdeen Proving Ground: Background information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenblatt, D.H.

    1996-11-01

    This document summarizes currently available information about the presence and significance of unexploded ordnance (UXO) in the two main areas of Aberdeen Proving Ground: Aberdeen Area and Edgewood Area. Known UXO in the land ranges of the Aberdeen Area consists entirely of conventional munitions. The Edgewood Area contains, in addition to conventional munitions, a significant quantity of chemical-munition UXO, which is reflected in the presence of chemical agent decomposition products in Edgewood Area ground-water samples. It may be concluded from current information that the UXO at Aberdeen Proving Ground has not adversely affected the environment through release of toxic substances to the public domain, especially not by water pathways, and is not likely to do so in the near future. Nevertheless, modest but periodic monitoring of groundwater and nearby surface waters would be a prudent policy.

  7. A sociophonetic study of Aberdeen English : Innovation and conservatism

    OpenAIRE

    Brato, Thorsten

    2012-01-01

    The current study describes and discusses patterns of variation and change in the urban accent of Aberdeen in North-East Scotland, which compared to the varieties of the Central Belt has so far received almost no attention by sociolinguists. Aberdeen is the commercial, cultural and industrial centre of the region, which is considered to be geographically remote and isolated. Therefore, its demographics and linguistic features have developed mostly independently from the rest of the country un...

  8. Reactor Facility Decommissioning

    International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

    The Development of Decommissioning of Operation Technology of the Reactor Facility with Research RA Reactor of the Institute of Atomic Energy of the National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

  9. Decommissioning and Decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of SCK-CEN's decommissioning and decontamination programme are (1) to develop, test and optimise the technologies and procedures for decommissioning and decontamination of nuclear installations in order to minimise the waste arising and the distributed dose; (2) to optimise the environmental impact; (3) to reduce the cost of the end-of-life of the installation; (4) to make these new techniques available to the industry; (5) to share skills and competences. The programme and achievements in 1999 are summarised

  10. Decommissioning and site remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decommissioning/site remediation is the inevitable legacy of operation of nuclear installations, and needs timely and effective management. A high number of nuclear reactors and other nuclear facilities are reaching the end of their useful lifetimes and becoming candidates for decommissioning. Large-scale decontamination and dismantling technologies have not been used in many IAEA's Member States yet, and it is expected that optimization of such technologies to projects being launched will last for many years. In addition, early planning including inter alia timely allocation of funds is not a current practice in many Member States yet. Similarly, there are a number of sites contaminated by past nuclear activities, which require remediation. The International Atomic Energy Agency provides assistance to Member States to build the infrastructure to properly manage decommissioning/site remediation projects. This concerns basic guidance on planning and implementation aspects of those activities, and specialist aspects such as infrastructure to adequately manage materials/ waste arisings (including technologically-enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials- TENORMs) and establish mechanisms to allocate decommissioning/site remediation funds. The IAEA assists Member States in drafting/reviewing of their decommissioning/site remediation plans for individual operational or shutdown facilities and national programmes in this field including assessment of status, progress and trends of these activities. It further provides Member States with information and practical guidance to deal with operation-to decommissioning transition issues including organizational and societal changes. It provide information and guidance to support Member States' development on strategic, methodological and technological approaches to achieving best practice in decommissioning/site remediation. This concerns managerial, organizational and societal issues, decontamination/dismantling of critical systems/components, and cleanup of contaminated territories. The assistance aims at training of national experts to tackle specific decommissioning/site remediation tasks. This approach also helps with proper planning and decision making for long term management of nuclear liabilities

  11. 75 FR 9960 - First Trust/Aberdeen Global Opportunity Income Fund, et al.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ...of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (``Act...closed-end investment companies to make periodic distributions...that such investment companies may issue. Applicants: First Trust/Aberdeen Global Opportunity Income Fund...Aberdeen Global Credit Strategies Fund...

  12. The decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This file includes five parts: the first part is devoted to the strategies of the different operators and includes the following files: the decommissioning of nuclear facilities Asn point of view, decommissioning of secret nuclear facilities, decommissioning at the civil Cea strategy and programs, EDF de-construction strategy, Areva strategy for decommissioning of nuclear facilities; the second one concerns the stakes of dismantling and includes the articles as follow: complete cleanup of buildings structures in nuclear facilities, decommissioning of nuclear facilities and safety assessment, decommissioning wastes management issues, securing the financing of long-term decommissioning and waste management costs, organizational and human factors in decommissioning projects, training for the decommissioning professions: the example of the Grenoble University master degree; the third part is devoted to the management of dismantling work sites and includes the different articles as follow: decommissioning progress at S.I.C.N. plant, example of decommissioning work site in Cea Grenoble: Siloette reactor decommissioning, matters related to decommissioning sites, decommissioning of french nuclear installations: the viewpoint of a specialist company, specificities of inspections during decommissioning: the Asn inspector point of view; the fourth part is in relation with the international approach and includes as follow: IAEA role in establishing a global safety regime on decommissioning, towards harmonization of nuclear safety practices in Europe: W.E.N.R.A. and the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, EPA superfund program policy for decontamination and decommissioning, progress with remediation at Sellafield, progress and experiences from the decommissioning of the Eurochemic reprocessing plant in Belgium, activities of I.R.S.N. and its daughter company Risk-audit I.r.s.n./G.r.s. international in the field of decommissioning of nuclear facilities in eastern countries,; the fifth part presents the external points of view on dismantling with: the decommissioning of Saint-Laurent A, as seen by the local information committee, decommissioning: the urge for a public consultation, an evaluation of the work of the 'conseil superieur de la surete et de linformation nucleaire' (C.S.S.I.N.) - a consultative body dealing with information in the field of nuclear safety) on the issue of decommissioning basic nuclear installations, monitoring the decommissioning of nuclear facilities and examining applications. (N.C.)

  13. Decommissioning of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research reactors of WWR-S type were built in countries under Soviet influence in '60, last century and consequently reached their service life. Decommissioning implies removal of all radioactive components, processing, conditioning and final disposal in full safety of all sources on site of radiological pollution. The WWR-S reactor at Bucuresti-Magurele was put into function in 1957 and operated until 1997 when it was stopped and put into conservation in view of decommissioning. Presented are three decommissioning variants: 1. Reactor shut-down for a long period (30-50 years) what would entail a substantial decrease of contamination with lower costs in dismantling, mechanical, chemical and physical processing followed by final disposal of the radioactive wastes. The drawback of this solution is the life prolongation of a non-productive nuclear unit requiring funds for personnel, control, maintenance, etc; 2. Decommissioning in a single stage what implies large funds for a immediate investment; 3. Extending the operation on a series of stages rather phased in time to allow a more convenient flow of funds and also to gather technical solutions, better than the present ones. This latter option seems to be optimal for the case of the WWR-S Research at Bucharest-Magurele Reactor. Equipment and technologies should be developed in order to ensure the technical background of the first operations of decommissioning: equipment for scarification, dismantling, dismemberment in a highly radioactive environment; cutting-to-pieces and disassembling technologies; decontamination modern technologies. Concomitantly, nuclear safety and quality assurance regulations and programmes, specific to decommissioning projects should be implemented, as well as a modern, coherent and reliable system of data acquisition, recording and storing. Also the impact of decommissioning must be thoroughly evaluated. The national team of specialists will be assisted by IAEA experts to ensure the observance of all the international regulations an practices in the field

  14. Financial aspects of decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    European Commission adopted recently two proposals of Directives designed to pave the way for a Community approach to the safety of nuclear power plants and the processing of radioactive waste. Nuclear safety cannot be guaranteed without making available adequate financial resources. With regard, in particular, to the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, the Directive defines the Community rules for the establishment, management and use of decommissioning funds allocated to a body with legal personality separate from that of the nuclear operator. In order to comply with the acquis communautaire, Romanian Government issued the Emergency Ordinance no. 11/2003 which set up the National Agency for Radioactive Waste (ANDRAD) and soon will be established the financial mechanism for raising the necessary funds. Societatea Nationala 'Nuclearelectrica' S.A. operates, through one of its branches, Cernavoda NPP Unit 1 and has to prepare its decommissioning strategy and to analyze the options to assure the financing for covering the future costs. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the financial systems' mechanisms to the satisfaction of the nuclear operator obligations, according to the disbursement schedule foreseen by decommissioning projects . The availability of cash to pay for all the decommissioning expenditure must be foreseen by setting up assets and establishing a suitable financing plan. The different practices of assets management shall be presented in this paper on the basis of the international experience. Some calculation samples shall be given as an illustration. (author)

  15. Decommissioning of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguri, Daiichiro [Nuclear Power Engineering Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-05-01

    Someday in the future, all of operating nuclear power plants will be ceased the operating and the plants will be decommissioned. Overseas, several plants in the United States and Europe have already decommissioned. In Japan, the decommissioning of the Japan Power Demonstration Reactor (JPDR) was completed in 1996. Japan's first commercial nuclear power plant, Tokai Power Station (Gas-Cooled Reactor (GCR)), ceased the operation in 1998, and transferred to the decommissioning stage. (author)

  16. Decommissioning funding: ethics, implementation, uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This status report on Decommissioning Funding: Ethics, Implementation, Uncertainties also draws on the experience of the NEA Working Party on Decommissioning and Dismantling (WPDD). The report offers, in a concise form, an overview of relevant considerations on decommissioning funding mechanisms with regard to ethics, implementation and uncertainties. Underlying ethical principles found in international agreements are identified, and factors influencing the accumulation and management of funds for decommissioning nuclear facilities are discussed together with the main sources of uncertainties of funding systems. (authors)

  17. Preparation for Ignalina NPP decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latest developments of atomic energy in Lithuania, works done to prepare Ignalina NPP for final shutdown and decommissioning are described. Information on decommissioning program for Ignalina NPP unit 1, decommissioning method, stages and funding is presented. Other topics: radiation protection, radioactive waste management and disposal. Key facts related to nuclear energy in Lithuania are listed

  18. Scheduling for decommissioning projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the Project Scheduling system being employed by the Decommissioning Operations Contractor at the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project (SSDP). Results from the planning system show that the project continues to achieve its cost and schedule goals. An integrated cost and schedule control system (C/SCS) which uses the concept of earned value for measurement of performance was instituted in accordance with DOE orders. The schedule and cost variances generated by the C/SCS system are used to confirm management's assessment of project status. This paper describes the types of schedules and tools used on the SSDP project to plan and monitor the work, and identifies factors that are unique to a decommissioning project that make scheduling critical to the achievement of the project's goals. 1 fig

  19. Site decommissioning management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has identified 48 sites contaminated with radioactive material that require special attention to ensure timely decommissioning. While none of these sites represent an immediate threat to public health and safety they have contamination that exceeds existing NRC criteria for unrestricted use. All of these sites require some degree of remediation, and several involve regulatory issues that must be addressed by the Commission before they can be released for unrestricted use and the applicable licenses terminated. This report contains the NRC staff's strategy for addressing the technical, legal, and policy issues affecting the timely decommissioning of the 48 sites and describes the status of decommissioning activities at the sites

  20. Decommissioning of offshore installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeen, Sigrun; Iversen, Per Erik; Stokke, Reidunn; Nielsen, Frantz; Henriksen, Thor; Natvig, Henning; Dretvik, Oeystein; Martinsen, Finn; Bakke, Gunnstein

    2010-07-01

    New legislation on the handling and storage of radioactive substances came into force 1 January 2011. This version of the report is updated to reflect this new regulation and will therefore in some chapters differ from the Norwegian version (see NEI-NO--1660). The Ministry of the Environment commissioned the Climate and Pollution Agency to examine the environmental impacts associated with the decommissioning of offshore installations (demolition and recycling). This has involved an assessment of the volumes and types of waste material and of decommissioning capacity in Norway now and in the future. This report also presents proposals for measures and instruments to address environmental and other concerns that arise in connection with the decommissioning of offshore installations. At present, Norway has four decommissioning facilities for offshore installations, three of which are currently involved in decommissioning projects. Waste treatment plants of this kind are required to hold permits under the Pollution Control Act. The permit system allows the pollution control authority to tailor the requirements in a specific permit by evaluating conditions and limits for releases of pollutants on a case-to-case basis, and the Act also provides for requirements to be tightened up in line with the development of best available techniques (BAT). The environmental risks posed by decommissioning facilities are much the same as those from process industries and other waste treatment plants that are regulated by means of individual permits. Strict requirements are intended to ensure that environmental and health concerns are taken into account. The review of the four Norwegian decommissioning facilities in connection with this report shows that the degree to which requirements need to be tightened up varies from one facility to another. The permit for the Vats yard is newest and contains the strictest conditions. The Climate and Pollution Agency recommends a number of measures and requirements that should be considered in the regulation of decommissioning facilities for offshore installations. These facilities need sound expertise to be able to identify and deal with different types of waste, including hazardous waste such as heavy metals, other hazardous substances, low specific activity (LSA) radioactive material and asbestos. Facilities must be designed to allow safe handling of such waste, with no risk of runoff or infiltration into the soil. In addition, a decommissioning facility should have an effective collection system and an on-site treatment plant for contaminated water, including surface water. Each facility must have a sampling and analysis programme to monitor releases of the most relevant pollutants. The need for an environmental monitoring programme to follow developments in the recipient should also be considered. Other factors that must be closely monitored include noise and releases to air in connection with metal cutting and other operations. Moreover, decommissioning contracts must ensure that the costs of handling hazardous waste are met by the offshore operators. When decommissioning facilities for offshore installations are being sited, other interests must also be taken into account; for example, the use of nearby areas for housing, holiday housing or recreation. In addition, the implications for other sectors such as fisheries and agriculture must be taken into consideration. These are important issues that the municipalities must consider when preparing zoning plans and drawing up environmental impact assessments. In many cases, a regional authority is in a better position than a national one to make overall, cross-sectoral assessments of developments within the region. Nevertheless, the report recommends transferring the authority for regulating decommissioning facilities for offshore installations from the County Governors to the Climate and Pollution Agency. Regulating these facilities requires special expertise and overall assessments, and is best dealt with at central level. When new regulations have

  1. Decommissioning licensing procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decommissioning or closure of a nuclear power plant, defined as the fact that takes place from the moment that the plant stops producing for the purpose it was built, is causing preocupation. So this specialist meeting on Regulatory Review seems to be the right place for presenting and discusing the need of considering the decommissioning in the safety analysis report. The main goal of this paper related to the licensing procedure is to suggest the need of a new chapter in the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (P.S.A.R.) dealing with the decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. Therefore, after a brief introduction the problem is exposed from the point of view of nuclear safety and finally a format of the new chapter is proposed. (author)

  2. Site decommissioning management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauver, D.N.; Austin, J.H.; Johnson, T.C.; Weber, M.F.; Cardile, F.P.; Martin, D.E.; Caniano, R.J.; Kinneman, J.D.

    1993-10-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has identified 48 sites contaminated with radioactive material that require special attention to ensure timely decommissioning. While none of these sites represent an immediate threat to public health and safety they have contamination that exceeds existing NRC criteria for unrestricted use. All of these sites require some degree of remediation, and several involve regulatory issues that must be addressed by the Commission before they can be released for unrestricted use and the applicable licenses terminated. This report contains the NRC staff`s strategy for addressing the technical, legal, and policy issues affecting the timely decommissioning of the 48 sites and describes the status of decommissioning activities at the sites.

  3. Specific aspects of decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decommissioning covers a sequence of operations which must be carefully designed and organized to take into account the hostile environment and involving, excepted if reuse is envisaged, destructive processes which are typical of the irreversibility of the procedure. The existence of a hostile environment results in providing for the appropriate methods and specific equipment to give access to the equipment to be dismantled. Dismantling results in a significant quantity of active and inactive waste to be sent to disposal. Finally, site work specifically consists in modifying continuously a nuclear plant, due to dismantling work underway. Definition of decommissioning stages is given in Appendix

  4. Vinca nuclear decommissioning program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper a preliminary program for the nuclear decommissioning in The Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences is presented. Proposed Projects and Activities, planned to be done in the next 10 years within the frames of the Program, should improve nuclear and radiation safety and should solve the main problems that have arisen in the previous period. Project of removal of irradiated spent nuclear fuel from the RA reactor, as a first step in all possible decommissioning strategies and the main activity in the first two-three years of the Program realization, is considered in more details. (author)

  5. Decommissioning of IFEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IFEC nuclear fuel fabrication plant operated in Italy for more then thirty years and has now been successfully decommissioned. The rules and regulations relating to Quality Assurance established during the fabrication of Cirene reactor fuel have been adhered to during the decommissioning phase. The use of personnel with large experience in the nuclear field has resulted in vast majority of cares of material and apparatus to be reutilized in conventional activities without the need of calling on the assistance of external firms. The whole decontamination process was successfully completed on time and in particular the quantity of contaminated wastes was kept to eminimun

  6. Decommissioning with diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decommissioning of the Windscale Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor is discussed. The decommissioning is carried out to stage 3, when the reactor core, including the thick reinforced concrete bioshield, is demolished. In particular, the use of diamond sawing and stitch-drilling in the demolition is discussed. New techniques have had to be developed and experiments made as to the best tools to tackle the problems. The problem of the thickness of the reinforced concrete can be overcome by diamond wire-sawing. The other main problem is contamination and activation of the materials used to build the reactors. (U.K.)

  7. Temporary containment during decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In undertaking the safe decontamination and decommissioning of a redundant facility that was designed for isotope separation of alpha active materials, it was necessary to design, manufacture and operate activity control systems. Total containment of the decommissioning operation was achieved by providing transportable units, based generally upon standard ISO freight containers, for pressure suit change and decontamination facilities, active waste posting and ventilation systems for the radioactive areas. The design and construction of the transportable containment facilities together with ventilation and decontamination requirements are outlined. Also special reference will be made to the connections between existing buildings and the containment facilities. (author)

  8. Decommissioning Work Modeling System for Nuclear Facility Decommissioning Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the decommissioning activities of the KRR-1 and 2 (Korea Research Reactor 1 and 2) and UCP (Uranium Conversion Plant), all information and data, which generated from the decommissioning project, were record, input and managed at the DECOMMIS (DECOMMissioning Information management System). This system was developed for the inputting and management of the data and information of the man-power consumption, operation time of the dismantling equipment, the activities of the radiation control, dismantled waste management and Q/A activities. When a decommissioning is planed for a nuclear facility, an investigation into the characterization of the nuclear facility is first required. The results of such an investigation are used for calculating the quantities of dismantled waste volume and estimating the cost of the decommissioning project. That is why, the DEFACS (DEcommissioning FAcility Characterization DB System) was established for the management of the facility characterization data. The DEWOCS (DEcommissioning WOrk-unit productivity Calculation System) was developed for the calculation of the workability on the decommissioning activities. The work-unit productivities are calculated through this system using the data from the two systems, DECOMMIS and DEFACS. This result, the factors of the decommissioning work-unit productivities, will be useful for the other nuclear facility decommissioning planning and engineering. For this, to set up the items and plan for the decommissioning of the new objective facility, the DEMOS (DEcommissioning work Modeling System) was developed. This system is for the evaluation the cost, man-power consumption of workers and project staffs and technology application time. The factor of the work-unit productivities from the DEWOCS and governmental labor cost DB and equipment rental fee DB were used for the calculation the result of the DEMOS. And also, for the total system, DES (Decommissioning Engineering System), which is now developing for the decommissioning design and plan

  9. Decontamination and decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project scope of work included the complete decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of the Westinghouse ARD Fuel Laboratories at the Cheswick Site in the shortest possible time. This has been accomplished in the following four phases: (1) preparation of documents and necessary paperwork; packaging and shipping of all special nuclear materials in an acceptable form to a reprocessing agency; (2) decontamination of all facilities, glove boxes and equipment; loading of generated waste into bins, barrels and strong wooden boxes; (3) shipping of all bins, barrels and boxes containing waste to the designated burial site; removal of all utility services from the laboratories; and (4) final survey of remaining facilities and certification for nonrestricted use; preparation of final report. These four phases of work were conducted in accordance with applicable regulations for D and D of research facilities and applicable regulations for packaging, transportation, and burial and storage of radioactive materials. The final result is that the Advanced Fuel Laboratories now meet requirements of ANSI 13.12 and can be released for unrestricted use. The four principal documents utilized in the D and D of the Cheswick Site were: (1) Plan for Fully Decontaminating and Decommissioning, Revision 3; (2) Environmental Assessment for Decontaminating and Decommissioning the Westinghouse Advanced Reactors Division Plutonium Fuel Laboratories, Cheswick, Pa.; (3) WARD-386, Quality Assurance Program Description for Decontaminating and Decommissioning Activities; and (4) Health Physics, Fire Control, and Site Emergency Manual. These documents are provided as Attachments 1, 2, 3 and 4

  10. Particle-accelerator decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generic considerations involved in decommissioning particle accelerators are examined. There are presently several hundred accelerators operating in the United States that can produce material containing nonnegligible residual radioactivity. Residual radioactivity after final shutdown is generally short-lived induced activity and is localized in hot spots around the beam line. The decommissioning options addressed are mothballing, entombment, dismantlement with interim storage, and dismantlement with disposal. The recycle of components or entire accelerators following dismantlement is a definite possibility and has occurred in the past. Accelerator components can be recycled either immediately at accelerator shutdown or following a period of storage, depending on the nature of induced activation. Considerations of cost, radioactive waste, and radiological health are presented for four prototypic accelerators. Prototypes considered range from small accelerators having minimal amounts of radioactive mmaterial to a very large accelerator having massive components containing nonnegligible amounts of induced activation. Archival information on past decommissionings is presented, and recommendations concerning regulations and accelerator design that will aid in the decommissioning of an accelerator are given

  11. Nuclear component decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper addresses the considerations in the decommissioning and removal of steam generators from Millstone Unit 2 and Yankee Rowe Station, and reactor vessels from Shoreham Station and the Argonne Experimental Boiling Water Reactor. The topics of the paper include planning task, radiological characterization, removal in whole or segments, economic analysis, and cutting technologies

  12. Decommissioning, mothballing and revamping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guide, written to assist those concerned with the decommissioning of redundant facilities, is applicable to nuclear, chemical and power plants. Legal aspects and risk management is covered in the pre-project stage. Preparation for and execution of renovation, modification or mothballing of various plants is also covered. Dismantling operations and the necessary follow-up conclude the book. (UK)

  13. CNEA decommissioning program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: According to chapter I, Art. 2.e of the National Law Nr. 24804 ruling nuclear activities in Argentina, CNEA is responsible for determining the procedure for decommissioning Nuclear Power Plants and any other relevant radioactive facilities'. The implementation the Nuclear Law, states that CNEA is responsible for deactivation and decommissioning of all relevant radioactive facilities in the country, at end of life. Consequently CNEA have created the D and D Branch in order to perform this activity. It is important point out that none of the 28 nuclear installations in Argentina is undergoing decommissioning. Nevertheless planning stages prior decommissioning have been started with the criterion of prioritising those that will probably generate the greatest volume of radioactive waste. Decommissioning plan for research reactors and Atucha I Nuclear Power Plant, radiological characterization, decontamination and treatment of miscellaneous equipment and components of the Atucha I Nuclear Power Plant and old installations are being carry out. The main task is to get the technical capability of the steps which must be followed. In order to accomplish this objective the main activities are: a) Coordinates the training of personnel and organizes the experience and technical knowledge already existing in CNEA and members of the Argentinean nuclear sector; b) Coordinates a R and D program on D and D technologies; c) Establishes close links with the operators of nuclear facilities, whose participation both in planning and in actual D and D work is considered extremely important; d)Preliminary planning and radiological characterization of significant nuclear installations. This paper summarizes general aspects of the activities which are currently in progress. (author)

  14. Decommissioning database. Public presentation by intranet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to efficiently develop a decommissioning plan of a nuclear facility, it is useful to develop a database containing information on decommissioning technology, cost and risk analysis results, and decommissioning projects such as the JPDR decommissioning project by collecting the information systematically. A decommissioning database has been developed by collecting decommissioning related information and analyzing it. The database provides information on not only data of decommissioning technology and decommissioning projects but also laws and safety standards for decommissioning in each country and international organizations. The database is released in a Homepage on Web and is available for use via intranet with functions of retrieval, display and printing. (author)

  15. Decommissioning project management unit started its activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Decommissioning Project Management Unit team comprises western experts as well as experts from INPP Decommissioning Service who all work as a single team. The DPMU will develop the Final Decommissioning Plan and a more detailed Decommissioning Project, which will describe how the plant will be removed from service and safely decommissioned

  16. Decommissioning in western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report gives an overview of the situation in Western Europe. The original aim was to focus on organisational and human issues with regard to nuclear reactor decommissioning, but very few articles were found. This is in sharp contrast to the substantial literature on technical issues. While most of the reports on decommissioning have a technical focus, several provide information on regulatory issues, strategies and 'state of the art'. The importance of the human and organizational perspective is however discovered, when reading between the lines of the technical publications, and especially when project managers summarize lessons learned. The results are to a large extent based on studies of articles and reports, mainly collected from the INIS database. Decommissioning of nuclear facilities started already in the sixties, but then mainly research and experimental facilities were concerned. Until now about 70 reactors have been shutdown world-wide. Over the years there have been plenty of conferences for exchanging experiences mostly about technical matters. Waste Management is a big issue. In the 2000s there will be a wave of decommissioning when an increasing amount of reactors will reach the end of their calculated lifetime (40 years, a figure now being challenged by both life-extension and pre-shutdown projects). Several reactors have been shut-down for economical reasons. Shutdown and decommissioning is however not identical. A long period of time can sometimes pass before an owner decides to decommission and dismantle a facility. The conditions will also differ depending on the strategy, 'immediate dismantling' or 'safe enclosure'. If immediate dismantling is chosen the site can reach 'green-field status' in less than ten years. 'Safe enclosure', however, seems to be the most common strategy. There are several pathways, but in general a safe store is constructed, enabling the active parts to remain in safe and waterproof conditions for a longer period of time (sometimes hundred years or more), prior to final demolition. Among the reasons for deferring the dismantling are lack of waste repositories and decreasing dose-rates for the workers. Of Europe's 218 commercial reactors in operation, the majority, 151, are located i the Western part. The biggest producers are France, United Kingdom and Germany, with 58, 35 and 20 reactors respectively. Until now mostly research- and pilot reactors have been shut-down. There are yet few experiences from decommissioning of large-scale commercial reactors. The following commercial reactors are undergoing decommissioning. (There are also a great amount of nuclear facilities of other types being decommissioned.) The three gas-cooled twin reactor plants of Berkeley, Trawsfynydd and Hunterston in UK. In Germany Gundremmingen, Lingen, Kahl and Wuergassen are being decommissioned. All of them are located in the Western part of the country. The biggest project is however the dismantling of the gigantic Greifswald facility situated on the coast of the Baltic see in former Eastern Germany. The plant has eight Russian built reactors of VVER-type. Like the rest of the former GDR-plants Greifswald was shutdown after the reunification in 1990. The strategy chosen is immediate dismantling. France is decommissioning seven reactors (Chooz A1, Chinon A1, A2, A3, St Laurent A1, A2 and Bugey 1.) The oldest, Chinon A1, closed down in 1973 and the youngest, Bugey 1, in 1994. Italy closed down all NPPs (altogether four) in 1987 after a referendum. The first reactor of the Netherlands was shutdown in 1997 mainly for economical reasons. The development of a free European electricity market will make it less profitable to run certain facilities. Vandelos 1 in Spain is undergoing decommissioning after a fire in the turbines in 1989. IAEA, OECD/NEA and EU are co-operating in the field of decommissioning. Much work is spent on harmonizing rules and preparing international guidelines. The international agencies now consider decommissioning of nuclear facilities to be technically unproblematic. Decommissi

  17. Decommissioning a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process of decommissioning a facility such as a nuclear reactor or reprocessing plant presents many waste management options and concerns. Waste minimization is a primary consideration, along with protecting a personnel and the environment. Waste management is complicated in that both radioactive and chemical hazardous wastes must be dealt with. This paper presents the general decommissioning approach of a recent project at Los Alamos. Included are the following technical objectives: site characterization work that provided a thorough physical, chemical, and radiological assessment of the contamination at the site; demonstration of the safe and cost-effective dismantlement of a highly contaminated and activated nuclear-fuelded reactor; and techniques used in minimizing radioactive and hazardous waste. 12 figs

  18. Fort St. Vrain decommissioning project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCo), owner of the Fort St. Vrain nuclear generating station, achieved its final decommissioning goal on August 5, 1997 when the Nuclear Regulatory Commission terminated the Part 50 reactor license. PSCo pioneered and completed the world's first successful decommissioning of a commercial nuclear power plant after many years of operation. In August 1989, PSCo decided to permanently shutdown the reactor and proceed with its decommissioning. The decision to proceed with early dismantlement as the appropriate decommissioning method proved wise for all stake holders - present and future - by mitigating potential environmental impacts and reducing financial risks to company shareholders, customers, employees, neighboring communities and regulators. We believe that PSCo's decommissioning process set an exemplary standard for the world's nuclear industry and provided leadership, innovation, advancement and distinguished contributions to other decommissioning efforts throughout the world. (author)

  19. Decommissioning of nuclear power facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the first manual in Ukraine giving the complete review of the decommissioning process of the nuclear power facilities including the issues of the planning, design documentation development, advanced technology description. On the base of the international and domestic experience, the issues on the radwaste management, the decontamination methods, the equipment dismantling, the remote technology application, and also the costs estimate at decommissioning are considered. The special attention to the personnel safety provision, population and environment at decommissioning process is paid

  20. Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project start of physical decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the current status of the physical decommissioning work, which started September 1985. The preparations required to start a major decommissioning work effort in a safe and cost effective manner are discussed including the development of integrated detailed schedules, manpower and cost estimates, and implementation of a cost/schedule control system. The detailed plan required to ensure that people, property, and procedures are ready in sufficient time to support the start of physical decommissioning is also discussed. The total estimated cost of the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project should be $98.3 M, with the Project scheduled for completion in April 1990. At the decommissioning of the first commercial-sale nuclear power plant, the Shippingport Project is expected to set the standard for safe, cost-effective demolition of nuclear plants

  1. Workshop on decommissioning; Seminarium om avveckling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broden, K. (ed.)

    2005-12-15

    A Nordic workshop on decommissioning of nuclear facilities was held at Risoe in Denmark September 13-15, 2005. The workshop was arranged by NKS in cooperation with the company Danish Decommissioning, DD, responsible for decommissioning of nuclear facilities at Risoe. Oral presentations were made within the following areas: International and national recommendations and requirements concerning decommissioning of nuclear facilities Authority experiences of decommissioning cases Decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Denmark Decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Sweden Plans for decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Norway Plans for decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Finland Decommissioning of nuclear facilities in German and the UK Decommissioning of nuclear facilities in the former Soviet Union Results from research and development A list with proposals for future work within NKS has been prepared based on results from group-work and discussions. The list contains strategic, economical and political issues, technical issues and issues regarding competence and communication. (au)

  2. ORNL decontamination and decommissioning program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A program has been initiated at ORNL to decontaminate and decommission surplus or abandoned nuclear facilities. Program planning and technical studies have been performed by UCC-ND Engineering. A feasibility study for decommissioning the Metal Recovery Facility, a fuel reprocessing pilot plant, has been completed

  3. RMI decommissioning project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The RMI Titanium Company (RMI) Extrusion Plant, owned and operated by RMI is contaminated with both radiological and hazardous materials resulting from previous operations for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The primary function of RMI, since 1962, has been the extrusion and closed-die forging of metallic depleted, natural, and slightly enriched uranium (U) used in the production of nuclear fuel elements for defense production reactors, extrusion operations for other government agencies, and the private sector. Extrusion of uranium ended in September 1988 and other extrusion operations ceased n October 1990. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has identified the RMI Plant as one of 46 existing inactive nuclear material processing facilities required to implement accelerated site clean-up pursuant to its Site Decommissioning Management Plan (SDMP). The US Environmental Protect Agency (USEPA) has issued RMI a Resource Conservation existing Corrective Action Management Unit (CAMU). DOE's Office of Environmental Restoration and removing all radiological and hazardous contaminants to levels which permit the facility and adjacent areas to be released for unrestricted use. This action will allow termination of RMI licenses and closure of the CAMU located on and adjacent to RMI's property. This paper will provide an overview of the project and preparations for conducting the physical decommissioning activities including: (1) Radiological and hazardous material characterization of the site; (2) Waste minimization and volume reduction alternatives considered; (3) Waste disposal alternatives considered; (4) NEPA compliance requirements; (5) EPA compliance requirements [Correctives Measures Study]; (6) NRC compliance requirements [Decommissioning Plan]. The paper will also discuss the project organization and the regulatory interfaces required for the project

  4. Financing nuclear power plant decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Much is at stake in developing a financial strategy for decommissioning nuclear power plants. Since decommissioning experience is limited to relatively small reactors, will the costs associated with larger reactors be significantly higher. Certainly the decommissioning issue intersects with other critical issues that will help to determine the future of commercial nuclear power in the US. The author examines briefly the basic concepts and terms related to decommissioning expenses, namely: (1) segregated fund; (2) non-segregated fund; (3) external method; and (4) internal method. He concludes that state regulatory commissions have turned increasingly to the external funding method because of increasing costs and related problems associated with nuclear power, changing conditions and uncertainties concerned with utility restructuring, and recent changes in federal tax laws related to decommissioning. Further, this trend is likely to continue if financial assurance remains a primary concern of regulators to protect this public interest

  5. Decommissioning Funding: Ethics, Implementation, Uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This status report on decommissioning funding: ethics, implementation, uncertainties is based on a review of recent literature and materials presented at NEA meetings in 2003 and 2004, and particularly at a topical session organised in November 2004 on funding issues associated with the decommissioning of nuclear power facilities. The report also draws on the experience of the NEA Working Party on Decommissioning and Dismantling (WPDD). This report offers, in a concise form, an overview of relevant considerations on decommissioning funding mechanisms with regard to ethics, implementation and uncertainties. Underlying ethical principles found in international agreements are identified, and factors influencing the accumulation and management of funds for decommissioning nuclear facilities are discussed together with the main sources of uncertainties of funding systems

  6. Decommissioning of Radiotherapy Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotherapy units containing high activity sealed radioactive sources of 60Co or 137Cs are mainly use for medical, research or calibration applications. After several half-lives of decay, the radionuclide source has to be changed or the unit is decommissioned if no longer required. Before starting a decommissioning project it is very important to look for documents relating to any sources held or installed in equipment. In general this should be no problem because the recommended working life of such sealed radioactive sources is limited to 10 or a maximum of 15 years. These time periods are short in comparison with other facilities like research laboratories or small reactors. These documents (source certificates) will be very helpful to plan the decommissioning because they say everything about the original activity of the source at a reference date, the type of the source and the manufacturer. The next step may be to contact the machine supplier or the source manufacturer, but be aware that neither may still be in existence or may have changed their type of business. In such cases, it is recommended to contact national or international sealed source manufacturers or suppliers for help. Sometimes it is also helpful to contact colleagues in other hospitals or research centres to ask for information about specialists in this topic. In general it is not useful, and even very dangerous, to try to decommission such a unit without expert help It is essential to have specialist tools and shielded containers to recover the source out of the unit. It is strongly recommended to invite the source removal specialist for a site visit to review the situation before starting any decommissioning process. A further problem can occur, if the source must be transported to a national storage centre or even an international storage facility, as the source must be packaged to meet international transport requirements. The end state of such a project should be an empty room where the source is brought out safely within the type-tested container, typically type B. Decontamination of the room will be necessary if a sealed source has leaked, but this is very rare. If a source is leaking, the contamination can be very high and present a high risk to employees and workers due to high dose rates. Some therapy units are additionally shielded with depleted uranium or the source holder is fitted with collimators which are made of depleted uranium. The uranium shielding can cause some minor contamination of the shielded source housing or on the floor. A check should be made for any minor contamination using a surface contamination monitor or wipe tests. The risks of contamination from these sources are small, but can result in the prevention of the free release of the room. A decommissioning plan should be drafted following consultation with the regulator or the decommissioning specialist may undertake this task on behalf of the facility. Normally the specialist contractor will provide a health and safety plan for approval by the regulator and the customer. The decommissioning task of source removal and transport will in general take about 2 to 3 days, but the planning and preparatory work can take several weeks. The amount of preparatory work involved depends mainly of the transport regulations for the source in the type-tested containers and the preparatory work for infrastructures that will be required for decommissioning. Identification of infrastructure and resources. Before dismantling a teletherapy unit, a check should be made that the electrical supply remains connected and that the lighting is both functional and adequate. This will help to accelerate the working process on the unit. Before attempting to move the teletherapy source of unit outside of the building, ensure that the route to be used through the facility is passable (dimensions of doors, floors, etc.) and that the engineering structure of the pathway is sufficient to support the weight of the source or unit (e.g. maximum load limit of floors or lifts). The units and shielding co

  7. Decommissioning policy in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Sweden the nuclear power program is, according to a parliamentary decision, limited to twelve power producing reactors. The last reactor shall be taken out of service no later than the year 2010. As a result of the Chernobyl accident the program for taking the reactors out of service will be accelerated. This report is the first approach by the Swedish authorities to formulate a decommissioning policy. It is not the final policy document but it discusses the principal questions from the special Swedish viewpoint. (orig.)

  8. Decommissioning Windscale piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced remote technology is enabling the decommissioning of the two Windscale plutonium producing piles to be carried out. The piles were sealed in 1957 after one was destroyed by fire. An outline is given of work already completed. This includes: a detailed visual, radiological and sonar survey of the water ducts through which the irradiated fuel was transferred to the storage pond; sludge removal from the water ducts; and the clearance of fuel and debris from the air inlet ducts. Standard remotely operated vehicles were modified to carry out the work. (UK)

  9. Investigations on the decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study discusses and evaluates safety and licensing related aspects associated with the decommissioning of nuclear power plants. Important decommissioning projects and experiences with relevance to decommissioning are analyzed. Recent developments in the field of decommissioning techniques with the potential of reducing the occupational dose to decommissioning workers are described and their range of application is discussed. The radiological consequences of the recycling of scrap metal arising during decommissioning are assessed. The results may be used to evaluate present licensing practices and may be useful for future licensing procedures. Finally the environmental impact of radionuclide release via air and water pathways associated with decommissioning activities is estimated. (orig.)

  10. Evaluation of Nuclear Facility Decommissioning Projects program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the Evaluation of Nuclear Facility Decommissioning Projects (ENFDP) program is to provide the NRC licensing staff with data which will allow an assessment of radiation exposure during decommissioning and the implementation of ALARA techniques. The data will also provide information to determine the funding level necessary to ensure timely and safe decommissioning operations. Actual decommissioning costs, methods and radiation exposures are compared with those estimated by the Battelle-PNL and ORNL NUREGs on decommissioning. Exposure reduction techniques applied to decommissioning activities to meet ALARA objectives are described. The lessons learned concerning various decommissioning methods are evaluated

  11. Planning for decommissioning of Hifar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) has operated the 10MW HIFAR research reactor since 1958. In addition to its role in research, the reactor provides radioisotopes for medical and industrial use and is a major supplier of NTD silicon for the semi-conductor industry. It is anticipated that HIFAR will finally shut down operations in December 2006. Although ANSTO has successfully decommissioned MOATA and undertaken other smaller decommissioning projects the proposed HIFAR decommissioning project will be the largest ever undertaken by ANSTO. ANSTO faces a number of challenges in HIFAR's final year of operation. These include: the establishment of a modern decommissioning strategy in the absence of a long-term nuclear waste repository management facility or waste acceptance criteria for the material generated by the decommissioning; the impact of the impeding closure of the facility on staff morale and retention of key staff; and to meet the our customer's needs up to the final closure. These challenges are compounded by competition for skilled resources required to commission the new research reactor (OPAL) and the need to continue to supply radioisotopes. Important 'lessons in progress' that will be discussed in this paper include staffing the decommissioning team, maintenance of a strong safety culture during final stages of operation, working towards regulatory approval for decommissioning and strategies for knowledge retention. (author)

  12. Calculating Program for Decommissioning Work Productivity based on Decommissioning Activity Experience Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KAERI is performing research to calculate a coefficient for decommissioning work unit productivity to calculate the estimated time decommissioning work and estimated cost based on decommissioning activity experience data for KRR-2. KAERI used to calculate the decommissioning cost and manage decommissioning activity experience data through systems such as the decommissioning information management system (DECOMMIS), Decommissioning Facility Characterization DB System (DEFACS), decommissioning work-unit productivity calculation system (DEWOCS). In particular, KAERI used to based data for calculating the decommissioning cost with the form of a code work breakdown structure (WBS) based on decommissioning activity experience data for KRR-2.. Defined WBS code used to each system for calculate decommissioning cost. In this paper, we developed a program that can calculate the decommissioning cost using the decommissioning experience of KRR-2, UCP, and other countries through the mapping of a similar target facility between NPP and KRR-2. This paper is organized as follows. Chapter 2 discusses the decommissioning work productivity calculation method, and the mapping method of the decommissioning target facility will be described in the calculating program for decommissioning work productivity. At KAERI, research on various decommissioning methodologies of domestic NPPs will be conducted in the near future. In particular, It is difficult to determine the cost of decommissioning because such as NPP facility have the number of variables, such as the material of the target facility decommissioning, size, radiographic conditions exist

  13. Calculating Program for Decommissioning Work Productivity based on Decommissioning Activity Experience Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Chan-Ho; Park, Seung-Kook; Park, Hee-Seong; Moon, Jei-kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    KAERI is performing research to calculate a coefficient for decommissioning work unit productivity to calculate the estimated time decommissioning work and estimated cost based on decommissioning activity experience data for KRR-2. KAERI used to calculate the decommissioning cost and manage decommissioning activity experience data through systems such as the decommissioning information management system (DECOMMIS), Decommissioning Facility Characterization DB System (DEFACS), decommissioning work-unit productivity calculation system (DEWOCS). In particular, KAERI used to based data for calculating the decommissioning cost with the form of a code work breakdown structure (WBS) based on decommissioning activity experience data for KRR-2.. Defined WBS code used to each system for calculate decommissioning cost. In this paper, we developed a program that can calculate the decommissioning cost using the decommissioning experience of KRR-2, UCP, and other countries through the mapping of a similar target facility between NPP and KRR-2. This paper is organized as follows. Chapter 2 discusses the decommissioning work productivity calculation method, and the mapping method of the decommissioning target facility will be described in the calculating program for decommissioning work productivity. At KAERI, research on various decommissioning methodologies of domestic NPPs will be conducted in the near future. In particular, It is difficult to determine the cost of decommissioning because such as NPP facility have the number of variables, such as the material of the target facility decommissioning, size, radiographic conditions exist.

  14. Genetic characterization of Aberdeen Angus cattle using molecular markers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciana Pimentel de Mello Klocker, Vasconcellos; Daniella, Tambasco-Talhari; Andréa Pozzi, Pereira; Luiz Lehmann, Coutinho; Luciana Correia de Almeida, Regitano.

    Full Text Available Aberdeen Angus beef cattle from the Brazilian herd were studied genetically using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the kappa-casein - HinfI (CSN3 - HinfI), beta-lactoglobulin - HaeIII (LGB - HaeIII) and growth hormone AluI (GH- AluI) genes, as well as four microsatellites (TEXAN15, [...] CSFM50, BM1224 and BM7160). The RFLP genotypes were determined using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by digestion with restriction endonucleases and electrophoresis in agarose gels. With the exception of the microsatellite BM7160, which was analyzed in an automatic sequencer, the PCR products were genotyped by silver staining. The allele and genotype frequencies, heterozygosities and gene diversity were estimated. The values for these parameters of variability were comparable to other cattle breeds. The genetic relationship of the Aberdeen Angus to other breeds (Caracu, Canchim, Charolais, Guzerath, Gyr, Nelore, Santa Gertrudis and Simmental) was investigated using Nei's genetic distance. Cluster analysis placed the Aberdeen Angus in an isolated group in the Bos taurus breeds branch. This fact is in agreement with the geographic origin of this breed.

  15. Genetic characterization of Aberdeen Angus cattle using molecular markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Pimentel de Mello Klocker Vasconcellos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Aberdeen Angus beef cattle from the Brazilian herd were studied genetically using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP of the kappa-casein - HinfI (CSN3 - HinfI, beta-lactoglobulin - HaeIII (LGB - HaeIII and growth hormone AluI (GH- AluI genes, as well as four microsatellites (TEXAN15, CSFM50, BM1224 and BM7160. The RFLP genotypes were determined using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR followed by digestion with restriction endonucleases and electrophoresis in agarose gels. With the exception of the microsatellite BM7160, which was analyzed in an automatic sequencer, the PCR products were genotyped by silver staining. The allele and genotype frequencies, heterozygosities and gene diversity were estimated. The values for these parameters of variability were comparable to other cattle breeds. The genetic relationship of the Aberdeen Angus to other breeds (Caracu, Canchim, Charolais, Guzerath, Gyr, Nelore, Santa Gertrudis and Simmental was investigated using Nei's genetic distance. Cluster analysis placed the Aberdeen Angus in an isolated group in the Bos taurus breeds branch. This fact is in agreement with the geographic origin of this breed.

  16. Sellafield decommissioning. A practical success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A strategic overview of the decommissioning programme being carried out at BNFL's Sellafield site in Cumbria is presented. The programme involves a wide variety of nuclear facilities including several types of plutonium plants, a complete spent fuel reprocessing plant, a spent fuel storage pond and de-canning facility, the Windscale Pile Reactor 'chimneys' and a range of other plants. Current status is shown. Programme strategy development is discussed and the lessons learned through practical experience are highlighted. Concurrent with the decommissioning programme there is an extensive research and development programme and its impact on the practical decommissioning work is also referenced. (authors)

  17. Decontamination & decommissioning focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    In January 1994, the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM) formally introduced its new approach to managing DOE`s environmental research and technology development activities. The goal of the new approach is to conduct research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE, utilizing the best talent in the Department and in the national science community. To facilitate this solutions-oriented approach, the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50, formerly the Office of Technology Development) formed five Focus AReas to stimulate the required basic research, development, and demonstration efforts to seek new, innovative cleanup methods. In February 1995, EM-50 selected the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to lead implementation of one of these Focus Areas: the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D & D) Focus Area.

  18. Decommissioning Cost Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The future costs for dismantling, decommissioning and handling of associated radioactive waste of nuclear installations represents substantial liabilities. It is the generations that benefits from the use of nuclear installations that shall carry the financial burden. Nuclear waste programmes have occasionally encountered set-backs related to the trust from society. This has resulted in delayed, redirected or halted activities, which has the common denominator of costs increases. In modern democratic countries, information sharing, knowledge transfer and open communication about costs for the management of radioactive waste are prerequisites for the task to develop modern methods for public participation and thus to develop well-founded and justified confidence for further development of nuclear energy. Nuclear and radiation safety Authorities have a clear role to provide unbiased information on any health, safety, financial and environmental related issues. This task requires a good understanding of the values and opinion of the public, and especially those of the younger generation

  19. Power Plant decommissioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mažeika Jonas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available On a first attempt, the determination of 14C and 36Cl activity concentrations in basic operational waste (spent ion-exchange resins and perlite mixture, in decommissioning waste (construction concrete, sand, stainless steel and serpentinite and irradiated graphite from the Ignalina NPP has been performed. The samples for measurement of the specific activity of 14C and 36Cl were obtained from the selected places, where the highest values of the dose rate and the activity concentrations of gamma emitters were found. The performed study of the total 14C and 36Cl activity concentrations was based on estimated chemical forms of 14C (inorganic and organic compounds and 36Cl as Cl- ion. The tested methods used in this study were found to be suitable for estimation of activity concentrations of measured radionuclides.

  20. Trojan Decommissioning Project Cost Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Trojan nuclear plant (Trojan) was an 1160-MW(electric) four-loop pressurized water reactor located in Rainier, Oregon. The plant was permanently shut down in 1993 after ?17 yr of commercial operation. The early plant closure was an economic decision. The key factors in the closure analysis were escalation of inspection and repair costs associated with steam generator tube cracking and the projected availability of inexpensive replacement power in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Since the plant closure, Portland General Electric (PGE) has been actively engaged in decommissioning. The Trojan Decommissioning Project currently has a forecast at completion of $429.7 million (all costs are in millions of 1997 dollars, unless otherwise noted). The cost performance of the Trojan Decommissioning Project to date is addressed, as well as the tools that are in place to provide cost control through completion of decommissioning

  1. Classification of reactor decommissioning wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear wastes expected from the conceptual decommissioning of a reference PWR and a reference BWR have been reviewed in terms of the waste classification requirements of 10 CFR 61 to determine the suitability of these wastes for disposal by shallowland burial. Most of the nuclear waste from LWR decommissioning (approximately 80% to 98% of the total waste volume, depending on reactor type and decommissioning alternative) is considered to have radionuclide concentrations that permit its classification as Class A waste. A relatively small amount of the waste (approximately 1% to 15% of the total waste volume, depending on reactor type and decommissioning alternative) is considered to be Class B waste. Some neutron-activated stainless-steel reactor vessel internals with high concentrations of 59Ni, 63Ni, and 94Nb are considered to be either Class C waste or waste that exceeds Class C limits

  2. Money Related Decommissioning and Funding Decision Making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Money makes the world go round', as the song says. It definitely influences decommissioning decision-making and financial assurance for future decommissioning. This paper will address two money-related decommissioning topics. The first is the evaluation of whether to continue or to halt decommissioning activities at Fermi 1. The second is maintaining adequacy of financial assurance for future decommissioning of operating plants. Decommissioning costs considerable money and costs are often higher than originally estimated. If costs increase significantly and decommissioning is not well funded, decommissioning activities may be deferred. Several decommissioning projects have been deferred when decision-makers determined future spending is preferable than current spending, or when costs have risen significantly. Decommissioning activity timing is being reevaluated for the Fermi 1 project. Assumptions for waste cost-escalation significantly impact the decision being made this year on the Fermi 1 decommissioning project. They also have a major impact on the estimated costs for decommissioning currently operating plants. Adequately funding full decommissioning during plant operation will ensure that the users who receive the benefit pay the full price of the nuclear-generated electricity. Funding throughout operation also will better ensure that money is available following shutdown to allow decommissioning to be conducted without need for additional funds

  3. Reactor decommissioning method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A provisional water reservoir is disposed in nuclear reactor buildings and a water reservoir is also disposed to the outside of the buildings. The reactor main body cut out from the structures of the buildings is floated on a liquid in each of the water reservoirs and moved utilizing the buoyancy for final processing. Sea water or like other liquid is injected to the provisional water reservoir in the building and the lower foundation portions of the reactor main body is cut in water while being suspended by a jack. Then, the reactor main body is released from the jack and put down to a carrier on rails and water is injected to an intermediate water reservoir to the same level as that in the provisional water reservoir. Then, a gateway is pulled up and the reactor main body is displaced to the inside of the intermediate water reservoir. In the same manner, the main body is displaced to the final processing reservoir at the outside of the buildings and set to the floor. Then, it is buried underground for permanent treatment. This enables decommissioning of large nuclear reactors which is impossible at present. (T.M.)

  4. Decommissioning the Windscale AGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advanced gas cooled reactor at Windscale (WAGR) is being dismantled, that is, all fuel and coolant will be discharged and the plant dismantled completely with waste disposed of to a permanent repository. It is the first power-producing reactor to be dismantled in the UK. From a study of the main categories of materials to be disposed of it can be seen that the task of reactor decommissioning can be considered as the segregation of waste materials into appropriate categories and their disposal according to the regulations governing those categories. In the radioactive categories (only 10% of the total) only low and intermediate level wastes are involved. The high level waste was from the spent fuel which has already been removed. The remote controlled cutting, handling and packaging equipment is described. All equipment to be used has first to be tested after development. One building has been allocated as the waste packaging building and modified suitably. Dismantling is seen as a feasible process. (UK)

  5. National provisions for decommissioning and managing radioactive waste from decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large quantities of radioactive waste resulting from decommissioning activities of nuclear research reactors and nuclear power plant units will be generated in Romania in the near and distant future. The actual policy and strategy in the field of the management of radioactive waste in Romania are based on the stipulations of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management, ratified in Romania by the Law No. 105/1999. The paper gives an introduction of the current policy and strategy applied in Romania for nuclear decommissioning process and management of radioactive waste. The paper points out some key aspects of the national provisions concerning the nuclear decommissioning activities and management of the resulting radioactive waste: the legal framework, the responsibilities of the national authorities and of the licence holders, the main radioactive waste generators, the financing and budgeting mechanisms, etc. (author)

  6. Genetic characterization of Aberdeen Angus cattle using molecular markers

    OpenAIRE

    Vasconcellos Luciana Pimentel de Mello Klocker; Tambasco-Talhari Daniella; Pereira Andréa Pozzi; Coutinho Luiz Lehmann; Regitano Luciana Correia de Almeida

    2003-01-01

    Aberdeen Angus beef cattle from the Brazilian herd were studied genetically using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the kappa-casein - HinfI (CSN3 - HinfI), beta-lactoglobulin - HaeIII (LGB - HaeIII) and growth hormone AluI (GH- AluI) genes, as well as four microsatellites (TEXAN15, CSFM50, BM1224 and BM7160). The RFLP genotypes were determined using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by digestion with restriction endonucleases and electrophoresis in agarose gels. W...

  7. Decommissioning planning of Swedish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technologies required for the decommissioning work are for the most part readily proven. Taken into account that there will be many more years before the studied reactor units will undergo decommissioning, the techniques could even be called conventional at that time. This will help bring the decommissioning projects to a successful closure. A national waste fund is already established in Sweden to finance amongst others all dismantling and decommissioning work. This will assure that funding for the decommissioning projects is at hand when needed. All necessary plant data are readily available and this will, combined with a reliable management system, expedite the decommissioning projects considerably. Final repositories for both long- and short-lived LILW respectively is planned and will be constructed and dimensioned to receive the decommissioning waste from the Swedish NPP:s. Since the strategy is set and well thought-through, this will help facilitate a smooth disposal of the radioactive decommissioning waste. (orig.)

  8. The curious accountancy of decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Financial provision for the decommissioning and waste management of the United Kingdom Magnox and AGR reactor is discussed. In the last set of accounts prior to privatisation a decommissioning provision of Pound 8.34 bn was indicated whereas previous figures had only shown Pound 2.88. It is suggested that the increase was only achieved on paper, without real financial provision. Estimates of decommissioning costs for the Magnox stations have increased greatly. Cost estimates for AGR decommissioning have still to be released but it is expected that the post-privatisation owners of the nuclear power industry, Nuclear Electric, will have to find Pound 6-7 bn to dismantle its own reactors. Much of this it hopes to put off for over 100 years. The South of Scotland Electicity Board has made much more realistic provision for its own Magnox and two AGR stations. Reprocessing costs for AGR reactor fuel is uncertain and high reprocessing and decommissioning costs will mean increases in the price of nuclear electricity. (UK)

  9. Phenix Decommissioning Project - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first heading of your manuscript must be 'Introduction'. Phenix is the only remaining French fast breeder reactor after the shutdown of Superphenix (1999) and Rapsodie (1983). Phenix is located inside the Marcoule nuclear site along the Rhone river near Bagnols-sur-Ceze in southeastern France. Phenix is one of the facilities belonging the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) on the Marcoule site. It is a fast breeder reactor (FBR) developed at the end of the 1960's. that has been in operation since 1973 and was connected to the power grid in 1974. It is a second generation prototype developed while the first generation FBR, Rapsodie, was still in operation. Phenix is a 250 electrical MW power plant. During the first 20 years of operation, its main aim was to demonstrate the viability of sodium-cooled FBRs. Since the 1991 radioactive waste management act, Phenix has become an irradiation tool for the actinide transmutation program. To extend its operating life for 6 additional cycles, it was necessary to refurbish the plant; this involved major work performed from 1999 to 2003 at a total cost of about 250 M??. Today, with a realistic expectation, the final shutdown is planned for the beginning of 2009. The main objective of the Phenix dismantling project is to eliminate all the process equipment and clean all the building to remove all the radioactive zones. To reach this objective, three main hazards must be eliminated: Fuel (criticality hazard), Sodium, Radioactive equipment. The complexity of decommissioning a facility such as Phenix is increased by: - the lack of storage facility for high radioactive material, - the decision to treat all the radioactive sodium and sodium waste inside the plant, - the very high irradiation of the core structures due to the presence of cobalt alloys. On the other hand, Phenix plant is still under operating with a qualified staff and the radioactivity coming from structural activation is well known. After the final shutdown, the first operations will be conducted by the same staff under the same safety report. Another interesting fact is that the decommissioning funds project exist and are available. The CEA decided to begin the dismantling phase without waiting because after a period of decay it is not really cheaper or easier to work. This approach needs interim storage facilities not long after the final shutdown. For the low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste there are national storage centers but for the high-level wastes, each operator must manage its waste until a suitable disposal site is available. At Marcoule a new storage facility is now being designed and scheduled to begin operating after 2013-2014. After removal of the fuel and core elements, the primary sodium will be drained and eliminated by a carbonation process. To ensure biological shielding, the reference scenario calls for filling the primary vessel with water. The most radioactive structures (dia-grid and core support) will be cut up with remote tools, after which the rest of the structure will be cut up manually. Phenix contains about 1450 metric tons of sodium. The CEA initially planned to build ATENA, a new facility for all radioactive sodium waste from R and D and FBR facilities. For various reasons, but mainly to save money, the CEA decided to treat all radioactive sodium and sodium waste in the framework of the Phenix dismantling project. There are no real difficulties in the dismantling schedule because of the advanced state of development of the processes selected for the ATENA project. Because of the knowledge already obtained, the issues concern project management, waste management and human resources reduction more than technical challenge

  10. Platform decommissioning. Environmental challenges and practical solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The publication gives a short introduction of platform decommissioning, followed by an overview of what to be decommissioned and removed. This will be followed by some of the vital technologies and methods within decommissioning, abandonment of wells, removal and handling of remains that is reuse and scrapping. A final presentation with a view of current research and developments is given. 3 figs

  11. Development of decommissioning system engineering technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the decommissioning planning stage, it is important to select the optimized decommissioning process considering the cost and safety. Especially the selection of the optimized decommissioning process is necessary because it affects to improve worker's safety and decommissioning work efficiency. The decommissioning process evaluation technology can provide the optimized decommissioning process as constructing various decommissioning scenarios and it can help to prevent the potential accidents as delivering the exact work procedures to workers and to help workers to perform decommissioning work skillfully. It's necessary to measure the radioactive contamination in the highly contaminated facilities such as hot-cells or glove-boxes to be decommissioned for decommissioning planning. These facilities are very high radiation level, so it is difficult to approach. In this case the detector system is preferable to separate the sensor and electronics, which have to locate in the facility outside to avoid the electric noise and worker's radiation exposure. In this project, we developed the remote detection system for radiation measurement and signal transmission in the high radiation area. In order to minimize worker's exposure when decommissioning highly activated nuclear facilities, it is necessary to develop the remote handling tool to perform the dismantling work remotely. Especially, since cutting, measuring, and decontamination works should be performed remotely in the highly activated area, the remote handling tool for conducting these works should be developed. Therefore, the multi-purpose dismantling machine that can measuring dose, facility cutting, and remote handling for maintenance and decommissioning of highly activated facility should be needed

  12. 75 FR 80697 - Nuclear Decommissioning Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... to deductions for contributions to trusts maintained for decommissioning nuclear power plants. These...) Substantial completion of decommissioning defined. Sec. 1.468A-6 Disposition of an interest in a nuclear power... portion of the nuclear power plant; and (B) No other person establishes a nuclear decommissioning...

  13. The Italian decommissioning industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Italy's step out from nuclear activities in 1987 deeply affected an industry that, in the previous years, had managed to grow up in quality and technology levels to meet the nuclear standards. Only a few companies were able to partially retain their skills through activities abroad. The decommissioning program represents a new challenge for the Italian industry at large and will require a consistent effort to properly qualify the potential suppliers. On the other side, a program with such implications in terms of investments and so depending from social aspects cannot be effectively implemented without a significant involvement of the local industry. Essential conditions for the success are a reliable program, as well as a careful supply management scheme, which must facilitate aggregation of skills spread among different subjects. 'Human Resources: Maintaining a Nuclear Culture in Italy' Bruno Panella Politecnico di Torino, Giuseppe Forasassi, Universita di Pisa, Inter-University Consortium for the Nuclear Technological Research (CIRTEN). After a brief history of the nuclear engineering education in Italy within the international and national nuclear energy scenario, the present situation, with reference to the Italian universities, is shown. In order to maintain a nuclear culture in Italy the solution, exploited with different peculiarities in each University, is to carry out high quality research activities in reciprocal collaboration (mostly within the CIRTEN inter university Consortium) as well as with the Industry and research Organisations and to collaborate actively in establishing a stable network and a synergy of teaching activities in Europe in the field of Nuclear Engineering Education. The aim is to maintain at a high level and as updated as possible the Italian educational offer in nuclear engineering and also to attract the best students for the enrolment. (author)

  14. Tradução e adaptação cultural do Questionário Aberdeen para Veias Varicosas Translation and cultural adaptation of Aberdeen Varicose Veins Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia de Jesus Leal

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Atualmente há um crescente interesse por instrumentos de avaliação em saúde produzidos e validados em todo o mundo. Apesar disso, ainda não temos no Brasil instrumentos que avaliem o impacto da doença venosa crônica na vida de seu portador. Para utilização dessas medidas torna-se necessária a realização da tradução e da adaptação cultural ao idioma em questão. OBJETIVO: Traduzir e adaptar culturalmente para a população brasileira o Aberdeen Varicose Veins Questionnaire (AVVQ- Brasil. MÉTODOS: O processo consistiu de duas traduções e duas retrotraduções realizadas por tradutores independentes, da avaliação das versões seguida da elaboração de versão consensual e de pré-teste comentado. RESULTADOS: Os pacientes do pré-teste eram do sexo feminino, com média de idade de 49,9 anos, média de tempo de resposta 7,73 minutos, que variou entre 4,55 minutos (tempo mínimo a 10,13 minutos (tempo máximo. Escolaridade: 20% analfabetismo funcional, 1º grau completo e 2º grau completo; 30% 1º grau incompleto; e 10% 3º grau completo. Gravidade clínica 40% C3 e C6S, 10% C2 e C5, havendo cinco termos incompreendidos na aplicação. CONCLUSÕES: A versão na língua portuguesa do Aberdeen Varicose Veins Questionnaire está traduzida e adaptada para uso na população brasileira, podendo ser utilizada após posterior análise de suas propriedades clinimétricas.BACKGROUND: Currently there is a growing interest in health assessment tools produced and validated throughout the world. Nevertheless, it is still inadequate the number of instruments that assess the impact of chronic venous disease in the life of its bearer. To use these measures it is necessary to accomplish the translation and cultural adaptation to the language in question. OBJECTIVE: Translate to Portuguese and culturally adapted for the Brazilian population the Aberdeen Varicose Veins Questionnaire (AVVQ-Brazil. METHODS: The process consisted of two translations and two back-translations performed by freelance translators, then the evaluation versions of the development of consensual version and commented pretest. RESULTS: The patients in the pre-test were female, mean age 49.9 years, average response time of 7.73 minutes, which ranged from 4.55 minutes (minimum to 10.13 minutes (maximum time. Education: 20% functional illiteracy and first and second complete degrees; 30% first incomplete degree, and 10% third complete degree. Clinical severity: 40% C3 and C6s, 10% C2 and C5, with five misunderstood terms in the application. CONCLUSION: The Portuguese version of the Aberdeen Varicose Veins Questionnaire has been translated and adapted for use in the Brazilian population, and can be used after further analysis of their clinimetric properties, which is underway.

  15. Decommissioning strategy for Brennilis France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennilis is a heavy water moderated - gas cooled reactor with a capacity of 70 MWe. It is located in Brittany and has been jointly operated from 1967 to 1985 by EDF and CEA as an industrial prototype. The reactor was definitely shutdown in 1985. At that time, the decommissioning strategy was to reach the level 2 defined by IAEA for the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, i.e. partial and conditional release of the installation, about ten years after final shutdown and then leave the reactor building in safe store condition for about 30 to 40 years to benefit from radioactive decay. (author)

  16. Decommissioning: a problem or a challenge?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mele Irena

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available With the ageing of nuclear facilities or the reduced interest in their further operation, a new set of problems, related to the decommissioning of these facilities, has come into forefront. In many cases it turns out that the preparations for decommissioning have come too late, and that financial resources for covering decommissioning activities have not been provided. To avoid such problems, future liailities should be thoroughly estimated in drawing up the decommissioning and waste management programme for each nuclear facility in time, and financial provisions for implementing such programme should be provided. In this paper a presentation of current decommissioning experience in Slovenia is given. The main problems and difficulties in decommissioning of the Žirovski Vrh Uranium Mine are exposed and the lesson learned from this case is presented. The preparation of the decommissioning programme for the Nuclear Power Plant Krško is also described, and the situation at the TRIGA research reactor is briefly discussed.

  17. Assessment of foreign decommissioning technology with potential application to US decommissioning needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to identify and technically assess foreign decommissioning technology developments that may represent significant improvements over decommissioning technology currently available or under development in the United States. Technology need areas for nuclear power reactor decommissioning operations were identified and prioritized using the results of past light water reactor (LWR) decommissioning studies to quantitatively evaluate the potential for reducing cost and decommissioning worker radiation dose for each major decommissioning activity. Based on these identified needs, current foreign decommissioning technologies of potential interest to the US were identified through personal contacts and the collection and review of an extensive body of decommissioning literature. These technologies were then assessed qualitatively to evaluate their uniqueness, potential for a significant reduction in decommissioning costs and/or worker radiation dose, development status, and other factors affecting their value and applicability to US needs

  18. Decommissioning study of Forsmark NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By Swedish law it is the obligation of the nuclear power utilities to satisfactorily demonstrate how a nuclear power plant can be safely decommissioned and dismantled when it is no longer in service as well as calculate the estimated cost of decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (SKB) has been commissioned by the Swedish nuclear power utilities to meet the requirements of current legislation by studying and reporting on suitable technologies and by estimating the costs of decommissioning and dismantling of the Swedish nuclear power plants. The present report is an overview, containing the necessary information to meet the above needs, for the Forsmark NPP. Information is given for the plant about the inventory of materials and radioactivity at the time for final shutdown. A feasible technique for dismantling is presented and the waste management is described and the resulting waste quantities are estimated. Finally a schedule for the decommissioning phase is given and the costs associated are estimated as a basis for funding

  19. Shippingport station decommissioning project overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usher, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station (SAPS), the first commercial-sized nuclear power plant in the United States to undergo complete dismantlement. SAPS is located near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, on approximately seven acres of land owned by Duquesne Light Company (DLC), and leased to the US Department of Energy. The Station consists of a 275' by 60' Fuel Handling Building containing the Reactor Containment Chamber, the Service Building, the Turbine Building, the Radioactive Waste Processing Building, the Administration Building, and other smaller support buildings. The Station has four coolant loops; most of the containment structures are located below grade. Shippingport Station was shutdown in October, 1982. Defueling operations began in 1983 and were completed by September 1984. At that time, responsibility for the plant was transferred from DOE Office of Assistant Secretary for Naval Reactors (NE-60) to DOE Office of Terminal Waste Disposal and Remedial Action (NE-20) and then to DOE Richland Operations Office (RL). Also at that time, responsibility for the operation/decommissioning of the station systems passed from DLC to General Electric Company (GE). A caretaker and site preparation period lasted from September, 1984 to September, 1985, at which time decommissioning activities started. The decommissioning period is scheduled as September, 1985 through April, 1990. Project total estimated cost is $98.3 million.

  20. A Decommissioning Information Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S. K.; Hong, S. B.; Chung, U. S.; Park, J. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    In 1996, it was determined that research reactors, the KRR-1 and the KRR-2, would be shut down and dismantled. A project for the decommissioning of these reactors was launched in January 1997 with the goal of a completion by 2008. The total budget of the project was 19.4 million US dollars, including the cost for the waste disposal and for the technology development. The work scopes during the decommissioning project were the dismantling of all the facilities and the removal of all the radioactive materials from the reactor site. After the removal of the entire radioactivity, the site and buildings will be released for an unconditional use. A separate project for the decommissioning of the uranium conversion plant was initiated in 2001. The plant was constructed for the development of the fuel manufacturing technologies and the localization of nuclear fuels in Korea. It was shut downed in 1993 and finally it was concluded in 2000 that the plant would be decommissioned. The project will be completed by 2008 and the total budget was 9.2 million US dollars. During this project, all vessels and equipment will be dismantled and the building surface will be decontaminated to be utilized as general laboratories.

  1. A Decommissioning Information Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1996, it was determined that research reactors, the KRR-1 and the KRR-2, would be shut down and dismantled. A project for the decommissioning of these reactors was launched in January 1997 with the goal of a completion by 2008. The total budget of the project was 19.4 million US dollars, including the cost for the waste disposal and for the technology development. The work scopes during the decommissioning project were the dismantling of all the facilities and the removal of all the radioactive materials from the reactor site. After the removal of the entire radioactivity, the site and buildings will be released for an unconditional use. A separate project for the decommissioning of the uranium conversion plant was initiated in 2001. The plant was constructed for the development of the fuel manufacturing technologies and the localization of nuclear fuels in Korea. It was shut downed in 1993 and finally it was concluded in 2000 that the plant would be decommissioned. The project will be completed by 2008 and the total budget was 9.2 million US dollars. During this project, all vessels and equipment will be dismantled and the building surface will be decontaminated to be utilized as general laboratories

  2. Decommissioning Study of Oskarshamn NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Helena; Anunti, Aake; Edelborg, Mathias [Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB, Vaesteraas (Sweden)

    2013-06-15

    By Swedish law it is the obligation of the nuclear power utilities to satisfactorily demonstrate how a nuclear power plant can be safely decommissioned and dismantled when it is no longer in service as well as calculate the estimated cost of decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (SKB) has been commissioned by the Swedish nuclear power utilities to meet the requirements of current legislation by studying and reporting on suitable technologies and by estimating the costs of decommissioning and dismantling of the Swedish nuclear power plants. The present report is an overview, containing the necessary information to meet the above needs, for Oskarshamn NPP. Information is given for the plant about the inventory of materials and radioactivity at the time for final shutdown. A feasible technique for dismantling is presented and the waste management is described and the resulting waste quantities are estimated. Finally a schedule for the decommissioning phase is given and the costs associated are estimated as a basis for funding.

  3. Decommissioning study of Forsmark NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anunti, Aake; Larsson, Helena; Edelborg, Mathias [Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB, Vaesteraas (Sweden)

    2013-06-15

    By Swedish law it is the obligation of the nuclear power utilities to satisfactorily demonstrate how a nuclear power plant can be safely decommissioned and dismantled when it is no longer in service as well as calculate the estimated cost of decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (SKB) has been commissioned by the Swedish nuclear power utilities to meet the requirements of current legislation by studying and reporting on suitable technologies and by estimating the costs of decommissioning and dismantling of the Swedish nuclear power plants. The present report is an overview, containing the necessary information to meet the above needs, for the Forsmark NPP. Information is given for the plant about the inventory of materials and radioactivity at the time for final shutdown. A feasible technique for dismantling is presented and the waste management is described and the resulting waste quantities are estimated. Finally a schedule for the decommissioning phase is given and the costs associated are estimated as a basis for funding.

  4. Decommissioning Study of Oskarshamn NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By Swedish law it is the obligation of the nuclear power utilities to satisfactorily demonstrate how a nuclear power plant can be safely decommissioned and dismantled when it is no longer in service as well as calculate the estimated cost of decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (SKB) has been commissioned by the Swedish nuclear power utilities to meet the requirements of current legislation by studying and reporting on suitable technologies and by estimating the costs of decommissioning and dismantling of the Swedish nuclear power plants. The present report is an overview, containing the necessary information to meet the above needs, for Oskarshamn NPP. Information is given for the plant about the inventory of materials and radioactivity at the time for final shutdown. A feasible technique for dismantling is presented and the waste management is described and the resulting waste quantities are estimated. Finally a schedule for the decommissioning phase is given and the costs associated are estimated as a basis for funding

  5. Information Support for Storage Decommission

    International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

    Decision - Making Information Support of Territory Remediation in the Course of Decommissioning Temporary Radioactive Waste Storage Sites in the Northwestern Region of Russia. Elaboration of an Environmental Monitoring System for Enterprises Involved in Treating and Storing Low- and Intermediate- Radioactive Wastes in the Region

  6. Considerations about the European Decommissioning Academy (EDA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to analyses presented at EC meeting focused on decommissioning organized at 11.9.2012 in Brussels, it was stated that at least 500 new international experts for decommissioning will be needed in Europe up to 2025, which means about 35 per year.Having in mind the actual EHRO-N report from 2013 focused on operation of nuclear facilities and an assumption that the ratio between nuclear experts, nuclearized and nuclear aware people is comparable also for decommissioning (16:74:10), as well as the fact that the special study branch for decommissioning in the European countries almost does not exist, this European Decommissioning Academy (EDA) could be helpful in the overbridging this gap.For the first run of the EDA scheduled on 2014 we would like to focus on VVER decommissioning issues because this reactor type is the most distributed design in the world and many of these units are actually in decommissioning process or will be decommissioned in the near future in Europe.A graduate of the European Decommissioning Academy (EDA) should have at least bachelor level from technical or natural science Universities or Colleges and at least one year working experiences in the area of NPP decommissioning or nuclear power engineering. This study creates prerequisites for acquiring and completion of professional and specialized knowledge in the subjects which are described. (authors)

  7. Decommissioning of Salaspils Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Salaspils Research Reactor (SRR) is out of operation since July 1998 and the decommissioning of SRR was started in 1999 according to the decision of the Government of Latvia. The main decommissioning activities up to 2006 were connected with collecting and conditioning of historical radioactive wastes from different storages outside and inside of reactor hall. The total amount of dismantled materials was about 700 tons, more than 77 tons were conditioned in concrete containers for disposal in repository. The radioactive wastes management technology is discussed in the paper. It was found, that additional efforts must be spent for immobilization of radionuclides in cemented matrix to be comply with the wastes acceptance criteria. The investigations of mechanical stability of water-cement matrix are described and discussed in the paper

  8. Decommissioning of CEA nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) has acquired extensive experience in the field of decommissioning and dismantling of its nuclear facilities (reactors, laboratories and fuel cycle installations) over the past 20 years. The variety of these facilities has enabled the CEA to qualify new procedures and to validate methods existing elsewhere in industry for use in the nuclear field. The approach developed to solve the specific decommissioning problems of the G2 and G3 gas-cooled reactors at Marcoule and the strategy enables presentation of the major technical options adopted in this case. The processes of reactor shutdown, dismantling, processing of wastes, incineration of graphite are described in detail. (author)

  9. Decommissioning challenges: an industrial reality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This dossier describes the present situation of decommissioning and dismantling in France and worldwide, as well as the strategies and techniques involved, and the economic and environment issues that are concerned. 5 conclusions can be drawn: 1) dismantling has become an industrial reality particularly in Europe and Japan, 2) all the operators agree with a need for stability in the regulations and procedures concerning decommissioning, 3) Dismantling requires high technicality but no major technical difficulties have appeared, 4) challenges concerning the management of radioactive wastes are clearly identified and some wait for adequate responses (particularly the disposal of high level radioactive wastes), and 5) the success of dismantling operating will have a positive impact on the perennial and public acceptance of the nuclear energy choice. (A.C.)

  10. Nuclear decommissioning planning, execution and international experience

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    A title that critically reviews the decommissioning and decontamination processes and technologies available for rehabilitating sites used for nuclear power generation and civilian nuclear facilities, from fundamental issues and best practices, to procedures and technology, and onto decommissioning and decontamination case studies.$bOnce a nuclear installation has reached the end of its safe and economical operational lifetime, the need for its decommissioning arises. Different strategies can be employed for nuclear decommissioning, based on the evaluation of particular hazards and their attendant risks, as well as on the analysis of costs of clean-up and waste management. This allows for decommissioning either soon after permanent shutdown, or perhaps a long time later, the latter course allowing for radioactivity levels to drop in any activated or contaminated components. It is crucial for clear processes and best practices to be applied in decommissioning such installations and sites, particular where any ...

  11. Tradução e adaptação cultural do Questionário Aberdeen para Veias Varicosas / Translation and cultural adaptation of Aberdeen Varicose Veins Questionnaire

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Flávia de Jesus, Leal; Renata Cardoso, Couto; Guilherme Benjamin Brandão, Pitta; Priscilla Tosatti Ferreira, Leite; Larissa Maranhão, Costa; Wesley J. F., Higino; Marina Sandrelle Correia de, Sousa.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Atualmente há um crescente interesse por instrumentos de avaliação em saúde produzidos e validados em todo o mundo. Apesar disso, ainda não temos no Brasil instrumentos que avaliem o impacto da doença venosa crônica na vida de seu portador. Para utilização dessas medidas torna-se necessári [...] a a realização da tradução e da adaptação cultural ao idioma em questão. OBJETIVO: Traduzir e adaptar culturalmente para a população brasileira o Aberdeen Varicose Veins Questionnaire (AVVQ- Brasil). MÉTODOS: O processo consistiu de duas traduções e duas retrotraduções realizadas por tradutores independentes, da avaliação das versões seguida da elaboração de versão consensual e de pré-teste comentado. RESULTADOS: Os pacientes do pré-teste eram do sexo feminino, com média de idade de 49,9 anos, média de tempo de resposta 7,73 minutos, que variou entre 4,55 minutos (tempo mínimo) a 10,13 minutos (tempo máximo). Escolaridade: 20% analfabetismo funcional, 1º grau completo e 2º grau completo; 30% 1º grau incompleto; e 10% 3º grau completo. Gravidade clínica 40% C3 e C6S, 10% C2 e C5, havendo cinco termos incompreendidos na aplicação. CONCLUSÕES: A versão na língua portuguesa do Aberdeen Varicose Veins Questionnaire está traduzida e adaptada para uso na população brasileira, podendo ser utilizada após posterior análise de suas propriedades clinimétricas. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Currently there is a growing interest in health assessment tools produced and validated throughout the world. Nevertheless, it is still inadequate the number of instruments that assess the impact of chronic venous disease in the life of its bearer. To use these measures it is necessary t [...] o accomplish the translation and cultural adaptation to the language in question. OBJECTIVE: Translate to Portuguese and culturally adapted for the Brazilian population the Aberdeen Varicose Veins Questionnaire (AVVQ-Brazil). METHODS: The process consisted of two translations and two back-translations performed by freelance translators, then the evaluation versions of the development of consensual version and commented pretest. RESULTS: The patients in the pre-test were female, mean age 49.9 years, average response time of 7.73 minutes, which ranged from 4.55 minutes (minimum) to 10.13 minutes (maximum time). Education: 20% functional illiteracy and first and second complete degrees; 30% first incomplete degree, and 10% third complete degree. Clinical severity: 40% C3 and C6s, 10% C2 and C5, with five misunderstood terms in the application. CONCLUSION: The Portuguese version of the Aberdeen Varicose Veins Questionnaire has been translated and adapted for use in the Brazilian population, and can be used after further analysis of their clinimetric properties, which is underway.

  12. The decommissioning of Berkeley II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the decommissioning progress at the Magnox site at Berkeley in Gloucestershire.Throughout the work at Berkeley the emphasis has been on conducting decommissioning safely. This has been reflected in the progress of decommissioning starting with removal of the fuel from site and thus much greater than 99% of the radioactive inventory. The major radioactive hazard is the Intermediate Level Waste in the form of fuel element debris (graphite struts and extraneous magnox components removed to increase the packing density of fuel elements in flasks going to Sellafield), miscellaneous activated components, sludges and resins. Approximately 1500 m3 of such material exists and is stored in underground waste vaults on site. Work is underway to recover and encapsulate the waste in cement so rendering it 'passively safe'. All work on site is covered by a nuclear safety case which has a key objective of minimising the radiological exposures that could accrue to workers. Reflecting this an early decision has been taken to leave work on the Reactor Pressure Vessels themselves for several decades. Also important in protection of the workforce has been control of asbestos.Much material has been removed with redundant plant and equipment, but a programme of remediation in line with government legislation has been required to ensure personnel safety throughout the decommissioning period and into Care and Maintenance.In addition to health and safety matters the site approach to environmental issues has been consistent. Formally such standards as ISO 14001 have been adhered to and the appropriate certification maintained. At a working level the principles of reduce, reuse and recycle have been inculcated

  13. Volume Reduction of Decommissioning Waste in KAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KAERI has been conducting decommissioning activities of Korea Research Reactor (KRR) 1 and 2 and a Uranium Conversion Plant (UCP) for the last decade. A large amount of radioactive waste was generated from the decommissioning works of these facilities. Thus, the waste needs to be reduced and stabilized through decontamination or treatment before disposal. In this work, introduction on the volume reduction of dismantled wastes from decommissioning of the KRR 1 and 2 and the UCP is presented

  14. Decommissioning of naval nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the next decade the two major nuclear powers will each have to decommission more than 100 naval nuclear vessels, in particular submarines. The problems connected with this task is considered in this report. Firstly the size of the task is considered, i.e. the number of nuclear vessels that has to be decommissioned. Secondly the reactors of these vessels, their fuel elements, their power level, the number of reactors per vessel and the amount of radioactivity to be handled are discussed. Thirdly the decommissioning procedures, i.e. The removal of fuel from the vessels, the temporary storage of the reactor fuel near the base, and the cleaning and disposal of the reactor and the primary circuit components are reviewed. Finally alternative uses of the newer submarines are briefly considered. It should be emphasizes that much of the detailed information on which this report is based, may be of dubious nature, and that may to some extent affect the validity of the conclusions of the report. (au)

  15. Decommissioning Technology Development for Nuclear Research Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K. W.; Kang, Y. A.; Kim, G. H. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    It is predicted that the decommissioning of a nuclear power plant would happen in Korea since 2020 but the need of partial decommissioning and decontamination for periodic inspection and life extension still has been on an increasing trend and its domestic market has gradually been extended. Therefore, in this project we developed following several essential technologies as a decommissioning R and D. The measurement technology for in-pipe radioactive contamination was developed for measuring alpha/beta/gamma emitting nuclides simultaneously inside a in-pipe and it was tested into the liquid waste transfer pipe in KRR-2. And the digital mock-up system for KRR-1 and 2 was developed for choosing the best scenarios among several scenarios on the basis of various decommissioning information(schedule, waste volume, cost, etc.) that are from the DMU and the methodology of decommissioning cost estimation was also developed for estimating a research reactor's decommissioning cost and the DMU and the decommissioning cost estimation system were incorporated into the decommissioning information integrated management system. Finally the treatment and management technology of the irradiated graphites that happened after decommissioning KRR-2 was developed in order to treat and manage the irradiated graphites safely.

  16. Decommissioning Technology Development for Nuclear Research Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is predicted that the decommissioning of a nuclear power plant would happen in Korea since 2020 but the need of partial decommissioning and decontamination for periodic inspection and life extension still has been on an increasing trend and its domestic market has gradually been extended. Therefore, in this project we developed following several essential technologies as a decommissioning R and D. The measurement technology for in-pipe radioactive contamination was developed for measuring alpha/beta/gamma emitting nuclides simultaneously inside a in-pipe and it was tested into the liquid waste transfer pipe in KRR-2. And the digital mock-up system for KRR-1 and 2 was developed for choosing the best scenarios among several scenarios on the basis of various decommissioning information(schedule, waste volume, cost, etc.) that are from the DMU and the methodology of decommissioning cost estimation was also developed for estimating a research reactor's decommissioning cost and the DMU and the decommissioning cost estimation system were incorporated into the decommissioning information integrated management system. Finally the treatment and management technology of the irradiated graphites that happened after decommissioning KRR-2 was developed in order to treat and manage the irradiated graphites safely

  17. The standard for the decommissioning regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2005, the 'Law concerning Regulation of Nuclear Materials, Nuclear Fuels, and Reactors' was amended, wherein the Planning of Decommissioning should be licensed by the government. Since many Nuclear Facilities will face the decommissioning stage, near future, the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ) published the Safety Standards and Guideline 'Planning and Practice of the Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning: 2006'. In this issue, the background and the objectives of the AESJ Standards and Guideline will be discussed. Also, the experiences of the decommissioning licensing and the future topics will be overviewed. (author)

  18. European Decommissioning Academy (EDA). Ready to start

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slugen, Vladimir [Slovak University of Technology, Bratislava (Slovakia). Inst. of Nuclear and Physical Engineering

    2015-02-15

    According to analyses presented at EC meeting focused on decommissioning organized at 11 September 2012 in Brussels, it was stated that at least 2,000 new international experts for decommissioning will be needed in Europe up to 2025, which means about 150 each year. The article describes the European Decommissioning Academy (EDA) which is prepared for the first term in June 2015 in Slovakia. The main goal is a creation of new nuclear experts generation for decommissioning via the Academy, which will include lessons, practical exercises in laboratories as well as 2 days on-site training at NPP V-1 in Jaslovske Bohunice (Slovakia). Four days technical tour via most interesting European decommissioning facilities in Switzerland and Italy are planned as well. After the final exam, there is the option to continue in knowledge collection via participation at the 2nd Eastern and Central European Decommissioning (ECED) conference in Trnava (Slovakia). We would like to focus on VVER decommissioning issues because this reactor type is the most distributed design in the world and many of these units are actually in decommissioning process or will be decommissioned in the near future.

  19. Status of the Fort St. Vrain decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fort St. Vrain is a high temperature gas cooled reactor. It has been shut down as a result of financial and technical difficulties. Fort St. Vrain has been planning for defueling and decommissioning for at least three years. The preliminary decommissioning plan, in accordance with the NRC's final rule, has been submitted and is being reviewed by the NRC. The basis of the preliminary decommissioning plan has been SAFSTOR. Public Service Company, who is the owner and operator of FSV, is scheduled to submit a proposed decommissioning plan to the NRC in the fourth quarter of 1990. PSC has gone out for bid on the decontamination and dismantlement of FSV. This paper includes the defueling schedule, the independent spent fuel storage installation status, the probability of shipping fuel to DOE, the status of the preliminary decommissioning plan submittal, the issuance of a possession only license and what are the results of obtaining this license amendment, preliminary decommissioning activities allowed prior to the approval of a proposed decommissioning plan, the preparation of a proposed decommissioning plan and the status of our decision to proceed with SAFSTOR or DECON as identified in the NRC's final decommissioning rule

  20. Experiences in teaching decommissioning - 16179

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the experience gained by the author in teaching decommissioning in the Highlands of Scotland. Initially when asked to teach the subject of decommissioning to students sitting for a BSc degree in 'Electrical or Mechanical Engineering with Decommissioning Studies', the author was taken aback, not having previously taught degree students and there was no precedent since there was no previous material or examples to build on. It was just as difficult for the students since whilst some had progressed from completing HND studies, the majority were employed at the Dounreay site and were mature students with families who were availing themselves of the opportunity for career advancement (CPD). Some of the students were from the UKAEA and its contractors whilst others were from Rolls-Royce working at Vulcan, the Royal Navy's establishment for testing nuclear reactors for submarines. A number of the students had not been in a formal learning environment for many years. The College which had originally been funded by the UKAEA and the nuclear industry in the 1950's was anxious to break into the new field of Decommissioning and were keen to promote these courses in order to support the work progressing on site. Many families in Thurso, and in Caithness, have a long tradition of working in the nuclear industry and it was thought at the time that expertise in nuclear decommissioning could be developed and indeed exported elsewhere. In addition the courses being promoted by the College would attract students from other parts so that a centre of excellence could be established. In parallel with formal teaching, online courses were also developed to extend the reach of the College. The material was developed as a mixture of power point presentations and formal notes and was obtained from existing literature, web searches and interactive discussions with people in the industry as well as case studies obtained from actual situations. Assignments were set and examination papers prepared which were validated by internal and external assessors. The first course was started in 2004 (believed to be unique at that time) and attracted eight students. Subsequent courses have been promoted as well as a BEng (Hons) course which also included a course on Safety and Reliability. (authors)

  1. Principles of record keeping for decommissioning purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the siting and conceptual design stage of a nuclear facility the first records pertaining to that facility are produced and stored. Subsequent phases in the facility's life cycle (detailed design, construction, commissioning, operation and shutdown) will include the production and retention of a large variety of records. Design, as-built drawings and operational records are essential for safe and efficient operation of any nuclear facility. This set of records is constantly updated and augmented during operation. Records from all phases of a nuclear facility are important for planning its decommissioning. Although not all of these records need to be included explicitly in the decommissioning plan itself, the process of initial, ongoing and final planning utilizes pertinent records for, and ultimately achieves, safe and cost effective decommissioning. When a nuclear facility is shutdown for decommissioning, current operating experience may be lost. Therefore, one important element of planning is to identify, secure and store appropriate operational records to support decommissioning. This process is preferably initiated during the design and construction phase and continues throughout operation including shutdown. Part of the records inventory from operation will become records for decommissioning and it is cost effective to identify these records before final facility shutdown. Experience shows that lack of attention to record keeping may result in an undue waste of time, other resources and additional costs. The newly established Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management recognizes the importance of keeping decommissioning-related records. In addition, the systematic management of records is an essential part of quality assurance and is often a licence condition. A good comprehensive decommissioning records management system (RMS) is one specific application of the broader concepts of 'Protection of future generations' and 'Burden on future generations' as highlighted in the top-level IAEA document on Principles of Radioactive Waste Management. It should be noted that other programmes of the IAEA have addressed record keeping for radioactive waste management and disposal facilities. A newly-published IAEA report provides guidance in records relevant to decommissioning and its key statements are summarised in this paper. The contents is as follows: 1. Introduction; 2. Design and Operational Data Required for Decommissioning; 2.1. Decommissioning Strategy; 2.2 Primary Data Sources for Decommissioning; 2.2.1 Design, construction and modification data; 2.2.2. Operating, shutdown and post-shutdown data; 3. The Process of Selecting Decommissioning Records; 3.1 Establishing the Records Management System; 3.2 Selection of Decommissioning Records; 3.3. Documentation Prepared for Decommissioning; 4. Record Medium and Location

  2. Pre-decommissioning, during decommissioning, and post-decommissioning radiological characterization of shutdown research reactors and their sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this lecture is to provide guidance to national governments, regulatory bodies, and operators for the timely and safe decommissioning of research reactors and small nuclear facilities. The emphasis of this lecture will be on characterization in support of decommissioning the facility. It is understood that each facility brings with it a unique set of problems itself. This lecture presents a general overview of the process and some important aspects of the radiological characterization process before, during, and after decommissioning is completed. A graded approach to the effort and resources needed to address this aspect of a decommissioning project is recommended, taking into account the associated risks and hazards. A realistic decommissioning plan must be built upon taking adequate account of the facility radiological conditions

  3. Survey of decontamination and decommissioning techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reports and articles on decommissioning have been reviewed to determine the current technology status and also attempt to identify potential decommissioning problem areas. It is concluded that technological road blocks, which limited decommissioning facilities in the past have been removed. In general, techniques developed by maintenance in maintaining the facility have been used to decommission facilities. Some of the more promising development underway which will further simplify decommissioning activities are: electrolytic decontamination which simplifies some decontaminating operations; arc saw and vacuum furnace which reduce the volume of metallic contaminated material by a factor of 10; remotely operated plasma torch which reduces personnel exposure; and shaped charges, water cannon and rock splitters which simplify concrete removal. Areas in which published data are limited are detailed costs identifying various components included in the total cost and also the quantity of waste generated during the decommissioning activities. With the increased awareness of decommissioning requirements as specified by licensing requirements, design criteria for new facilities are taking into consideration final decommissioning of buildings. Specific building design features will evolve as designs are evaluated and implemented

  4. Decommissioning strategy and waste management in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The commercial nuclear power plants in Sweden will eventually be shut down and decommissioned. This paper describes the strategy in planning these future activities. It also describes the cost calculations and the funding mechanism. The paper contains the following sections: Nuclear power plants In Sweden; Decommissioning strategies; Waste management and availability of repositories; Cost calculations and funding; The current financing act

  5. Facilitation of decommissioning light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information on design features, special equipment, and construction methods useful in the facilitation of decommissioning light water reactors is presented. A wide range of facilitation methods - from improved documentation to special decommissioning tools and techniques - is discussed. In addition, estimates of capital costs, cost savings, and radiation dose reduction associated with these facilitation methods are given

  6. Brief Assessment of Krsko NPP Decommissioning Costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first part of the paper gives a brief description of decommissioning scenarios and models of financing the decommissioning of NPPs. The second part contains a review of decommissioning costs for certain PWR plants with a brief description of methods used for that purpose. The third part of the paper the authors dedicated to the assessment of decommissioning costs for Krsko NPP. It does not deal with ownership relations and obligations ensuing from them. It starts from the simple point that decommissioning is an structure of the decommissioning fund is composed of three basic cost items of which the first refers to radioactive waste management, the second to storage and disposal of the spent nuclear fuel and the third to decommissioning itself. The assessment belongs to the category of preliminary activities and as such has a limited scope and meaning. Nevertheless, the authors believe that it offers a useful insight into the basic costs that will burden the decommissioning fund of Krsko NPP. (author)

  7. Powerplant decommissioning meets variety of challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article describes the challenges met in decommissioning the Shoreham nuclear station located in Suffolk County, Long Island, New York. The topics of the article include pre-decommissioning activities, systems dismantlement, boiling water reactor-vessel segmentation, safety and 'ALARA', scheduling and cost control, and overall program controls

  8. Project gnome decontamination and decommissioning plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document presents the operational plan for conducting the final decontamination and decommissioning work at the site of the first U.S. nuclear detonation designed specifically for peaceful purposes and the first underground event on the Plowshare Program to take place outside the Nevada Test Site. The plan includes decontamination and decommissioning procedures, radiological guidelines, and the NV concept of operations

  9. EPRI nuclear power plant decommissioning technology program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is a non-profit research organization that supports the energy industry. The Nuclear Power Plant Decommissioning Technology Program conducts research and develops technology for the safe and efficient decommissioning of nuclear power plants. (author)

  10. Rancho Seco--Decommissioning Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Rancho Seco Nuclear Generating Station ceased operation in June of 1989 and entered an extended period of SAFSTOR to allow funds to accumulate for dismantlement. Incremental dismantlement was begun in 1997 of steam systems and based on the successful completion of work, the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) board of directors approved full decommissioning in July 1999. A schedule has been developed for completion of decommissioning by 2008, allowing decommissioning funds to accumulate until they are needed. Systems removal began in the Auxiliary Building in October of 1999 and in the Reactor Building in January of 2000. Systems dismantlement continues in the Reactor Building and should be completed by the end of 2003. System removal is near completion in the Auxiliary Building with removal of the final liquid waste tanks in progress. The spent fuel has been moved to dry storage in an onsite ISFSI, with completion on August 21, 2002. The spent fuel racks are currently being removed from the pool, packaged and shipped, and then the pool will be cleaned. Also in the last year the reactor coolant pumps and primary piping were removed and shipped. Characterization and planning work for the reactor vessel and internals is also in progress with various cut-up and/or disposal options being evaluated. In the year ahead the remaining systems in the Reactor Building will be removed, packaged and sent for disposal, including the pressurizer. Work will be started on embedded and underground piping and the large outdoor tanks. Building survey and decontamination will begin. RFP's for removal of the vessel and internals and the steam generators are planned to fix the cost of those components. If the costs are consistent with current estimates the work will go forward. If they are not, hardened SAFSTOR/entombment may be considered

  11. AREVA decommissioning strategy and programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As with any industrial installation, a nuclear facility has an operating life that requires accounting for its shutdown. In compliance with its sustainable development commitments, AREVA accounts this via its own decommissioning resources to value and make sites fit for further use. These capabilities guarantee the reversibility of the nuclear industry. Thus, the nuclear site value development constitutes an important activity for AREVA, which contributes to the acceptance of nuclear in line with the AREVA continuous policy of sustainable development which is to be fully responsible from the creation, during the operation, to the dismantling of its facilities in all respects with safety, local acceptance and environment. AREVA has already performed a large variety of operation during the life-time of its installations such as heavy maintenance, equipment replacement, upgrading operation. Nowadays, a completely different dimension is emerging with industrial decommissioning operations of nuclear fuel cycle installations: enrichment gaseous diffusion plant, fuel assembly plants, recycling and reprocessing facilities. These activities constitute a major know-how for AREVA. For this reason, the group decided, beginning of 2008, to gather 4 projects in one business unit called Nuclear Site Value Development - a reprocessing plant UP2 400 on AREVA La Hague site, a reprocessing plant UP1 on AREVA Marcoule site, a MOX fuel plant on Cadarache and 2 sites (SICN Veurey and Annecy) that handled GCR fuel fabrication). The main objectives are to enhance the feed back, to contribute to performance improvements, to value professionals and to put innovation forward. The following article will describe in a first part the main decommissioning programmes managed by AREVA NC Nuclear Site Value Development Business Unit. The second part will deal with strategic approaches. A more efficient organization with integration of the supply chain and innovation will be part of the main drivers. (authors)

  12. Cost estimation for decommissioning of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the case of research reactors, the limited data that is available tends to provide only overall decommissioning costs, without any breakdown of the main cost elements. In order to address this subject, it is important to collect and analyse all available data of decommissioning costs for the research reactors. The IAEA has started the DACCORD Project focused on data analysis and costing of research reactors decommissioning. Data collection is organized in accordance with the International Structure for Decommissioning Costing (ISDC), developed jointly by the IAEA, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the European Commission. The specific aims of the project include the development of representative and comparative data and datasets for preliminary costing for decommissioning. This paper will focus on presenting a technique to consider several representative input data in accordance with the ISDC structure and using the CERREX (Cost Estimation for Research Reactors in Excel) software developed by IAEA. (author)

  13. Decommissioning the Trojan nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decommissioning of the Trojan Nuclear Plant (TNP) began in 1993 with the decision to cease operation of the plant. In the six years since the shutdown, a Decommissioning Plan has been developed, site radiological characterizations have been performed, the decommissioning option, DECON, was selected and plant dismantlement has begun. TNP has accomplished the dismantlement tasks using a number of innovative projects and developed a number of new decommissioning techniques. The innovative projects include removal of the large components from the reactor building, the disposal of the reactor vessel with the internal highly radioactive components, and embedded in-place pipe decontamination and survey. The new methods include shipping and disposing of components as a package and dismantling tanks from the bottom up using less dose and time than more traditional methods. This paper describes how these methods save time, radiation dose and result in an overall safe approach to decommissioning. (author)

  14. The decommissioning of Tsing Hua Argonaut reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After 35 years' operation, the Tsing Hua Argonaut Reactor (THAR) will be decommissioned by the National Tsing Hua University (NTHU) under the Atomic Energy Council's (AEC) regulation. THAR is a water moderated and graphite reflected research reactor with peak thermal power 10 kW. Since this decommission project is the first one experienced in Taiwan rather completed planning work by NTHU and step by step regulative activities by AEC are performed regardless the structural simplicity of the THAR. Numerous information was gathered through the task which is believed to be valuable experience in preparing future decommissioning needs. The major work in the THAR decommissioning project will be finished within two months. The total man-hour devoted to the THAT decommissioning work was around 3693 and accumulated dose received during the work was about the total cost of the operation is estimated to be around half a million US dollars. 2 tab., 1 fig

  15. Decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this coordinated research programme (CRP) were to promote the exchange of information on the practical experience by Member States in decontamination and decommissioning. The scope of the programme included several areas of decontamination and decommissioning rather than focusing on a single aspect of it, in line with recommendation of the experts who participated in Phase 1 of the CRP. Experts felt that this format would generate better awareness of decontamination and decommissioning and would be more effective vehicle for the exchange of information by stimulating broader discussion on all aspects of decontamination and decommissioning. Special emphasis was given to the development of principles and methodologies to facilitate decommissioning and to the new methods and techniques for optimization of decontamination and disassembly of equipment. Refs, figs, tabs

  16. Decommissioning of nuclear research facilities at KAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), two research reactors (KRR-1 and KRR-2) and one uranium conversion plant (UCP) are being decommissioned. The main reason of the decommissioning was the diminishing utilities; the start of a new research reactor, HANARO, and the higher conversion cost than that of international market for the UCP. Another reason of the decommissioning was prevention from spreading radioactive materials due to the deterioration of the facilities. Two separate projects have already been started and are carried out as planned. The KAERI selected several strategies, considering the small scale of the projects, the internal standards in KAERI, and the future prospects of the decommissioning projects in Korea. In this paper, the current status of the decommissioning including the waste management and the technology development will be explained

  17. Cost estimation for decommissioning of research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossi, Pablo Andrade; Tello, Cledola Cassia Oliveira de, E-mail: pabloag@cdtn.br, E-mail: tellocc@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Segabinaze, Roberto de Oliveira, E-mail: segabi@eletronuclear.gov.br [Eletrobras Termonuclear (ELETRONUCLEAR), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Daniska, Vladimir, E-mail: vladimir.daniska@gmail.com [DECONTA A.S., Trnava (Slovakia)

    2013-07-01

    In the case of research reactors, the limited data that is available tends to provide only overall decommissioning costs, without any breakdown of the main cost elements. In order to address this subject, it is important to collect and analyse all available data of decommissioning costs for the research reactors. The IAEA has started the DACCORD Project focused on data analysis and costing of research reactors decommissioning. Data collection is organized in accordance with the International Structure for Decommissioning Costing (ISDC), developed jointly by the IAEA, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the European Commission. The specific aims of the project include the development of representative and comparative data and datasets for preliminary costing for decommissioning. This paper will focus on presenting a technique to consider several representative input data in accordance with the ISDC structure and using the CERREX (Cost Estimation for Research Reactors in Excel) software developed by IAEA. (author)

  18. The Wuergassen decommissioning and dismantling project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After detection of cracks in the core shroud and bad economic prognoses, the owner/operator of the Wuergassen reactor, PreussenElektra, decided for decommissioning and direct dismantling of the reactor station, also because experience has shown that the decommissioning work poses no problems in terms of technology, safety, and environmental protection. The licensing application documents for the first decommissioning phase describe the remaining operation and dismantling of some components. Detailed documentation is produced and presented to the supervisory authority in line with progressing decommissioning work, so that documentation is reduced to the necessary extent. Planning work for the second phase and decontrolling measurements at the UNS building are underway. The operational and the project organisation were tuned for the decommissioning phases. Evaluation of results of the first phase will show whether the approaches taken fulfill expectations, particularly with respect to economic efficiency. (orig.)

  19. Decommissioning Project for the Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2008, tried to complete the whole decommissioning project of KRR-1 and KRR-2 and preparing work for memorial museum of KRR-1 reactor. Now the project is delayed for 3 months because of finding unexpected soil contamination around facility and treatment of. To do final residual radioactivity assessment applied by MARSSIM procedure. Accumulated decommissioning experiences and technologies will be very usefully to do decommissioning other nuclear related facility. At the decommissioning site of the uranium conversion plant, the decontamination of the dismantled carbon steel waste are being performed and the lagoon 1 sludge waste is being treated this year. The technologies and experiences obtained from the UCP dismantling works are expected to apply to other fuel cycle facilities decommissioning. The lagoon sludge treatment technology is the first applied technology in the actual field and it is expected that this technology could be applied to other country

  20. Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Plant A1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NPP A-1 represents a potential danger for the environment. Therefore it is necessary to prepare and perform its decommissioning in a way which eliminates the danger. The decommissioning option must be chosen by comparison to more prepared possibilities on the basis of determined criteria. The NPP A-1 decommissioning is a very complex technical problem and its realization is very costly. Therefore it is convenient to use international experience and cooperation in order to reduce time schedule, personnel radiation exposure and impact on the environment. This paper deals with the main characteristics of the NPP A1. It also describes the NPP A1 final shutdown and its causes, the activities performed from final shutdown till starting the work on the decommissioning project and the NPP A1 decommissioning project

  1. Measuring and reporting on decommissioning progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the challenges facing AECL, as well as other organizations charged with the responsibility of decommissioning nuclear facilities, is the means by which to measure and report on decommissioning progress to various audiences which, in some cases, may only have a peripheral knowledge or understanding of the complexities associated with the decommissioning process. The reporting and measurement of decommissioning progress is important for a number of reasons, i.e., It provides a vehicle by which to effectively communicate the nature of the decommissioning process; It ensures that stakeholders and shareholders are provided with a transparent and understandable means for assessing value for money; It provides a means by which to integrate the planning, measurement, and operational aspects of decommissioning One underlying reason behind the challenge of reporting decommissioning progress lies in the fact that decommissioning programs are generally executed over periods of time that far exceed those generally associated with typical design and build projects. For example, a decommissioning program could take decades to complete in which case progress on the order of a few percent in any one year might be typical. However, such progress may appear low compared to that seen with more typical projects that can be completed in a matter of years. As a consequence, AECL undertook to develop a system by which to measure decommissioning progress in a straightforward, meaningful, and understandable fashion. The system is not rigorously objective, and there are subjective aspects that are necessitated by the need to keep the system readily understandable. It is also important to note that while the system is simple in concept, there is, nonetheless, significant effort involved in generating and updating the parameters used as input, and in the actual calculations. (author)

  2. Depleted uranium risk assessment at Aberdeen Proving Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Science Group at Los Alamos and the Test and Evaluation Command (TECOM) are assessing the risk of depleted uranium (DU) testing at Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG). Conceptual and mathematical models of DU transfer through the APG ecosystem have been developed in order to show the mechanisms by which DU migrates or remains unavailable to different flora and fauna and to humans. The models incorporate actual rates of DU transfer between different ecosystem components as much as possible. Availability of data on DU transport through different pathways is scarce and constrains some of the transfer rates that can be used. Estimates of transfer rates were derived from literature sources and used in the mass-transfer models when actual transfer rates were unavailable. Objectives for this risk assessment are (1) to assess if DU transports away from impact areas; (2) to estimate how much, if any, DU migrates into Chesapeake Bay; (3) to determine if there are appreciable risks to the ecosystems due to DU testing; (4) to estimate the risk to human health as a result of DU testing

  3. Anthropomorphic phantom radiation dosimetry at the NATO standard reference point at Aberdeen Proving Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cousins, T.; Rushton, L.P.

    1987-04-01

    As part of the NATO Dosimetry Intercomparison Project, a series of experiments were conducted at Aberdeen Proving Ground in September 1986 in order to determine neutron and gamma-ray doses delivered to various internal and external locations on an anthropomorphic phantom from a fission source. Thus, the effect of such parameters as self-shielding by the body on dosimeter reading may be determined. The results will be used eventually to validate computer simulations of the Aberdeen environment in order to understand completely the correlation between dosimeter reading and bone marrow dose, or other parameters relating to performance decrement.

  4. Decommissioning of Salaspils nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In May 1995, the Latvian Government decided to shut down the Research Reactor Salaspils (SRR) and to dispense with nuclear energy in future. The reactor has been out of operation since July 1998. A conceptual study for the decommissioning of SRR has been carried out by Noell-KRC-Energie- und Umwelttechnik GmbH from 1998-1999. he Latvian Government decided on 26 October 1999 to start the direct dismantling to 'green field' in 2001. The results of decommissioning and dismantling performed in 1999-2001 are presented and discussed. The main efforts were devoted to collecting and conditioning 'historical' radioactive waste from different storages outside and inside the reactor hall. All radioactive material more than 20 tons were conditioned in concrete containers for disposal in the radioactive waste depository 'Radons' in the Baldone site. Personal protective and radiation measurement equipment was upgraded significantly. All non-radioactive equipment and material outside the reactor buildings were free-released and dismantled for reuse or conventional disposal. Weakly contaminated material from the reactor hall was collected and removed for free-release measurements. The technology of dismantling of the reactor's systems, i.e. second cooling circuit, zero power reactors and equipment, is discussed in the paper. (author)

  5. Decontamination Concept for Decommissioning (DCD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Once a plant reaches the end of its life cycle, one of the most challenging phases begins: decommissioning and dismantlement. During this phase decontamination is a key step for reducing the personnel radiation exposure and minimizing rad waste amounts. In the past decades, AREVA has optimized its Decontamination Concept for Decommissioning (DCD). It can be applied in plants from all main constructors and designs, with Full System Decontamination (FSD) being a major topic. During the decontamination, the dose rate causing oxide deposits inside the primary circuit are dissolved, the dissolved activity and corrosion products are then fixed on ion exchangers for safe disposal, and the organic acids used are decomposed in-situ in a UV-catalyzed reaction so that they do not contribute to the amount of waste generated. Since with a FSD the complete primary circuit is treated as is, with only minor interventions required for connecting the decontamination equipment in charge of chemical injection, decomposition and water purification, dose exposure is minimized during this operation. Subsequent dismantlement activities can then take place in an environment with far lower dose and contamination. AREVA's DCD is presented, also including practical information such as time requirements for application and waste volumes to be expected. An overview of the experience accumulated and results achieved is also provided as proof of concept.

  6. Decontamination Concept for Decommissioning (DCD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sempere Belda, L.; Stiepani, C.; Topf, C.

    2011-07-01

    Once a plant reaches the end of its life cycle, one of the most challenging phases begins: decommissioning and dismantlement. During this phase decontamination is a key step for reducing the personnel radiation exposure and minimizing rad waste amounts. In the past decades, AREVA has optimized its Decontamination Concept for Decommissioning (DCD). It can be applied in plants from all main constructors and designs, with Full System Decontamination (FSD) being a major topic. During the decontamination, the dose rate causing oxide deposits inside the primary circuit are dissolved, the dissolved activity and corrosion products are then fixed on ion exchangers for safe disposal, and the organic acids used are decomposed in-situ in a UV-catalyzed reaction so that they do not contribute to the amount of waste generated. Since with a FSD the complete primary circuit is treated as is, with only minor interventions required for connecting the decontamination equipment in charge of chemical injection, decomposition and water purification, dose exposure is minimized during this operation. Subsequent dismantlement activities can then take place in an environment with far lower dose and contamination. AREVA's DCD is presented, also including practical information such as time requirements for application and waste volumes to be expected. An overview of the experience accumulated and results achieved is also provided as proof of concept.

  7. Uranium hexafluoride production plant decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Institute of Energetic and Nuclear Research - IPEN is a research and development institution, located in a densely populated area, in the city of Sao Paulo. The nuclear fuel cycle was developed from the Yellow Cake to the enrichment and reconversion at IPEN. After this phase, all the technology was transferred to private enterprises and to the Brazilian Navy (CTM/SP). Some plants of the fuel cycle were at semi-industrial level, with a production over 20 kg/h. As a research institute, IPEN accomplished its function of the fuel cycle, developing and transferring technology. With the necessity of space for the implementation of new projects, the uranium hexafluoride (UF6) production plant was chosen, since it had been idle for many years and presented potential leaking risks, which could cause environmental aggression and serious accidents. This plant decommission required accurate planning, as this work had not been carried out in Brazil before, for this type of facility, and there were major risks involving gaseous hydrogen fluoride aqueous solution of hydrofluoric acid (HF) both highly corrosive. Evaluations were performed and special equipment was developed, aiming to prevent leaking and avoid accidents. During the decommissioning work, the CNEN safety standards were obeyed for the whole operation. The environmental impact was calculated, showing to be not relevant.The radiation doses, after the work, were within the limits for the public and the area was released for new projects. (author)

  8. Decommissioning of nuclear power technological and research installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strategy of reactor decommissioning was summarized on the World experience base. Analysis of Ukrainian NPP decommissioning process for three versions of the following nuclear power complex development is presented. Examples of organization and management in industrial NPP's decommissioning (USA, England, Japan, Russia) and research reactors (Russia, USA, Japan, Ukraine) are considered. Immediate dismantling during research reactor WWR-M decommissioning is proposed. 11 refs

  9. Government Assigns New Supervisory Task. Safe Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the Government decided to shutdown one of the two Barsebaeck reactors in February of 1998, it presented SKI with a task that came much earlier than expected; the supervision of the decommissioning of a reactor. As a result of proposals presented in Parliament, SKI began the formulation of a long-term strategy in 1997 for the inspection of a nuclear plant during the decommissioning process. As a preliminary task, SKI started a research programme dealing with the potential risks associated with the transition from normal operations through shutdown to final deconstruction of the power plant. Emphasis was laid on safety culture issues and on questions of organization, as opposed to an earlier stress on the purely technical aspects of decommissioning. After a long period of uncertainty, following much discussion, in July 1998 a Government decision was finally reached to shutdown the first reactor at Barsebaeck. This was carried out in November 1999. It is still uncertain as to when the other reactor will be decommissioned; a decision is expected at the earliest in 2004. This uncertainty, resulting from the prolonged decision making process, could be detrimental to the safety culture on the site; motivation could diminish, and key personnel could be lost. Decommissioning is a new phase in the life cycle of a plant, giving rise to new inspection issues of supervision. During the period of uncertainty, while awaiting SKI has identified ten key areas, dealing with the safety culture of the organization, in connection with the decommissioning of Barsebaeck 1. 1. Obtaining and retaining staff competence during decommissioning; 2. Sustaining organizational memory; 3. Identifying key organizational functions and management skills that are critical during the transition from operations to decommissioning. 4. Sustaining organizational viability and accountability for decommissioning; 5. Sustaining motivation and trust in management of dismantlement; 6. Overseeing contractors; 7. Decommissioning multi-unit sites when one unit continues to operate; 8. Delaying dismantling of decommissioning nuclear power plants; 9. Establishing organizational processes and control systems to identify and address emerging as well as known safety issues; 10. Determining and communicating the level of risk during decommissioning. The list of safety issues that can be linked to safety culture, and questions of organisation, illustrates the scope of supervision that must be performed during decommissioning of a nuclear power plant. Given the myriad of complex activities taking place, this focus is a useful way to assist the regulator to articulate concerns to the power plant management in terms of links to potential safety problems

  10. Waste management in decommissioning projects at KAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two decommissioning projects are being carried out at the KAERI (Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute), one for the Korea research reactors, KRR-1 and KRR-2, and another for the uranium conversion plant (UCP). The concept of the management of the wastes from the decommissioning sites was reviewed with relation to the decommissioning strategies, technologies for the treatment and the decontamination, and the characteristics of the waste. All the liquid waste generated from the KRR-1 and KRR-2 decommissioning site is evaporated by a solar evaporation facility and all the liquid waste from the UCP is treated together with the lagoon sludge waste. The solid wastes from the decommissioning sites are categorized into three groups; not contaminated, restricted releasable and radioactive waste. The not-contaminated waste will be reused and/or disposed of an industrial disposal site, and the releasable waste will be stored for a future disposal at the KAERI. The radioactive waste is packed into containers, and it will be stored at the decommissioning sites till it is sent to a national repository site. The reduction of the radioactive solid waste is one of the strategies for the decommissioning projects and could be achieved by a repeated decontamination. By the achievement of a minimization strategy, the amount of radioactive waste was reduced and the disposal cost will be reduced, but the cost for the manpower, and for a direct handling of the materials as well as for the administration was increased

  11. Methodology and technology of decommissioning nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decommissioning and decontamination of nuclear facilities is a topic of great interest to many Member States of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) because of the large number of older nuclear facilities which are or soon will be retired from service. In response to increased international interest in decommissioning and to the needs of Member States, the IAEA's activities in this area have increased during the past few years and will be enhanced considerably in the future. A long range programme using an integrated systems approach covering all the technical, regulatory and safety steps associated with the decommissioning of nuclear facilities is being developed. The database resulting from this work is required so that Member States can decommission their nuclear facilities in a safe time and cost effective manner and the IAEA can effectively respond to requests for assistance. The report is a review of the current state of the art of the methodology and technology of decommissioning nuclear facilities including remote systems technology. This is the first report in the IAEA's expanded programme and was of benefit in outlining future activities. Certain aspects of the work reviewed in this report, such as the recycling of radioactive materials from decommissioning, will be examined in depth in future reports. The information presented should be useful to those responsible for or interested in planning or implementing the decommissioning of nuclear facilities

  12. Lessons learned in decommissioning laboratory facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The misconception that the decommissioning of small facilities is a trivial, low priority activity often results in unnecessary costs, delays and possible safety issues, e.g. the loss of radiation sources, which in some countries has led to the death of members of the public who came into contact with them. Much of the existing technical literature on decommissioning addresses the technological and other aspects of the decontamination and dismantling of the larger nuclear facilities, such as nuclear power plants and relatively large prototype, research and test reactors, although an increasing number of documents focusing on decommissioning of smaller facilities have been published in the last decades. Furthermore, the infrastructure for sharing the knowledge and experience gained in the decommissioning of large nuclear facilities is already well established in many parts of the world, but this is not generally the case for smaller facilities. The paper aims to identify some of the lessons learned when decommissioning laboratory facilities in the United Kingdom. Much of the information is generic and is equally relevant to a whole range of the smaller facilities that exist worldwide. It is anticipated that the sharing of knowledge gained from the decommissioning of laboratory facilities will be directly relevant to others faced with similar projects in the future, such that they can benefit directly and achieve safe, cost-effective completion of a well considered decommissioning project. (author)

  13. Decommissioning activities for Salaspils research reactor - 59055

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In May 1995, the Latvian government decided to shut down the Salaspils Research Reactor (SRR). The reactor is out of operation since July 1998. A conceptual study for the decommissioning of SRR has been carried out by Noell-KRC-Energie- und Umwelttechnik GmbH at 1998-1999. The Latvian government decided to start the direct dismantling to 'green field' in October 26, 1999. The upgrade of decommissioning and dismantling plan was performed in 2003-2004 years, which change the main goal of decommissioning to the 'brown field'. The paper deals with the SRR decommissioning experience during 1999-2010. The main decommissioning stages are discussed including spent fuel and radioactive wastes management. The legal aspects and procedures for decommissioning of SRR are described in the paper. It was found, that the involvement of stakeholders at the early stages significantly promotes the decommissioning of nuclear facility. Radioactive waste management's main efforts were devoted to collecting and conditioning of 'historical' radioactive wastes from different storages outside and inside of reactor hall. All radioactive materials (more than 96 tons) were conditioned in concrete containers for disposal in the radioactive wastes repository 'Radons' at Baldone site. The dismantling of contaminated and activated components of SRR systems is discussed in paper. The cementation of dismantled radioactive wastes in concrete containers is discussed. Infrastructure of SRR, including personal protective and radiation measurement equipment, for decommissioning purposes was upgraded significantly. Additional attention was devoted to the free release measurement's technique. The certified laboratory was installed for supporting of all decommissioning activities. All non-radioactive equipments and materials outside of reactor buildings were released for clearance and dismantled for reusing or conventional disposing. Weakly contaminated materials from reactor hall were collected, decontaminated and removed for clearance measurements. (authors)

  14. 77 FR 8902 - Draft Regulatory Guide: Issuance, Availability Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ...Availability Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Reactors AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...DG-1271 ``Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Reactors.'' This guide describes...184, ``Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Reactors,'' dated July...

  15. Quality management in nuclear facilities decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Internationally, the decommissioning organizations of nuclear facilities carry out the decommissioning according to the safety requirements established for the regulatory bodies. Some of them perform their activities in compliance with a quality assurance system. This work establishes standardization through a Specifications Requirement Document, for the management system of the nuclear facilities decommissioning organizations. It integrates with aspects of the quality, environmental, occupational safety and health management systems, and also makes these aspects compatible with all the requirements of the nuclear industry recommended for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (author)

  16. Bankruptcy potential threatens decommissioning funds, says NRC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electric utilities and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) disagreed at an America Nuclear Society seminar on how reactor decommissioning should be financed. Industry and state regulators claim it should be handled by standard depreciation methods without involving the NRC, which argues that it must guard against safety risks from industry bankruptices and premature decommissioning. Both sides agreed that funds must be collected, but disagreed on the best method. Their options include the deposit method, external sinking fund, internal reserve, and insurance or surety bond. The NRC feels that too many utilities face possible bankruptcy unrelated to decommissioning or accidents, and that this possibility should outweigh other considerations. 1 table

  17. Planning considerations in nuclear facility decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors' experience in planning the decommissioning of the Shippingport Atomic Power Station has led to a number of pertinent conclusions concerning the planning concepts and sequences which should be applied when considering the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Planning thoughts are presented for four different areas: for the period of time before operations start; for accumulation and recording of data during the operational life of the facility; for guiding the detailed engineering; and for the actual field dismantling period, when certain sequences are important. Definitive, well-conceived planning is required in all these areas if the decommissioning effort is to be efficiently and safely performed

  18. Decommissioning and decontrolling the R1-reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweden's first nuclear reactor - the research reactor R1 - situated in bedrock under the Royal Technical Institute of Stockholm, has in the period 1981-1983 been subject to a complete decommissioning. The National Institute for Radiation Protection has followed the work in detail, and has after the completion of the decommissioning performed measurements of radioactivity on site. The report gives an account of the work the Institute has done in preparation for- and during decommissioning and specifically report on the measurements for classification of the local as free for non-nuclear use. (aa)

  19. Social effects of decommissioning Trawsfynydd Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decision to close Trawsfynydd in 1993 had significant implications for the staff and local community. The site is situated within a National Park and local employment opportunities are limited. The staff and local communities were consulted regarding the issues arising from closure and decommissioning. This consultation influenced the decommissioning strategy for the site, with emphasis placed on the mitigation of the effects of closure. Subsequent studies have shown that the adopted strategies have served to limit the social and economic effects. The experience at Trawsfynydd has proved to be generally applicable at other decommissioning sites. (author)

  20. Pipeline Decommissioning Trial AWE Berkshire UK - 13619

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnew, Kieran [AWE, Aldermaston, Reading, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    This Paper details the implementation of a 'Decommissioning Trial' to assess the feasibility of decommissioning the redundant pipeline operated by AWE located in Berkshire UK. The paper also presents the tool box of decommissioning techniques that were developed during the decommissioning trial. Constructed in the 1950's and operated until 2005, AWE used a pipeline for the authorised discharge of treated effluent. Now redundant, the pipeline is under a care and surveillance regime awaiting decommissioning. The pipeline is some 18.5 km in length and extends from AWE site to the River Thames. Along its route the pipeline passes along and under several major roads, railway lines and rivers as well as travelling through woodland, agricultural land and residential areas. Currently under care and surveillance AWE is considering a number of options for decommissioning the pipeline. One option is to remove the pipeline. In order to assist option evaluation and assess the feasibility of removing the pipeline a decommissioning trial was undertaken and sections of the pipeline were removed within the AWE site. The objectives of the decommissioning trial were to: - Demonstrate to stakeholders that the pipeline can be removed safely, securely and cleanly - Develop a 'tool box' of methods that could be deployed to remove the pipeline - Replicate the conditions and environments encountered along the route of the pipeline The onsite trial was also designed to replicate the physical prevailing conditions and constraints encountered along the remainder of its route i.e. working along a narrow corridor, working in close proximity to roads, working in proximity to above ground and underground services (e.g. Gas, Water, Electricity). By undertaking the decommissioning trial AWE have successfully demonstrated the pipeline can be decommissioned in a safe, secure and clean manor and have developed a tool box of decommissioning techniques. The tool box of includes; - Hot tapping - a method of breaching the pipe while maintaining containment to remove residual liquids, - Crimp and shear - remote crimping, cutting and handling of pipe using the excavator - Pipe jacking - a way of removing pipes avoiding excavations and causing minimal disturbance and disruption. The details of the decommissioning trial design, the techniques employed, their application and effectiveness are discussed and evaluated here in. (authors)

  1. Deactivation, Decontamination and Decommissioning Project Summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, David Shane; Webber, Frank Laverne

    2001-07-01

    This report is a compilation of summary descriptions of Deactivation, Decontamination and Decommissioning, and Surveillance and Maintenance projects planned for inactive facilities and sites at the INEEL from FY-2002 through FY-2010. Deactivations of contaminated facilities will produce safe and stable facilities requiring minimal surveillance and maintenance pending further decontamination and decommissioning. Decontamination and decommissioning actions remove contaminated facilities, thus eliminating long-term surveillance and maintenance. The projects are prioritized based on risk to DOE-ID, the public, and the environment, and the reduction of DOE-ID mortgage costs and liability at the INEEL.

  2. Pipeline Decommissioning Trial AWE Berkshire UK - 13619

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Paper details the implementation of a 'Decommissioning Trial' to assess the feasibility of decommissioning the redundant pipeline operated by AWE located in Berkshire UK. The paper also presents the tool box of decommissioning techniques that were developed during the decommissioning trial. Constructed in the 1950's and operated until 2005, AWE used a pipeline for the authorised discharge of treated effluent. Now redundant, the pipeline is under a care and surveillance regime awaiting decommissioning. The pipeline is some 18.5 km in length and extends from AWE site to the River Thames. Along its route the pipeline passes along and under several major roads, railway lines and rivers as well as travelling through woodland, agricultural land and residential areas. Currently under care and surveillance AWE is considering a number of options for decommissioning the pipeline. One option is to remove the pipeline. In order to assist option evaluation and assess the feasibility of removing the pipeline a decommissioning trial was undertaken and sections of the pipeline were removed within the AWE site. The objectives of the decommissioning trial were to: - Demonstrate to stakeholders that the pipeline can be removed safely, securely and cleanly - Develop a 'tool box' of methods that could be deployed to remove the pipeline - Replicate the conditions and environments encountered along the route of the pipeline The onsite trial was also designed to replicate the physical prevailing conditions and constraints encountered along the remainder of its route i.e. working along a narrow corridor, working in close proximity to roads, working in proximity to above ground and underground services (e.g. Gas, Water, Electricity). By undertaking the decommissioning trial AWE have successfully demonstrated the pipeline can be decommissioned in a safe, secure and clean manor and have developed a tool box of decommissioning techniques. The tool box of includes; - Hot tapping - a method of breaching the pipe while maintaining containment to remove residual liquids, - Crimp and shear - remote crimping, cutting and handling of pipe using the excavator - Pipe jacking - a way of removing pipes avoiding excavations and causing minimal disturbance and disruption. The details of the decommissioning trial design, the techniques employed, their application and effectiveness are discussed and evaluated here in. (authors)

  3. Modelling of nuclear power plant decommissioning financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costs related to the decommissioning of nuclear power plants create a significant financial burden for nuclear power plant operators. This article discusses the various methodologies employed by selected European countries for financing of the liabilities related to the nuclear power plant decommissioning. The article also presents methodology of allocation of future decommissioning costs to the running costs of nuclear power plant in the form of fee imposed on each megawatt hour generated. The application of the methodology is presented in the form of a case study on a new nuclear power plant with installed capacity 1000 MW. (authors)

  4. Modelling of nuclear power plant decommissioning financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemš, J; Knápek, J; Králík, T; Hejhal, M; Kuban?ák, J; Vaší?ek, J

    2015-06-01

    Costs related to the decommissioning of nuclear power plants create a significant financial burden for nuclear power plant operators. This article discusses the various methodologies employed by selected European countries for financing of the liabilities related to the nuclear power plant decommissioning. The article also presents methodology of allocation of future decommissioning costs to the running costs of nuclear power plant in the form of fee imposed on each megawatt hour generated. The application of the methodology is presented in the form of a case study on a new nuclear power plant with installed capacity 1000 MW. PMID:25979740

  5. Development of a Decommissioning Certificate Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Decommissioning Certificate Program has been developed at Washington State University Tri-Cities (WSU TC) in conjunction with Bechtel Hanford, Inc. (BHI), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)to address the increasing need for qualified professionals to direct and manage decommissioning projects. The cooperative effort between academia, industry, and government in the development and delivery of this Program of education and training is described, as well as the Program's design to prepare students to contribute sooner, and at a higher level, to decommissioning projects

  6. Development of a Decommissioning Certificate Program; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Decommissioning Certificate Program has been developed at Washington State University Tri-Cities (WSU TC) in conjunction with Bechtel Hanford, Inc. (BHI), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)to address the increasing need for qualified professionals to direct and manage decommissioning projects. The cooperative effort between academia, industry, and government in the development and delivery of this Program of education and training is described, as well as the Program's design to prepare students to contribute sooner, and at a higher level, to decommissioning projects

  7. Decommissioning cost estimates based on the international structure for decommissioning costing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decommissioning cost estimates is essential part of decommissioning planning in all stages of nuclear installation lifetime. It has been recognized that there is a variety of formats, content and practice in decommissioning costing, due to the specific national requirement or to different assumptions. These differences make the process of decommissioning costing less transparent and more complicated to review. To solve these issues the document: 'A Proposed Standardised List of Items for Costing Purposes in the Decommissioning of Nuclear Installation' (known as 'Yellow Book') was jointly published by IAEA, OECD/NEA and EC in 1999. After a decade, the document was revised and issued by same organizations under the title: 'International Structure for Decommissioning Costing (ISDC) of Nuclear Installation. ISDC as the list of typical decommissioning activities (could be used also a check-list) provides s general cost structure suitable for use for all types of nuclear installations i.e. power plants, research reactors, fuel cycle facilities or laboratories. The purpose of the ISDC, is to facilitate the communication and to promote uniformity and to provide a common platform in presenting the decommissioning costs. Clear definition of ISDC items supports the common understanding of cost items, i.e. what is behind the cost. ISDC decommissioning activities are organised in a hierarchical structure, with the 1st and 2nd levels being aggregations of basic activities identified at the 3rd level. At (author)

  8. ECED 2013: Eastern and Central Europe Decommissioning. International Conference on Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities. Conference Guide and Book of Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Conference included the following sessions: (I) Opening session (2 contributions); (II) Managerial and Funding Aspects of Decommissioning (5 contributions); (III) Technical Aspects of Decommissioning I (6 contributions); (IV) Experience with Present Decommissioning Projects (4 contributions); (V) Poster Session (14 contributions); (VI) Eastern and Central Europe Decommissioning - Panel Discussion; (VII) Release of Materials, Waste Management and Spent Fuel Management (6 contributions); (VIII) Technical Aspects of Decommissioning II (5 contributions).

  9. ABERDEEN DRAIN, BINGHAM COUNTY, IDAHO - WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, 1978-1979

    Science.gov (United States)

    A water quality survey was conducted on the Aberdeen Drain, Idaho (17040206) a tributary to American Falls Reservoir, during 1978 and 1979. During irrigation season, discharge is approximately 30 cfs and is reduced to approximately 2-5 cfs during non-irrigation season. The City ...

  10. 75 FR 9960 - First Trust/Aberdeen Global Opportunity Income Fund, et al.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    .../Chartwell Total Return Equity Income Fund, First Trust/Aberdeen Global Credit Strategies Fund (collectively... entities that result from a reorganization into another jurisdiction or a change in the type of business... strategy. The Adviser is controlled by Grace Partners of DuPage L.P. (``Grace'') and The...

  11. The Aberdeen Indian Health Service Infant Mortality Study: Design, Methodology, and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Leslie L.; Krogh, Christopher; Welty, Thomas K.; Willinger, Marian; Iyasu, Solomon

    2001-01-01

    Of all Indian Health Service areas, the Aberdeen Area has consistently had the highest infant mortality rate. Among some tribes in this area the rate has exceeded 30/1000 live birth and half the infant deaths have been attributed to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, a rate four to five times higher than the national average. The Indian Health Service,…

  12. Health physics considerations in decontamination and decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These proceedings contain papers on legal considerations, environmental aspects, decommissioning equipment and methods, instrumentation, applied health physics, waste classification and disposal, and project experience. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers

  13. Decommissioning and disposal costs in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction Goal: Secure sufficient financial resources. Question: How much money is needed? Mean: Concrete plans for decommissioning and waste disposal. - It is the task of the operators to elaborate these plans and to evaluate the corresponding costs - Plans and costs are to be reviewed by the authorities Decommissioning Plans and Costs - Comprise decommissioning, dismantling and management (including disposal) of the waste. - New studies 2001 for each Swiss nuclear power plant (KKB 2 x 380 MWe, KKM 370 MWe, KKG 1020 MWe, KKL 1180 MWe). - Studies performed by NIS (D). - Last developments taken into account (Niederaichbach, Gundremmingen, Kahl). Decommissioning: Results and Review Results: Total cost estimates decreasing (billion CHF) 1994 1998 2001 13.7 13.1 11.8 Lower costs for spent fuel conditioning and BE/HAA/LMA repository (Opalinus Clay) Split in 2025: 5.6 bil. CHF paid by NPP 6.2 billion CHF in Fund Review: Concentrates on disposal, ongoing

  14. MODELLING OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANT DECOMMISSIONING FINANCING.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bemš, J.; Knápek, J.; Králík, T.; Hejhal, M.; Kuban?ák, Ján; Vaší?ek, J.

    2015-01-01

    Ro?. 164, ?. 4 (2015), s. 519-522. ISSN 0144-8420 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : nuclear power plant * methodology * future decommissioning costs Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.913, year: 2014

  15. Decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The German law governing decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear installations can be called to be embryonic as compared to other areas of the nuclear regulatory system, and this is why the AIDN/INLA regional meeting organised by the German national committee in July 1992 in Schwerin has been intended to elaborate an assessment of the current legal situation and on this basis establish proposals for enhancement and development, taking into account the experience reported by experts from abroad. The proceedings comprise the paper of the opening session, 'Engineering and safety aspects of the decommissioning of nuclear installations', and the papers and discussions of the technical sessions entitled: - Comparative assessment of the regulatory regimes. - Legislation governing the decommissioning of nuclear installations in Germany. - Analysis of the purpose and law making substance of existing regulatory provisions for the decommissioning of nuclear installations. All seventeen papers of the meeting have been prepared for separate retrieval from the database. (orig./HSCH)

  16. The total decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following nuclear facilities in the Federal Republic of Germany are now ready for total decommissioning: the power plant Niederaichbach (KKN), the nuclear ship Otto Hahn and the research reactor FR2. Planning work on KKN commenced in 1979 and the approval procedure was begun in early 1980 when the approval contract was submitted. At the beginning of 1980 the contract for decommissioning the nuclear facilities on the Otto Hahn was awarded. Approval was received in December 1980 and work was begun on decommissioning the plant. FR2 is still in operation and will be shut down at the end of 1981. Planning work for decommissioning the nuclear part began at the end of 1980. The planning and the methods which are intended to be used for the three plants are described. (orig.)

  17. Environmental impact assessment of NPP decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this presentation the following potential impacts of decommissioning of NPP are discussed: - Impacts on population; Impacts on natural environment; Land impacts; Impacts on urban complex and land utilisation; Possible impacts on area as a result of failure.

  18. Waste Management for Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Plants: An EPRI Decommissioning Program Report - Waste Management for Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Plants. An EPRI Decommissioning Project Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is a non-profit research organization that conducts research related to the generation, delivery, use, and environmental impacts of electricity. EPRI also conducts research for the safe and optimized decommissioning of nuclear power plants through its Decommissioning and Remediation Technology Program. The decommissioning of a nuclear power plant involves the safe disposition of a large quantity of radioactive, hazardous and conventional waste. The logistics of characterizing, staging, packaging and shipment of this waste needs to be carefully planned so as to support the decommissioning project schedule. The most efficient decommissioning and waste management process is one in which effective waste management and disposal options are available as the waste is being generated so as not to delay or impede the progress of decommissioning. As the cost of waste disposal is a large component of the total decommissioning budget, the optimal treatment and disposal option needs to be chosen for each type of waste. Waste must be generated, classified, and segregated in such as manner as to take advantage of all available disposal pathways: clearance, very low level waste, non-radioactive/hazardous waste, and low level waste disposal sites. This approach will help to avoid the unnecessary use of scarce disposal capacity for the higher activity waste. There has been a number of nuclear power plant decommissioning projects successfully completed in the United States. These projects have used various waste disposal options and developed successful methods for handling the large quantities of waste created by the decommissioning. Additionally, decommissioning projects in Europe are in progress or in the planning stages such that strategies for the handling of decommissioning waste are being developed and/or implemented to address the regulatory requirements and disposal options available in these countries. EPRI is preparing a report on decommissioning waste management experiences that will provide summaries of: - Waste management experiences in the United States during power plant decommissioning projects. - Waste management plans and experiences for some of the decommissioning projects in other countries that are in progress where these plans have been developed or are being implemented. In line with the subject of this symposium, this paper will focus on the disposition of metal waste from decommissioning including the following: - Experiences in the U.S where disposal costs are relatively low and large components can often be disposed of in one piece in shallow land burial. These factors and lack of clearance levels have limited the cost benefit of metal recycle in the United States. - In other countries, particularly in Europe, relatively high waste disposal costs and established clearance levels have resulted in the development of processing methods to reduce the volume of radioactive waste requiring disposal. How clearance, decontamination and metal melting contribute to these developments will be discussed in this paper. In summary, how volume reduction techniques including contaminated metal processing have helped reduce the total quantity of waste resulting from decommissioning will be discussed. (authors)

  19. Decommissioning of DR 1, Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes the decommissioning activities carried out at the 2kW homogeneous reactor DR 1 at Risoe National Laboratory. The decommissioning work took place from summer 2004 until late autumn 2005. The components with the highest activity, the core vessel the recombiner and the piping and valves connected to these, were dismantled first by Danish Decommissioning's own technicians. Demolition of the control rod house and the biological shield as well as the removal of the floor in the reactor hall was carried out by an external demolition contractor. The building was emptied and left for other use. Clearance measurements of the building showed that radionuclide concentrations were everywhere below the clearance limit set by the Danish nuclear regulatory authorities. Furthermore, measurements on the surrounding area showed that there was no contamination that could be attributed to the operation and decommissioning of DR 1. (au)

  20. Decommissioning of DR 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauridsen, Kurt

    2006-01-15

    The report describes the decommissioning activities carried out at the 2kW homogeneous reactor DR 1 at Risoe National Laboratory. The decommissioning work took place from summer 2004 until late autumn 2005. The components with the highest activity, the core vessel the recombiner and the piping and valves connected to these, were dismantled first by Danish Decommissioning's own technicians. Demolition of the control rod house and the biological shield as well as the removal of the floor in the reactor hall was carried out by an external demolition contractor. The building was emptied and left for other use. Clearance measurements of the building showed that radionuclide concentrations were everywhere below the clearance limit set by the Danish nuclear regulatory authorities. Furthermore, measurements on the surrounding area showed that there was no contamination that could be attributed to the operation and decommissioning of DR 1. (au)

  1. The cost of decommissioning uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report identifies several key operations that are commonly carried out during decommissioning of tailings areas in the Canadian environment. These operations are unit costed for a generic site to provide a base reference case. The unit costs have also been scaled to the quantities required for the decommissioning of four Canadian sites and these scaled quantities compared with site-specific engineering cost estimates and actual costs incurred in carrying out the decommissioning activities. Variances in costing are discussed. The report also recommends a generic monitoring regime upon which both short- and longer-term environmental monitoring costs are calculated. Although every site must be addressed as a site-specific case, and monitoring programs must be tailored to fit a specific site, it would appear that for the conventional decommissioning and monitoring practices that have been employed to date, costs can be reasonably estimated when site-specific conditions are taken into account

  2. Policy on the decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Regulatory Policy Statement describes the policy of the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) on the decommissioning of those facilities defined as nuclear facilities in the Atomic Energy Control (AEC) Regulations. It is intended as a formal statement, primarily for the information of licensees, or potential licensees, of the regulatory process and requirements generally applicable to the decommissioning of nuclear facilities licensed and regulated by the AECB pursuant to the authority of the AEC Act and Regulations

  3. Regulation of decommissioning in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1940, the United Kingdom's (UK) nuclear programme has included the decommissioning of Research Reactors; Fuel Conversion, Enrichment and Fabrication Plants; Power Reactors, and Waste Treatment Plants. The newly formed Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) has developed a programme for all of the UK's civil nuclear liabilities including five Magnox reactors that are currently undergoing decommissioning, two undergoing defuelling and four due to cease operation over the next 5 years. The UK Health and Safety Executive's (HSE) Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) regulates safety and the management of radioactive waste at nuclear licensed sites in the United Kingdom. The main legislation is the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 (HSAW74) and its associated statutory provisions, which include the Nuclear Installations Act (as amended) 1965 (NIA 65). Additionally, NII enforces the Nuclear Reactors (Environmental Impact Assessment for Decommissioning) Regulations 1999. Under NIA65, no site may be used for installing or operating any nuclear installation unless a site licence has been granted by the HSE. NIA65 allows HSE to attach conditions to the site licence in the interests of safety, or with respect to the handling, treatment and disposal of nuclear matter, including radioactive waste. These licence conditions include decommissioning arrangements, supervision and control, emergency arrangements, training, operating rules and operating instructions. NII is reviewing the regulation of decommissioning Magnox power reactors, to ensure its approach to regulation remains proportionate and consistent. The review includes consideration of hazard levels and associated risks at such sites; public expectations of regulators; regulation of the health and safety of workers; environmental impact assessment and management; and the need to optimise the effectiveness of NII's inspectors. The paper summarises UK's approach to regulation of decommissioning nuclear facilities and presents the considerations included within the review of regulation of decommissioning Magnox power reactors. (author)

  4. Risk Management of Large Component in Decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nah, Kyung Ku; Kim, Tae Ryong [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The need for energy, especially electric energy, has been dramatically increasing in Korea. Therefore, a rapid growth in nuclear power development has been achieved to have about 30% of electric power production. However, such a large nuclear power generation has been producing a significant amount of radioactive waste and other matters such as safety issue. In addition, owing to the severe accidents at the Fukushima in Japan, public concerns regarding NPP and radiation hazard have greatly increased. In Korea, the operation of KORI 1 has been scheduled to be faced with end of lifetime in several years and Wolsong 1 has been being under review for extending its life. This is the reason why the preparation of nuclear power plant decommissioning is significant in this time. Decommissioning is the final phase in the life-cycle of a nuclear facility and during decommissioning operation, one of the most important management in decommissioning is how to deal with the disused large component. Therefore, in this study, the risk in large component in decommissioning is to be identified and the key risk factor is to be analyzed from where can be prepared to handle decommissioning process safely and efficiently. Developing dedicated acceptance criteria for large components at disposal site was analyzed as a key factor. Acceptance criteria applied to deal with large components like what size of those should be and how to be taken care of during disposal process strongly affect other major works. For example, if the size of large component was not set up at disposal site, any dismantle work in decommissioning is not able to be conducted. Therefore, considering insufficient time left for decommissioning of some NPP, it is absolutely imperative that those criteria should be laid down.

  5. Decommissioning Project Manager's Implementing Instructions (PMII)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decommissioning Project personnel are responsible for complying with these PMII. If at any time in the performance of their duties a conflict between these instructions and other written or verbal direction is recognized or perceived, the supervisor or worker shall place his/her work place in a safe condition, stop work, and seek resolution of the conflict from the Decommissioning Project Manager or his designee

  6. The Ignalina NPP Decommissioning Project Management Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overall goal of DPMU is to prepare Ignalina NPP for its decommissioning by providing the necessary supporting engineering and procurement activities. Ignalina NPP signed contract for the Decommissioning Project Management Unit (DPMU) Phase 1 with consortium formed by National Nuclear Corporation Ltd. (England), Swedpower (Sweden) and Belgatom (Belgium) on December 2001. The scope of works of DPMU is listed and described. An organisation structure of DPMU is presented

  7. SGDes project. Decommissioning management system of Enresa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ENRESA, the public company responsible for managing radioactive waste produced in spain and nuclear facilities decommissioning work, has developed a management information system (SGDes) for the decommissioning of nuclear power plants, critical for the company. SGDes system is capable of responding to operational needs for efficient, controlled and secure way. Dismantling activities require a rigorous operations control within highly specialized, process systematization and safety framework, both the human and technological point of view. (Author)

  8. Risk Management of Large Component in Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need for energy, especially electric energy, has been dramatically increasing in Korea. Therefore, a rapid growth in nuclear power development has been achieved to have about 30% of electric power production. However, such a large nuclear power generation has been producing a significant amount of radioactive waste and other matters such as safety issue. In addition, owing to the severe accidents at the Fukushima in Japan, public concerns regarding NPP and radiation hazard have greatly increased. In Korea, the operation of KORI 1 has been scheduled to be faced with end of lifetime in several years and Wolsong 1 has been being under review for extending its life. This is the reason why the preparation of nuclear power plant decommissioning is significant in this time. Decommissioning is the final phase in the life-cycle of a nuclear facility and during decommissioning operation, one of the most important management in decommissioning is how to deal with the disused large component. Therefore, in this study, the risk in large component in decommissioning is to be identified and the key risk factor is to be analyzed from where can be prepared to handle decommissioning process safely and efficiently. Developing dedicated acceptance criteria for large components at disposal site was analyzed as a key factor. Acceptance criteria applied to deal with large components like what size of those should be and how to be taken care of during disposal process strongly affect other major works. For example, if the size of large component was not set up at disposal site, any dismantle work in decommissioning is not able to be conducted. Therefore, considering insufficient time left for decommissioning of some NPP, it is absolutely imperative that those criteria should be laid down

  9. A nationwide modelling approach to decommissioning - 16182

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we describe a proposed UK national approach to modelling decommissioning. For the first time, we shall have an insight into optimizing the safety and efficiency of a national decommissioning strategy. To do this we use the General Case Integrated Waste Algorithm (GIA), a universal model of decommissioning nuclear plant, power plant, waste arisings and the associated knowledge capture. The model scales from individual items of plant through cells, groups of cells, buildings, whole sites and then on up to a national scale. We describe the national vision for GIA which can be broken down into three levels: 1) the capture of the chronological order of activities that an experienced decommissioner would use to decommission any nuclear facility anywhere in the world - this is Level 1 of GIA; 2) the construction of an Operational Research (OR) model based on Level 1 to allow rapid what if scenarios to be tested quickly (Level 2); 3) the construction of a state of the art knowledge capture capability that allows future generations to learn from our current decommissioning experience (Level 3). We show the progress to date in developing GIA in levels 1 and 2. As part of level 1, GIA has assisted in the development of an IMechE professional decommissioning qualification. Furthermore, we describe GIA as the basis of a UK-Owned database of decommissioning norms for such things as costs, productivity, durations etc. From level 2, we report on a pilot study that has successfully tested the basic principles for the OR numerical simulation of the algorithm. We then highlight the advantages of applying the OR modelling approach nationally. In essence, a series of 'what if...' scenarios can be tested that will improve the safety and efficiency of decommissioning. (authors)

  10. Decommissioning preliminary activities of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decommissioning preliminary activities of a nuclear power plant at the end of its operating life consist in a number of technical, licensing and management actions by which the plant is set in a 'monitored storage' condition (or 'passive safe storage' condition) before the final stage of the decommissioning for site release. In this article the goals, the problems and the strategies of this preliminary activities are described

  11. Safety in decommissioning of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Guide covers the technical and administrative considerations relevant to the nuclear aspects of safety in the decommissioning of reactors, as they apply to the reactor and the reactor site. While the treatment, transport and disposal of radioactive wastes arising from decommissioning are important considerations, these aspects are not specifically covered in this Guide. Likewise, other possible issues in decommissioning (e.g. land use and other environmental issues, industrial safety, financial assurance) which are not directly related to radiological safety are also not considered. Generally, decommissioning will be undertaken after planned final shutdown of the reactor. In some cases a reactor may have to be decommissioned following an unplanned or unexpected event of a series or damaging nature occurring during operation. In these cases special procedures for decommissioning may need to be developed, peculiar to the particular circumstances. This Guide could be used as a basis for the development of these procedures although specific consideration of the circumstances which create the need for them is beyond its scope

  12. Decommissioning cost estimating and contingency application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The funding of nuclear power plant decommissioning has matured into an integral part of utility planning. State public utility commission regulators and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission have recognized the need to assure the availability of funds to safely decommission these facilities at the end of their useful lives. The cost estimates for decommissioning need to reflect the changes in labor and material costs due to inflation, changes in waste disposal costs for packaging, transporting and burying radioactive materials, and the site-specific factors for each unit that account for differences in plant design and construction. Decommissioning activities involve remote tooling to segment the reactor vessel and internals, decontamination of contaminated systems to reduce occupational exposure, controlled blasting to demolish concrete structures, and removal and disposal of radioactive wastes by controlled burial. The unforeseeable problems encountered in performing these activities result in additional costs that are accounted for through contingency. The recent progress in nuclear power plant decommissioning cost estimation and contingency application are discussed. The important factor to be included in planning for the establishment of a decommissioning fund are identified, and typical results of recent estimates are provided. The nuclear industry is probably one of the first industries to plan for the eventual retirement of its facilities, and the public needs to be aware of these efforts

  13. A methodology of Decommissioning Cost Estimation for Nuclear Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kwan Seong; Lee, Dong Gye; Jung, Chong Hun; Lee, Kune Woo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    Decommissioning cost estimation should be made according to the phases of the decommissioning activities and the installed components of the nuclear facilities. In this paper, the basic framework for decommissioning cost estimation is completed so that it could be used as a technique for decommissioning cost estimation by specifying the cost items and the group components as well as unit cost factors on which the work time is calculated. Also, the approach for the decommissioning cost estimation of the major activities and tasks are considered and reviewed. Afterwards, these methods will be utilized as the basic technologies during establishing the decommissioning planning of nuclear research reactor.

  14. Decommissioning of fast reactors after sodium draining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acknowledging the importance of passing on knowledge and experience, as well mentoring the next generation of scientists and engineers, and in response to expressed needs by Member States, the IAEA has undertaken concrete steps towards the implementation of a fast reactor data retrieval and knowledge preservation initiative. Decommissioning of fast reactors and other sodium bearing facilities is a domain in which considerable experience has been accumulated. Within the framework and drawing on the wide expertise of the Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG-FR), the IAEA has initiated activities aiming at preserving the feedback (lessons learned) from this experience and condensing those to technical recommendations on fast reactor design features that would ease their decommissioning. Following a recommendation by the TWG-FR, the IAEA had convened a topical Technical Meeting (TM) on 'Operational and Decommissioning Experience with Fast Reactors', hosted by CEA, Centre d'Etudes de Cadarache, France, from 11 to 15 March 2002 (IAEA-TECDOC- 1405). The participants in that TM exchanged detailed technical information on fast reactor operation and decommissioning experience with various sodium cooled fast reactors, and, in particular, reviewed the status of the various decommissioning programmes. The TM concluded that the decommissioning of fast reactors to reach safe enclosure presented no major difficulties, and that this had been accomplished mainly through judicious adaptation of processes and procedures implemented during the reactor operation phase, and the development of safe sodium waste treatment processes. However, the TM also concluded that, on the path to achieving total dismantling, challenges remain with regard to the decommissioning of components after sodium draining, and suggested that a follow-on TM be convened, that would provide a forum for in-depth scientific and technical exchange on this topic. This publication constitutes the Proceedings of this follow-up TM held in Cadarache, France, 26-30 September 2005

  15. Securing decommissioning funds. Why organization matters?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Securing decommissioning funds requires that the financial resources set aside for the purpose of decommissioning be managed prudently. Decommissioning of nuclear power plant is prescribed by National Atomic Laws or by other nuclear legislation. It is a mandatory operation. The operators of nuclear power plants set money aside for that purpose. This is known as 'Decommissioning reserve fund'. Decommissioning implies costs very distant in time. Thus, it is obvious, from an economic point of view, that the funds set aside should be managed. As decommissioning is mandatory, the funds accumulated should be secured. In others words, they should be available when needed. Availability of funds is influenced by endogenous and exogenous factors. Endogenous factors are a matter of design of the reserve funds. They include the management of the funds, its monitoring and control... Availability of funds is influenced by these factors, depending on the rules to which the behaviour of the manager of the funds is subjected. In contrast, exogenous factors deal with the energy context. These factors are mainly the electricity sector organisation and/or the overall economic situation. They are decisive factors of the economic performance of the reserve fund for a given design. Therefore, the requirement of availability of funds, when needed, is a matter of compatibility between the design of the decommissioning funds and the electricity context. Put differently, reserve fund's design need to be consistent with the electricity context's features in respect of the availability of funds. Current reserve funds were designed in a context of monopoly regime. In this context, availability of decommissioning funds was not questionable. At least, as far as the design of the reserve funds is concerned. This is because nuclear generator didn't confront any competition pressure. Electricity prices were set trough rate base mechanism, and all the business risks were borne by the customers. Because of electricity sector restructuring, businesses are no longer protected from market sanctions and stock market volatility. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the compatibility of the design of reserve fund models with the liberalised electricity context. The paper first considers the design of reserve funds and concludes that there is no single design. Based on the variety of design, section two assess their respective compatibility with the new electricity context. It appears that the monitoring and control of the management of the funds are the main determinant of compatibility. The paper concludes that, as secure funding is a dimension of safe decommissioning, there is a necessity for an optimal design of decommissioning funds model. The paper also suggests that external management solution improve the credibility of decommissioning commitment. This paper has completed two objectives. Firstly, it has highlighted the diversity of designs of the decommissioning reserve funds. We have seen that the reserve funds are organised differently, regarding the key features of their design, namely the collection of funds, the management of the funds collected, and the monitoring and control of that management. Secondly, and in respect of the objective to ensure the availability of the funds when needed, the paper has shown that current designs of decommissioning reserve funds are not equally compatible with the constraints of the electricity sector liberalisation. In fact, the new electricity context is characterised by electricity price volatility with, at some conditions, harmful effects on the financial viability of electric companies. The paper has shown that external fund designs offer a satisfactory compatibility with these constraints. This is because the design of external funds imposes clear limitations on the behaviour of the manager of the funds. Therefore, the paper suggests that in a context of liberalised electricity market, external funds model improves the credibility of the commitment to handle the financial burden of decommissioni

  16. Germany: Management of decommissioning waste in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past two decades, Germany has gained a substantial amount of experience in the decommissioning of nuclear facilities of different types and sizes. Many research reactors and all prototype nuclear power plants, as well as a few larger nuclear power plants and fuel cycle facilities, are currently at varying stages of decommissioning. Several facilities have been fully dismantled and the sites have been cleared for reuse. The decommissioning projects comprise 18 power and prototype reactors, 33 research reactors and 11 fuel cycle facilities which are being or have been decommissioned. In the future, further nuclear power plants will be shut down and decommissioned in accordance with Germany?s energy policy to phase out the use of nuclear power for commercial electricity generation as given in the April 2002 amendment of the Atomic Energy Act. Radioactive waste, from operations as well as from decommissioning activities, is to be conditioned in such a way as to comply with the waste acceptance requirements of a repository. In Germany, all types of radioactive waste (i.e., short-lived and long-lived) are to be disposed of in deep geological formations. A distinction is being made for heat generating waste (i.e., high level waste) and waste with negligible heat generation (i.e., low level and intermediate level waste). Radioactive decommissioning waste is waste with negligible heat generation. Waste acceptance requirements of a repository are of particular importance for the conditioning of radioactive waste, including decommissioning waste. The waste acceptance requirements, as they resulted from the Konrad licensing procedure, are being applied by the waste generators for the conditioning of decommissioning waste. Compliance with these requirements must be demonstrated through the waste package quality control, even if the waste will be disposed of in the future. In 2002 the Konrad repository was licensed for the disposal of all types of waste with negligible heat generation. Konrad is an abandoned iron-ore mine to be reconstructed for use as disposal facility. It is not yet in operation as the license is actually examined by court. Dismissal of legal action is an important prerequisite for the realization of the Konrad project. Furthermore, the Federal Government needs to take a final decision on the reconstruction and operation of the Konrad repository. (author)

  17. Decommissioning and radioactive waste management. The European Commission overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this lecture author deals with the European Commission overview on the decommissioning and radioactive waste management. Financial support of European Commission of decommissioning of the Ignalina NPP, Bohunice V1 NPP and Kozloduy Units 1 and 2 is presented.

  18. A Framework of Decommissioning Cost Estimation for Nuclear Research Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kwan Seong; Lee, Dong Gyu; Lee, Kune Woo; Oh, Won Zin; Jung, Chong Hun; Park, Jin Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-06-15

    Decommissioning cost estimation is a very important technique in designing and planning of nuclear facilities' decommissioning. Decommissioning cost estimation should be made according to the phases of decommissioning activities and installed components of nuclear facilities. In this paper, the basic framework necessary for decommissioning cost estimation is completed so that it could be used as a technique for decommissioning costs estimation by specifying cost items and group components and unit cost factors on which work time is calculated. Also, factors to be considered for decommissioning cost estimation of major activities and tasks are reviewed. Afterwards, these techniques will be utilized as a basic technology to establish methodology of decommissioning cost estimation and evaluation.

  19. Technical and cost aspects of radioactive wastes from decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's Co-operative Programme on Decommissioning was established in 1985 to share the experience and information emerging from on-going decommissioning projects within member countries. The main aim of the programme is to gather and collate such data, which can then provide the basis for planning the future industrial phase of decommissioning of commercial nuclear plants. Starting with 10 decommissioning projects in 1985, today the programme has 35 participating projects from 12 countries. Apart from exchanging valuable information, task groups have been set up for in-depth analysis and studies of areas of common interest, among which are the recycling of material from decommissioning projects and decommissioning costs. This paper will describe the structure and mode of operation of the programme. Some of the results of the work in the task groups will be presented, with particular emphasis on the management of materials from decommissioning and on decommissioning costs. (author)

  20. 78 FR 64028 - Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ...use in decommissioning power reactors. ADDRESSES: Please...process for nuclear power reactors. The revision takes...years of decommissioning experience since the first issuance...on holders of current operating licenses or...

  1. Economical aspect of the decommissioning for NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The estimated, analysed and founding of the economical aspect at decommissioning of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) have been studied. The data that have been obtained from literature, then the calculation and analysing have been done base to the future condition. The cost for NPP decommissioning depend on the internal factor such as type, capacity and safe storage time, and the external factor such as policy, manpower and the technology preparation. The successfulness of funding, depend on the rate of inflation, discount rate of interest and the currency fluctuation. For the internal factor, the influence of the type of the reactor (BWR or PWR) to the decommissioning cost is negligible, the big reactor capacity (±1100 MW), and the safe storage between 30 to 100 years are recommended, and for the external factor, specially Indonesia, to meet the future need the ratio of decommissioning cost and capital cost will be lower than in develop countries at the present (10%). The ratio between decommissioning fund and electricity generation cost relatively very low, are more less than 1.79 % for 30 years safe storage, and discount rate of interest 3%, or more less than 0.30 % for safe storage 30 years, and discount rate of interest 6%. (author)

  2. Evaluation of nuclear facility decommissioning projects program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major studies have been undertaken in recent years by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and others on the technology, safety, and costs associated with decommissioning nuclear facilities. The program described in this presentation is being undertaken by the NRC to compile and evaluate the activities of ongoing decommissioning projects. Assessment and evaluation of the methods, impacts, and costs will provide bases for evaluating licensee's decommissioning proposals and for future decommissioning direction and regulation. Program participants include the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) through the Office of Regulatory Research, UNC Nuclear Industries (UNC) through the Office of Surplus Facilities Management, and nuclear facility licensees. The evaluation of Nuclear Facility Decomissioning Projects Program has been separated into the following tasks: (1) program management; (2) identification of facilities; (3) collection of data; (4) analysis and reporting of field data; and (5) summary comparisons and evaluations. This computer program incorporates information related to the following: (1) facility classification, including design, configuration, construction, operator, and operating history; (2) predecommissioning engineering; (3) predecommissioning radionuclide inventory and dose assessment; (4) ALARA efforts; (5) waste disposition, for both contaminated and noncontaminated materials, including packaging, transportation, and disposal site; (6) decommissioning technology with data to be accumulated on costs, radiation exposure, standard and special techniques, special tooling, evaluation of decontamination efforts, and termination survey data; and (7) lessons learned

  3. Decommissioning of the Iraq former nuclear complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: A number of sites in Iraq have some degree of radiological contamination and require decommissioning and remediation in order to ensure radiological safety. Many of these sites in Iraq are located at the nuclear research centre at Al Tuwaitha. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Board of Governors has approved a project to assist the Government of Iraq in the evaluation and decommissioning of former facilities that used radioactive materials. The project is divided into three phases: Phase 1: collect and analyze all available data and conduct training of the Iraqi staff, Phase 2: develop a decommissioning and remediation plan, and Phase 3: implement field activities relating to decommissioning, remediation and site selection suitable for final disposal of waste. Four working groups have been established to complete the Phase 1 work and significant progress has been made in drafting a new nuclear law which will provide the legal basis for the licensing of the decommissioning of the former nuclear complex. Work is also underway to collect and analysis existing date, to prioritize future activities and to develop a waste management strategy. This will be a long-term and costly project. (authors)

  4. Decommissioning database of V1 NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 2001, the preparation of V1 NPP practical decommissioning has been supported and partly financed by the Bohunice International Decommissioning Support Fund (BIDSF), under the administration of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. AMEC Nuclear Slovakia, together with partners STM Power and EWN GmbH, have been carrying out BIDSF B6.4 project - Decommissioning database development (June 2008 until July 2010). The main purpose of the B6.4 project is to develop a comprehensive physical and radiological inventory database to support RAW management development of the decommissioning studies and decommissioning project of Bohunice V1 NPP. AMEC Nuclear Slovakia was responsible mainly for DDB design, planning documents and physical and radiological characterization including sampling and analyses of the plant controlled area. After finalization of all activities DDB includes over 75.000 records related to individual equipment and civil structures described by almost 3.000.000 parameters. On the basis of successful completion of the original contract the amendment was signed between JAVYS and Consultant's Consortium related to experimental characterization of NPP activated components. The works within this amendment have been still running. (authors)

  5. The Importance of Decommissioning Planning for African Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many countries in Africa have facilities that will require eventual decommissioning. If the entire life cycle of a nuclear facility is considered, decommissioning is just the last activity. The IAEA has published a number of documents that can be used during the decommissioning process, from initial planning to final release of the site. These documents are discussed briefly in this paper and further discussion is provided that will explain why planning for decommissioning should start now.

  6. Eastern and Central Europe Decommissioning, ECED 2015 - Book of Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scientific conference deals with problems of reactor decommissioning and radioactive waste management in the Central Europe. The Conference included the following sessions: (1): Characterisation and Radioactive Waste Management; (2) Managerial Aspects of Decommissioning; (3) JAVYS Experience with Back-End of Nuclear Power Engineering - Progress in Last 2 Years; (4) Decommissioning Planning and Costing and Education; (5) Technical Aspects of Decommissioning; (6) Radioactive Waste Management; (4) Poster Session. The Book of Abstracts contains two invitation speeches and 30 abstracts.

  7. Colloquium on the decommissioning of the NS Otto Hahn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After successful conclusion of the decommissioning of NS Otto Hahn during the summer of 1982 a specialists meeting was organized by GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH in order to give information about planning, procedures used and experience resulting from the decommissioning process. The state-of-the-art decommissioning techniques as used for this first German nuclear powered merchant ship are shown by experts from licensing authorities, the decommissioning company and the ship operator. (orig./HP)

  8. General principles underlying the decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous statements on the use of the term 'decommissioning' by the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Atomic Energy Control Board, and the Advisory Committee on Nuclear Safety are reviewed, culminating in a particular definition for its use in this paper. Three decommissioning phases are identified and discussed, leading to eight general principles governing decommissioning including one related to financing

  9. Technical and legal aspects of the decommissioning of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many of the plants licensed at the start of nuclear power programmes will require decommissioning in the 1990's and this issue should now be confronted by the nuclear industry, its regulators and governments. This paper deals with the United States programme and experience in the decommissioning of nuclear installations and describes alternative decommissioning methods including safety and financial aspects. (NEA)

  10. Modern trends of the NPP's unit decommissioning cost estimations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The review presents the results of modern trends analysis of the decommissioning cost estimations for the nuclear units of different types. The ranges of decommissioning cost estimations for the PWR, BWR, GCL, HWR and WWER type units are shown and qualitative consideration of the main factors influencing on the decommissioning cost value is given

  11. Decommissioning trust funds ordered by PSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Wisconsin public service commission ordered four electric utilities to set up external trust funds for decommissioning expenses instead of collecting the money from its ratepayers to offset current borrowing needs. The change is to assure that funds will be available when they are needed for the Point Beach 1 and 2 and the Kewaunee plants, which are due for relicensing and possible decommissioning in 2007 and 2008. The external fund will be available at a time when ratepayers will likely be paying for replacement power plants. Critics claim the order will cost utility customers $800 million over the next 23 years, and note that Wisconsin Electric Power Co. has a reputation for financial health. One area of concern is the treatment of funds already collected for decommissioning

  12. Platform decommissioning: Socio-economic impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The object of this presentation is to evaluate the socio-economic effects of the decommissioning of steel jacket platforms in the North Sea and in the North East Atlantic in the period up to 2020 in their entirety. It is focused on two different decommissioning options, namely total and partial removal of installations. Partial removal applies only to installations in water deeper than 75 meters. All other installations, i.e those in waters shallower than 75 meters, have to be totally removed and brought onshore for disposal. Areas being analyzed cover costs of different decommissioning options, effects of the different options on employment, fiscal aspects of the different options, and aspects of recycling onshore. 6 figs., 13 tabs

  13. Decommissioning of the Loviisa power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In accordance with the provisions laid in the decision of the Ministry for Trade and Industry Imatran Voima Oy has revised the decommissioning plan for the Loviisa power plant, and submitted it to the authorities for review in December 1993. The plan outlines the technical measures needed to dismantle the radioactive parts of the Loviisa power plant, explains how the resulting waste will be packed and disposed of, and estimates how many people will be needed for the decommissioning waste will be. A general timetable and a cost estimate have also been drawn up on the basis of a detailed working plan. In this report the plan has been revised for cost estimate, activity inventory of the decommissioning waste and radiation dose caused by dismantling work. (orig.). (11 refs., 10 figs., 8 tabs.)

  14. Decommissioning of DR 2. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strufe, N.

    2009-02-15

    This report describes the work of dismantling and demolishing reactor DR 2, the waste volumes generated, the health physical conditions and the clearance procedures used for removed elements and waste. Since the ultimate goal for the decommissioning project was not clearance of the building, but downgrading the radiological classification of the building with a view to converting it to further nuclear use, this report documents how the lower classification was achieved and the known occurrence of remaining activity. The report emphasises some of the deliberations made and describes the lessons learned through this decommissioning project. The report also intends to contribute towards the technical basis and experience basis for further decommissioning of the nuclear facilities in Denmark. (au)

  15. Decommissioning of DR 2. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the work of dismantling and demolishing reactor DR 2, the waste volumes generated, the health physical conditions and the clearance procedures used for removed elements and waste. Since the ultimate goal for the decommissioning project was not clearance of the building, but downgrading the radiological classification of the building with a view to converting it to further nuclear use, this report documents how the lower classification was achieved and the known occurrence of remaining activity. The report emphasises some of the deliberations made and describes the lessons learned through this decommissioning project. The report also intends to contribute towards the technical basis and experience basis for further decommissioning of the nuclear facilities in Denmark. (au)

  16. The economics and financing of decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economics and financing have the most immediate interest to the public. Largely this interest stems from the effect of decommissioning on current utility rates, but there are other related issues as well. These include the question of whether adequate funds will be available when needed, how they will be collected and invested, and what constitute reasonable contingency factors and discount rates. Preliminary examination of the economics of decommissioning raises more questions than it answers. Each country or area of a country (as in the USA) will be faced with establishing its own policies. Whichever methods and logic are finally applied to the economics of decommissioning in the United Kingdom, the public will eventually pay. For this reason, a clear working knowledge of the principal elements of this consideration is important. (author)

  17. Site Decommissioning Management Plan. Supplement 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has identified 51 sites contaminated with radioactive material that require special attention to ensure timely decommissioning. While none of these sites represent an immediate threat to public health and safety, they have contamination that exceeds existing NRC criteria for unrestricted use. All of these sites require some degree of remediation, and several involve regulatory issues that must be addressed by the Commission before they can be released for unrestricted use and the applicable licenses terminated. This report contains the NRC stairs strategy for addressing the technical, legal, and policy issues affecting the timely decommissioning of the 51 sites and describes the status of decommissioning activities at the sites. This is supplement number one to NUREG-1444, which was published in October 1993

  18. The sedimentology of the Teekloof Formation east of Aberdeen C.P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Teekloof Formation (Beaufort Group) sediments to the east of Aberdeen (South Africa) consist of mudstone, siltstone and fine-to very fine-grained lithic wackes and arenites. Sandstone lithosomes commonly have erosive bases and the vertical and lateral arrangement of lithofacies indicate that the environment of deposition was fluviatile. Uranium mineralization was syndepositional and was supplied to the stream waters in the form of soluble complexes by the weathering and leaching of acid volcanic and granitic rocks

  19. Remedial investigation report for J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Volume 3: Ecological risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlohowskyj, I.; Hayse, J.; Kuperman, R.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R.

    2000-02-25

    The Environmental Management Division of the U.S. Army Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation (RI) and feasibility study (FS) of the J-Field area at APG, pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. As part of that activity, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted an ecological risk assessment (ERA) of the J-Field site. This report presents the results of that assessment.

  20. Remedial investigation report for J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Volume 3: Ecological risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Management Division of the U.S. Army Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation (RI) and feasibility study (FS) of the J-Field area at APG, pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. As part of that activity, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted an ecological risk assessment (ERA) of the J-Field site. This report presents the results of that assessment

  1. Decommissioning of a Rare Earths Extraction Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The occupational and environmental radiation exposures and radiation safety issues associated with the decommissioning of a rare earths and thorium extraction facility are presented. This plant was in continuous operation during the period 1952-1988, chemically processing monazite for the separation of rare earths and thorium. It was decommissioned over a nine month period during the early 1990s. Operations at the plant over the years had resulted in buildup of activity on equipment surfaces, floors, pipes, walls and associated structures. The reaction tanks had accumulated elevated levels of activity as a result of impregnation of radionuclides into the rubber linings and pitting of surfaces due to chemical corrosion. Gamma exposure levels, airborne radioactivity and concentration of radionuclides in sludge and wastes for disposal are presented. The sequence of systematic decommissioning operations is outlined. The solid, liquid and gaseous effluents generated are characterized and quantified. Personal radiation exposures for the decommissioning and waste disposal operations are estimated. Novel methods of decontamination and recycling of large metallic objects and building surfaces are presented as a means of optimizing the quantity of waste as well as radiation exposures. The total effective doses received by the workers from external and internal exposures over the duration of the decommissioning operations were assessed to be in the range of 0.20-8.94 mSv, with a mean value of 7.2 mSv. After completion of the decommissioning operations, the groundwater was monitored for a number of years to check for contamination from the waste disposal sites. The 228Ra concentrations in the groundwater were very low. (author)

  2. Decision framework for platform decommissioning in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Brock B

    2015-10-01

    This article describes the overall decision framework for eventual decisions about decommissioning the 27 operating oil and gas platforms offshore southern California. These platforms will eventually reach the end of their useful lifetimes (estimated between 2015 and 2030, although specific dates have not been determined). Current law and regulations allow for alternative uses in lieu of the complete removal required in existing leases. To prepare for eventual decommissioning, the California Natural Resources Agency initiated an in-depth process to identify and investigate issues surrounding possible decommissioning alternatives. The detailed evaluation of alternatives focused on 2-complete removal and artificial reefing that included partial removal to 85 feet below the waterline. These were selected after a comparison of the technical and economic feasibility of several potential alternatives, availability of a legal framework for implementation, degree of interest from proponents, and relative acceptance by state and federal decision makers. Despite California's history of offshore oil and gas production, only 7 decommissioning projects have been completed and these were all relatively small and close to shore. In contrast, nearly 30% of the California platforms are in water depths (as much as 1200 feet) that exceed any decommissioning project anywhere in the world. Most earlier projects considered an artificial reefing alternative but none were implemented and all platforms were completely removed. Future decisions about decommissioning must grapple with a more complex decision context involving greater technological and logistical challenges and cost, a wider range of viable options, tradeoffs among environmental impacts and benefits, and an intricate maze of laws, regulations, and authorities. The specific engineering differences between complete and partial removal provide an explicit basis for a thorough evaluation of their respective impacts. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2015;9999:XX-XX. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26259879

  3. Waste from decommissioning of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is based on the assumption that all twelve nuclear power plants will be shut down no later than A.D. 2010, as was decided by the parliament after the referendum on the future of nuclear power in Sweden. The recent 'Party agreement on the energy policy' of January 15, 1991 does, indeed, leave the door open for an extension of the operational period for the nuclear reactors. This will, however, not change the recommendations and conclusions drawn in this report. The report consists of two parts. Part 1 discusses classification of waste from decommissioning and makes comparisons with the waste arising from reactor operation. Part 2 discusses the documentation required for decommissioning waste. Also this part of the report draws parallels with the documentation required by the authorities for the radioactive waste arising from operation of the nuclear power plants. To some extent these subjects depend on the future use of the nuclear power plant sites after decommissioning of the plants. The options for future site use are briefly discussed in an appendix to the report. There are many similarities between the waste from reactor operations and the waste arising from dismantling and removal of decommissioned nuclear power plants. Hence it seems natural to apply the same criteria and recommendations to decommissioning waste as those presently applicable to reactor waste. This is certainly true also with respect to documentation, and it is strongly recommended that the documentation requirements on decommissioning waste are made identical, or at least similar, to the documentation requirements for reactor waste in force today. (au)

  4. Optimization in the decommissioning of uranium tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report examines in detail the problem of choosing the optimal decommissioning approach for uranium and mill tailings sites. Various decision methods are discussed and evaluated, and their application in similar decision problems are summarized. This report includes, by means of a demonstration, a step by step guide of how a number of selected techniques can be applied to a decommissioning problem. The strengths and weaknesses of various methods are highlighted. A decision system approach is recommended for its flexibility and incorporation of many of the strengths found in other decision methods

  5. Decommissioning techniques for post irradiation examination cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpha-Gamma Cell in Material Monitoring Facility has been operated since 1973 as a unique hot cell for mechanical testing of highly irradiated FBR fuel claddings. The decommissioning of this hot cell was conducted to introduce advanced test techniques and also introduce improved remote maintenance system. In this work new techniques were applied based on the operational and maintenance experience; remote air-plasma cutting method for dismantling as well as remote dry-ice blast and electro-chemical dissolution methods for decontamination. In this decommissioning the radiation exposure level of worker and amount of radioactive waste disposals were attained to be remarkably reduced. (author)

  6. Decommissioning of a tritium-contaminated laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A tritium laboratory facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, was decommissioned in 1979. The project involved dismantling the laboratory equipment and disposing of the equipment and debris at an on-site waste disposal/storage area. The laboratory was constructed in 1953 and was in service for tritium research and fabrication of lithium tritide components until 1974. The major features of the laboratory included some 25 meters of gloveboxes and hoods, associated vacuum lines, utility lines, exhaust ducts, electrodryers, blowers, and laboratory benches. This report presents details on the decommissioning, health physics, waste management, environmental surveillance, and costs for the operation

  7. Shippingport station decommissioning project technology transfer program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project (SSDP) decontaminated and dismantled the world's first nuclear-fueled, commercial-size electric power plant. The SSDP programmatic goal direction for technology transfer is documentation of project management and operations experience. The objective is to provide future nuclear facility decommissioning projects with pertinent SSDP performance data for project assessment, planning, and operational implementation. This paper sets out access and availability directions for SSDP technology acquisition. Discusses are technology transfer definition; technology transfer products including topical and other project reports, professional-technical society presentations, other project liaison and media relations, visual documentation, and technology transfer data base; and retrieving SSDP information

  8. Decommissioning of the Salaspils Research Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Abramenkovs Andris

    2011-01-01

    In May 1995, the Latvian government decided to shut down the Salaspils Research Reactor and to dispense with nuclear energy in the future. The reactor has been out of operation since July 1998. A conceptual study on the decommissioning of the Salaspils Research Reactor was drawn up by Noell-KRC-Energie- und Umwelttechnik GmbH in 1998-1999. On October 26th, 1999, the Latvian government decided to start the direct dismantling to “green-field” in 2001. The upgrading of the decommissioning ...

  9. The health risks of decommissioning nuclear facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodic-Fikfak, M; Clapp, R; Kriebel, D

    1999-01-01

    The health risks facing workers involved in decommissioning nuclear facilities are a critical concern as the nuclear weapons complex and nuclear power plants begin to be dismantled. In addition to risks from exposure to radioactive materials, there are risks from other common industrial materials like crystalline silica dust and asbestos. We discuss these issues in the context of recent research on the risk of low-level ionizing radiation, the classification of crystalline silica as a carcinogen, and early experience with decommissioning nuclear facilities in the United States. Health and safety advocates will need to be vigilant to prevent worker exposure. PMID:17208791

  10. The institutional framework of decommissioning in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Decommissioning of the NPP is generally viewed in a negative framework. On the contrary, it is an activity which aims is said to obtain the final removal of the risk factors from the environment. It is the last step of the production cycle, whose importance is underlined by the Regulation recently issued for the correct management of resources in the territory. Decommissioning NPP involves the final arrangements of the radioactive wastes, produced either during the past operation period or resulting from the dismantling operation. All the radioactive wastes must be conditioned and maintained in safe conditions. Radioactive waste management is no longer a problem for those countries that decided to face it, that is the majority of the industrialised countries. Correct technological solutions exist, due exist, respectful of the environment, of the people, of the ethical principles. The centrality of the problem is also decreed by the fact that sometimes now, the European Commission has been working on the issue of the directive on waste management, an effort which Italy has strongly supported, also during the Presidency period. Decommissioning on NPP is moreover an activity that implies advanced technological solutions, multilateral overlapping programs, working of style situations. Not many countries have completed yet (the) decommissioning of their plants: such activity should therefore be seen as an opportunity for the growth and the assertion of the Italian industry, also in view of the potential new market and the alliance with European industries. Of the 530 nuclear reactors present in world today, approximately 100 are undergoing decommissioning. In the next 2 years another 100 will reach the end of their operative life. Probably after the necessary system improvement many of them will continue to work, but it is clear that the international market of the decommissioning will continue to grow in the next years. Italy can play an important role in this scenario: the decommissioning program produced by Sogin can therefore be a springboard for specific activities. Decommissioning of the Italian NPP will cost a total of approximately 3.5 billions euro. This amount of money will be founded by the electricity market (electricity bill): in order to optimise this huge amount, the efficiency and efficacy of the decommissioning program must be guaranteed. For this reason in 2003 the Italian government gave a significant drive for the centralisation of all the activities and responsibilities to a unique operator, also assigning Sogin with the management of the ENEA fuel cycle plants and related companies. Decommissioning program for Italian nuclear plants have been issued since 1999 and have under-gone the complex licensing procedure foreseen by a specific regulation of the sector, the law 241/2000 and by the regulation regarding the Environmental Impact Assessment. This regulatory frame is a recent one and, for some aspects, is still not completed and has, for the same reasons, sometimes caused some delay in activities. Other factors providing delays involved the excessive sensitivity of some local situation which, even though guaranteed by regulation that envisage the direct participation in decision making, see the decommissioning as a risk factor that they can't control directly. In order to proceed in completing this unpostponable operations in the most correct and effective manner, it is important that the different institutional bodies involved in the licensing procedure co-operate in the success of the program. The issue of the decree envisaged by law 230/95 constitutes a test table to this end. Working along these lines, the government has already began by signed the institutional agreement for the coordination of the licensing procedure related to the mention law 230/95 and the Environmental Impact Assessment. (author)

  11. The Preliminary Decommissioning Plan of the Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, after 25 years of operation, a preliminary decommissioning plan for the Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor (DNRR) has been produced but as yet it has not been implemented due to the continued operations of the reactor. However, from the early phases of facility design and construction and during operation, the aspects that facilitate decommissioning process have been considered. This paper outlines the DNRR general description, the organization that manages the facility, the decommissioning strategy and associated project management, and the expected decommissioning activities. The paper also considers associated cost and funding, safety and environmental issues and waste management aspects amongst other considerations associated with decommissioning a nuclear research reactor. (author)

  12. A study of the decommissioning cost estimation for nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Gyu; Jeong, Kwan Seong; Lee, Keun Woo; Oh, Won Zin [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    This paper is to study on the decommissioning cost estimation for nuclear facilities of advanced nuclear organizations and countries for deriving the cost factors to be taken considerations into accomplishing decommissioning projects. Of cost categories producing the factors of decommissioning costs, dismantling and waste processing and disposals activities are examined to increase the its costs. Of labor, materials and other costs categories, labor costs are summarized to have overall majorities in the decommissioning cost factors. The main parameters of all factors affecting the decommissioning costs are analyzed as work difficulty, regional labor costs, peripheral cost, disposal cost and final burial costs.

  13. The planning of decommissioning activities within nuclear facilities - Generating a Baseline Decommissioning Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNFL Environmental Services has developed planning tools to meet the emerging need for nuclear liabilities management and decommissioning engineering both in the UK and globally. It can provide a comprehensive baseline planning service primarily aimed at nuclear power stations and nuclear plant. The paper develops the following issues: Decommissioning planning; The baseline decommissioning plan;The process; Work package; Compiling the information; Deliverables summary; Customer Benefits; - Planning tool for nuclear liability life-cycle management; - Robust and reliable plans based upon 'real' experience; - Advanced financial planning; - Ascertaining risk; - Strategy and business planning. The following Deliverables are mentioned:1. Site Work Breakdown Structure; 2. Development of site implementation strategy from the high level decommissioning strategy; 3. An end point definition for the site; 4. Buildings, operational systems and plant surveys; 5. A schedule of condition for the site; 6. Development of technical approach for decommissioning for each work package; 7. Cost estimate to WBS level 5 for each work package; 8. Estimate of decommissioning waste arisings for each work package; 9. Preparation of complete decommissioning programme in planning software to suit client; 10. Risk modelling of work package and overall project levels; 11. Roll up of costs into an overall cost model; 12. Cash flow, waste profiling and resource profiling against the decommissioning programme; 13. Preparation and issue of Final Report. Finally The BDP process is represented by a flowchart listing the following stages: [Power Station project assigned] ? [Review project and conduct Characterisation review of power station] ? [Identify work packages] ? [Set up WBS to level 3] ? [Assign work packages] ? [Update WBS to level 4] ?[Develop cost model] ? [Develop logic network] ? [Develop risk management procedure] ] ? [Develop project strategy document]? [Work package process? [Compile all work packages into overall programme, cost model and risk register (draft BDP)] ? [Carry out project risk assessment] ? [Review and update draft BDP] ? [Peer Review BDP] ? [Power Station project assigned] ?[Issue BDP to customer for comment

  14. Decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Feasibility, needs and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactor decommissioning activities generally are considered to begin after operations have ceased and the fuel has been removed from the reactor, although in some countries the activities may be started while the fuel is still at the reactor site. The three principal alternatives for decommissioning are described. The factors to be considered in selecting the decommissioning strategy, i.e. a stage or a combination of stages that comprise the total decommissioning programme, are reviewed. One presents a discussion of the feasibility of decommissioning techniques available for use on the larger reactors and fuel cycle facilities. The numbers and types of facilities to be decommissioned and the resultant waste volumes generated for disposal will then be projected. Finally, the costs of decommissioning these facilities, the effect of these costs on electricity generating costs, and alternative methods of financing decommissioning are discussed. The discussion of decommissioning draws on various countries' studies and experience in this area. Specific details about current activities and policies in NEA Member Countries are given in the short country specific Annexes. The nuclear facilities that are addressed in this study include reactors, fuel fabrication facilities, reprocessing facilities, associated radioactive waste storage facilities, enrichment facilities and other directly related fuel cycle support facilities. The present study focuses on the technical feasibility, needs, and costs of decommissioning the larger commercial facilities in the OECD member countries that are coming into service up to the year 2000. It is intended to inform the public and to assist in planning for the decommissioning of these facilities

  15. STATUS OF THE NRC'S DECOMMISSIONING PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlando, D. A.; Camper, L. W.; Buckley, J.

    2002-02-25

    On July 21, 1997, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission published the final rule on Radiological Criteria for License Termination (the License Termination Rule) as Subpart E to 10 CFR Part 20. NRC regulations require that materials licensees submit Decommissioning Plans to support the decommissioning of its facility if it is required by license condition, or if the procedures and activities necessary to carry out the decommissioning have not been approved by NRC and these procedures could increase the potential health and safety impacts to the workers or the public. NRC regulations also require that reactor licensees submit Post-shutdown Decommissioning Activities Reports and License Termination Plans to support the decommissioning of nuclear power facilities. This paper provides an update on the status of the NRC's decommissioning program. It discusses the status of permanently shut-down commercial power reactors, complex decommissioning sites, and sites listed in the Site Decommissioning Management Plan. The paper provides the status of various tools and guidance the NRC is developing to assist licensees during decommissioning, including a Standard Review Plan for evaluating plans and information submitted by licensees to support the decommissioning of nuclear facilities and the D and D Screen software for determining the potential doses from residual radioactivity. Finally, it discusses the status of the staff's current efforts to streamline the decommissioning process.

  16. Development of the Decommissioning Project Management System, DECOMMIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI), two projects for decommissioning of the research reactors and uranium conversion plant are carried out. The management of the projects can be defined as 'the decision of the changes of the decommissioning methodologies for the more efficient achievement of the project at an adequate time and to an improved method'. The correct decision comes from the experiences on the decommissioning project and the systematic experiences can be obtained from the good management of the decommissioning information. For this, a project management tool, DECOMMIS, was developed in the D and D Technology Division, which has the charge of the decommissioning projects at the KAERI, and its purpose was extended to following fields; generation of reports on the dismantling waste for WACID, record keeping for the next decommissioning projects of nuclear facilities, provision of fundamental data for the R and D of the decommissioning technologies

  17. Development of the Decommissioning Project Management System, DECOMMIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, U. S.; Park, J. H.; Lee, K. W.; Hwang, D. S.; Park, S. K.; Hwang, S. T.; Paik, S. T.; Choi, Y. D.; Chung, K. H.; Lee, K. I.; Hong, S. B

    2007-03-15

    At the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI), two projects for decommissioning of the research reactors and uranium conversion plant are carried out. The management of the projects can be defined as 'the decision of the changes of the decommissioning methodologies for the more efficient achievement of the project at an adequate time and to an improved method'. The correct decision comes from the experiences on the decommissioning project and the systematic experiences can be obtained from the good management of the decommissioning information. For this, a project management tool, DECOMMIS, was developed in the D and D Technology Division, which has the charge of the decommissioning projects at the KAERI, and its purpose was extended to following fields; generation of reports on the dismantling waste for WACID, record keeping for the next decommissioning projects of nuclear facilities, provision of fundamental data for the R and D of the decommissioning technologies.

  18. Decommissioning of Facilities. General Safety Requirements. Pt. 6 (Russian Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decommissioning is the last step in the lifetime management of a facility. It must also be considered during the design, construction, commissioning and operation of facilities. This publication establishes requirements for the safe decommissioning of a broad range of facilities: nuclear power plants, research reactors, nuclear fuel cycle facilities, facilities for processing naturally occurring radioactive material, former military sites, and relevant medical, industrial and research facilities. It addresses all the aspects of decommissioning that are required to ensure safety, aspects such as roles and responsibilities, strategy and planning for decommissioning, conduct of decommissioning actions and termination of the authorization for decommissioning. It is intended for use by those involved in policy development, regulatory control and implementation of decommissioning

  19. Decommissioning of Facilities. General Safety Requirements. Pt. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decommissioning is the last step in the lifetime management of a facility. It must also be considered during the design, construction, commissioning and operation of facilities. This publication establishes requirements for the safe decommissioning of a broad range of facilities: nuclear power plants, research reactors, nuclear fuel cycle facilities, facilities for processing naturally occurring radioactive material, former military sites, and relevant medical, industrial and research facilities. It addresses all the aspects of decommissioning that are required to ensure safety, aspects such as roles and responsibilities, strategy and planning for decommissioning, conduct of decommissioning actions and termination of the authorization for decommissioning. It is intended for use by those involved in policy development, regulatory control and implementation of decommissioning

  20. Study on decommissioning (Annual safety research report, JFY 2010)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project consists of researches for 1. review plan for decommissioning plan, 2. specific method to confirm completion of decommissioning and 3. dismantling waste management method. Dismantling experiences and knowledge of domestic and international trends of decommissioning were examined and the confirmation items for authorization of decommissioning plan were extracted. The estimation of site contamination during dismantling period was performed by use of radioactive material release data of the Tokai NPP. Domestic and some foreign countries knowledge of experience of decommissioning completion confirmation was examined. This knowledge was reflected in NISA's Committee Report 'Basic concept to confirm completion of decommissioning (Interim report) - Main issues and direction of future investigation-'. Three concrete cores were sampled in biological shield of the Tokai NPP to establish method of waste package verification based on radiation level evaluation in decommissioning and dismantling waste management method. (author)

  1. Modelling of nuclear power plant decommissioning financing.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bemš, J.; Knápek, J.; Králík, T.; Hejhal, M.; Kuban?ák, Ján; Vaší?ek, J.

    Vol. 2015. Oxford : Oxford Journals, 2015, s. 1-4. ISSN 1742-3406. [8th International Conference on High Levels of Natural Radiation and Radon Areas (ICHLNRRA 2014). Prague (CZ), 01.09.2014-05.09.2014] Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : nuclear power plant * methodology * future decommissioning costs Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders

  2. The decommissioning of the water boiler reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following completion of service, the Water Boiler Reactor (WBR) has been decommissioned by the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER) under the Atomic Energy Council's (AEC) regulation. The WBR is a light water moderated and graphite reflected research reactor with peak thermal power of 100 kW. The unique feature of the WBR is that it is fueled with uranyl sulfate (UO2SO4) which is in liquid form. Since there is another research reactor owned by I7NER of megawatt scale in the planning stages for decommissioning, the WBR project was conducted with great care to accumulate experience. Extensive planning by INER and step-by-step regulative activities by AEC were followed regardless of the structural simplicity of the WBR. Valuable information was gathered in the task and will be useful for preparing future decommissioning needs. The major work in the WBR decommissioning project was finished within six months and the accumulated dose received during the work was 1 9.63mSv. (author)

  3. Importance of funding in decommissioning cost estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decommissioning cost estimates have been made by several study groups for the decommissioning of pressurized-water and boiling-water nuclear power stations. The results of these studies are comparable when corrected for inflation and the differences in contingency factors applied by the study groups. The estimated dismantling costs differ far less than a factor of 2 in all cases, despite the design differences found in the plants that were studied. An analysis of the different methods available for funding the dismantling of these facilities shows the much stronger effect that the choice of funding methods has on the net cost of decommissioning. The total cost of dismantling may vary more than a factor of 4 from one funding method to another, assuming current or recent historical inflation rates. The funding methods evaluated include sinking funds, deposits, negative-salvage value depreciation, and insurance. These funding methods are taken from the NRC's Notice of Proposed Rulemaking description of acceptable funding methods. The funding analysis for this study was performed using the DECOST-86 computer code. The evaluation of funding options for a nuclear facility, and the appropriate choice of the funding method best for that facility, are found to be more important than detailed engineering studies in determining the net cost of decommissioning during the early portions of the plant's operating lifetime

  4. Decommissioning of US conventional uranium production centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is a quasi-independent Organization within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), responsible for collecting, analyzing, and disseminating information on energy including the U.S. uranium industry and nuclear power generation. The EIA is also actively involved in assisting the DOE Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management to implement the reimbursement of mill tailing remediation costs in compliance with Title X of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. As one of our recent projects, we examined the decommissioning efforts of conventional uranium production centers. This paper summarizes that work. For conventional uranium production centers, decommissioning involves a decontamination and dismantling the mill itself, reclaiming the tailings pile(s), restoring groundwater to acceptable conditions, and long term monitoring of the site. In examining these Issues, this paper: (1) presents a brief history of the development of the regulations that govern the industry, (2) describes the decommissioning process for conventional uranium production centers and (3) compares aggregated decommissioning cost data for six selected conventional uranium mills, based on filings with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. (author). 9 figs

  5. Decontamination and decommissioning focus area. Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents details of the facility deactivation, decommissioning, and material disposition research for development of new technologies sponsored by the Department of Energy. Topics discussed include; occupational safety, radiation protection, decontamination, remote operated equipment, mixed waste processing, recycling contaminated metals, and business opportunities

  6. Financing strategies for nuclear power decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-07-01

    The report analyzes several alternatives for financing the decommissioning of nuclear power plants from the point of view of assurance, cost, equity, and other criteria. Sensitivity analyses are performed on several important variables and possible impacts on representative companies' rates are discussed and illustrated.

  7. Decontamination and decommissioning focus area. Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This report presents details of the facility deactivation, decommissioning, and material disposition research for development of new technologies sponsored by the Department of Energy. Topics discussed include; occupational safety, radiation protection, decontamination, remote operated equipment, mixed waste processing, recycling contaminated metals, and business opportunities.

  8. Y-12 Plant Decontamination and Decommissioning Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) Program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant is part of the Environmental Restoration (ER) and Waste Management (WM) Programs (ERWM). The objective of the ER Program is to provide Y-12 the capability to meet applicable environmental regulations through facility development activities and site remedial actions. The WM Program supports the ER program. The D and D Program provides collective management of sites within the Plant which are in need of decontamination and decommissioning efforts, prioritizes those areas in terms of health, safety, and environmental concerns, and implements the appropriate level of remedial action. The D and D Program provides support to identifiable facilities which formerly served one or more of the many Plant functions. Program activities include (1) surveillance and maintenance of facilities awaiting decommissioning; (2) planning safe and orderly facility decommissioning; and (3) implementing a program to accomplish facility disposition in a safe, cost effective, and timely manner. In order to achieve the first objective, a formal plan which documents the surveillance and maintenance needs for each facility has been prepared. This report provides this documentation for the Y-12 facilities currently included in the D and D Program, as well as those planned for future inclusion in the Program, and includes projected resource requirements for the planning period of FY 1993 through FY 2000

  9. Decommissioning of the Northrop TRIGA reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the administrative and operational aspects of decommissioning and dismantling the Northrop Mark F TRIGA Reactor, including: planning and preparation, personnel requirements, government interfacing, costs, contractor negotiations, fuel shipments, demolition, disposal of low level waste, final survey and disposition of the concrete biological shielding. (author)

  10. Spent fuel disposal impact on plant decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regardless of the decommissioning option selected (DECON, SAFSTOR, or ENTOMB), a 10 CFR 50 license cannot be terminated until the spent fuel is either removed from the site or stored in a separately 10 CFR 72 licensed Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI). Humboldt Bay is an example of a plant which has selected the SAFSTOR option. Its spent fuel is currently in wet storage in the plant's spent fuel pool. When it completes its dormant period and proceeds with dismantlement, it will have to dispose of its fuel or license an ISFSI. Shoreham is an example of a plant which has selected the DECON option. Fuel disposal is currently critical path for license termination. In the event an ISFSI is proposed to resolve the spent fuel removal issue, whether wet or dry, utilities need to properly determine the installation, maintenance, and decommissioning costs for such a facility. In considering alternatives for spent fuel removal, it is important for a utility to properly account for ISFSI decommissioning costs. A brief discussion is presented on one method for estimating ISFSI decommissioning costs

  11. Refuel floor reconfiguration for plant decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decommissioning of the Shoreham nuclear power station required reconfiguration of the refuel floor to ensure safe and adequate working areas for segmentation, packaging, and removal of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and its internal components. This paper describes the major activities associated with refuel floor reconfiguration

  12. Virtual reality technology and nuclear decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During past years, an important activity at the Halden VR Centre (HVRC), Institute for Energy Technology (IFE) in Halden has been the development of virtual reality (VR) software for use in the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. It is hoped that use of VR technology in the planning process may prove beneficial both with regard to minimizing workers' radiation exposure, as well as in helping to achieve the efficient use of human resources. VR can also be a valuable tool in the dismantling phase. In addition to this, VR provides the decommissioning project team with an effective medium in presentations to the public, as well as for communicating with relevant engineers and licensing authorities. The most extensive IFE VR decommissioning project is at present the VRdose project, conducted in co-operation with the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC). VRdose will be used in the decommissioning of one of JNC's reactors, the Fugen Nuclear Power Station.The paper describes the present and planned versions of the VRdose system, but also briefly describes other related activities at HVRC. (author)

  13. Decontamination and decommissioning of Shippingport commercial reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, J. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1989-11-01

    To a certain degree, the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of the Shippingport reactor was a joint venture with Duquesne Light Company. The structures that were to be decommissioned were to be removed to at least three feet below grade. Since the land had been leased from Duquesne Light, there was an agreement with them to return the land to them in a radiologically safe condition. The total enclosure volume for the steam and nuclear containment systems was about 1.3 million cubic feet, more than 80% of which was below ground. Engineering plans for the project were started in July of 1980 and the final environmental impact statement (EIS) was published in May of 1982. The plant itself was shut down in October of 1982 for end-of-life testing and defueling. The engineering services portion of the decommissioning plans was completed in September of 1983. DOE moved onto the site and took over from the Navy in September of 1984. Actual physical decommissioning began after about a year of preparation and was completed about 44 months later in July of 1989. This paper describes the main parts of D and D.

  14. BNFL nuclear decommissioning liabilities management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to describe BNFL's policy and strategy for decommissioning and also to summarize the overall scope of nuclear liabilities in the wider field of waste retrieval and storage, as well as the dismantling and demolition aspects of decommissioning. BNFL's recently established organisational arrangements for discharging all types of these liabilities are explained, together with a review of practical progress in dealing with them. Organisational changes in recent years have amalgamated decommissioning work with operations covering waste storage and retrieval operations. A strategy of minimising residual activity in shutdown plants is pursued, followed by dismantling and demolition on appropriate time scales to minimise risk and cost. Since April 1995, a new BNFL subsidiary, Nuclear Liabilities Management Company Limited has taken responsibility for discharge of BNFL's Waste Retrieval and Decommissioning liabilities on all BNFL sites. NLM has the objectives of optimal and lowest cost management of liabilities and much clearer segregation of physical operations from project specification and planning. The Ministry of Defense (MoD) policy, strategy, work programmes and progress for the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) are also outlined. MoD/AEA has established an equivalent strategy for dealing with its liabilities. (J.S.). 5 refs., 2 figs., 4 appends

  15. Shippingport station decommissioning project ALARA Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Properly planned and implemented ALARA programs help to maintain nuclear worker radiation exposures open-quotes As Low As Reasonably Achievable.close quotes. This paper describes the ALARA program developed and implemented for the decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) of the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. The elements required for a successful ALARA program are discussed along with examples of good ALARA practices. The Shippingport Atomic Power Station (SAPS) was the first commercial nuclear power plant to be built in the United States. It was located 35 miles northwest of Pittsburgh, PA on the south bank of the Ohio river. The reactor plant achieved initial criticality in December 1959. During its 25-year life, it produced 7.5 billion kilowatts of electricity. The SAPS was shut down in October 1982 and was the first large-scale U.S. nuclear power plant to be totally decommissioned and the site released for unrestricted use. The Decommission Project was estimated to take 1,007 man-rem of radiation exposure and $.98.3 million to complete. Physical decommissioning commenced in September 1985 and was completed in September 1989. The actual man-rem of exposure was 155. The project was completed 6 months ahead of schedule at a cost of $91.3 million

  16. 76 FR 3837 - Nuclear Decommissioning Funds; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    ... 23, 2010 (75 FR 80697) relating to deductions for contributions to trusts maintained for decommissioning nuclear power plants. DATES: This correction is effective on January 21, 2011, and is applicable... interest in a nuclear power plant. * * * * * (e) * * * (3) * * * Example 2. * * * Pursuant to paragraph...

  17. Decommissioning technology development for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although it is expected that the decommissioning of a nuclear power plant will happen since 2020, the need of partial decommissioning and decontamination for periodic inspection and life extension has been on an increasing trend and domestic market has gradually been extended. Therefore, in this project the decommissioning DB system on the KRR-1 and 2 was developed as establishing the information classification system of the research reactor dismantling and the structural design and optimization of the decommissioning DB system. Also in order to secure the reliability and safety about the dismantling process, the main dismantling simulation technology that can verify the dismantling process before their real dismantling work was developed. And also the underwater cutting equipment was developed to remove these stainless steel parts highly activated from the RSR. First, the its key technologies were developed and then the design, making, and capability analysis were performed. Finally the actual proof was achieved for applying the dismantling site. an automatic surface contamination measuring equipment was developed in order to get the sample automatically and measure the radiation/radioactivity

  18. Decommissioning of NPP A1 - HWGCR type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prototype nuclear power plant A-1 located at Jaslovske Bohunice, was a HWGCR with channel type reactor KS 150 (refuelling during operation) and capacity of 143 MWe. Single unit has been constructed with reactor hall building containing reactor vessel, heavy water system and equipment for spent fuel handling. Another compartment of main building contents coolant system piping, six steam generators and six turbo compressors, the turbine hall was equipped by three turbines. Unit also shares liquid radwaste treatment and storage buildings and ventilation systems including chimney. It started operation in 1972 and was shutdown in 1977 after primary coolant system integrity accident. In 1979 a final decision was made to decommission this plant. The absence of waste treatment technologies and repository and not sufficient storage capacity affected the planning and realization of decommissioning for NPP A-1. The decommissioning policy for the first stage is for lack of regulations based on 'case by case' strategy. For these reasons and for not existence of Decommissioning Found until 1995 the preferred decommissioning option is based on differed decommissioning with safe enclosure of confinement. Transfer of undamaged spent fuel cooled in organic coolant to Russia was finished in 1990. It was necessary to develop new technology for the damaged fuel preparation for transport. The barriers check-up and dismantling of secondary circuit and cooling towers was performed during 1989/90. The complex plan for the first phase of A-1 decommissioning - the status with treated operational radwaste, removed contamination and restored treated waste and spent fuel (in case of interruption of transfer to Russia) was developed in 1993-1994. Under this project bituminization of all liquid operational radwaste (concentrates) was performed during 1995/96, vitrification of inorganic spent fuel coolant started at 1996, decontamination of spent fuel pool coolant occurs (under AEA Technology support) in 1997 as well as preparation for bituminization of organic spent fuel coolant. The new equipment for spent fuel handling including new storage (semi dry) for spent fuel was projected and should be built up in 1997. The decontamination and dismantling of auxiliary equipment (radwaste tanks, evaporation plant and original solid storage) should start after the commissioning of conditioning centre and bituminization plant with new evaporation plant in 1998 and finish at 2000. The decontamination and dismantling of original spent fuel storage should finish at 2007/8. Supporting activities to these works started at 1994/95. (author)

  19. The BR-3 decommissioning project, Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BR-3 was a small 10 MW(e) PWR which was shut down in 1987 after 25 years of operation. It was selected as an EU pilot project for the research and development programme on decommissioning of nuclear installations. The decommissioning project started in 1989. The optimization of the management of waste material generated by decommissioning activities has always been an intensive task and the minimization of the radioactive waste a priority. Over the past 16 years, the factors influencing the management of waste have been constantly evolving in Belgium, steered mainly by the following changes in technologies, regulations and economic conditions: - The publication of the Royal Decree of 20 July 2001, establishing a legal frame on decommissioning and including a set of clearance levels; - The improvement of the instrumentation used for characterization; - The increase in the performance of decontamination techniques; - The cost increase of the waste disposal paths; - The implementation of international recommendations in areas such as environmental impact, waste categorization, human aspects, ethics, etc.; -The strengthening of the legislation related to industrial safety and environmental release; - The diminution of the background radiation level at the decommissioning site itself. The first part of this annex gives a description of relevant influencing factors in order to define the context in which the dismantling activities took place. The second part puts in perspective the strategy chosen for the management of the waste, recognizing the influencing factors. As mentioned in the scope of this report, the focus is LLW. High and intermediate level wastes for which disposal in dedicated repositories is assumed are outside the scope of this report. They are therefore not examined in detail here

  20. European Nuclear Decommissioning Training Facility II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCK-CEN co-ordinates a project called European Nuclear Decommissioning Training Facility II (EUNDETRAF II) in the Sixth Framework Programme on Community activities in the field of research, technological development and demonstration for the period 2002 to 2006. This was a continuation of the FP5 project EUNDETRAF. EUNDETRAF II is a consortium of main European decommissioners, such as SCK-CEN, EWN (Energie Werke Nord, Greifswald Germany), Belgatom (Belgium), SOGIN Societa Gestione Impiantio Nucleari, Italy), Universitaet Hannover (Germany), RWE NUKEM (United Kingdom), DECOM Slovakia Slovakia), CEA Centre d'Energie Atomique, France), UKAEA (United Kingdom's Atomic Energy Agency, United Kingdom) and NRG (Nuclear Research and consultancy Group, Netherlands). The primary objective of this project is to bring together this vast skill base and experience; to consolidate it for easy assimilation and to transfer to future generations by organising a comprehensive training programme.Each training course has a one-week theoretical and a one-week practical component. The theoretical part is for a broader audience and consists of lectures covering all the main aspects of a decommissioning. The practical part of the course includes site visits and desk top solutions of anticipated decommissioning problems. Due to operational constraints and safety considerations, the number of participants to this part of the course is strictly limited. The partners intend to organise altogether two two-week EUNDETRAF II training courses over a period of three years. Another goal is to disseminate the existing theory as well as the practical know-how to personnel of the third countries. Finally it is important to bring together the principal decommissioning organisations undertaking various decommissioning activities. The project creates a forum for regular contacts to exchange information and experiences for mutual benefit of these organisations as well as to enhance skill base in Europe to strengthen the European position in the world

  1. Decommissioning in western Europe; Kaernkraftsavveckling i Vaesteuropa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundqvist, K. [Castor arbetslivskonsulter AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1999-12-01

    This report gives an overview of the situation in Western Europe. The original aim was to focus on organisational and human issues with regard to nuclear reactor decommissioning, but very few articles were found. This is in sharp contrast to the substantial literature on technical issues. While most of the reports on decommissioning have a technical focus, several provide information on regulatory issues, strategies and 'state of the art'. The importance of the human and organizational perspective is however discovered, when reading between the lines of the technical publications, and especially when project managers summarize lessons learned. The results are to a large extent based on studies of articles and reports, mainly collected from the INIS database. Decommissioning of nuclear facilities started already in the sixties, but then mainly research and experimental facilities were concerned. Until now about 70 reactors have been shutdown world-wide. Over the years there have been plenty of conferences for exchanging experiences mostly about technical matters. Waste Management is a big issue. In the 2000s there will be a wave of decommissioning when an increasing amount of reactors will reach the end of their calculated lifetime (40 years, a figure now being challenged by both life-extension and pre-shutdown projects). Several reactors have been shut-down for economical reasons. Shutdown and decommissioning is however not identical. A long period of time can sometimes pass before an owner decides to decommission and dismantle a facility. The conditions will also differ depending on the strategy, 'immediate dismantling' or 'safe enclosure'. If immediate dismantling is chosen the site can reach 'green-field status' in less than ten years. 'Safe enclosure', however, seems to be the most common strategy. There are several pathways, but in general a safe store is constructed, enabling the active parts to remain in safe and waterproof conditions for a longer period of time (sometimes hundred years or more), prior to final demolition. Among the reasons for deferring the dismantling are lack of waste repositories and decreasing dose-rates for the workers. Of Europe's 218 commercial reactors in operation, the majority, 151, are located i the Western part. The biggest producers are France, United Kingdom and Germany, with 58, 35 and 20 reactors respectively. Until now mostly research- and pilot reactors have been shut-down. There are yet few experiences from decommissioning of large-scale commercial reactors. The following commercial reactors are undergoing decommissioning. (There are also a great amount of nuclear facilities of other types being decommissioned.) The three gas-cooled twin reactor plants of Berkeley, Trawsfynydd and Hunterston in UK. In Germany Gundremmingen, Lingen, Kahl and Wuergassen are being decommissioned. All of them are located in the Western part of the country. The biggest project is however the dismantling of the gigantic Greifswaldfacility situated on the coast of the Baltic see in former Eastern Germany. The plant has eight Russian built reactors of VVER-type. Like the rest of the former GDR-plants Greifswald was shutdown after the reunification in 1990. The strategy chosen is immediate dismantling. France is decommissioning seven reactors (Chooz A1, Chinon A1, A2, A3, St Laurent A1, A2 and Bugey 1.) The oldest, Chinon A1, closed down in 1973 and the youngest, Bugey 1, in 1994. Italy closed down all NPPs (altogether four) in 1987 after a referendum. The first reactor of the Netherlands was shutdown in 1997 mainly for economical reasons. The development of a free European electricity market will make it less profitable to run certain facilities. Vandelos 1 in Spain is undergoing decommissioning after a fire in the turbines in 1989. IAEA, OECD/NEA and EU are co-operating in the field of decommissioning. Much work is spent on harmonizing rules and preparing international guidelines. The international agencies now consider decommissioning of nuclear

  2. NMSS handbook for decommissioning fuel cycle and materials licensees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission amended its regulations to set forth the technical and financial criteria for decommissioning licensed nuclear facilities. These regulations were further amended to establish additional recordkeeping requirements for decommissioning; to establish timeframes and schedules for the decommissioning; and to clarify that financial assurance requirements must be in place during operations and updated when licensed operations cease. Reviews of the Site Decommissioning Management Plan (SDMP) program found that, while the NRC staff was overseeing the decommissioning program at nuclear facilities in a manner that was protective of public health and safety, progress in decommissioning many sites was slow. As a result NRC determined that formal written procedures should be developed to facilitate the timely decommissioning of licensed nuclear facilities. This handbook was developed to aid NRC staff in achieving this goal. It is intended to be used as a reference document to, and in conjunction with, NRC Inspection Manual Chapter (IMC) 2605, ''Decommissioning Inspection Program for Fuel Cycle and Materials Licensees.'' The policies and procedures discussed in this handbook should be used by NRC staff overseeing the decommissioning program at licensed fuel cycle and materials sites; formerly licensed sites for which the licenses were terminated; sites involving source, special nuclear, or byproduct material subject to NRC regulation for which a license was never issued; and sites in the NRC's SDMP program. NRC staff overseeing the decommissioning program at nuclear reactor facilities subject to regulation under 10 CFR Part 50 are not required to use the procedures discussed in this handbook

  3. NMSS handbook for decommissioning fuel cycle and materials licensees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlando, D.A.; Hogg, R.C.; Ramsey, K.M. [and others

    1997-03-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission amended its regulations to set forth the technical and financial criteria for decommissioning licensed nuclear facilities. These regulations were further amended to establish additional recordkeeping requirements for decommissioning; to establish timeframes and schedules for the decommissioning; and to clarify that financial assurance requirements must be in place during operations and updated when licensed operations cease. Reviews of the Site Decommissioning Management Plan (SDMP) program found that, while the NRC staff was overseeing the decommissioning program at nuclear facilities in a manner that was protective of public health and safety, progress in decommissioning many sites was slow. As a result NRC determined that formal written procedures should be developed to facilitate the timely decommissioning of licensed nuclear facilities. This handbook was developed to aid NRC staff in achieving this goal. It is intended to be used as a reference document to, and in conjunction with, NRC Inspection Manual Chapter (IMC) 2605, ``Decommissioning Inspection Program for Fuel Cycle and Materials Licensees.`` The policies and procedures discussed in this handbook should be used by NRC staff overseeing the decommissioning program at licensed fuel cycle and materials sites; formerly licensed sites for which the licenses were terminated; sites involving source, special nuclear, or byproduct material subject to NRC regulation for which a license was never issued; and sites in the NRC`s SDMP program. NRC staff overseeing the decommissioning program at nuclear reactor facilities subject to regulation under 10 CFR Part 50 are not required to use the procedures discussed in this handbook.

  4. Sedimentology of the Teekloof formation to the east of Aberdeen (C.P.) with reference to uranium mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An area to the immediate east of Aberdeen (C.P.), banded in the north by the Rooiberge and to the east by the Sundays River, has been sedimentologically studied. A notable feature of the sediments investigated, is the presence of linear zones of increased sandstone. Some of the sediments also showed an exessive volume of argillaceous rocks. The sandstones cropping out in the Aberdeen District may be classified as lithic arkoses. Due to the manner in which the detrital grains appear to 'float' in calcite, an expansive growth mechanism is envisaged. This implies early crystallization of calcite, and emplacement of uranium

  5. Nuclear submarine decommissioning. Radiation risk assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decommissioning of the ships and vessels with nuclear power installations is a problem of primary and worldwide importance. It is essential for both the naval fleet and the military industrial complex as a whole. Nuclear submarines decommissioning is accompanied by a number of questions concerning the development and performance of the safe technologies for managing radioactive equipment and nuclear waste from the vessels with the nuclear power facilities. Decommissioning of nuclear submarines including unloading of the spent fuel should take place at the operating ship yards and repairing plants that are usually situated close to the densely populated areas and living blocks. Decommissioning includes a series of the potentially dangerous operations with radioactive materials, e.g. fuel unloading, disposal of coolant, dismantling of the contaminated equipment, cutting out the reactor compartment, etc. As a result a great amount of highly radioactive liquid and solid wastes are formed including the cut-out reactor compartment and spent fuel that produce additional radioactive load on the local environment and population. Estimation of the radiation risk for the environment and population due to decommissioning becomes an actual and necessary question. Apart from this the process of decommissioning may cause accidents followed by complicated radiation situation with high dose rates and contamination of the environment. Analysis of the most probable scenarios of the accident development and estimation of the expected radiation consequences should help to assess the risk rate for radiation impact on the environment and population as well as to develop an adequate environmental monitoring and to undertake measures for the accident localisation and liquidation of its consequences. A separate problem is management of the reactor compartment containing radioactive equipment of the steam producing installation and biological protection. Since there are no specialised facilities with an adequate equipment for decomposition of reactor compartments incorporating highly active equipment they need to be stored in special containers for a long period until radiation level decreases to the level safe for decomposing operations without special remote and protection equipment. Various storage techniques are discussed, e.g. in floating regime, burial in shallow waters, open ground, etc. (author)

  6. On Decommissioning Costs of the Ranstad Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this study has been to extend the review of the future cost to decommission and dismantling the industrial area at the site of the old uranium mine at Ranstad in Sweden. The feedback of experience and actual costs from a decommissioning project in the United Kingdom (A26 in Springfields) has been used to help in the assessment of the reasonableness of the estimated costs for decommissioning of the old uranium mine in Ranstad. A quantitative (albeit subjective) statement about the accuracy of the Ranstad cost estimate has been developed. Also, the factors relevant to the allocation of costs between the Swedish state and the current owners of the old uranium mine site have been evaluated and presented. The study has developed the following main conclusions: - The importance of thorough characterization/radiological mapping to the selection of the optimum decommissioning approach (technique) has been reinforced very strongly. - Thorough characterization has the related consequence of being able to better define the costs of decommissioning, in terms of equipment needed, labour hours required and, importantly, the volumes of different categories of waste requiring different routes (and associated different unit costs) for ultimate disposition. - Uncertainties in the Ranstad decommissioning cost estimate nevertheless remain, in particular relating to the viability of the proposed approach to dismantling and decontaminating the acid proof bricks that line the pools in the Large Leaching Hall; a method that is acknowledged to be not proven. The outcome could have an impact on actual dismantling and decontamination costs, as well as on the costs of ultimate waste disposition. The KB2010 cost estimate report does not offer an alternative in the event that the base plan proves to be unfeasible. - On balance it would appear that the continued presence of RMA at the Ranstad site ultimately will provide a net cost benefit to the program. The extra costs that RMA operations may cause are assessed to be more than offset by the benefits of having a functioning RMA Leach Hall facility, as well as the historical benefits of general site management

  7. In Situ Decommissioning (ISD) Concepts and Approaches for Excess Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning End State - 13367

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) currently has numerous radiologically contaminated excess nuclear facilities waiting decommissioning throughout the Complex. The traditional decommissioning end state is complete removal. This commonly involves demolishing the facility, often segregating various components and building materials and disposing of the highly contaminated, massive structures containing tons of highly contaminated equipment and piping in a (controlled and approved) landfill, at times hundreds of miles from the facility location. Traditional demolition is costly, and results in significant risks to workers, as well as risks and costs associated with transporting the materials to a disposal site. In situ decommissioning (ISD or entombment) is a viable alternative to demolition, offering comparable and potentially more protective protection of human health and the environment, but at a significantly reduced cost and worker risk. The Savannah River Site (SRS) has completed the initial ISD deployment for radiologically contaminated facilities. Two reactor (P and R Reactors) facilities were decommissioned in 2011 using the ISD approach through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. The SRS ISD approach resolved programmatic, regulatory and technical/engineering issues associated with avoiding the potential hazards and cost associated with generating and disposing of an estimated 124,300 metric tons (153,000 m3) of contaminated debris per reactor. The DOE Environmental Management Office of Deactivation and Decommissioning and Facility Engineering, through the Savannah River National Laboratory, is currently investigating potential monitoring techniques and strategies to assess ISD effectiveness. As part of SRS's strategic planning, the site is seeking to leverage in situ decommissioning concepts, approaches and facilities to conduct research, design end states, and assist in regulatory interactions in broad national and international government and private industry decommissioning applications. SRS offers critical services based upon the SRS experience in decommissioning and reactor entombment technology (e.g., grout formulations for varying conditions, structural and material sciences). The SRS ISD approach follows a systems engineering framework to achieve a regulatory acceptable end state based on established protocols, attains the final end state with minimal long stewardship requirements, protects industrial workers, and protects groundwater and the environment. The ISD systems engineering framework addresses key areas of the remedial process planning, technology development and deployment, and assessment to attain the ultimate goal of natural resource stewardship and protecting the public. The development and deployment of the SRS ISD approach has established a path for ISD of other large nuclear facilities in the United States and around the globe as an acceptable remedial alternative for decommissioning nuclear facilities. (authors)

  8. Carcass characteristics of small and medium-frame Aberdeen Angus young steers / Características da carcaça de novilhos super jovens Aberdeen Angus de biótipos pequeno e médio

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Miguelangelo Ziegler, Arboitte; Ivan Luis, Brondani; João, Restle; Leandro da Silva, Freitas; Lucas Braido, Pereira; Gilmar dos Santos, Cardoso.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se as características da carcaça de novilhos Aberdeen Angus super jovens de biótipos pequeno e médio, terminados em confinamento e abatidos com semelhante espessura de gordura subcutânea. A idade e o peso vivo médio de ingresso no confinamento foram de 298 dias e 202 kg. Os animais foram c [...] onfinados durante 158 dias, abatidos com espessura de gordura subcutânea média de 6,4 mm. A alimentação foi composta por silagem de sorgo e concentrado, na razão volumoso:concentrado de 60:40 na matéria seca, nos primeiros 63 dias e após, 50:50 até o abate. O biótipo foi calculado utilizando a fórmula B=-11,548 + (0,4878xh) - (0,0289xID) + (0,0000146xID²) + (0,0000759xhxID), em que h representou a altura e o ID idade em dias. Novilhos com biótipo médio apresentaram superioridade nos aspectos importantes de comercialização, como o peso de carcaça quente (p Abstract in english Carcass characteristics of small and medium-frame Aberdeen Angus young steers, finished in feedlot and slaughtered with similar subcutaneous fat thickness are evaluated. The average age and live weight at the start of feedlot were respectively 298 days and 202 kg. The steers were confined during 158 [...] days, and slaughtered with average subcutaneous fat thickness of 6.4 mm. The feed consisted of sorghum silage and concentrate at 60:40 ratio of dry matter during the first 63 days and 50:50 afterward. The frame was calculated by formula F =-11.548 + (0.4878xh) - (0.0289xID) + (0.0000146xID²)+(0.0000759xIDxh), where h is the height and ID the age, in days. Steers with medium frame showed superiority in important marketing aspects such as warm (p

  9. Decommissioning of an uranium hexafluoride pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Institute of Nuclear and Energetic Researches has completed fifty years of operation, belongs to the National Commission for Nuclear Energy, it is situated inside the city of Sao Paulo. The IPEN-CNEN/SP is a Brazilian reference in the nuclear fuel cycle, researches in this field began in 1970, having dominance in the cycle steps from Yellow Cake to Uranium Hexafluoride technology. The plant of Uranium Hexafluoride produced 35 metric tonnes of this gas by year, had been closed in 1992, due to domain and total transference of know-how for industrial scale, demand of new facilities for the improvement of recent researches projects. The Institute initiates decommissioning in 2002. Then, the Uranium Hexafluoride pilot plant, no doubt the most important unit of the fuel cycle installed at IPEN-CNEN/SP, beginning decommissioning and dismantlement (D and D) in 2005. Such D and D strategies, planning, assessment and execution are described, presented and evaluated in this paper. (author)

  10. Decommissioning? Why not use a robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasks which may be accomplished by robots alone or in conjunction with human workers in decommissioning nuclear facilities include: routine surveillance in contaminated areas; radiation surveys and sampling; preparation of work area; decontamination of walls and floors; disassembly of contaminated equipment and piping; internal decontamination of piping and waste storage/processing tanks; sorting materials; removal of large activated/contaminated structures; asbestos removal and packaging; transport of waste from disassembly areas; tending waste processing equipment; waste packaging for storage. The status of the technology is briefly reviewed and examples of the use of robots in decommissioning work in the USA are described. Although the use of robots in this field is not extensive so far, that use is increasing and information on its costs and benefits are becoming available. (UK)

  11. Decommissioning calls for meticulous advance planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Expiring licenses and premature shutdowns force plant owners to analyze NRC decommissioning alternatives and technology requirements, and to project market conditions expected to prevail in the future. Barring a sudden change in energy economics, the start of the next century will mark the physical decline of the US nuclear industry. The spate of nuclear units commissioned in the 1960s and 1970s will begin reaching the end of their design life. Plant owners facing expiration of their operating licenses must choose between shutting down these plants and renewing their licenses. Because of uncertainties regarding the continued availability of burial space for contaminated components, and what many question as the competitive position of nuclear power compared to other generating options, many plant closures followed by decommissioning in some form can be expected

  12. Shoreham decommissioning technology: Simple and effective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article reports that at Shoreham decommissioning a large nuclear power plant proves to be a straightforward exercise, accomplished with existing tools and procedures. Plans to dismantle Shoreham nuclear power embraced a simple concept: applying proven technology in new or innovative ways to get the job done. Although Shoreham's operating history was brief, the project is significant because the plant was a large commercial unit and the technologies and methods applied to dismantle it will eventually apply to the present operating fleet of nuclear plants when their service lives come to an end. So, in several respects, Shoreham became the proving ground for planning, techniques and technologies that are likely to figure prominently in the evolution of decommissioning practices over the next two decades

  13. Law regulations on decommissioning of reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concerning the decommissioning of reactors, the major provisions are discussed in the Electricity Enterprises Act and The Law for the Regulations of Nuclear Source Material, Nuclear Fuel Material and Reactors. Tokai Unit 1 in Tokai Power Station, Japan's first nuclear power plant, will be subject to the low regulations on reactor decommissioning about ten years hence. JPDR (Japan Power Demonstration Reactor) is being dismantled in the near future. Accoring to the Act the electricity enterprise must obtain the permission thereon from the Ministry for International Trade and Industry. According to the Low, the reactor owner must report thereon in advance to the competent Minister and the competent Minister may give orders concerning the necessary measures etc. (Mori, K.)

  14. Approach to decommissioning at AECL's laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This series of slides presents: the Chalk River Laboratories (overview), the decommissioning organization (planning and operations), the waste management strategy (four steps: Characterization, Processing/Immobilization/Packaging, Storage, disposal), the integration of waste management and decommissioning, the free release criteria (status in Canada, AECL official criteria, AECL interim criteria, comparison to International Criteria, Release of Lands, Groundwater Monitoring, Approaches Under Consideration for Free Release, Actions) and the issues for discussion (What are the release standards? Do the same release standards apply to soil and the ground as apply to the buildings? Are release standards dose-based, or concentration based? Are there different release standards for different types of radionuclides? What are the standards for groundwater? Are surface contamination or volumetric standards used?)

  15. Health physics program for the Edgemont Uranium Mill decommissioning project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) is actively involved in decommissioning a uranium mill located near the town of Edgemont, South Dakota. The Edgemont Mill Decommissioning Project, which is unique in many respects, will involve dismantlement of the old inactive mill building and excavation and transportation of several million tons of uranium mill tailings to a permanent disposal site. To ensure that workers are adequately protected from radiation exposure during decommissioning operations, a health physics program appropriate for the decommissioning situation was developed. The Edgemont Mill Decommissioning Project Health Physics Manual (HPM) gives the programmatic requirements for worker radiation protection. The requirements of the HPM are implemented by means of detailed onsite operating procedures. The Edgemont project health physics program was developed using currently available regulations and guidance for an operating uranium mill with appropriate modifications for decommissioning. This paper discusses the development, implementation, and documentation of that program

  16. Regulations and organisation of decommissioning operations in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decommissioning is regulated in Belgium by several laws, royal decrees and conventions. These regulations deal with safety requirements such as protection of workers, the population and the environment, and with strategies, financing and dismantling operations. Thus, the future decommissioning activities of new installations and installations currently in operation will be financed through provisions defined by a convention for nuclear power plants or by the initial decommissioning plan for other facilities. Furthermore, before decommissioning operations can start, the license needs to submit a final decommissioning plan to ONDRAF/NIRAS, and a licence application to the regulatory body. This structure is being set up in the country and should by completely implemented for installations in operation and in decommissioning phase in 1993-1994. (author) 1 fig

  17. Some studies related to decommissioning of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decommissioning of large nuclear reactors has not yet taken place in the Nordic countries. Small nuclear installations, however, have been dismantled. This NKA-programme has dealt with some interesting and important factors which have to be analysed before a large scale decommissioning programme starts. Prior to decommissioning, knowledge is required regarding the nuclide inventory in various parts of the reactor. Measurements were performed in regions close to the reactor tank and the biological shield. These experimental data are used to verify theoretical calculations. All radioactive waste generated during decommissioning will have to be tansported to a repository. Studies show that in all the Nordic countries there are adequate transport systems with which decommissioning waste can be transported. Another requirement for orderly decommissioning planning is that sufficient information about the plant and its operation history must be available. It appears that if properly handled and sorted, all such information can be extracted from existing documentation. (authors)

  18. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's decommissioning process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The term 'Decommission' is defined in the U.S.. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (USNRC's) regulations at 10 CFR 20.1003 as to remove a facility or site safely from service and reduce residual radioactivity to a level that permits 1) release of the property for unrestricted use and termination of the license; or, 2) release of the property under restricted conditions and the termination of the license. USNRC's decommissioning program encompasses the decommissioning of all NRC licensed facilities, ranging from routine license terminations for sealed source users, to the oversight of complex sites and those on the Site Decommissioning Management Plan (SDMP), as well as power and non-power reactors. This paper describes the USNRC's decommissioning process for materials and reactor facilities and presents an overview of USNRC's decommissioning program activities. (author)

  19. Decommissioning regulations and activities in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The regulations established in 1988 by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to ensure safe and effective decommissioning of commercial nuclear power reactors in the United States are reviewed. These regulations provide requirements for the planning and funding of decommissioning. The new regulations also specify acceptable alternatives for decommissioning, set a time limit for completion of decommissioning, and require that certain records be maintained which are needed to best accomplish decommissioning. Procedural requirements are also provided, and acceptable arrangements for providing financial assurance are specified. In the United States a dozen power reactors currently regulated by the NRC are now permanently shut down, and are in various stages of the decommissioning process. The status of these twelve reactors is reviewed briefly. For four cases a more detailed discussion is provided. A short review of some of the problems that have been encountered and the methods of implementation of the new regulations are presented. (R.P.) 1 tab

  20. Initial building investigations at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland: Objectives and methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brubaker, K.L.; Dougherty, J.M.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1994-12-01

    As part of an environmental-contamination source-definition program at Aberdeen Proving Ground, detailed internal and external inspections of 23 potentially contaminated buildings are being conducted to describe and characterize the state of each building as it currently exists and to identify areas potentially contaminated with toxic or other hazardous substances. In addition, a detailed geophysical investigation is being conducted in the vicinity of each target building to locate and identify subsurface structures, associated with former building operations, that are potential sources of contamination. This report describes the objectives of the initial building inspections, including the geophysical investigations, and discusses the methodology that has been developed to achieve these objectives.

  1. An apparatus for studying spallation neutrons in the Aberdeen Tunnel laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blyth, S.C. [Department of Electro-Optical Engineering, National United University, Miao-Li, Taiwan (China); Chan, Y.L.; Chen, X.C.; Chu, M.C. [Department of Physics, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Hahn, R.L. [Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Ho, T.H.; Hsiung, Y.B. [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hu, B.Z. [Institute of Physics, National Chiao-Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Kwan, K.K.; Kwok, M.W. [Department of Physics, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Kwok, T., E-mail: goodtalent@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Lau, Y.P.; Lee, K.P.; Leung, J.K.C.; Leung, K.Y. [Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Lin, G.L. [Institute of Physics, National Chiao-Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Lin, Y.C. [Department of Physics, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Luk, K.B. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Luk, W.H. [Department of Physics, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Ngai, H.Y. [Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); and others

    2013-09-21

    In this paper, we describe the design, construction and performance of an apparatus installed in the Aberdeen Tunnel laboratory in Hong Kong for studying spallation neutrons induced by cosmic-ray muons under a vertical rock overburden of 611 m water equivalent (m.w.e.). The apparatus comprises six horizontal layers of plastic-scintillator hodoscopes for determining the direction and position of the incident cosmic-ray muons. Sandwiched between the hodoscope planes is a neutron detector filled with 650 kg of liquid scintillator doped with about 0.06% of Gadolinium by weight for improving the efficiency of detecting the spallation neutrons. Performance of the apparatus is also presented.

  2. An apparatus for studying spallation neutrons in the Aberdeen Tunnel laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we describe the design, construction and performance of an apparatus installed in the Aberdeen Tunnel laboratory in Hong Kong for studying spallation neutrons induced by cosmic-ray muons under a vertical rock overburden of 611 m water equivalent (m.w.e.). The apparatus comprises six horizontal layers of plastic-scintillator hodoscopes for determining the direction and position of the incident cosmic-ray muons. Sandwiched between the hodoscope planes is a neutron detector filled with 650 kg of liquid scintillator doped with about 0.06% of Gadolinium by weight for improving the efficiency of detecting the spallation neutrons. Performance of the apparatus is also presented

  3. Decommissioning plan for the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brereton, S., LLNL

    1998-05-27

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a US Department of Energy inertial confinement laser fusion experimental facility currently under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). To ensure that decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) issues at the end-of-life are manageable, this subject has received attention from an early stage. This paper summarizes the NIF D&D issues, and the status of the D&D plan.

  4. Decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1973, when the IAEA first introduced the subject of decontamination and decommissioning into its programme, twelve Agency reports reflecting the needs of the Member States on these topics have been published. These reports summarize the work done by various Technical Committees, Advisory Groups, and International Symposia. While the basic technology to accomplish decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) is fairly well developed, the Agency feels that a more rapid exchange of information and co-ordination of work are required to foster technology, reduce duplication of effort, and provide useful results for Member States planning D and D activities. Although the Agency's limited financial resources do not make possible direct support of every research work in this field, the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) creates a forum for outstanding workers from different Member States brought into closer contact with one another to provide for more effective interaction and, perhaps subsequently, closer collaboration. The first IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on decontamination and decommissioning was initiated in 1984. Nineteen experts from 11 Member States and two international organizations (CEC, OECD/NEA) took part in the three Research Co-ordination Meetings (RCM) during 1984-87. The final RCM took place in Pittsburgh, USA, in conjunction with the 1987 International Decommissioning Symposium (sponsored by the US DOE and organized in co-operation with the IAEA and OECD/NEA). The present document summarizes the salient features and achievements of the co-ordinated research work performed during the 1984-87 programme period. The document consists of two parts: Part 1, Summary of the three research co-ordination meetings and Part 2, Final submissions by participants on the research work performed during 1984-1987. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 7 reports presented. Refs, figs and tabs

  5. Decommissioning a tritium glove-box facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large glove-box facility for handling reactive metal tritides was decommissioned. Major sections of the glove box were decontaminated and disassembled for reuse at another tritium facility. To achieve the desired results, decontamnation required repeated washing, first with organic liquids, then with water and detergents. Worker protection was provided by simple ventilation combined with careful monitoring of the work areas and employees. Several innovative techniques are described

  6. Separations equipment development facilities decontamination & decommissioning project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, C.E.; Usher, J.M.; Yannitell, D.M.

    1994-12-31

    The Separations Equipment Development (SED) Facility was accepted into the Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters (HQ) Environmental Restoration (EM-40) Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Program in 1992. Subsequently, goals were established to D&D the facility to levels of radiological and hazardous materials consistent with its surrounding environment in a safe, timely, and cost effective manner in accordance with applicable laws and regulations. The project is currently in Phase I - Assessment.

  7. Decommissioning and decontamination (burial ground stabilization) studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decommissioning and decontamination of retired Hanford facilities and the future use of surrounding landscapes require isolation of contaminated wastes from the biosphere. Burial ground stabilization studies were conducted to determine the effectiveness of physical barriers for isolating contaminated wastes in shallow-land burial sites from plants and animals. This study was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of using a layer of loose rock between the waste and the surface soil covering to prevent both plant root and animal penetrations

  8. Decommissioning a tritium glove-box facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folkers, C.L.; Homann, S.G.; Nicolosi, A.S.; Hanel, S.L.; King, W.C.

    1979-08-08

    A large glove-box facility for handling reactive metal tritides was decommissioned. Major sections of the glove box were decontaminated and disassembled for reuse at another tritium facility. To achieve the desired results, decontamnation required repeated washing, first with organic liquids, then with water and detergents. Worker protection was provided by simple ventilation combined with careful monitoring of the work areas and employees. Several innovative techniques are described.

  9. Unrestricted re-use of decommissioned nuclear laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornelissen, R.; Noynaert, L.; Harnie, S.; Marien, J.

    1996-09-18

    A decommissioning strategy was developed by the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN. In this strategy decommissioning works are limited to the radioactive parts of the nuclear installation. After obtaining an attestation for unrestricted reuse of the building after removal of all radioactivity, the building can be used for new industrial purposes outside the nuclear field. The decommissioning activities according to this strategy have been applied in four buildings. The results are described.

  10. Training practices to support decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adequate numbers of competent personnel must be available during any phase of a nuclear facility life cycle, including the decommissioning phase. While a significant amount of attention has been focused on the technical aspects of decommissioning and many publications have been developed to address technical aspects, human resource management issues, particularly the training and qualification of decommissioning personnel, are becoming more paramount with the growing number of nuclear facilities of all types that are reaching or approaching the decommissioning phase. One of the keys to success is the training of the various personnel involved in decommissioning in order to develop the necessary knowledge and skills required for specific decommissioning tasks. The operating organisations of nuclear facilities normally possess limited expertise in decommissioning and consequently rely on a number of specialized organisations and companies that provide the services related to the decommissioning activities. Because of this there is a need to address the issue of assisting the operating organisations in the development and implementation of human resource management policies and training programmes for the facility personnel and contractor personnel involved in various phases of decommissioning activities. The lessons learned in the field of ensuring personnel competence are discussed in the paper (on the basis of information and experiences accumulated from various countries and organizations, particularly, through relevant IAEA activities). Particularly, the following aspects are addressed: transition of training from operational to decommissioning phase; knowledge management; target groups, training needs analysis, and application of a systematic approach to training (SAT); content of training for decommissioning management and professional staff, and for decommissioning workers; selection and training of instructors; training facilities and tools; and training as the integral part of management of human resources. (author)

  11. Decommissioning the UT TRIGA reactor - Meeting technical and regulatory requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the most significant findings and features contained in the Decommissioning Plan which accompanied The University of Texas's termination of license application for its TRIGA reactor. Key topics which distinguish this plan from past research reactor decommission applications and which reflect the latest NRC regulatory requirements, are presented. This includes biological shield activation calculations, decommissioning tasks and schedule for the DECON alternative, collective dose equivalent, occupational health and environmental provisions, radioactive waste management, preliminary cost estimates and funding requirements. (author)

  12. Initial decommissioning planning for the Budapest research reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toth Gabor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Budapest Research Reactor is the first nuclear research facility in Hungary. The reactor is to remain in operation for at least another 13 years. At the same time, the development of a decommissioning plan is a mandatory requirement under national legislation. The present paper describes the current status of decommissioning planning which is aimed at a timely preparation for the forthcoming decommissioning of the reactor.

  13. Administrative requirements of financial securities to cover decommissioning operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper points out that the lack of experience in decommissioning of nuclear power plants is reflected by the absence of specific legislation regarding the economic, fiscal and accounting aspects of the process. The author suggests that a fund be created for decommissioning costs through contributions deriving from plant operation. The paper analyses the procedures to be followed and draws attention to the need for clear legislation on decommissioning. (NEA)

  14. Decommissioning of nuclear installations - regulations - financing - responsibility - insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper highlights three aspects of decommissioning of nuclear installations which relate, more or less directly, to legal options already applied or advocated. It reviews the regulatory conditions for decommissioning a nuclear installation and indicates legal provisions for financing decommissioning expenditures. It also describes the legal provisions to determine liabilities in case of nuclear damage and the assistance which insurers may provide to cover the consequences of such liabilities. (NEA)

  15. Decommissioning plans and program in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seven reactors of different types are currently being decommissioned or plans are being drawn up to do so. The Niederaichbach reactor will be completely dismantled (stage 3) and returned to a green field site within five years. Other reactors will be decommissioned to stage 2. The progress on these projects is summarized. Research and development of decommissioning techniques and tools for decontamination concrete blasting, pipe cutting, remotely controlled manipulators and melting of steel scrap, are described. (author)

  16. Decommissioning nuclear power plants - the wave of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses the project controls developed in the decommissioning of a nuclear power plant. Considerations are given to the contaminated piping and equipment that have to be removed and the spent and used fuel that has to be disposed of. The storage issue is of primary concern here. The cost control aspects and the dynamics of decommissioning are discussed. The effects of decommissioning laws on the construction and engineering firms are mentioned. 5 refs

  17. Large transport packages for decommissioning waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main tasks performed during the period related to the influence of manufacture, transport and disposal on the design of such packages. It is deduced that decommissioning wastes will be transported under the IAEA Transport Regulations under either the Type B or Low Specific Activity (LSA) categories. If the LSA packages are self-shielded, reinforced concrete is the preferred material of construction. But the high cost of disposal implies that there is a strong reason to investigate the use of returnable shields for LSA packages and in such cases they are likely to be made of ferrous metal. Economic considerations favour the use of spheroidal graphite cast iron for this purpose. Transport operating hazards have been investigated using a mixture of desk studies, routes surveys and operations data from the railway organisations. Reference routes were chosen in the Federal Republic of Germany, France and the United Kingdom. This work has led to a description of ten accident scenarios and an evaluation of the associated accident probabilities. The effect of disposal on design of packages has been assessed in terms of the radiological impact of decommissioning wastes, an in addition corrosion and gas evolution have been examined. The inventory of radionuclides in a decommissioning waste package has low environmental impact. If metal clad reinforced concrete packages are to be used, the amount of gas evolution is such that a vent would need to be included in the design. Similar unclad packages would be sufficiently permeable to gases to prevent a pressure build-up. (author)

  18. The use of managing agencies in decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 1 April 1994 UKAEA Government Division was formed and one of its main responsibilities is the safe and cost effective management of the facilities which have already closed and the fuel reprocessing and radioactive waste management plant required to assist in the current programme of decommissioning. UKAEA Government Division, working on behalf of DTI, is intended to be a lean and efficient programme management and procurement organisation. Rather than build up its own project management capability it intends to use external resources for this function, obtained in future by competitive tendering. For each major facility undergoing decommissioning a Managing Agency has been, or will be, appointed to act on behalf of UKAEA Government Division. The responsibilities of each Managing Agency will be to assist in the definition of tasks, the commissioning of option studies and safety studies, the specification of individual contracts, management of the tendering processes and the subsequent management of the Implementation Contractors carrying out the decommissioning work, including the associated safety and training responsibilities. Teams involved in Managing Agency work require skills in project management, relevant technical issues, contract and safety management. (author)

  19. Remotely controlled systems in decommissioning nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past three decades, extensive know-how has been accumulated in decommissioning nuclear plants. More than fifty nuclear generating units and more than 240 research reactors are down and in the process of being dismantled or to be dismantled. In addition, probably forty nuclear generating units and 220 research reactors worldwide will be up for decommissioning and dismantling in 2000. Contaminated and activated components must be handled by means of remotely controlled systems in order to reduce the radiation exposure and contamination of the personnel. A distinction is made in this respect between stationary and mobile systems as well as Master-Slave manipulators. The simplest solution feasible on economic and technical grounds should be found for each problem. For this reason, commercial equipment is used wherever possible; some of its is modified for better decontamination and remote operation. Certain activities cannot be carried out with this equipment, but require special systems to be designed and built. Before being used in the field, all systems are tested in models and qualified to demonstrate their functioning capability and fitness for use, to train the operating personnel, determine the optimum operating parameters, and achieve high reliability in use. By way of example, a survey of remotely controlled systems used in decommissioning nuclear installations is presented. (orig.)

  20. P2 integration into conduct of decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boing, L.E.; Lindley, R.

    1997-08-01

    Over the last five years, the D and D Program at the ANL-East site has completed decommissioning of three facilities. Currently, decommissioning of two facilities continues at the site with completion of the JANUS Reactor scheduled for September 1997 and completion of the CP-5 Reactor scheduled for late in CY 1999. In the course of this work, certain waste minimization pollution prevention (WMin/P2) activities have been integrated into all these projects. In most cases, the P2 aspects were key components of the operations that made the best use of available project resources to complete the work safely, within the budget and on or ahead of schedule. This paper will highlight those WMin/P2 activities found most suitable for these D and D operations. Activities covered will include: re-use of lead bricks from a research reactor for shielding material at an accelerator facility, re-use of a reactor out building structure by the on-site plant services group, and several other smaller scope activities which have also helped heighten WMin/P2 awareness in decommissioning.

  1. Investment management for nuclear decommissioning trusts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to Nuclear Regulatory Commission estimates, and assuming a 4 percent annual inflation rate, minimum decommissioning requirements for a single reactor could total almost $350 million after 30 years. Consequently, reducing customer contributions to decommissioning funds is a potentially rewarding activity. In fact, improving the after-tax return earned on an NDT fund by as little as one percentage point can reduce customer contributions to the fund by 15% over its life. Unfortunately, many electric utilities are headed in the wrong direction and are unlikely to achieve satisfactory results. The main problem is the prevalence of the conventional wisdom, most of which has been appropriated from the area of pension fund management. This is an area which is familiar to most utility managements, but which has only superficial similarity to the issue of NDT investing. The differences are pronounced: NDTs, unlike pensions, are fully taxable at corporate income tax rates. In addition, NDT managers should be concerned with protecting the inflation-adjusted or real value of fund investments at a single, future decommissioning date. Pension managers, on the other hand, may be concerned with satisfying nominal contractual obligations spread over an extended future time horizon. In view of the large stakes involved in the management of NDTs, the authors summarize five key tenets of the conventional wisdom in this area and demonstrate where they feel they are in error

  2. Decommissioning of fuel cycle facilities in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experience gained in South Africa on the decommissioning of uranium conversion, enrichment and fuel fabrication facilities is briefly summarized with emphasis on the lessons learned. The South African Nuclear Energy Corporation (Necsa) has consolidated its nuclear decommissioning and waste management activities at Pelindaba and introduced a comprehensive, all-embracing nuclear liability management approach. The paper describes the experience gained on various aspects of decommissioning and waste management including the social impacts of the decommissioning and waste related activities during the decade from 1995 to 2005. Certain technological difficulties arose during this period and the approaches adopted to resolve these difficulties are also addressed. (author)

  3. EC decommissioning information network (EC-DB-NET2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bach, Fr.W.; Versemann, R.; Jaeger, S. [University of Hanover-Institute of Materials Science, Underwater Technology Centre, Lise-Meitner strasse 1, D-30823 Garbsen (Germany); Dionisi, M.; Farina, A. [Agenzie Nazionale per la Protezione dell' Ambiente, via Vitaliano Brancati, 48, 00144 Roma (Italy); Teunckens, L.; Lewandowski, P. [BELGOPROCESS NV, Gravenstraat 73, B-2480 Dessel (Belgium); Dufaud, J.M.; Laurent, F. [CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette, 91191 cedex (France); Villoria, A. [CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, Madrid (Spain); Sterner, H.; Thurow, E. [Energiewerke Nord GmbH, POB 1125, 17507 Lubmin (Germany); Petrasch, P.; Matz, M. [NIS Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH, Industriestrasse 13, D-63755 Alzenau (Germany); Cantarella, J. [ONDRAF/NIRAS, 14, avenue des arts, B-1210 Brussels (Belgium); Massaut, V.; Valenduc, P. [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Reynaud, S.; Fanfarillo, A. [SOGIN, Via Torino, 6, I-184 Rome (Italy); Drake, V. [UKAEA, Harwell, Didcot Oxfordshire OX11 OQJ (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    The EC Decommissioning Information Network is the platform to effectively share the achievements, techniques and principles that have been developed under previous and the current EC programmes and also the knowledge drawn from practical decommissioning projects. The strategic tools of the EC-DB-NET2 project are first the database on technical and cost aspects on decommissioning of nuclear installations which is a consequent enhancement of the former databases EC-DB-COST and EC-DB-TOOL and second the EC Decommissioning Web Site being an essential part of this network. (authors)

  4. EC decommissioning information network (EC-DB-NET2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EC Decommissioning Information Network is the platform to effectively share the achievements, techniques and principles that have been developed under previous and the current EC programmes and also the knowledge drawn from practical decommissioning projects. The strategic tools of the EC-DB-NET2 project are first the database on technical and cost aspects on decommissioning of nuclear installations which is a consequent enhancement of the former databases EC-DB-COST and EC-DB-TOOL and second the EC Decommissioning Web Site being an essential part of this network. (authors)

  5. Computer System Analysis for Decommissioning Management of Nuclear Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear reactor decommissioning is a complex activity that should be planed and implemented carefully. A system based on computer need to be developed to support nuclear reactor decommissioning. Some computer systems have been studied for management of nuclear power reactor. Software system COSMARD and DEXUS that have been developed in Japan and IDMT in Italy used as models for analysis and discussion. Its can be concluded that a computer system for nuclear reactor decommissioning management is quite complex that involved some computer code for radioactive inventory database calculation, calculation module on the stages of decommissioning phase, and spatial data system development for virtual reality. (author)

  6. Decommissioning wind energy projects: An economic and political analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wind energy is the fastest-growing segment of new electrical power capacity in the United States, with the potential for significant growth in the future. To facilitate such growth, a number of concerns between developers and landowners must be resolved, including assurance of wind turbine decommissioning at the end of their useful lives. Oklahoma legislators enlisted the authors to develop an economically-sound proposal to ensure developers complete their decommissioning obligations. Economic analysis of turbine decommissioning is complicated by a lack of operational experience, as few U.S. projects have been decommissioned. This leads to a lack of data regarding decommissioning costs. Politically, the negotiation leading to the finally-enacted solution juxtaposed economic theory against political pragmatism, leading to a different but hopefully sound solution. This article will provide background for the decommissioning issue, chronicle the development of the decommissioning component of the Oklahoma Wind Energy Act, and frame issues that remain for policymakers in regulating wind power development. - Highlights: ? Wind energy is the fastest-growing component of U.S. power generation. ? Decommissioning wind projects is policy concern for wind development. ? Little public information on wind turbine decommissioning costs exists. ? Oklahoma’s solution attempts to account for both costs and risks. ? Additional research is needed to create a more precise policy solution.

  7. National policies and regulations for decommissioning nuclear facilities: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decommissioning strategies, including scheduling and time-scale for decontamination and dismantling operations, safe storage periods, and established times for achieving unrestricted release conditions, are generally developed to reflect national conditions; at present, many countries regulate decommissioning on a case by case basis, using the same legislation and guides as they use to regulate operations. Examples of decommissioning strategies in various countries are given. Criteria for the unrestricted/restricted release of components and site, waste storage and disposal and financial assurance for decommissioning, are discussed

  8. Evaluation of uncertainties in model parameters for evaluating decommissioning project management data based on JPDR decommissioning experience data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to safely and efficiently implement decommissioning of nuclear installations, it is important to beforehand predict decommissioning project management data (PMD) such as manpower of dismantling equipments and radiation exposure dose to workers, and to develop a decommissioning plan based on the predicted results. The PMD prediction is made with PMD evaluation equations including model parameters, such as unit work activity coefficients, whose values are constructed by analyzing decommissioning experience data. Although model parameter values developed so far include uncertainties, little evaluation of the uncertainties and resulted uncertainties in predicted PMD has been made. However information on the uncertainties is valuable in flexibly studying and developing a decommissioning plan. We therefore studied and evaluated uncertainties in model parameters relating to manpower of dismantling equipments and external radiation exposure dose to workers by analyzing the JPDR decommissioning experience data. This report describes an evaluation method of the model parameter uncertainties and their evaluated results. (author)

  9. Decommissioning conceptual study: In situ decommissioning of eight 105 reactor buildings in the 100 areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eight deactivated production reactors on the Hanford Site will be decommissioned. This decommissioning conceptual study report is based on performing the decommissioning with the recommended preferred method (in situ). Final selection of the method of decommissioning is dependent upon the completion of the national Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process. For the purpose of estimating this effort, it is assumed that the work will be done as follows: UNC Nuclear Industries Decommissioning Operations will do the radiological characterization, all Decontamination and Decommissioning nonexplosive destruction, fixing of contaminants, and void filling; an offsite explosives contractor will assist in destruction of some concrete walls; and a large scale earth-moving contractor will construct the burial mound. Before demolition, loose contamination will be stabilized. Building walls and ceilings will be safely and cost effectively demolished using a wrecking ball and/or explosives. Most of the reinforced concrete walls that will reside within the berm envelope will be retained. The rubble will be spread and left as fill. After demolition and void filling is completed, an offsite contractor will mound over the entire building with earth and gravel to extend a minimum of 16 ft above the reactor block. The mound will be seeded to establish plant growth which will minimize run-off erosion, and promote transpiration of precipitation. The depth of the mound will be sufficient so that precipitation penetration will be negligible thereby reducing the potential for radionuclide transport down into the water table. The total estimated cost of this project, including escalation, contingency, and engineering, is $42,760,000, and is estimated to take 5 years to complete. The project funding is scheduled to commence with capital equipment procurement and design in the first quarter of FY 1987

  10. HEAVY WATER COMPONENTS TEST REACTOR DECOMMISSIONING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austin, W.; Brinkley, D.

    2011-10-13

    The Heavy Water Components Test Reactor (HWCTR) Decommissioning Project was initiated in 2009 as a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Removal Action with funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). This paper summarizes the history prior to 2009, the major D&D activities, and final end state of the facility at completion of decommissioning in June 2011. The HWCTR facility was built in 1961, operated from 1962 to 1964, and is located in the northwest quadrant of the Savannah River Site (SRS) approximately three miles from the site boundary. The HWCTR was a pressurized heavy water test reactor used to develop candidate fuel designs for heavy water power reactors. In December of 1964, operations were terminated and the facility was placed in a standby condition as a result of the decision by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission to redirect research and development work on heavy water power reactors to reactors cooled with organic materials. For about one year, site personnel maintained the facility in a standby status, and then retired the reactor in place. In the early 1990s, DOE began planning to decommission HWCTR. Yet, in the face of new budget constraints, DOE deferred dismantlement and placed HWCTR in an extended surveillance and maintenance mode. The doors of the reactor facility were welded shut to protect workers and discourage intruders. In 2009 the $1.6 billion allocation from the ARRA to SRS for site footprint reduction at SRS reopened the doors to HWCTR - this time for final decommissioning. Alternative studies concluded that the most environmentally safe, cost effective option for final decommissioning was to remove the reactor vessel, both steam generators, and all equipment above grade including the dome. The transfer coffin, originally above grade, was to be placed in the cavity vacated by the reactor vessel and the remaining below grade spaces would be grouted. Once all above equipment including the dome was removed, a concrete cover was to be placed over the remaining footprint and the groundwater monitored for an indefinite period to ensure compliance with environmental regulations.

  11. Molecular Signature of the Ebola Virus Associated with the Fishermen Community Outbreak in Aberdeen, Sierra Leone, in February 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Cesare E. M.; Carletti, Fabrizio; Meschi, Silvia; Castilletti, Concetta; Vairo, Francesco; Biava, Mirella; Minosse, Claudia; Strada, Gino; Portella, Gina; Miccio, Rossella; Minardi, Valeria; Rolla, Luca; Kamara, Abdul; Chillemi, Giovanni; Desideri, Alessandro; Di Caro, Antonino; Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of Ebola virus from a health worker linked to a cluster of cases occurring in the fishing community of Aberdeen, Sierra Leone (February 2015), which were characterized by unusually severe presentation. The sequence, clustering in the SL subclade 3.2.4, harbors mutations potentially relevant for pathogenesis. PMID:26404609

  12. Calculating the Unit Cost Factors for Decommissioning Cost Estimation of the Nuclear Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kwan Seong; Lee, Dong Gyu; Jung, Chong Hun; Lee, Kune Woo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-12-15

    The estimated decommissioning cost of nuclear research reactor is calculated by applying a unit cost factor-based engineering cost calculation method on which classification of decommissioning works fitted with the features and specifications of decommissioning objects and establishment of composition factors are based. Decommissioning cost of nuclear research reactor is composed of labor cost, equipment and materials cost. Labor cost of decommissioning costs in decommissioning works are calculated on the basis of working time consumed in decommissioning objects. In this paper, the unit cost factors and work difficulty factors which are needed to calculate the labor cost in estimating decommissioning cost of nuclear research reactor are derived and figured out.

  13. Structure of polysaccharide O-antigen of Salmonella Aberdeen (O:11)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O-specific polysaccharides (OPS) of Salmonella Aberdeen was obtained from bacterial cell mass by water-phenol extraction procedure of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) followed by its mild acid hydrolysis and gel filtration of soluble carbohydrate material. Rhamnose galactose, N-acetyl-glucosamine and mannose were detected and their linkages were established. Sugar configurations, D or L, were determined for (S)-(+)-2-butyl glycosides on an achiral capillary column. The structure of OPS was determined by analysis of spectra of 1H and 13C NMR and homonuclear and heteronuclear correlations spectra. Anomeric configurations were tentatively assigned by chromium trioxide oxidation and later proved by anomeric proton chemical shifts, H1-H2 coupling constants and proton coupled 13C spectra. Sugar sequences were established from comparisons of specific carbon shifts with those from literature, two-dimensional Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY) and heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation experiments (HMBC). The repeating unit of S. Aberdeen OPS has a structure: ?3)-?-D-GlcpNAc-(1?3)-[?-D-Manp-(1?4-]?-D-Galp-(1?4)-?-L-Rhap-(1? (author)

  14. "…to merit the countenance of the magistrates' : Gender and Civic Identity in eighteenth-century Aberdeen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonton, Deborah Leigh

    2014-01-01

    In the context of shifting ideas fostered by the Enlightenment and by a drive for civility, this chapter focuses on the construction of male and female civic identities and the tensions between reconstructed masculinity and femininity. Changing views of sexual difference and ideals of masculinity and femininity informed the gendered nature of work, public life and political activity, while several different pressures came together to shape an emphasis on propriety and the desirability of establishing a civic identity that was not only personal, but also represented the town as a whole. It meant that personal civic identity was linked to the perception and outward projections of the town. Thus the chapter articulates the role and strategies of Aberdeen’s town council in regulating not only the economy but also civic spaces. It will look at how the council ‘managed’ the town with reference to the gendered character of decision-making in the face of shifting ideas of sociability, civility and town image and demonstrates how public behaviour, usually female activity, which was potentially damaging to the town’s civic identity was condemned, chastened and policed. A key issue is that men of standing and status, bourgeois men of position and wealth, largely policed women of the working classes according to the concept of civic nicety and politeness at ‘the council’s pleasure’.

  15. Ecological survey of M-Field, Edgewood Area Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downs, J.L.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Fitzner, R.E.; Rogers, L.E.

    1991-12-01

    An ecological survey was conducted on M-Field, at the Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. M-Field is used routinely to test army smokes and obscurants, including brass flakes, carbon fibers, and fog oils. The field has been used for testing purposes for the past 40 years, but little documented history is available. Under current environmental regulations, the test field must be assessed periodically to document the presence or potential use of the area by threatened and endangered species. The M-Field area is approximately 370 acres and is part of the US Army's Edgewood Area at Aberdeen Proving Ground in Harford County, Maryland. The grass-covered field is primarily lowlands with elevations from about 1.0 to 8 m above sea level, and several buildings and structures are present on the field. The ecological assessment of M-Field was conducted in three stages, beginning with a preliminary site visit in May to assess sampling requirements. Two field site visits were made June 3--7, and August 12--15, 1991, to identify the biota existing on the site. Data were gathered on vegetation, small mammals, invertebrates, birds, large mammals, amphibians, and reptiles.

  16. Ecological survey of M-Field, Edgewood Area Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downs, J.L.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Fitzner, R.E.; Rogers, L.E.

    1991-12-01

    An ecological survey was conducted on M-Field, at the Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. M-Field is used routinely to test army smokes and obscurants, including brass flakes, carbon fibers, and fog oils. The field has been used for testing purposes for the past 40 years, but little documented history is available. Under current environmental regulations, the test field must be assessed periodically to document the presence or potential use of the area by threatened and endangered species. The M-Field area is approximately 370 acres and is part of the US Army`s Edgewood Area at Aberdeen Proving Ground in Harford County, Maryland. The grass-covered field is primarily lowlands with elevations from about 1.0 to 8 m above sea level, and several buildings and structures are present on the field. The ecological assessment of M-Field was conducted in three stages, beginning with a preliminary site visit in May to assess sampling requirements. Two field site visits were made June 3--7, and August 12--15, 1991, to identify the biota existing on the site. Data were gathered on vegetation, small mammals, invertebrates, birds, large mammals, amphibians, and reptiles.

  17. Air monitoring for volatile organic compounds at the Pilot Plant Complex, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, J.F.; O`Neill, H.J.; Raphaelian, L.A.; Tomczyk, N.A.; Sytsma, L.F.; Cohut, V.J.; Cobo, H.A.; O`Reilly, D.P.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1995-03-01

    The US Army`s Aberdeen Proving Ground has been a test site for a variety of munitions, including chemical warfare agents (CWA). The Pilot Plant Complex (PPC) at Aberdeen was the site of development, manufacture, storage, and disposal of CWA. Deterioration of the buildings and violations of environmental laws led to closure of the complex in 1986. Since that time, all equipment, piping, and conduit in the buildings have been removed. The buildings have been declared free of surface CWA contamination as a result of air sampling using the military system. However, no air sampling has been done to determine if other hazardous volatile organic compounds are present in the PPC, although a wide range of toxic and/or hazardous materials other than CWA was used in the PPC. The assumption has been that the air in the PPC is not hazardous. The purpose of this air-monitoring study was to screen the indoor air in the PPC to confirm the assumption that the air does not contain volatile organic contaminants at levels that would endanger persons in the buildings. A secondary purpose was to identify any potential sources of volatile organic contaminants that need to be monitored in subsequent sampling efforts.

  18. Decommissioning of nuclear power plants: policies, strategies and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As many nuclear power plants will reach the end of their lifetime during the next 20 years or so, decommissioning is an increasingly important topic for governments, regulators and industries. From a governmental viewpoint, particularly in a deregulated market, one essential aspect is to ensure that money for the decommissioning of nuclear installations will be available at the time it is needed, and that no 'stranded' liabilities will be left to be financed by the taxpayers rather than by the electricity consumers. For this reason, there is governmental interest in understanding decommissioning costs, and in periodically reviewing decommissioning cost estimates from nuclear installation owners. Robust cost estimates are key elements in designing and implementing a coherent and comprehensive national decommissioning policy including the legal and regulatory bases for the collection, saving and use of decommissioning funds. From the industry viewpoint, it is essential to assess and monitor decommissioning costs in order to develop a coherent decommissioning strategy that reflects national policy and assures worker and public safety, whilst also being cost effective. For these reasons, nuclear power plant owners are interested in understanding decommissioning costs as best as possible and in identifying major cost drivers, whether they be policy, strategy or 'physical' in nature. National policy considerations will guide the development of national regulations that are relevant for decommissioning activities. Following these policies and regulations, industrial managers responsible for decommissioning activities will develop strategies which best suit their needs, while appropriately meeting all government requirements. Decommissioning costs will be determined by technical and economic conditions, as well as by the strategy adopted. Against this backdrop, the study analyses the relationships among decommissioning policy as developed by governments, decommissioning strategies as proposed by industries, and resulting decommissioning costs. Major cost drivers, of policy, strategy and technical nature, are also discussed. The findings from the study are based on responses to a questionnaire sent to participating countries. It should be noted that not all responses were of the same level of detail, and it was felt that further detail in responses would have allowed more in depth comparisons in a more valid fashion. (author)

  19. Study on decommissioning (Annual safety research report, JFY 2011)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project consists of researches on (1) establishment of review plan on application of decommissioning, (2) establishment of specific method to confirm decommissioning completion, of decommissioning and (3) establishment of radioactive waste management guideline during dismantling and (4) development of the regulatory system on decommissioning in response to Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. About researches on establishment of review plan on application of decommissioning. 'Planning of the Commercial Power Reactor Decommissioning:2001' which was published by Atomic Energy Society of Japan, was evaluated whether it suited the requirement for the decommissioning stipulated in the law, and the draft evaluation report was prepared. About researches on establishment of specific method to confirm decommissioning completion, technical information of practical procedures on the confirmation in U.S.A. were organized based on MARSSIM (Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual, NUREG-1575) and applicability of MARSSIM on the confirmation in Japan was examined. Exposed doses for public during decommissioning period were estimated to study dose criterion of the confirmation. Radioactive concentrations in the soil of Tokai and Hamaoka NPP caused by the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident were also investigated. About researches on establishment of radioactive waste management guideline during dismantling, one concrete core was sampled in biological shield of the Tokai NPP and radioactive concentrations were investigated. About researches on development of the regulatory system on decommissioning in response to Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident, present status of Three Mile Island Unit 2 and Chernobyl NPP Unit 4 were investigated. Present status of regulatory systems for decommissioning in foreign countries taken in consideration of the accident was also researched. (author)

  20. The regulatory process for the decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this publication is to provide general guidance to Member States for regulating the decommissioning of nuclear facilities within the established nuclear regulatory framework. The Guide should also be useful to those responsible for, or interested in, the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The Guide describes in general terms the process to be used in regulating decommissioning and the considerations to be applied in the development of decommissioning regulations and guides. It also delineates the responsibilities of the regulatory body and the licensee in decommissioning. The provisions of this Guide are intended to apply to all facilities within the nuclear fuel cycle and larger industrial installations using long lived radionuclides. For smaller installations, however, less extensive planning and less complex regulatory control systems should be acceptable. The Guide deals primarily with decommissioning after planned shutdown. Most provisions, however, are also applicable to decommissioning after an abnormal event, once cleanup operations have been terminated. The decommissioning planning in this case must take account of the abnormal event. 28 refs, 1 fig

  1. Manual for collecting management data concerning decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency), the decommissioning engineering system (DENESYS) has been developed to support examination of decommissioning plan aiming to use management data and experiences obtained through decommissioning of nuclear facilities effectively. In the development of the DENESYS, it is important efficiently to collect, and to analyze management data obtained from actual decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Then, collecting items of management data needed to examine decommissioning plan were extracted. And en efficient collecting method of the extracted collecting items was examined based on the JPDR (Japan Power Demonstration Reactor) decommissioning project. As a result, collecting items are work management data such as manpower and weight of components, waste management data such as weight and radioactivity in drums. These data would be collected by using daily work management report, waste record, and secondary record data in each JAEA site. In this report outline of collecting items and collecting method for decommissioning of nuclear facilities were described. And manual for collecting management data concerning decommissioning of nuclear facilities was introduced. (author)

  2. Assessment of exposure dose to workers in virtual decommissioning environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, KwanSeong; Moon, JeiKwon; Choi, ByungSeon; Hyun, Dongjun; Lee, Jonghwan; Kim, Ikjune; Kim, GeunHo; Seo, JaeSeok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    This paper is intended to suggest the method analyze and assess the exposure dose to workers in virtual decommissioning environments. To simulate a lot of decommissioning scenarios, decommissioning environments were designed in virtual reality. To simulate and assess the exposure dose to workers, human model also was designed in virtual environments. These virtual decommissioning environments made it possible to real-time simulate and assess the exposure dose to workers. This work was to be able to simulate scenarios of decommissioning so that exposure dose to workers could be measured and assessed. To establish the plan of exposure dose to workers during decommissioning of nuclear facilities before decommissioning activities are accomplished, the method of simulation assessment was developed in virtual radiological environments. But this work was developed as a tool of simulation for single subject mode. Afterwards, the simulation environment for multi-subjects mode will be upgraded by simultaneous modules with networking environments. Then the much more practical method will be developed by changing number of workers and duration of time under any circumstances of decommissioning.

  3. Decontamination and decommissioning project for the nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. H.; Paik, S. T.; Park, S. W. (and others)

    2007-02-15

    The final goal of this project is to complete the decommissioning of the Korean Research Reactor no.1 and no. 2(KRR-1 and 2) and uranium conversion plant safely and successfully. The goal of this project in 2006 is to complete the decontamination of the inside reactor hall of the KRR-2 which will be operating as a temporary storage for the radioactive waste until the construction and operation of the national repository site. Also the decommissioning work of the KRR-1 and auxiliary facilities is being progress. As the compaction of decommissioning project is near at hand, a computer information system was developed for a systematically control and preserve a technical experience and decommissioning data for the future reuse. The nuclear facility decommissioning, which is the first challenge in Korea, is being closed to the final stages. We completed the decommissioning of all the bio-shielding concrete for KRR-2 in 2005 and carried out the decontamination and waste material grouping of the roof, wall and bottom of the reactor hall of the KRR-2. The decommissioning for nuclear facility were demanded the high technology, remote control equipment and radioactivity analysis. So developed equipment and experience will be applied at the decommissioning for new nuclear facility in the future.

  4. IPR-R1 TRIGA research reactor decommissioning plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is concerning to establish or adopt standards of safety for the protection of health, life and property in the development and application of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. In this way the IAEA recommends that decommissioning planning should be part of all radioactive installation licensing process. There are over 200 research reactors that have either not operated for a considerable period of time and may never return to operation or, are close to permanent shutdown. Many countries do not have a decommissioning policy, and like Brazil not all installations have their decommissioning plan as part of the licensing documentation. Brazil is signatory of Joint Convention on the safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management, but until now there is no decommissioning policy, and specifically for research reactor there is no decommissioning guidelines in the standards. The Nuclear Technology Development Centre (CDTN/CNEN) has a TRIGA Mark I Research Reactor IPR-R1 in operation for 47 years with 3.6% average fuel burn-up. The original power was 100 kW and it is being licensed for 250 kW, and it needs the decommissioning plan as part of the licensing requirements. In the paper it is presented the basis of decommissioning plan, an overview and the end state / final goal of decommissioning activities for the IPR-R1, and the Brazilian ongoing activities about this subject. (author)

  5. Experience in site decommissioning of AECL Whiteshell Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whiteshell Laboratories (WL) is a Nuclear Research and Test Establishment near Winnipeg, Canada, operated by AECL since the early 1960s and is now under decommissioning. WL occupies approximately 7,000 ha of land and employed more than 1000 staff up to the mid-1990s. Nuclear operations carried out at WL included a research reactor, hot cell facilities, waste management, reactor safety research, nuclear materials research, accelerator technology, biophysics, and industrial radiation applications. In preparation for decommissioning, a comprehensive environmental assessment was successfully completed and in 2002, the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission issued a decommissioning licence for WL - the first decommissioning license issued for a Nuclear Research and Test Establishment in Canada. Decommissioning is now underway, focusing on decontamination of nuclear facilities, laboratories and associated service systems, to achieve a safe state of storage-with-surveillance. Redundant non-nuclear buildings are being removed. Later phases have planned waste management improvements for selected wastes already in storage, eventually followed by final decommissioning of all facilities and infrastructure and removal of most wastes from the site. WL site decommissioning is project that engages most aspects of nuclear decommissioning and is at a stage of implementation where it has some unique experiences and lessons to share. Selected topics discussed in this paper are: site characterization, environmental assessment, public consultation, regulation, capability maintenance, compliance, site operation, cost control, and fitness-for-service of waste storage facilities. (author)

  6. Decontamination and decommissioning project for the nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The final goal of this project is to complete the decommissioning of the Korean Research Reactor no.1 and no. 2(KRR-1 and 2) and uranium conversion plant safely and successfully. The goal of this project in 2006 is to complete the decontamination of the inside reactor hall of the KRR-2 which will be operating as a temporary storage for the radioactive waste until the construction and operation of the national repository site. Also the decommissioning work of the KRR-1 and auxiliary facilities is being progress. As the compaction of decommissioning project is near at hand, a computer information system was developed for a systematically control and preserve a technical experience and decommissioning data for the future reuse. The nuclear facility decommissioning, which is the first challenge in Korea, is being closed to the final stages. We completed the decommissioning of all the bio-shielding concrete for KRR-2 in 2005 and carried out the decontamination and waste material grouping of the roof, wall and bottom of the reactor hall of the KRR-2. The decommissioning for nuclear facility were demanded the high technology, remote control equipment and radioactivity analysis. So developed equipment and experience will be applied at the decommissioning for new nuclear facility in the future

  7. Decommissioning and material recycling. Radiation risk management issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Once nuclear fuel cycle facilities have permanently stopped operations they have to be decommissioned. The decommissioning of a nuclear facility involves the surveillance and dismantling of the facility systems and buildings, the management of the materials resulting from the dismantling activities and the release of the site for further use. The management of radiation risks associated with these activities plays an important role in the decommissioning process. Existing legislation covers many aspects of the decommissioning process. However, in most countries with nuclear power programmes legislation with respect to decommissioning is incomplete. In particular this is true in the Netherlands, where government policy with respect to decommissioning is still in development. Therefore a study was performed to obtain an overview of the radiation risk management issues associated with decommissioning and the status of the relevant legislation. This report describes the results of that study. It is concluded that future work at the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation on decommissioning and radiation risk management issues should concentrate on surveillance and dismantling activities and on criteria for site release. (orig.)

  8. Decommissioning of nuclear facilities: Decontamination, disassembly and waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The term 'decommissioning', as used within the nuclear industry, means the actions taken at the end of a facility's useful life to retire the facility from service in a manner that provides adequate protection for the health and safety of the decommissioning workers, the general public, and for the environment. These actions can range from merely closing down the facility and a minimal removal of radioactive material coupled with continuing maintenance and surveillance, to a complete removal of residual radioactivity in excess of levels acceptable for unrestricted use of the facility and its site. This latter condition, unrestricted use, is the ultimate goal of all decommissioning actions at retired nuclear facilities. The purpose of this report is to provide an information base on the considerations important to decommissioning, the methods available for decontamination and disassembly of a nuclear facility, the management of the resulting radioactive wastes, and the areas of decommissioning methodology where improvements might be made. Specific sections are devoted to each of these topics, and conclusions are presented concerning the present status of each topic. A summary of past decommissioning experience in Member States is presented in the Appendix. The report, with its discussions of necessary considerations, available operational methods, and waste management practices, together with supporting references, provides an appreciation of the activities that comprise decommissioning of nuclear facilities. It is anticipated that the information presented in the report should prove useful to persons concerned with the development of plans for the decommissioning of retired nuclear facilities

  9. Decommissioning: Nuclear Power's Missing Link. Worldwatch Paper 69.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Cynthia

    The processes and associated dilemmas of nuclear power plant decommissioning are reviewed in this publication. Decommissioning involves the clearing up and disposal of a retired nuclear plant and its equipment of such a way as to safeguard the public from the dangers of radioactivity. Related problem areas are identified and include: (1) closure…

  10. Problems and experience of research reactor decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the IAEA research reactor database there are about 300 research reactors worldwide. At present above 30% of them have lifetime more than 35 years, 60% - more then 25 years. After the Chernobyl accident significant efforts have been made by many countries to modernize old research reactors aiming, first of all, at ensuring of its safe operation. However, a large number of aging research reactor will be facing shutdown in the near future. Before developing the design and planning of the works it is necessary to define the concept of the reactor decommissioning. It is defined by the time of the beginning of dismantling works after the reactor shutdown and the finite state of the reactor site.The concept of the reactor decommissioning provides 3 variants in a general case: reactor conservation, or partial dismantling, or complete dismantling to 'green field' state. Specialists of three International institutions (European Commission, IAEA and the Nuclear Energy Agency/Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) have developed a detailed plan of all actions and operations on nuclear power plants decommissioning in the framework of a joint project for cost assessment. For the reactor decontamination the following main constructions, equipment and devices are necessary: temporary storage facility for the spent fuel; general site-dismantling equipment including manipulators and 'hot' cells; facilities for 'active' equipment, personnel, tooling and washing decontamination; equipment for concentration of liquid and compactness of solid radioactive waste; temporary storage facility for radioactive waste; instrumentation and radiometric devices including , ?,?,?-spectrometers; transportable containers and other means for transportation of fuel and radioactive materials

  11. Feedback from the decommissioning of two accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saclay Linear Accelerator (ALS) and Saturne synchrotron, both well known as international research instruments, have definitively stopped operating in 1990 and 1997 respectively. The French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) has decided proceeding with the appropriate actions in order to dismantle these two nuclear installations (NIs) known as INB 43 (ALS) and INB 48 (Saturne). The SDA (Accelerator Decommissioning Division) was created to be in charge of the dismantling procedure of the above NIs under the following conditions: - to maintain within the team a few employees from the previous exploitation of two NIs, in order not to loose the details and history of accelerator operation; - to import the necessary skills for a good management of dismantling operation such as waste management, ANDRA rules, project AMEC34omelt.com. Learn more about GeoMelt ats-gssr410nuclear safety, radiation protection, ALARA concepts, etc. Presently the dismantling operations are well under way at INB 43 and nearly finished at INB 48. The project organisation established by SDA has allowed meeting both the schedule and cost requirements of the decommissioning. At the beginning, major decommissioning safety characteristics of large research instruments will be presented and dismantling aspects in particular. Afterwards, the organization of both projects will be detailed, emphasizing their statutory aspects (e.g., safety documents, zoning, traceability, etc.) and technical difficulties. Waste characterisation as well as the choice of evacuation paths for each category of the waste will then be described in detail for both accelerators. A number of difficulties met during these procedures will be analysed and proposals will be made in order to improve the statutory framework in particular, both on technical and nuclear safety aspects. The application of the above experience to the dismantling of two fuel cycle installations, namely the research nuclear reactors, is presently under study. Some progress made in this context also will be discussed. (authors)

  12. Program change management during nuclear power plant decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decommissioning a nuclear power plant is a complex project. The project involves the coordination of several different departments and the management of changing plant conditions, programs, and regulations. As certain project Milestones are met, the evolution of such plant programs and regulations can help optimize project execution and cost. This paper will provide information about these Milestones and the plant departments and programs that change throughout a decommissioning project. The initial challenge in the decommissioning of a nuclear plant is the development of a definitive plan for such a complex project. EPRI has published several reports related to decommissioning planning. These earlier reports provided general guidance in formulating a Decommissioning Plan. This Change Management paper will draw from the experience gained in the last decade in decommissioning of nuclear plants. The paper discusses decommissioning in terms of a sequence of major Milestones. The plant programs, associated plans and actions, and staffing are discussed based upon experiences from the following power reactor facilities: Maine Yankee Atomic Power Plant, Yankee Nuclear Power Station, and the Haddam Neck Plant. Significant lessons learned from other sites are also discussed as appropriate. Planning is a crucial ingredient of successful decommissioning projects. The development of a definitive Decommissioning Plan can result in considerable project savings. The decommissioning plants in the U.S. have planned and executed their projects using different strategies based on their unique plant circumstances. However, experience has shown that similar project milestones and actions applied through all of these projects. This allows each plant to learn from the experiences of the preceding projects. As the plant transitions from an operating plant through decommissioning, the reduction and termination of defunct programs and regulations can help optimize all facets of decommissioning. This information, learned through trial in previous plants, can be incorporated into the decommissioning plan of future projects so that the benefits of optimization can be realized from the beginning of the projects. This process of the collection of information and lessons learned from plant experiences is an important function of the EPRI Decommissioning Program. (author)

  13. Apollo decommissioning project, Apollo, Pennsylvania. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In November, 1991 Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) received a grant to partially fund the decommissioning of the former Apollo Nuclear Fuel Facility. The decommissioning was performed in accordance with a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approved decommissioning plan. This report summarizes the decommissioning of the Apollo Nuclear Fuel Facility and the radiological surveying of the site to demonstrate that these decommissioning activities were effective in reducing residual activity well below NRC's criteria for release for unrestricted use. The Apollo Nuclear Fuel Facility was utilized by the Nuclear Materials and Equipment Corporation (NUMEC) and B and W for nuclear research and production under Atomic Energy Commission and Department of Energy (DOE) contracts during 20 plus years of nuclear fuel manufacturing operations

  14. Windscale advanced gas-cooled reactor (WAGR) decommissioning project overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current BNFL reactor decommissioning projects are presented. The projects concern power reactor sites at Berkely, Trawsfynydd, Hunterstone, Bradwell, Hinkley Point; UKAEA Windscale Pile 1; Research reactors within UK Scottish Universities at East Kilbride and ICI (both complete); WAGR. The BNFL environmental role include contract management; effective dismantling strategy development; implementation and operation; sentencing, encapsulation and transportation of waste. In addition for the own sites it includes strategy development; baseline decommissioning planning; site management and regulator interface. The project objectives for the Windscale Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor (WAGR) are 1) Safe and efficient decommissioning; 2) Building of good relationships with customer; 3) Completion of reactor decommissioning in 2005. The completed WAGR decommissioning campaigns are: Operational Waste; Hot Box; Loop Tubes; Neutron Shield; Graphite Core and Restrain System; Thermal Shield. The current campaign is Lower Structures and the remaining are: Pressure vessel and Insulation; Thermal Columns and Outer Vault Membrane. An overview of each campaign is presented

  15. Financial aspects of decommissioning. Report by an expert group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimating decommissioning costs and collecting funds for eventual decommissioning of facilities that have used radioactive material is a prerequisite for safe, timely and cost effective decommissioning. A comprehensive overview of decommissioning costs and funding mechanisms was missing in the IAEA literature although the subject had been marginally dealt with in a few IAEA publications. Costing and funding issues were partially addressed by other international organizations, but there is a need to address the subject from the standpoint of the diverse social, economic and cultural environments that constitute IAEA membership. In its role of an international expert committee assisting the IAEA, the Technical Group on Decommissioning (TEGDE) debates and draws conclusions on topics omitted from general guidance. TEGDE members met in Vienna in 2003, 2004 and 2005 to develop the basis for this publication. The views expressed here reflect those of TEGDE and not necessarily those of the IAEA

  16. Project and feedback experience on nuclear facility decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This series of 6 short articles presents the feedback experience that has been drawn from various nuclear facility dismantling and presents 3 decommissioning projects: first, the WAGR project that is the UK demonstration project for power reactor decommissioning (a review of the tools used to dismantle the reactor core); secondly, the dismantling project of the Bugey-1 UNGG reactor for which the dismantling works of the reactor internals is planned to be done underwater; and thirdly, the decommissioning project of the MR reactor in the Kurchatov Institute. The feedback experience described concerns nuclear facilities in Spain (Vandellos-1 and the CIEMAT research center), in Belgium (the Eurochemic reprocessing plant), and in France (the decommissioning of nuclear premises inside the Fontenay-aux-roses Cea center and the decommissioning of the UP1 spent fuel reprocessing plant at the Marcoule site). (A.C.)

  17. Project and feedback experience on nuclear facility decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santiago, J.L. [ENRESA (Spain); Benest, T.G. [United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Windscale, Cumbria (United Kingdom); Tardy, F.; Lefevre, Ph. [Electricite de France (EDF/CIDEN), 69 - Villeurbanne (France); Willis, A. [VT Nuclear Services (United Kingdom); Gilis, R.; Lewandowski, P.; Ooms, B.; Reusen, N.; Van Laer, W.; Walthery, R. [Belgoprocess (Belgium); Jeanjacques, M. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Bohar, M.P.; Bremond, M.P.; Poyau, C.; Mandard, L.; Boissonneau, J.F.; Fouquereau, A.; Pichereau, E.; Binet, C. [CEA Fontenay aux Roses, 92 (France); Fontana, Ph.; Fraize, G. [CEA Marcoule 30 (France); Seurat, Ph. [AREVA NC, 75 - Paris (France); Chesnokov, A.V.; Fadin, S.Y.; Ivanov, O.P.; Kolyadin, V.I.; Lemus, A.V.; Pavlenko, V.I.; Semenov, S.G.; Shisha, A.D.; Volkov, V.G.; Zverkov, Y.A. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2008-11-15

    This series of 6 short articles presents the feedback experience that has been drawn from various nuclear facility dismantling and presents 3 decommissioning projects: first, the WAGR project that is the UK demonstration project for power reactor decommissioning (a review of the tools used to dismantle the reactor core); secondly, the dismantling project of the Bugey-1 UNGG reactor for which the dismantling works of the reactor internals is planned to be done underwater; and thirdly, the decommissioning project of the MR reactor in the Kurchatov Institute. The feedback experience described concerns nuclear facilities in Spain (Vandellos-1 and the CIEMAT research center), in Belgium (the Eurochemic reprocessing plant), and in France (the decommissioning of nuclear premises inside the Fontenay-aux-roses Cea center and the decommissioning of the UP1 spent fuel reprocessing plant at the Marcoule site). (A.C.)

  18. Standard Guide for Radiation Protection Program for Decommissioning Operations

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1987-01-01

    1.1 This guide provides instruction to the individual charged with the responsibility for developing and implementing the radiation protection program for decommissioning operations. 1.2 This guide provides a basis for the user to develop radiation protection program documentation that will support both the radiological engineering and radiation safety aspects of the decommissioning project. 1.3 This guide presents a description of those elements that should be addressed in a specific radiation protection plan for each decommissioning project. The plan would, in turn, form the basis for development of the implementation procedures that execute the intent of the plan. 1.4 This guide applies to the development of radiation protection programs established to control exposures to radiation and radioactive materials associated with the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The intent of this guide is to supplement existing radiation protection programs as they may pertain to decommissioning workers, members of...

  19. Decommissioning of a mixed oxide fuel fabrication facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decommissioning of the coprecipitation plant, which made plutonium/uranium oxide fuel, is a lead project in the BNFL Sellafield decommissioning programme. The overall programme has the objectives of gaining data and experience in a wide range of decommissioning operations and hence in this specific project to pilot the decommissioning of plant heavily contaminated with plutonium and other actinides. Consequently the operations have been used to test improvements in temporary containment, contamination control and decontamination methods and also to develop in situ plutonium assay, plutonium recovery and size-reduction methods. Finally the project is also yielding data on manpower requirements, personnel radiation uptake and waste arisings to help in the planning of future decommissioning projects

  20. Decommissioning of nuclear power plants - safety aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stages of decommissioning a nuclear power plant are presented in popular form. There exist two alternatives: Safe containment of activated and highly contaminated components within the nuclear power plant unit or dismantling of all components and buildings. Stage 1 provides for safe containment in a) previously sealed buildings without any dismantling; b) containment resp. reactor building; c) underground structures. Stage 2 provides for partial dismantling with safe containment of the remaining parts a) within the biological shield, b) underground, after dismantling the parts above ground level. Stage 3 provides for total dismantling. (orig.)

  1. AECL's waste management and decommissioning program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Canada has developed significant expertise in radioactive waste management since the mid 1940s, when the Canadian nuclear program commenced activities at Chalk River Laboratories (CRL). Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), created as a Federal Crown Corporation in 1952, continues to manage wastes from these early days, as well as other radioactive wastes produced by Canadian hospitals, universities, industry, and operational wastes from AECL's current programs. AECL is also carrying out decommissioning of nuclear facilities and installations in Canada, predominantly at its own sites in Ontario (CRL, and the Douglas Point and Nuclear Power Demonstration prototype reactors), Manitoba (Whiteshell Laboratories) and Quebec (Gentilly-1 prototype reactor). At the CRL site, several major waste management enabling facilities are being developed to facilitate both the near- and long-term management of radioactive wastes. For example, the Liquid Waste Transfer and Storage Project is underway to recover and process highly radioactive liquid wastes, currently stored in underground tanks that, in some cases, date back to the initial operations of the site. This project will stabilize the wastes and place them in modern, monitored storage for subsequent solidification and disposal. Another initiative, the Fuel Packaging and Storage Project, has been initiated to recover and condition degraded used fuel that is currently stored in below-ground standpipes. The fuel will be then be stored in new facilities based on an adaptation of AECL's proven MACSTOR TM* dry storage system, originally designed for intermediate-term above-ground storage of used CANDU fuel bundles. Other commercial-based development work is underway to improve the storage density of the MACSTORTM design, and to extend its application to interim storage of used LWR fuels as well as to the storage of intermediate-level radioactive waste arising from upcoming reactor refurbishment activities in Canada and overseas. AECL, with the support of Ontario Power Generation, also continues deep geologic repository-based research and development in support of the long-term management of Canada's nuclear fuel waste. Decommissioning activities on AECL sites are also increasing significantly - many of the facilities first established in the 1940s and 1950s are now redundant and need to be safely dismantled and the resulting wastes managed. Several such projects are now underway at CRL. and include the removal of several radioactively contaminated buildings and laboratories, remediating contaminated lands arising from past practices, and the establishment of new facilities that, for example, will optimize the quantities of decommissioning wastes that can be issued for ''free release'' to conventional landfills. In addition, good progress is being made to decommission the entirety of Whiteshell Laboratories

  2. Decontamination and decommissioning techniques for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of soil decontamination process and the liquid decontamination waste treatment technology are investigation of organic acid as a decontamination agent, investigation of the liquid waste purification process and identification of recycling the decontamination agents. Participation on IAEA CRP meeting are preparation of IAEA technical report on 'studies on decommissioning of TRIGA reactors and site restoration technologies' and exchange the research result, technology, experience and safety regulation of the research reactor D and D of USA, Great Britain, Canada, Belgium, Italy, India and so forth

  3. Decommissioning of surplus facilities at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) National SFMP, administered by the Richland Operations Office. This program was established to provide for the management of certain DOE surplus radioactively contaminated facilities from the end of their operating life until final facility disposition is completed. As part of this program, the ORNL SFMP oversees some 75 facilities, ranging in complexity from abandoned waste storage tanks to large experimental reactors. This paper describes the scope of the ORNL program and outlines the decommissioning activities currently underway, including a brief description of the decontamination techniques being utilized. 4 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Characterization of lagoon sludge for decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KAERI has launched a decommissioning program of the uranium conversion plant, constructed 20 years ago. The waste sludge, generated during operation of the plant and stored in two ponds of lagoon, was characterized for development of the process for denitration and volume reduction. The physical properties were measured and the chemical compositions of the sludge were analyzed, considering the generation process of wastes in the plant and the natural vaporization of water during storage. This paper summarizes the results of the analysis and the experimental results of thermal decomposition and washing with water and 0.1N NaOH solution of the sludge as candidate processes

  5. Allocation of Decommissioning and Waste Liabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work demonstrates that there are a number of methods available for cost allocation, the pros and cons of which are examined. The study investigates potential proportional and incremental methods in some depth. A recommendation in principle to use the latter methodology is given. It is concluded that a 'fair assumption' is that the potential allocation of costs for 'the RMA Leaching Hall' probably is small, in relation to the total costs, and estimated to be not more than about 175 kSEK, plus any costs associated with decommissioning/ disposal of a number of small pieces of equipment added by the current operator

  6. Summary of Session 2.A. Decommissioning strategies and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discussion focused largely on the decommissioning of large nuclear facilities. Equivalent strategies and procedures need to be developed for the safe decommissioning of the many other applications in medicine, industry and research involving radioactive materials. Planning for decommissioning should start early. Ideally, decommissioning considerations should have been taken into account at the design stage. Three basic decommissioning strategies are envisaged as possibilities for nuclear installations: immediate dismantling; safe enclosure prior to deferred dismantling; and entombment. All have advantages and disadvantages, but immediate dismantling is the generally preferred option. Immediate dismantling typically has the fewest uncertainties. It also eliminates the risks associated with the facility as promptly as possible, normally costs less than delaying and allows the retention of operational staff who know the facility and its history to contribute their expertise and experience during decommissioning. Approaches to regulating the implementation of decommissioning plans vary, but the common aim is to provide effective regulatory control to ensure safe decommissioning. The transition from operation to decommissioning will usually be accompanied by organizational changes, particularly reductions in staff. Such reductions may be inevitable, but the operator must manage the change so as to retain the expertise needed and to guard against a degradation of safety culture due to demotivation of the remaining staff. The absence of an available disposal route has been used as another argument for the safe enclosure strategy rather than immediate dismantling, the idea being that dismantling is delayed until a repository is available. The ultimate aim of decommissioning is to allow the removal of some or all regulatory control from a site, but internationally agreed criteria for the removal of such controls are needed

  7. U.S. experience with organizational issues during decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durbin, N.E. [MPD Consulting, Kirkland, WA (United States); Harty, R. [Battelle Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The report provides information from a variety of sources, including interviews with US NRC management and staff, interviews and discussions with former employees of a decommissioned plant, discussions with subject matter experts, and relevant published documents. The NRC has modified its rule regarding decommissioning requirements. Two key reasons for these modifications are that plants have been decommissioning early and for economic reasons instead of at the end of their license period and, a desire for a more efficient rule that would more effectively use NRC staff. NRC management and staff expressed the opinion that resource requirements for the regulatory have been higher than anticipated. Key observations about decommissioning included that: The regulator faces new challenges to regulatory authority and performance during decommissioning. The public concern over decommissioning activities can be very high. There are changes in the types of safety concerns during decommissioning. It is important to balance planning and the review of plans with verification of activities. There are important changes in the organizational context at the plant during decommissioning. Retention of key staff is important. In particular, the organizational memory about the plant that is in the staff should not be lost. Six key areas of risk during decommissioning are fuel storage, potential accidents that could cause an offsite release, inappropriate release of contaminated material, radiation protection of workers, industrial accidents, and shipment of hazardous materials. Deconstruction of one unit while a co-located unit is still operating could create risks with regard to shared systems, specific risks of dismantling activities and coordination and management. Experience with co-located units at one site in the US was that there was a lack of attention to the decommissioning plant.

  8. U.S. experience with organizational issues during decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report provides information from a variety of sources, including interviews with US NRC management and staff, interviews and discussions with former employees of a decommissioned plant, discussions with subject matter experts, and relevant published documents. The NRC has modified its rule regarding decommissioning requirements. Two key reasons for these modifications are that plants have been decommissioning early and for economic reasons instead of at the end of their license period and, a desire for a more efficient rule that would more effectively use NRC staff. NRC management and staff expressed the opinion that resource requirements for the regulatory have been higher than anticipated. Key observations about decommissioning included that: The regulator faces new challenges to regulatory authority and performance during decommissioning. The public concern over decommissioning activities can be very high. There are changes in the types of safety concerns during decommissioning. It is important to balance planning and the review of plans with verification of activities. There are important changes in the organizational context at the plant during decommissioning. Retention of key staff is important. In particular, the organizational memory about the plant that is in the staff should not be lost. Six key areas of risk during decommissioning are fuel storage, potential accidents that could cause an offsite release, inappropriate release of contaminated material, radiation protection of workers, industrial accidents, and shipment of hazardous materials. Deconstruction of one unit while a co-located unit is still operating could create risks with regard to shared systems, specific risks of dismantling activities and coordination and management. Experience with co-located units at one site in the US was that there was a lack of attention to the decommissioning plant

  9. Decommissioning situation and research and development for the decommissioning of the commercial nuclear power station in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are 48 commercial nuclear power stations in operation in Japan as of January 1, 1995, which supplies about 28% (2.2 x 108 MWh) of total annual electricity generation in FY 1992. Accordingly, as the nuclear power contributes so much in electricity generation, there is a growing concern in the public toward the safety on decommissioning nuclear power station. It is gravely important to secure the safety throughout the decommissioning. This paper discusses: the decommissioning situation in Japan; the Japanese national policy for decommissioning of commercial nuclear power stations; R and D for decommissioning of commercial nuclear power stations in Japan; and the present conditions of low-level radioactive wastes disposal in Japan

  10. Revised Analyses of Decommissioning Reference Non-Fuel-Cycle Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cost information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of non-fuel-cycle nuclear facilities that represent a significant decommissioning task in terms of decontamination and disposal activities. This study is a re-evaluation of the original study (NUREG/CR-1754 and NUREG/CR-1754, Addendum 1). The reference facilities examined in this study are the same as in the original study and include: a laboratory for the manufacture of 3H-labeled compounds; a laboratory for the manufacture of 14C-labeled compounds; a laboratory for the manufacture of 123I-labeled compounds; a laboratory for the manufacture of 137Cs sealed sources; a laboratory for the manufacture of 241Am sealed sources; and an institutional user laboratory. In addition to the laboratories, three reference sites that require some decommissioning effort were also examined. These sites are: (1) a site with a contaminated drain line and hold-up tank; (2) a site with a contaminated ground surface; and (3) a tailings pile containing uranium and thorium residues. Decommissioning of these reference facilities and sites can be accomplished using techniques and equipment that are in common industrial use. Essentially the same technology assumed in the original study is used in this study. For the reference laboratory-type facilities, the study approach is to first evaluate the decommissioning of individual components (e.g., fume hoods, glove boxes, and building surfaces) that are common to many laboratory facilities. The information obtained from analyzing the individual components of each facility are then used to determine the cost, manpower requirements and dose information for the decommissioning of the entire facility. DECON, the objective of the 1988 Rulemaking for materials facilities, is the decommissioning alternative evaluated for the reference laboratories because it results in the release of the facility for restricted or unrestricted use as soon as possible. For a facility, DECON requires that contaminated components either be: (1) decontaminated to restricted or unrestricted release levels or (2) packaged and shipped to an authorized disposal site. This study considers unrestricted release only. The new decommissioning criteria of July 1997 are too recent for this study to include a cost analysis of the restricted release option, which is now allowed under these new criteria. The costs of decommissioning facility components are generally estimated to be in the range of $140 to $27,000, depending on the type of component, the type and amount of radioactive contamination, the remediation options chosen, and the quantity of radioactive waste generated from decommissioning operations. Estimated costs for decommissioning the example laboratories range from $130,000 to $205,000, assuming aggressive low-level waste (LLW) volume reduction. If only minimal LLW volume reduction is employed, decommissioning costs range from $150,000 to $270,000 for these laboratories. On the basis of estimated decommissioning costs for facility components, the costs of decommissioning typical non-fuel-cycle laboratory facilities are estimated to range from about $25,000 for the decommissioning of a small room containing one or two fume hoods to more than $1 million for the decommissioning of an industrial plant containing several laboratories in which radiochemicals and sealed radioactive sources are prepared. For the reference sites of this study, the basic decommissioning alternatives are: (1) site stabilization followed by long-term care and (2) removal of the waste or contaminated soil to an authorized disposal site. Cost estimates made for decommissioning three reference sites range from about $130,000 for the removal of a contaminated drain line and hold-up tank to more than $23 million for the removal of a tailings pile that contains radioactive residue from ore-processing operations in which tin slag is processed for the recovery of rare metals. Total occupational radiation doses generally range from 0.00007 person-rem to 13 person-rem for decommissioning the laboratory

  11. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 394 abstracted references on environmental restoration, nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the eleventh in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types -- technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions -- have been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Major sections are (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Programs, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Grand Junction Remedial Action Program, (7) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (8) Technical Measurements Center, (9) Remedial Action Program, and (10) Environmental Restoration Program. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication title. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and keywords. This report is a product of the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC), which selects and analyzes information on remedial actions and relevant radioactive waste management technologies

  12. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 576 abstracted references on nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the tenth in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types--technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions--have been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Major sections are (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (7) Technical Measurements Center, and (8) General Remedial Action Program Studies. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication description. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title work, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and keywords

  13. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, P.T.; Knox, N.P.; Ferguson, S.D.; Fielden, J.M.; Schumann, P.L.

    1989-09-01

    The 576 abstracted references on nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the tenth in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types--technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions--have been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Major sections are (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (7) Technical Measurements Center, and (8) General Remedial Action Program Studies. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication description. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title work, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and keywords.

  14. The Decommissioning Facility Characterization DB System (DEFACS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computer system for the characterization on the nuclear facilities is established as the name of the DEFACS (DEcommissioning FAcility Characterization DB System). his system is consist of the four main part with the grouping of the items and it's code creation and management system, data input system, data processing and data out put system. All the data was processed by a simplified and formatted manner to provide useful information to the decommissioning planner. The four nuclear facilities are objected for the system; the KRR-1 and 2 (Research reactor), Uranium conversion plant (Nuclear chemical plant), UF4 pilot plant and the North Korea nuclear facility (5MWe Research Reactor). All the data from a nuclear facility was categorized and inputted into the several data fields in the input system, which were chosen by considering the facility characteristics. All the hardware is workstation for Web and DB server and PC grade computers for the users and the software 'ORACLE, RDBMS 11g' operated on the WINDOW 2008 O/S, was selected

  15. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, N.P.; Webb, J.R.; Ferguson, S.D.; Goins, L.F.; Owen, P.T.

    1990-09-01

    The 394 abstracted references on environmental restoration, nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the eleventh in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types -- technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions -- have been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Major sections are (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Programs, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Grand Junction Remedial Action Program, (7) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (8) Technical Measurements Center, (9) Remedial Action Program, and (10) Environmental Restoration Program. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication title. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and keywords. This report is a product of the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC), which selects and analyzes information on remedial actions and relevant radioactive waste management technologies.

  16. Green Vinca - Vinca Institute nuclear decommissioning program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current conditions related to the nuclear and radiation safety in the Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro are the result of the previous nuclear programs in the former Yugoslavia and strong economic crisis during the previous decade. These conditions have to be improved as soon as possible. The process of establishment and initialisation of the Vinca Institute Nuclear Decommissioning (VIND) Program, known also as the 'Green Vinca' Program supported by the Government of the Republic Serbia, is described in this paper. It is supposed to solve all problems related to the accumulated spent nuclear fuel, radioactive waste and decommissioning of RA research reactor. Particularly, materials associated to the RA reactor facility and radioactive wastes from the research, industrial, medical and other applications, generated in the previous period, which are stored in the Vinca Institute, are supposed to be proper repackaged and removed from the Vinca site to some other disposal site, to be decided yet. Beside that, a research and development program in the modern nuclear technologies is proposed with the aim to preserve experts, manpower and to establish a solid ground for new researchers in field of nuclear research and development. (author)

  17. 30 CFR 285.907 - How will MMS process my decommissioning application?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How will MMS process my decommissioning application...Decommissioning Applications § 285.907 How will MMS process my decommissioning application...the information required by § 285.906, MMS will compare your decommissioning...

  18. Stakeholder involvement in the decommissioning of Dounreay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) was established in the 1950's to pioneer the development of nuclear energy within the UK. Today its primary mission is to decommission UK's former nuclear research sites and restore its environment in a way that is safe and secure, environmentally friendly, value for money and publicly Acceptable. UKAEA Dounreay celebrated its 50 birthday in 2005, having pioneered the development of fast reactor technology since 1955. Today the site is now leading the way in decommissioning. The Dounreay nuclear site licence covers an area of approximately 140 acres and includes 3 reactors: the Dounreay Material Test Reactor (DMTR), the Dounreay Fast Reactor (DFR), and the Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR). In addition there are 180 facilities on site which have supported the fast reactor programme, including a fuel reprocessing capability, laboratories and administration buildings. The reactors are now all in advanced stages of decommissioning. In October 2000 the Dounreay Site Restoration Plan (DSRP) was published to provide a framework for the site's restoration. The plan's objective was to reduce the site's hazards progressively by decontaminating and dismantling the plant, equipment and facilities, remediating contaminated ground and treating and packaging waste so it is suitable for long term storage or disposal. Whilst hailed as the most detailed plan integrating some 1500 activities and spanning 60 years it was criticised for having no stakeholder involvement. In response to this criticism, UKAEA developed a process for public participation over the following 2 years and launched its stakeholder engagement programme in October 2002. In order to provide a larger platform for the engagement process an advertisement was placed in the Scottish media inviting people to register as stakeholders in the Dounreay Site Restoration Plan. The stakeholder list now total over 1000. In October 2002 UKAEA launched their commitment to public participation by the publication of Public Participation Newsletter No 1. The newsletter outlined the progress expected at the site over the coming years and described the criteria and methodology used for involving stakeholders. The process adopted was a two-stage process: Stakeholder panels (internal and external) and Summary paper for wider distribution (to all registered stakeholders, posted on the web site with an electronic questionnaire if participants wish to respond electronically, and distributed to local libraries). The Dounreay Bulletin is the main vehicle for promoting and updating specific issues for the site and for publishing the results of the consultation. It is issued to all staff and registered stakeholders on a fortnightly basis and highlights the main activities of the site. In 2004 UKAEA announced a new decommissioning plan providing more details on its approach to decommissioning, accelerating the programme from 2060 to 2036 and providing important savings from the previous programme. However UKAEA recognises that it needs to retain support from its local community and stakeholders if it is to achieve its acceleration goals. In addition, UKAEA is about to embark on a big consultation about how to deal with radioactive particles in the marine environment and has taken on board the need to get stakeholders involved at the earliest opportunity

  19. Decommissioning of NPP A-1 Phase I, Jaslovske Bohunice. Documentation for application for permission to Phase II of decommissioning of NPP A-1. Schedule stage II of decommissioning of NPP A-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study documentation for application for permission to Phase II of decommissioning of NPP A-1 and the schedule stage II of decommissioning of NPP A-1 are presented. This study consists of ten appendixes.

  20. The Dynamics of the Regional Innovation around the Oil and Gas Industries: Cases of Stavanger and Aberdeen / La dinámica de la innovación regional alrededor de las industrias del petróleo y el gas natural: Casos de Stavanger y Aberdeen

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Martin, Gjelsvik.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta el estudio comparativo entre las dos capitales petroleras de Europa, Aberdeen y Stavanger, realizado por IRIS y MIT, con el objetivo de analizar dos clusters exitosos de gas y petróleo. Se exhibe en detalle el sistema noruego de innovación. Asimismo, este artículo examina la r [...] elación intrínseca entre las universidades y el contexto industrial en el sistema regional de innovación. Abstract in english This paper presents the IRIS and MIT comparative study of the two oil capitals in Europe: Aberdeen and Stavanger, in order to analyze two successful oil and gas clusters. The Norwegian innovation system would be presented in detail. The article also examines the intrinsic role between the universiti [...] es and the industrial context in the regional innovation system.

  1. Procedures and Practices - Challenges for Decommissioning Management and Teamwork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mental and practical approach to a decommissioning project is often not the same at all levels of an organization. Studies indicate that the early establishment of a decommissioning mindset throughout an organization is an important and frequently overlooked process. It is not enough to establish procedures, if practices and mental approaches are overlooked; and for decommissioning projects that are more often than not dominated by one of a kind problem solving, procedure design is challenging, and new requirements are put on communication. Our research considers stakeholder involvement in these processes in the wider sense of the term; however the main stakeholders in focus are regulators and the work force that will perform or lead the tasks related to decommissioning. Issues here treated include: Decommissioning mindset and the manifestation of mindset issues in decommissioning projects, including challenges and prospective solutions; trust building and trust breaking factors in communication and collaboration relevant to transition and decommissioning; new technologies for collaboration and communication and how these may impair or empower participants - experiences from several domains. This paper is based on work done in collaboration with the OECD NEA Halden Reactor Project. (author)

  2. The impact of dry spent-fuel storage on decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several utilities have made decisions to decommission nuclear plants. Other utilities are currently investigating the economic and technical feasibility of decommissioning versus continued operations. As a result, assessments are being made to determine the impact of dry spent-fuel storage on decommissioning. This assessment is being made on a comparison of wet and dry storage (including modifications to current wet storage systems). Not only are the capital and operating costs of the equipment or modifications being evaluated, but staffing levels, interference with other decommissioning activities, and the ability to eventually transfer the fuel to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) all factor into the assessments. In the case of the Rancho Seco nuclear generating station, the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) developed three objectives related to spent-fuel disposition to support the safe and economical closure of the plant. These objectives are as follows: 1. Minimize occupational and public radiation exposure. 2. Minimize decommissioning costs, including the need to maintain the spent-fuel pool. 3. Prepare the fuel for DOE acceptance. These rather universal goals are being met for Rancho Seco through the use of a canister-based spent-fuel storage and transportation system, the NUHOMS system. This paper discusses the economic and technical impacts of dry spent-fuel storage on decommissioning, more specifically as it relates to the decommissioning of the Rancho Seco plant

  3. Technology development of decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decontamination and decommissioning technology of nuclear reactors is in the stage of technical demonstration even in advanced countries in the nuclear field. The retired TRIGA MARK II research reactor at KAERI was selected to demonstrate the relevant technologies. The results of the study carried this year can be summarized as the following three parts; 1. State of the arts of decontamination and dismantling technology 1) Examining the methods for radionuclide inventory estimation 2) Comparing and analyzing the methods and applications for decontamination and dismantling technologies. 3) Examining the present status of decommissioning activities for commercial and research reactor in the world. 2. Study of TRIGA reactor decommissioning plan. The decommissioning study for the retired TRIGA MARK II research reactor at KAERI has been carried out and two decommissioning plans were prepared: one is for complete dismantling and the other for conversion to museum. The radionuclide inventory and the man-rem exposures for workers were also estimated in the study by using ANISN computer code. The Korea regulations concerning decommissioning has been analyzed compared with the U.S. regulations, 10 CFR and Reg. Guide. The decommissioning cost, schedule and manpower development including organization for two alternatives were also prepared. 3. Study of decontamination for radioactively contaminated metals. Experimental works for the decontamination of the contaminated stainless steel metal were carried out. The experimental results shows that the chemical ultrasonic method gives acceptable decontamination factor of around 20 for metals. (Author)

  4. Decontamination and Decommissioning project for the Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The final goal of this project is to complete the decommissioning of the Korean Research Reactor no.1 and no.2(KRR-1 and 2) and uranium conversion plant safely and successfully. The decommissioning the five incidental facilities was successfully carried out and the scoping survey and characterization survey of radioactivity on KRR-1 and KRR-2 site were proven as basic steps for the final evaluation of the residual radioactivity and assessment of the rehabilitation of the KRR-1 and KRR-2 site in 2008. After this works, the FSSR(Final Status Survey Report) will be submitted to the regulatory body for the release of the site from the regulation in 2009. The first decommissioning project of a domestic nuclear facility is now in its closing stages. The decommissioning for nuclear facility may demand the high technologies, remote control equipment and radioactivity assessment. So the developed technologies and the obtained experiences could be applied to new decommissioning projects of the nuclear facilities in the future, including north Korea nuclear facilities. At the decommissioning site of the uranium conversion plant, the decontamination of the stainless steel waste was performed and the all the sludge of the lagoon-2 waste was completely treated in this year. The technologies and experiences obtained from the UCP dismantling works are expected to apply to other fuel cycle facilities. The lagoon sludge treatment technology was the technology firstly tried in actual decommissioning sites in Korea and it is expected that this technology could be applied to other country

  5. Decommissioning of small nuclear facilities: Problems encountered and lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decommissioning of small facilities may present a lower radiological risk and easier planning and implementation than the decommissioning of large facilities but some practical difficulties, lack of strategies, regulatory considerations and financial resources can create serious problems in the decommissioning of small facilities that should be solved properly. In past years, the Radioactive Waste Management Service of the Centre for Radiation Protection and Hygiene has been involved in different decommissioning projects involving small facilities, including laboratories and medical facilities, in which radioisotopes were used for research, diagnosis and treatment. For different reasons, some of these facilities became contaminated. The facilities were closed for a long time and no actions were taken. The decommissioning was not considered during the useful life of these facilities and therefore no plans were in place and no decommissioning related records were kept. Despite these problems, the decommissioning projects were carried out and successfully completed. Several difficulties were overcome and the safety issues received the adequate priority. The paper gives special emphasis on the problems encountered, the solutions, and the lessons learned from each situation. (author)

  6. The French decommissioning program: a stakeholder point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In January 2001, EDF owner of 56 plants in operation and 9 plants in decommissioning stage decided to accelerate the decommissioning of its first nine nuclear generation units in order to achieve final decommissioning in 25 years' time. An engineering center dedicated to decommissioning, radwaste management and environment was set up to implement this strategy. Four years after its creation, the first lessons learned in the fields of organization, project and program management can now be described. During the 4 years that have elapsed since the creation of CIDEN in 2001 to implement EDF's new decommissioning strategy, its organization has constantly improved to ensure success of its decommissioning projects. The aim has been to build an efficient organization with clearly defined roles for the key players. Simultaneously, the Program Management activities have received increasing consideration and specific mechanisms have been implemented to bring financing and licensing flexibility to the program. The continuous improvement of its organization and the development of new project or program management methodologies is a constant preoccupation of EDF. Its aim is to successfully implement its decommissioning strategy, one of the key issues for guaranteeing the future of a safe economic and environment friendly nuclear energy in France

  7. The impact of dry spent fuel storage on decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several utilities have made decisions to decommission nuclear plants. Other utilities are currently investigating the economic and technical feasibility of decommissioning versus continued operations. As a result, assessments are being made to determine the impact of dry spent fuel storage on decommissioning. This assessment is being made on a comparison basis of wet versus dry storage (including modifications to current wet storage systems). Not only are the capital and operating costs of the equipment or modifications being evaluated, but staffing levels, interference with other decommissioning activities, and the ability to eventually transfer the fuel to DOE all factor into the assessments. In the case of the Rancho Seco Nuclear Generating Station, the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) developed three objectives related to spent fuel disposition to support the safe and economical closure of the plant. These objectives are: (1) minimize occupational and public radiation exposure; (2) minimize decommissioning costs, including the need to maintain the spent fuel pool; and (3) prepare the fuel for Department of Energy (DOE) acceptance. These rather universal goals are being met for Rancho Seco through the use of a canister-based spent fuel storage and transportation system, the NUHOMSO system. This paper will discuss the economic and technical impacts of dry spent fuel storage on decommissioning, more specifically as it relates to the decommissioning of the Rancho Seco plant

  8. When a plant shuts down: The psychology of decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the next decade, 10 to 25 nuclear plants in the United States may be taken off line. Many will have reached the end of their 40-year life cycles, but others will be retired because the cost of operating them has begun to outweigh their economic benefit. Such was the case at Fort St. Vrain, the first decommissioning of a US commercial plant under new Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. Two major problems associated with decommissioning plants have been obvious: (1) the technical challenges and costs of decommissioning, and (2) the cost of maintaining and finally decommissioning a plant after a safe storage (SAFSTOR) period of approximately 60 years. What has received little attention is the challenge that affects not only the people who make a plant work, but the quality of the solutions to these problems: how to maintain effective organizational performance during the process of downsizing and decommissioning and/or SAFSTOR. The quality of technical solutions for closing a plant, as well as how successfully the decommissioning process is held within or below budget, will depend largely on how effectively the nuclear organization functions as a social unit. Technical and people issues are bound together. The difficulty is how to operate a plant effectively when plant personnel have no sense of long-term security. As the nuclear power industry matures and the pace for closing operating plants accelerates, the time has come to prepare for the widespread decommissioning of plants. The industry would be well served by conducting a selective, industry-wide evaluation of plants to assess its overall readiness for the decommissioning process. A decommissioning is not likely to be trouble free, but with a healthy appreciation for the human side of the process, it will undoubtedly go more smoothly than if approached as a matter of dismantling a machine

  9. Nuclear Decommissioning: from Case-Studies to a Proposed Typology of Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Pelleterat De Borde, Melchior; Martin, Christophe; Guarnieri, Franck

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a typology of risks which may be faced by operators in the transition to nuclear decommissioning. It is based on an analysis of the literature on nuclear decommissioning, both past and present, and a recent study of a nuclear power station. It first part outlines decommissioning definitions and current decommissioning strategies in broad terms. The second part focuses on decommissioning contexts in three different installations. Although the technological and environmental...

  10. Estimated decommissioning cost for the 23 operating nuclear power reactors in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Joo Hyun [Dongguk Univ., Gyeongju, Gyeongbuk (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear and Energy System Engineering

    2013-06-15

    The decommissioning of nuclear power reactors requires considerable funds and is carried out over a long period. In order to forecast the total decommissioning funds needed by the licensee as well as provide a basis for industrial strategy and decommissioning activity planning, hence, this paper estimates the annual costs for decommissioning the 23 nuclear power plants in Korea between 2014 and 2083. For this estimation, 4 scenarios for decommissioning the 23 nuclear power reactors were developed and evaluated. (orig.)

  11. Estimated decommissioning cost for the 23 operating nuclear power reactors in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Joo Hyun [Dongguk Univ., Gyeongju, Gyeongbuk (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear and Energy System Engineering

    2013-07-15

    The decommissioning of nuclear power reactors requires considerable funds and is carried out over a long period. In order to forecast the total decommissioning funds needed by the licensee as well as provide a basis for industrial strategy and decommissioning activity planning, hence, this paper estimates the annual costs for decommissioning the 23 nuclear power plants in Korea between 2014 and 2083. For this estimation, 4 scenarios for decommissioning the 23 nuclear power reactors were developed and evaluated. (orig.)

  12. Estimated decommissioning cost for the 23 operating nuclear power reactors in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decommissioning of nuclear power reactors requires considerable funds and is carried out over a long period. In order to forecast the total decommissioning funds needed by the licensee as well as provide a basis for industrial strategy and decommissioning activity planning, hence, this paper estimates the annual costs for decommissioning the 23 nuclear power plants in Korea between 2014 and 2083. For this estimation, 4 scenarios for decommissioning the 23 nuclear power reactors were developed and evaluated. (orig.)

  13. Decommissioning and back working of Greifswald nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At Nuclear Power Plant Greifswald, the Energiewerke Nord are carrying out the presently world's largest decommissioning project. This requires the gathering up of experience from the operation of the nuclear power plants at Greifswald, the decommissioning of other nuclear power plants, waste management, project management and licensing procedures for the decommissioning of nuclear power plants. That confirmed that the back working of nuclear plants is not a technical problem but a challenge for project management and logistics. It shows that the dismantling and disposal of nuclear plants is an ordinary process in our economic life. (orig.)

  14. Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project Technology Transfer Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project (SSDP) Technology Transfer Program (Program) has been established to record and disseminate technical information compiled from the decommissioning of the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. Program documentation will be available to the nuclear industry for use in planning future decommissioning of nuclear reactors. This Plan outlines the program for the technology transfer activities on the project with the intent to assure that: all project participants are fully cognizant of their responsibilities for technology transfer; the requirement for technology development and transfer by the US Department of Energy (DOE)/Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP) is met; and the SSDP serves as a demonstration project

  15. Waste management for the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project (SSDP) is being performed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) with the objectives of placing the station in a radiologically safe condition, demonstrating safe and cost effective dismantlement and providing useful data for future decommissioning projects. This paper describes the development of the Waste Management Plan which is being used for the accomplishment of the SSDP. Significant aspects of the Plan are described, such as the use of a process control and inventory system. The current status of waste management activities is reported. It is concluded that SSDP has some unique aspects which will provide useful information for future decommissioning projects

  16. Surplus Facilities Management Program: methodology for establishing decommissioning priorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to describe the process that the Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP) uses to establish and periodically re-evaluate the program priorities and budgets for decommissioning projects. This process consists of two phases. In the first phase, six factors are evaluated for each project. These factors are: DOE legal and contractual requirements; economic impact of immediate versus delayed decommissioning; health risk of delayed decommissioning; future site plans; cost effective program management; and other special factors that may be unique to individual projects. Each of the six factors is fully described

  17. A study on the decommissioning of research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the result of study on decommissioning, discussion has made and data have been collected about experiences, plannings, and techniques for decommissioning through visit to GA and JAERI. GA supplied our Research Reactor No. 1 and No. 2, and JAERI made a memorial museum after dicommissioning of JRR-1 and is dismentling JPDR now. Also many kinds of documents are collected and arranged such as documents related to TRIGA reactor dicommissioning, 30 kinds of documents including decommissioning plan, technical criteria and related regulatory, and 1,200 kinds of facility description data. (Author)

  18. Development of decommissioning technology for nuclear power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Nagano; Saishu, Sadanori; Ishikura, Takeshi

    2000-01-01

    More than 30 years have already passed since the first commercial nuclear power plant in Japan was put in operation. Presently, about 50 commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) are operating and in the future NPP will be ceased the operation and the plant will be decommissioned. NUPEC has been developing the decommissioning technology undertaking the safe, secure, and rational decommissioning for NPPs since 1982. NUPEC has focused its development effort on techniques for decontamination before dismantling, reactor facility dismantling, measurement of residual radioactivity in buildings, waste decontamination, recycling.

  19. R and D and Innovation Needs for Decommissioning Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear decommissioning activities can greatly benefit from research and development (R and D) projects. This report examines applicable emergent technologies, current research efforts and innovation needs to build a base of knowledge regarding the status of decommissioning technology and R and D. This base knowledge can be used to obtain consensus on future R and D that is worth funding. It can also assist in deciding how to collaborate and optimise the limited pool of financial resources available among NEA member countries for nuclear decommissioning R and D. (authors)

  20. Decommissioning technology of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on experience obtained through construction and maintenance of various nuclear facilities including a pressurized water type nuclear power plant (PWR), Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (MHI) has continued technical development for the decommissioning technology of commercial nuclear power plants for years. As technology which is needed for decommissioning, there are system engineering and radioactive materials evaluation technology in a planning phase, decontamination / dismantling technology and waste treatment and waste measuring technology in a decommissioning phase. This report presents the outline of each technology of MHI. (author)

  1. Decommissioning of the AVR experimental nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The German-developed 15 MWe AVR experimental nuclear power plant with pebble-bed high-temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) in Julich was successfully operated for 21 years and shut-down at the end of 1988 for political reasons. In 1994, the licence for Safestore decommissioning was granted, and the decommissioning has begun with discharging the fuel elements which are dry stored in casks of the type CASTOR AVR/THTR. Although the Safestore is licenced there are good reasons to switch over to green field decommissioning (Decon). This challenging option is being thoroughly studied at present, in financial, managerial, and technical terms. (Author)

  2. Decommissioning and demolition of the Greifswald nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The unexpected decision to decommission the plants in Greifswald makes the management and disposal of fuels and plant waste a major issue to be solved as a precondition for decommissioning and dismantling. The decisive point in waste management is the existence of an interim store or repository of sufficient capacity to accept both the nuclear fuel and the plant waste and the considerable volumes of radioactive residues arising in dismantling. Current major activities include planning for decommissioning and demolition, and drafting of the licensing documents; removal of the fuel elements from the reactor units; construction of the northern interim store for fuel elements and residues. (orig./HP)

  3. The Dynamics of the Regional Innovation around the Oil and Gas Industries: Cases of Stavanger and Aberdeen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Gjelsvik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the IRIS and MIT comparative study of the two oil capitals in Europe: Aberdeen and Stavanger, in order to analyze two successful oil and gas clusters. The Norwegian innovation system would be presented in detail. The article also examines the intrinsic role between the universities and the industrial context in the regional innovation system.//Este artículo presenta el estudio comparativo entre las dos capitales petroleras de Europa, Aberdeen y Stavanger, realizado por IRIS y MIT, con el objetivo de analizar dos clusters exitosos de gas y petróleo. Se exhibe en detalle el sistema noruego de innovación. Asimismo, este artículo examina la relación intrínseca entre las universidades y el contexto industrial en el sistema regional de innovación.

  4. Constructing Predictive Estimates for Worker Exposure to Radioactivity During Decommissioning: Analysis of Completed Decommissioning Projects - Master Thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dettmers, Dana Lee; Eide, Steven Arvid

    2002-10-01

    An analysis of completed decommissioning projects is used to construct predictive estimates for worker exposure to radioactivity during decommissioning activities. The preferred organizational method for the completed decommissioning project data is to divide the data by type of facility, whether decommissioning was performed on part of the facility or the complete facility, and the level of radiation within the facility prior to decommissioning (low, medium, or high). Additional data analysis shows that there is not a downward trend in worker exposure data over time. Also, the use of a standard estimate for worker exposure to radioactivity may be a best estimate for low complete storage, high partial storage, and medium reactor facilities; a conservative estimate for some low level of facility radiation facilities (reactor complete, research complete, pits/ponds, other), medium partial process facilities, and high complete research facilities; and an underestimate for the remaining facilities. Limited data are available to compare different decommissioning alternatives, so the available data are reported and no conclusions can been drawn. It is recommended that all DOE sites and the NRC use a similar method to document worker hours, worker exposure to radiation (person-rem), and standard industrial accidents, injuries, and deaths for all completed decommissioning activities.

  5. Development of plasma jet torch for decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Plasma jet torch to cut both metal and non metal has been developed, as the cutting technique for the decommissioning of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. 'The plasma fluid analysis code' was developed to make clear the physical behavior of plasma fluid to influence the electromagnetic field, material constant of neuter gas, flow rate and fluid velocity, shape of torch nozzle such as. This code is applied for the design of smaller size plasma jet torch which has high endurance and cutting ability. The plasma fluid was analyzed by this code to investigate the influence of nozzle shape on the plasma. The most suitable nozzle shape of plasma jet torch was designed as the results of numerical analysis. The plasma jet torch of which practicality was confirmed by experiment was made according to this design. The cutting ability and endurance of this plasma jet torch were enough. (author)

  6. Large packages for reactor decommissioning waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried out jointly by the Atomic Energy Establishment at Winfrith (now called the Winfrith Technology Centre), Windscale Laboratory and Ove Arup and Partners. The work involved the investigation of the design of large transport containers for intermediate level reactor decommissioning waste, ie waste which requires shielding, and is aimed at European requirements (ie for both LWR and gas cooled reactors). It proposes a design methodology for such containers covering the whole lifetime of a waste disposal package. The design methodology presented takes account of various relevant constraints. Both large self shielded and returnable shielded concepts were developed. The work was generic, rather than specific; the results obtained, and the lessons learned, remain to be applied in practice

  7. Decontamination and decommissioning program risk prioritization checklist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vann, D.L.; Reisenweaver, D.W.; Boing, L.

    1994-12-31

    The risk prioritization checklist was used to assess the risk associated with each surplus facility at Argonne National Laboratory (AN L). This information ranked each facility requiring decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) based on safety and environmental issues. This checklist looked at current conditions of the facility. A sample page from the checklist is provided in Fig. 1 on the next page. The purpose of the risk prioritization is to evaluate the facility risk to on-site personnel, off-site personnel, and the environment. This system of ranking was applicable to all of ANL`s surplus facilities, from storage areas to research reactors. This method divides the assessment into the following six categories: (1) building structure; (2) environment; (3) radiological conditions; (4) waste; (5) site reuse; and (6) occupancy.

  8. Uranium enrichment decontamination and decommissioning fund

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most challenging issues facing the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management is the cleanup of the three gaseous diffusion plants. In October 1992, Congress passed the Energy Policy Act of 1992 and established the Uranium Enrichment Decontamination and Decommissioning Fund to accomplish this task. This mission is being undertaken in an environmentally and financially responsible way by: devising cost-effective technical solutions; producing realistic life-cycle cost estimates, based on practical assumptions and thorough analysis; generating coherent long-term plans which are based on risk assessments, land use, and input from stakeholders; and, showing near-term progress in the cleanup of the gaseous diffusion facilities at Oak Ridge

  9. Decommissioning support system, using RFID and USN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, W. H.; Park, S. K.; Choi, Y. D.; Lee, K. I.; Moon, J. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    RFID and USN are key technology in the ubiquitous computing systems. Actual physical environmental information can be used to remote control systems and management using various sensor technology and wireless network. These are used to managing physical distribution systems, complex monitoring environments such as fire detecting and various environments in the field of u-healthcare. Recently, decontamination and dismantling for nuclear plant have increasing interest after Fucushima nuclear accident. In this paper, a decommissioning support system is suggested for an effective management and control of work efficiency and of worker's status. This system makes effective real-time monitoring worker's location, work status and radiation exposure and effective response for worker's safety and emergency situation

  10. Decommissioning support system, using RFID and USN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RFID and USN are key technology in the ubiquitous computing systems. Actual physical environmental information can be used to remote control systems and management using various sensor technology and wireless network. These are used to managing physical distribution systems, complex monitoring environments such as fire detecting and various environments in the field of u-healthcare. Recently, decontamination and dismantling for nuclear plant have increasing interest after Fucushima nuclear accident. In this paper, a decommissioning support system is suggested for an effective management and control of work efficiency and of worker's status. This system makes effective real-time monitoring worker's location, work status and radiation exposure and effective response for worker's safety and emergency situation

  11. Decontamination, decommissioning, and vendor advertorial issue, 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The focus of the July-August issue is on Decontamination, decommissioning, and vendor advertorials. Articles and reports in this issue include: D and D technical paper summaries; The role of nuclear power in turbulent times, by Tom Chrisopher, AREVA, NP, Inc.; Enthusiastic about new technologies, by Jack Fuller, GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy; It's important to be good citizens, by Steve Rus, Black and Veatch Corporation; Creating Jobs in the U.S., by Guy E. Chardon, ALSTOM Power; and, and, An enviroment and a community champion, by Tyler Lamberts, Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. The Industry Innovations article is titled Best of the best TIP achievement 2008, by Edward Conaway, STP Nuclear Operating Company

  12. Network analysis of WWER-440 decommissioning alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The network graphs are set up and applied to the implementation of 3 alternatives of WWER-440 reactor decommissioning at a nuclear power plant consisting of 2 reactor units. The alternatives are as follows: 1) reactor fragmentation in the concrete reactor shaft; 2) fragmentation of reactor internals inside the pressure vessel in the concrete shaft with subsequent transfer and fragmentation of the reactor vessel at a special fragmentation workplace; and 3) liquidation of the reactors as a whole. The network analysis gave evidence that owing to its nature, the technological sequence can be planned and implemented by an optimized process, which is of particular importance with respect to reducing the collective dose equivalent to the personnel and population. (Z.S.). 4 tabs., 4 figs., 3 refs

  13. Decontamination experiments for stainless steel decommissioned components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the factors which influence the decontamination conditions using the steps of CONAP process. This four phases process (alkaline pre-treatment , an oxidation phase with potassium permanganate in acid environment, a dissolution phase using a complexing agent, a rinsing phase) has been used for decontamination to recycle the stainless steel 304 L and 403 m. The attraction of this process results from the following reasons: - the volume of radioactive sludge is low comparatively with the original volume of the solutions; - the separation of the activity from the solution is very effective; - time of exposure is reduced; - it is not necessary to process the solution through evaporators. During decommissioning decontamination is used to reduce radiation field by removing some of the fission and activation products contained in deposits and oxide films to minimize the radiation exposure of the personnel and public. In this context, this hard decontamination yields the materials at a radioactivity level fulfilling the repository requirements. (authors)

  14. Decontamination, decommissioning, and vendor advertorial issue, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnihotri, Newal (ed.)

    2008-07-15

    The focus of the July-August issue is on Decontamination, decommissioning, and vendor advertorials. Articles and reports in this issue include: D and D technical paper summaries; The role of nuclear power in turbulent times, by Tom Chrisopher, AREVA, NP, Inc.; Enthusiastic about new technologies, by Jack Fuller, GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy; It's important to be good citizens, by Steve Rus, Black and Veatch Corporation; Creating Jobs in the U.S., by Guy E. Chardon, ALSTOM Power; and, and, An enviroment and a community champion, by Tyler Lamberts, Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. The Industry Innovations article is titled Best of the best TIP achievement 2008, by Edward Conaway, STP Nuclear Operating Company.

  15. Decommissioning and deactivation of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) is responsible for the decommissioning and deactivation of all relevant nuclear facilities in Argentina. A D and D Subprogram was created in 2000, within Technology Branch of the CNEA, in order to fulfill this responsibility. The D and D Subprogram has organized its activities in four fields: Planning; Technology development; Human resources development and training; International cooperation. The paper describes the work already done in those 4 areas, as well as the nuclear facilities existing in the country. Planning is being developed for the decommissioning of research reactors, beginning with RA-1, as well as for the Atucha I nuclear power station. An integral Management System has been developed, compatibilizing requirements from ISO 9001, ISO 14001, the national norm for Safety and Occupational Health (equivalent to BS 8800), and IAEA 50-SG Q series. Technology development is for the time being concentrated on mechanical decontamination and concrete demolition. A review has been made of technologies already developed both by CNEA and Nucleoelectrica Argentina S.A. (the nuclear power utility) in areas of chemical and electrochemical decontamination, cutting techniques and robotics. Human resources development has been based on training abroad in the areas of decontamination, cutting techniques, quality assurance and planning, as well as on specific courses, seminars and workshops. An IAEA regional training course on D and D has been given on April 2002 at CNEA's Constituyentes Atomic Center, with the assistance of 22 university graduates from 13 countries in the Latin American and Caribbean Region, and 11 from Argentina. CNEA has also given fellowships for PhD and Master thesis on the subject. International cooperation has been intense, and based on: - IAEA Technical Cooperation Project and experts missions; - Cooperation agreement with the US Department of Energy; - Cooperation agreement with Germany; - Cooperation agreement with ENRESA from Spain; - Cooperation agreement with SCK-CEN from Mol, Belgium. The paper gives details on all of these activities. (authors)

  16. Planning and progress of the WAGR decommissioning project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the United Kingdom, the earliest production reactors, which will be decommissioned first, are of the Magnox type. The Windscale Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor, is however, sufficiently similar to make it a suitable prototype decommissioning project. The planning and progress so far is described. Special decommissioning equipment, including a remote dismantling machine, has been developed and a waste packaging building built on site. Its function is to enable all intermediate-level and low-level radioactive waste removed from the reactor vault by remote equipment to be packaged remotely into suitable containers. The work done on the WAGR decommissioning has shown that the dismantling of a power-producing reactor is feasible and can be accomplished using existing engineering techniques. (U.K.)

  17. Decommissioning of DR 2. Experiences learnt from the completion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes experiences gathered from the decommissioning of DR 2. The experiences encompasses planning and management of the project, methods of accomplishment, and various materials categories. Additionally, the report describes the experience with specific tools used in the project

  18. DECOST: computer routine for decommissioning cost and funding analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the major controversies surrounding the decommissioning of nuclear facilities is the lack of financial information on just what the eventual costs will be. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has studies underway to analyze the costs of decommissioning of nuclear fuel cycle facilities and some other similar studies have also been done by other groups. These studies all deal only with the final cost outlays needed to finance decommissioning in an unchangeable set of circumstances. Funding methods and planning to reduce the costs and financial risks are usually not attempted. The DECOST program package is intended to fill this void and allow wide-ranging study of the various options available when planning for the decommissioning of nuclear facilities

  19. Decommissioning the UHTREX Reactor Facility at Los Alamos, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ultra-High Temperature Reactor Experiment (UHTREX) facility was constructed in the late 1960s to advance high-temperature and gas-cooled reactor technology. The 3-MW reactor was graphite moderated and helium cooled and used 93% enriched uranium as its fuel. The reactor was run for approximately one year and was shut down in February 1970. The decommissioning of the facility involved removing the reactor and its associated components. This document details planning for the decommissioning operations which included characterizing the facility, estimating the costs of decommissioning, preparing environmental documentation, establishing a system to track costs and work progress, and preplanning to correct health and safety concerns in the facility. Work to decommission the facility began in 1988 and was completed in September 1990 at a cost of $2.9 million. The facility was released to Department of Energy for other uses in its Los Alamos program

  20. Development of the Decommissioning Technology for Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evaluation technology of decommissioning process must be developed and will be used for the ALARA planning tool of decommissioning process and demonstrated for tools of decommissioning equipment. Also, this technology can be used for tools workplaces with high work difficulty such as large-scale chemical plant, under water and space. The monitoring system for high alpha radioactive contamination measurement will be use in the high radioactivity decommissioning sites such as hot-cell or glove box. Also, it will be use in the general nuclear facilities as the radiation monitoring unit. The preparation technology of the radiation sensor for high radioactive contamination measurement will be transferred to the company for the industrialization. The remote monitoring system can prevent the workers exposure using the optical fiber to separate the sensor and electronics

  1. Construction times and the decommissioning of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction and the decommissioning periods of nuclear power plants (NPP), are studied, due to their importance in the generation costs. With reference to the construction periods of these plants, a review is made of the situation and technical improvements made in different countries, with the purpose of shortening them. In regard to the decommissioning of NPP, the present and future situations are reviewed in connection with different stages of decommissioning and their related problems, as the residual radioactivity of different components, and the size of the final wastes to be disposed of. The possibilities of plant life extensions are also revised in connection with these problems. Finally, the expected decommissioning costs are analyzed. (Author)

  2. Decommissioning of the Wuergassen nuclear power plant, a commercial challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In response to the inspection results which detected cracks in the core shroud, economic aspects have induced PreussenElektra to opt for decommissioning and dismantling of the Wuergassen reactor. As this shutdown of the nuclear power plant is not a planned shutdown, costs arising in addition to the original decommissioning framework studies have to be assessed, especially the expenditure for the adjusted plant manpower requirements, and the additional operating and phase-out costs. Experience has shown that the decommissioning of a nuclear power plants does not pose problems in terms of safety or technology, but still is a commercial challenge. Expense forecasts have to be adjusted in response to the unplanned shutdown. PreussenElektra therefore has set up a modified project and operating structure. The analysis and evaluation of the first decommissioning phase will show whether the cost assessment approaches are in agreement with reality. (orig.)

  3. Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project (SSDP). A progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullee, G.R.; Usher, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    The Shippingport Atomic Power Station was shutdown in October, 1982 by the Plant Operator, Duquesne Light Company, for decommissioning by the US Department of Energy. The planning for decommissioning was completed in September, 1983. In September, 1984 operational responsibility for the station was transferred to the DOE's Decommissioning Operations Contractor - the General Electric Company (assisted by an integrated subcontractor, MK Ferguson Company). Significant accomplishments to date include the completion of all prerequisites for decommissioning, the removal of asbestos from plant systems, loading of irradiated reactor components into the reactor vessel for shipment, the commencement of electrical deactivations and the commencement of piping/component removal. Decontamination and waste processing are progressing in support of the project schedule. The reactor vessel will be shipped as one piece on a barge for burial at Hanford, Washington. The final release of the site is scheduled for April, 1990. A technology transfer program is being utilized to disseminate information about the project.

  4. Developing Integrated Decommissioning Information Management System (IDIMS) of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Taiwan, the Taiwan Research Reactor (TRR) was shut down in January 1988, and a few nuclear facilities were accompanied to stop operation within Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER). For public health and safety reasons, INER dismantled step by step its expired nuclear facilities. Integrated Decommissioning Information Management System (IDIMS) was developed to ensure safety of dismantling and to record all activity data during the decommissioning project. These recorded activity data range from data of planning, licensing, post-operation to those of radioactive waste management and storage. In addition, IDIMS was expected to preserve decommissioning knowledge using information technology from practical data and problem solving. It also is anticipated that IDIMS will be an important knowledge repository and design base for decommissioning projects of nuclear power plants in Taiwan. (author)

  5. Decommissioning a nuclear power plant: the tax effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tax treatment of decommissioning costs is as important a consideration as construction costs. The principles also apply to offshore operations and pipeline systems having a negative salvage value. Estimates place the cost at somewhere between 15 and 100% of construction costs, depending on how the decommissioning is done. It is essential to find an accurate way to project decommissioning costs and to decide how they should be reported for tax purposes. The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) does not plan to apply Section 167, which deals with negative net salvage. Utility customers will ultimately provide the funds, but current IRS rulings count these funds as ordinary income and do not allow matching the additional revenue with decommissioning expenses

  6. DOE-EM'S In-Situ Decommissioning Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper addressed the current status of decommissioning projects within the Department of Energy (DOE) that have an end state of permanent entombment, referred to as in-situ decommissioning (ISD). The substance of a Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) review of ISD and the development of a strategy are summarized. The strategy first recognizes ISD as a viable decommissioning end state; secondly addresses the integration of this approach within the external and internal regulatory regimes; subsequently identifies tools that need developing; and finally presents guidance for implementation. The overall conclusion is that ISD is a viable mode of decommissioning that can be conducted within the existing structure of rules and regulations. (author)

  7. Data base for analysis of RA-1 reactor decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The RA-1 'Enrico Fermi' reactor is located at the Constituyentes Atomic Centre near Buenos Aires city. It reached criticality for the first time on January 17th, 1958. During 45 years, major modifications were introduced. The Decommissioning of RA-1 is not foreseen in a near future, but nevertheless CNEA (legally responsible of Dismantling and Decommissioning of all relevant nuclear facilities in Argentina) has started Dismantling and Decommissioning planning activities. As a part of these activities, a historical information data base of the RA-1 reactor was performed. This report contains a set of global and specific data of the RA-1 Research Reactor prepared as a data base for a future decommissioning analysis. It describes the whole installation, and specially the core, fuel type, present configuration, shielding and the operation devices. An exhaustive listing of materials and components located in the Reactor building is given. It also reconstructs the reactor operation history based on the available information. (author)

  8. The preliminary planning for decommissioning nuclear facilities in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the congressional hearing in 1992 for a $7 billion project for approval of the fourth nuclear power plant, the public was concerned about the decommissioning of the operating plants. In order to facilitate the public acceptance of nuclear energy and to secure the local capability for appropriate nuclear backend management, both technologically and financially, it is important to have preliminary planning for decommissioning the nuclear facilities. This paper attempted to investigate the possible scope of decommissioning activities and addressed the important regulatory, financial, and technological aspects. More research and development works regarding the issue of decommissioning are needed to carry out the government's will of decent management of nuclear energy from the cradle to the grave

  9. Procedures, costs, and rate structures for decommissioning nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear plant licensing procedures do not require applicants, usually utilities, to include a program for decommissioning, which means that utilities can delay developing these plans until the plant's useful life is ending. Because this can be harmful to public health and the environment and penalize future rattepayers, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is considering a comprehensive criteria for license application. The goals of decommissioning procedures should be for the protection of human health and the environment, a provision for financing decommissioning costs, and a uniform and equitable rate structure. After reviewing current procedures, the author recommends a coordinated information system on all facilities and sites where radioactive materials are used or stored, a standardized decomissioning plant as part of the licensing procedure, and an annual tax allowance of recommissioning funds to be applied to decommissioning costs. Costs should not override health and environmental protection in decisions to dismantle or store radioactive materials. 112 references

  10. Development of decontamination, decommissioning and environmental restoration technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through the project of Development of decontamination, decommissioning and environmental restoration technology, the followings were studied. 1. Development of decontamination and repair technology for nuclear fuel cycle facilities 2. Development of dismantling technology 3. Development of environmental restoration technology. (author)

  11. Nuclear energy. First experiences with decommissioning in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Fukushima disaster in 2011 the German parliament changed the national atomic energy law by way of its thirteenth amendment. In contrast to the initial ''nuclear phaseout'' the new phaseout of nuclear energy foresees a large number of decommissionings which will occur in part successively and in part simultaneously and will extend over a period of eleven years. Eight generating units were already decommissioned in 2011 or have not been ramped up again since then. By 2020 the last units will have been decommissioned and the phaseout of nuclear energy will have been completed, at least in terms of power plant operation. However the subsequent dismantling operations will keep German operators busy for decades to come. This article reports on first practical experiences in decommissioning.

  12. The decommissioning of the compact sodium cooled nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decommissioning of the KNK-2 facility is being done as a cooperative activity of Karlsruhe Research Center and the Kernkraftwerk-Betriebsgesellschaft, except for parts of the activated primary loop which is contained in the reactor containment. The decommissioning work and schedule is largely determined by the work to be accomplished at the primary loop, and by the deloading work in the reactor tank. In addition, the conventional water-steam cycle and the secondary loop will be dismantled. Every step in the decommissioning schedule is subject to licensing under the Atomic Energy Act, and the goal of complete decommissioning, safe isolation from the biosphere, is planned to be achieved by the year 2000. (orig./HP)

  13. Experimental Boiling Water Reactor decontamination and decommissioning project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author begins by discussing the problems encountered during decontamination and decommissioning. Next, he discusses waste packaging and recycling. His last topic of lessons learned is subdivided into prevention and early detection, recovery issues, management issues, and noteworthy practices

  14. The Decommissioning of the Trino Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brusa, L.; DeSantis, R.; Nurden, P. L.; Walkden, P.; Watson, B.

    2002-02-27

    Following a referendum in Italy in 1987, the four Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) owned and operated by the state utility ENEL were closed. After closing the NPPs, ENEL selected a ''safestore'' decommissioning strategy; anticipating a safestore period of some 40-50 years. This approach was consistent with the funds collected during plant operation, and was reinforced by the lack of both a waste repository and a set of national free release limits for contaminated materials in Italy. During 1999, twin decisions were made to privatize ENEL and to transform the nuclear division into a separate subsidiary of the ENEL group. This group was renamed Sogin and during the following year, ownership of the company was transferred to the Italian Treasury. On formation, Sogin was asked by the Italian government to review the national decommissioning strategy. The objective of the review was to move from a safestore strategy to a prompt decommissioning strategy, with the target of releasing all of the nuclear sites by 2020. It was recognized that this target was conditional upon the availability of a national LLW repository together with interim stores for both spent fuel and HLW by 2009. The government also agreed that additional costs caused by the acceleration of the decommissioning program would be considered as stranded costs. These costs will be recovered by a levy on the kWh price of electricity, a process established and controlled by the Regulator of the Italian energy sector. Building on the successful collaboration to develop a prompt decommissioning strategy for the Latina Magnox reactor (1), BNFL and Sogin agreed to collaborate on an in depth study for the prompt decommissioning of the Sogin PWR at Trino. BNFL is currently decommissioning six NPPs and is at an advanced stage of planning for two further units, having completed a full and rigorous exercise to develop Baseline Decommissioning Plans (BDP's) for these stations. The BDP exercise utilizes the full range of BNFL decommissioning experience and knowledge to develop a strategy, methodology and cost for the decommissioning of NPPs. Over the past year, a prompt decommissioning strategy for Trino has been developed. The strategy has been based on the principles of minimizing waste products that require long term storage, maximizing 'free release' materials and utilizing existing and regulatory approved technologies.

  15. Progress in Decommissioning of Ignalina NPP Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the paper is to present the Lithuanian legal framework regarding the nuclear safety in Decommissioning and Waste Management, and the progress in the Decommissioning Programme of the unit 1 of Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP). INPP is the only nuclear plant in Lithuania. It comprises two RBMK-1500 reactors. After Lithuania has restored its independence, responsibility for Ignalina NPP was transferred to the Republic of Lithuania. To ensure the control of the Nuclear Safety in Lithuania, The State Nuclear Power Safety Inspectorate (VATESI) was created on 18 October 1991, by a resolution of the Lithuanian Government. Significant work has been performed over the last decade, aiming at upgrading the safety level of the Ignalina NPP with reference to the International standards. On 5 October 1999 the Seimas (Parliament) adopted the National Energy Strategy: It has been decided that unit 1 of Ignalina NPP will be closed down before 2005, The conditions and precise final date of the decommissioning of Unit 2 will be stated in the updated National Energy strategy in 2004. On 20-21 June 2000, the International Donors' Conference for the Decommissioning of Ignalina NPP took place in Vilnius. More than 200 Millions Euro were pledged of which 165 M funded directly from the European Union's budget, as financial support to the Decommissioning projects. The Decommissioning Program encompasses legal, organizational, financial and technical means including the social and economical impacts in the region of Ignalina. The Program is financed from International Support Fund, State budget, National Decommissioning Fund of Ignalina NPP and other funds. Decommissioning of Ignalina NPP is subject to VATESI license according to the Law on Nuclear Energy. The Government established the licensing procedure in the so-called 'Procedure for licensing of Nuclear Activities'; and the document 'General Requirements for Decommissioning of the Ignalina NPP' has been issued by VATESI. A very important issue is the technical support to VATESI and the Lithuanian TSO's (Technical Support Organisations) in their activities within the licensing process related to the Decommissioning of INPP. This includes regulatory assistance in the preparation of decommissioning and radioactive waste management regulatory documents, and technical assistance in the review of the safety case presented by the operator. The Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN, France) and the French Nuclear Safety Authority (DSIN) as well as Swedish International Project (SIP) are providing their support to VATESI in these areas. (authors)

  16. Preliminary decommissioning plan of the reactor IPEN-MB01

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Around the world, many nuclear plants were built and need to be turned off at a certain time because they are close to their recommended time of use is approximately 50 years. So the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency), seeks to guide and recommend a set of guidelines for the conduct of activities of nuclear facilities, with special attention to countries that do not have a framework regulatory Legal that sustain the activities of decommissioning. Brazil, so far, does not have a specific standard to guide the steps of the guidelines regarding decommissioning research reactors. However, in March 2011 a study committee was formed with the main task facing the issues of decommissioning of nuclear installations in Brazil, culminating in Resolution 133 of November 8, 2012, a standard project that treat about the Decommissioning of nucleoelectric plants. O Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN) has two research reactors one being the reactor IPEN/MB-01. The purpose of this master dissertation is to develop a preliminary plan for decommissioning this research reactor, considering the technical documentation of the facility (RAS-Safety Analysis Report), the existing standards of CNEN (National Nuclear Energy Commission), as well as IAEA recommendations. In terms of procedures for decommissioning research reactors, this work was based on what is most modern in experiences, strategies and lessons learned performed and documented in IAEA publications covering techniques and technologies for decommissioning. Considering these technical knowledge and due to the peculiarities of the facility, was selected to immediate dismantling strategy, which corresponds to the start of decommissioning activities once the installation is switched off, dividing it into work sectors. As a resource for monitoring and project management of reactor decommissioning and maintenance of records, we developed a database using Microsoft Access 2007, which contain all the items and information for the preliminary decommissioning plan. The work described here aims to meet the requirements, technical and institutional criteria, incorporating what is most current procedures and lessons learned of decommissioning, may serve as a guideline for the other brazilian facilities. (author)

  17. IAEA/CRP for decommissioning techniques for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following were studied through the project entitled 'IAEA/CRP for decommissioning techniques for research reactors 1. Decontamination technology development for TRIGA radioactive soil waste - Electrokinetic soil decontamination experimental results and its mathematical simulation 2. The 2nd IAEA/CRP for decommissioning techniques for research reactors - Meeting results and program 3. Hosting the 2001 IAEA/RCA D and D training course for research reactors and small nuclear facilities

  18. The 'old and the new' of decommissioning Dounreay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Dounreay site is situated on the north coast of Scotland, mainland United Kingdom, and since the 1950s it has been instrumental in fast breeder research and fuel reprocessing plant development. The work programme on the site has changed, and is now one of safe decommissioning and site restoration. Previous papers have discussed and reviewed progress during the very early stages of the decommissioning programme and this paper provides an update on the work programme from a primarily radiation protection perspective. This paper discusses progress in decommissioning the Dounreay site and the adoption of 'tried and tested', as well as innovative techniques to achieve this decommissioning safely. This includes detailed discussion of the radiation protection aspects of decommissioning, and the consideration and implementation of various radiological protection controls within varying decommissioning environments, such as: a) Remote operations; b) Robotics; c) Shielding; d) Remote readout dosimetry (during personnel entry into elevated dose rate areas). The change from an operational to a decommissioning work programme at Dounreay, created a requirement to modify the type and variety of radiological personal protective equipment (PPE) available. The selection of appropriate PPE, utilised following exhaustion of the hierarchy of controls, to remove the residual radiological risk to personnel is discussed within the paper. The benefit of developing this PPE, as well as other controls, in collaboration with the operatives performing the work, is clearly obvious. The paper concludes with a review of the relative merits and success of the decommissioning techniques that have been adopted, from a radiological protection perspective, together with a summary of lessons learnt. (author)

  19. Technical and economic aspects of nuclear power plant decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plants may be decommissioned by one of three primary methods - mothballing, entombing, or dismantling, or by using combinations such as mothballing or entombing for a period of time followed by dismantling. Mothballing or entombing both result in an end-product which requires surveillance and maintenance for a significant period to ensure protection of public health and safety. This paper discusses costs for each of the decommissioning methods, including factors that will influence the method selected as well as the total costs. Decommissioning costs have been estimated for an 1100-MW(e) light-water reactor within one year after shutdown following forty years of operation. The basic economic parameters for each decommissioning method were developed using unit cost factors based on known costs of previously decommissioned reactors. Decommissioning cost estimates range from less than four million dollars for mothballing to about forty million dollars for complete dismantling. Estimated cost of entombment is about ten million dollars. Subsequent annual cost of surveillance and maintenance for a reactor facility using the mothballing or entombment method could be as high as US $200,000. Although some tooling development will be needed for removing highly activated reactor vessel segments and internals, technology is currently available and has been demonstrated on prior decommissionings, e.g. the BONUS and HALLUM reactor entombments and the Elk River Reactor complete dismantling. Costs associated with decommissioning are significant; however, allowance for them either as a one-time construction period sinking fund, or annual depreciation type operating allowance, will have little effect on construction or on operating costs. (author)

  20. Shoreham decommissioning and license termination -- A success story

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoreham was the first large, NRC-licensed, commercial nuclear power plant to achieve the final goal of license termination. The pioneering nature of the project made the Shoreham experience unique and challenging in many ways. The lack of previous experience with the new decommissioning rule, gaps and ambiguities in the regulations and the absence of well-established procedures and guidelines inevitably led to regulatory uncertainties and delays. In spite of the delays imposed by the licensing process, the decommissioning of the Shoreham plant proceeded with remarkable speed and efficiency. Innovative approaches were employed to tackle difficult regulatory and technical issues. Shoreham decommissioning was completed ahead of schedule and within budget. The insight gained from the Shoreham experience is paving the way for better decommissioning regulations and guidelines from the NRC, particularly as they apply to prematurely shut down plants. The NRC is attempting to examine the problems, determine the causes and come up with solutions in the form of changes to decommissioning regulations. The regulatory changes, clarifications and guidance resulting from this effort are sure to help future decommissioning projects by establishing a more predictable regulatory regime. As the Shoreham decommissioning project came to a successful conclusion, it became evident that the benefits flowing from the project were not confined to the licensing and regulatory arena. It contributed significantly to the knowledge base in such areas as decontamination and dismantling methods, control of personnel radiation exposure, termination survey techniques, spent fuel transportation and public relations. Shoreham also convincingly demonstrated that the cost and schedule of a large, complex decommissioning project are predictable

  1. Decommissioning Operations at the Cadarache Nuclear Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the different activities of the CEA research center of Cadarache, located in the south of France, one of the most important involves decommissioning. As old facilities close, decommissioning activity increases. This presentation will give an overview of the existing organization and the different ongoing decommissioning and cleanup operations on the site. We shall also present some of the new facilities under construction the purpose of which is to replace the decommissioned ones. Cadarache research center was created on October 14, 1959. Today, the activities of the research center are shared out among several technological R and D platforms, essentially devoted to nuclear energy (fission and fusion) Acting as a support to these R and D activities, the center of Cadarache has a platform of services which groups the auxiliary services required by the nuclear facilities and those necessary to the management of nuclear materials, waste, nuclear facility releases and decommissioning. Many old facilities have shut down in recent years (replaced by new facilities) and a whole decommissioning program is now underway involving the dismantling of nuclear reactors (Rapsodie, Harmonie), processing facilities (ATUE uranium treatment facility, LECA UO2 facility) as well as waste treatment and storage facilities (INB37, INB 56. In conclusion: other dismantling and cleanup operations that are now underway in Cadarache include the following: - Waste treatment and storage facilities, - Historical VLLW and HLW storage facility, - Fissile material storage building, - Historical spent fuel storage facility. Thanks to the project organization: - Costs and risks on these projects can be reduced. - Engineers and technicians can easily move from one project to another. In some cases, when a new facility is under construction for the purpose of replacing a decommissioned one, some of the project team can integrate the new facility as members of the operation team. Today, decommissioning activities at the Cadarache Research Center are scheduled to continue up to 2030

  2. IAEA/CRP for decommissioning techniques for research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Won Zin; Won, H. J.; Kim, K. N.; Lee, K. W.; Jung, C. H

    2001-03-01

    The following were studied through the project entitled 'IAEA/CRP for decommissioning techniques for research reactors 1. Decontamination technology development for TRIGA radioactive soil waste - Electrokinetic soil decontamination experimental results and its mathematical simulation 2. The 2nd IAEA/CRP for decommissioning techniques for research reactors - Meeting results and program 3. Hosting the 2001 IAEA/RCA D and D training course for research reactors and small nuclear facilities.

  3. Decommissioning - the industrial lessons being learned from Windscale AGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Windscale Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor is providing an opportunity to gain practical decommissioning experience. The project has already demonstrated areas where thought for decommissioning during the design, construction and operation phases can help to reduce the dismantling and waste disposal problems. The conversion of the biological shield of the disused zero-energy reactor HERO into a full-scale test facility for WAGR is proving invaluable

  4. Full System Decontamination (FSD) prior to Decommissioning - 59189

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decontamination prior to decommissioning and dismantling is an internationally accepted approach. Not only does it provide for minimization of personnel dose exposure but also maximization of the material volume available for free release. Since easier dismantling techniques in lower dose areas can be applied, the licensing process is facilitated and the scheduling and budgeting effort is more reliable. The most internationally accepted approach for decontamination prior to decommissioning projects is the Full System Decontamination (FSD). FSD is defined as the chemical decontamination of the primary cooling circuit, in conjunction with the main auxiliary systems. AREVA has long-term experience with Full System Decontamination for return to service of operating nuclear power plants as well as for decommissioning after shutdown. Since 1976, AREVA has performed over 500 decontamination applications and from 1986 on, decontaminations prior to decommissioning projects which comprise virtually all nuclear power plant (NPP) designs and plant conditions: - NPP designs: HPWR, PWR, and BWR by AREVA, Westinghouse, ABB and GE; - Decontaminations performed shortly after final shutdown or several years later, and even after re-opening safe enclosure; - High alpha inventory and or low gamma/alpha ratio; - Main coolant chemistry (e.g. with and without Zn injection during operation). Fifteen decontaminations prior to decommissioning projects have been performed successfully to date. The lessons learned of each project were consequently implemented for the next project. AREVA NP has developed a fully comprehensive approach for decontamination based on the CORDR (Chemical Oxidation Reduction Decontamination) Family, applied using the in-house designed decontamination equipment AMDAR (Automatic Modular Decontamination Appliance). The Decontamination Concept for Decommissioning (DCD) will be outlined in this paper. Based on highlights of previous FSDs performed prior to decommissioning the AREVA concept for FSD and DCD will be outlined: - Application window; - Decontamination area; - Waste considerations; - Positive results for subsequent decommissioning and dismantling activities. (authors)

  5. Economical aspects of the decommissioning of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the German Atomic Law, nuclear power plants require licensing. The license covers the construction, operation and decommissioning of a nuclear power plant. The obligation of decommissioning causes a cost burden which influences the costs of operation. These expenses create a variable liability which has to be provided for by establishing a liability reserve. Because of its high monetary value this liability reserve in time obtains an increasing importance for the accounting policy. (orig.)

  6. Knowledge management for the decommissioning of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes background, objectives and select conceptual components of knowledge management for the decommissioning of nuclear power plants. The concept focuses on the transfer of personal practice experience within and between nuclear power plants. The conceptual insights embrace aspects of knowledge content, structure, KM processes, organization, cooperation, culture, persuasion, leadership, technology, infrastructure, business impact and resilience. Key challenges are discussed, and related advice is provided for KM practitioners with similar endeavours in the field of nuclear power plant decommissioning. (author)

  7. Communications programme for the RA nuclear reactor decommission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the decommissioning of the RA research nuclear reactor at the VINCA Institute of Nuclear Sciences, an adequate number of radiation and contamination surveys should be conduced to assure radiological safety of the workers, the public and the environment. Public would like to know more about the nuclear and radiological safety. The communications programme defines the ways to informing the public, its representatives and the information media about the health and safety aspects of the activities during the RA nuclear reactor decommission. (author)

  8. Technical and economic aspects of nuclear power plant decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plants may be decommissioned by one of three primary methods, namely, mothballing, entombing, or dismantling or by using combinations such as mothballing or entombing for a period of time followed by dismantling. Mothballing or entombing both result in an end-product which require surveillance and maintenance for a significant period of time to ensure protection of public health and safety. This paper discusses costs for each of the decommissioning methods, including factors that will influence the method selected as well as the total costs. Decommissioning costs have been estimated for a 1100 MW(e) light water reactor within one year after shutdown following forty years of operation. The basic economic parameters for each decommissioning method were developed using unit cost factors based on known costs of previously decommissioned reactors. Decommissioning cost estimates range from less than four million dollars for mothballing to about forty million dollars for complete dismantling. Estimated cost of entombment is about ten million dollars. Subsequent annual cost of surveillance and maintenance for a reactor facility using the mothballing or entombment method could be as high as $200,000. Although some tooling development will be needed for the removal of the highly activated reactor vessel segments and internals, technology is currently available and has been demonstrated on prior decommissionings, e.g., the BONUS and HALLUM reactor entombments and the Elk River Reactor complete dismantling. Costs associated with decommissioning are significant; however, allowance for them either as a one-time construction period sinking fund or annual depreciation type operating allowance will have little impact on either construction or operating costs

  9. Development of decontamination techniques for decommissioning commercial nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NUPEC has been developing various techniques to safely and efficiently decommission large commercial nuclear power plants. The development work, referred to as the verification tests, has been performed since 1982. The verification tests on decontamination techniques have focused on the reduction of both occupational radiation exposure and radioactive waste volume. Experiments on various decontamination methods have been carried out. Prospects of applying efficient decontamination techniques to commercial nuclear power plant decommissioning are bright due to the experimental results

  10. Aspects on decommissioning of the Greifswald nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most important part of the nuclear facilities in the former German Democratic Republic is situated at Greifswald near the Baltic Sea. Shortly after reunification of the Germany states, a decision was taken to decommission all Russian pressurised water reactors. The dismantling of them will be the biggest decommissioning project of series reactors world-wide.The low level of radioactive contamination, especially in the primary circuit, makes recycling of much material after decontamination possible. (orig.)

  11. Creys-Malville, France: Socioeconomic impact of decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The final shutdown of Superphenix is the first example of the decommissioning of a large NPP in France. The socioeconomic impact on the workforce and the community, as well as the management of human resources, is likely to be quite representative of the decommissioning of a plant in the Electricite de France (EDF) group. However, there are also some unique aspects of this case, mainly due to specific technical aspects and the unanticipated shutdown decision

  12. Structures and elements for the decommissioning cost estimations of nuclear research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decommissioning cost estimation is a very important technique when designing and planning a nuclear facilities' decommissioning project. Decommissioning cost estimation should be made according to the phases of the decommissioning activities and the installed components of the nuclear facilities. In this paper, the basic framework for decommissioning cost estimation is completed so that it could be used as a technique for decommissioning cost estimation by specifying the cost items and the group components as well as unit cost factors on which the work time is calculated. Also, the costs elements for the decommissioning cost estimation of the major activities and tasks are considered and reviewed. Specially, the unit cost factors and work difficulty factors for cost calculations are based on the decommissioning empirical data of Korea Research Reactor and the formula and methods using parametrics as these factors are definitely completed. Afterwards, these methods will be utilized as the basic technologies during establishing the decommissioning design and plan of nuclear research reactors

  13. IPR-R1 Triga research reactor decommissioning: preliminary plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tello, Cledola Cassia Oliveira de; Grossi, Pablo Andrade; Mesquita, Amir Zacarias [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mails: pabloag@cdtn.br; tellocc@cdtn.br; amir@cdtn.br

    2007-07-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is concerning to establish or adopt standards of safety for the protection of health, life and property in the development and application of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. In this way the IAEA recommends that decommissioning planning should be part of all radioactive installation licensing process. There are over 200 research reactors that have either not operated for a considerable period of time and may never return to operation or, are close to permanent shutdown. Many countries do not have a decommissioning policy, and like Brazil not all installations have their decommissioning plan as part of the licensing documentation. The Nuclear Technology Development Centre (CDTN/CNEN) has a TRIGA Mark I Research Reactor in operation for 47 years with 3.6% average fuel burnup. The original power was 100 kW and it is being licensed for 250 kW, and as no decommissioning policy was adopted, it needs to do the decommissioning plan for it now. This paper presents the description of IPR-R1 TRIGA reactor and the preliminary plan for its decommissioning, as part of the licensing requirements. (author)

  14. Comparative radiological assessment of decommissioning options for fusion energy plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four options for fusion plant decommissioning - ''Early Stage 3'', ''Safestore'', ''In-situ Decommissioning'' and ''Safestore with Recycle'' - are compared on the basis of overall radiological impact. This impact is calculated as a weighted sum of six components representing the collective doses to workers and the public, and the risk to individual members of the public. Calculations are performed for two variants of a reference design, one employing standard structural materials and the other partially utilizing low activation materials. For the standard plant, Early Stage 3 has the lowest overall impact, while the impact of the Safestore option is also low. Both the Safestore with Recycle and In-situ Decommissioning options have a high relative impact for the standard plant, while the In-situ Decommissioning option would be precluded by the risk to individual members of the public. For the low activation variant, the In-situ Decommissioning option is again precluded but the other options give low impacts. This scoping study indicates that the use of low activation materials could be beneficial with respect to the freedom of choice of decommissioning options. ((orig.))

  15. Decommissioning of the Windscale Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Windscale Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor (WAGR), built as a prototype for the commercial AGR's, was commissioned in the early 1960's and ran very successfully until 1981 when on completion of the experimental programme it was shutdown. Prior to this final shutdown the UKAEA increasingly aware of the need of the nuclear industry to demonstrate that a reactor could be decommissioned both safely and economically decided to authorise the decommissioning of WAGR to Stage 3 (that is to a Green Field Site). The reactor rated at 33MW(e) comprises a graphite core within a steel pressure vessel housed within a reinforced concrete bio-shield which is all housed within the spherical reinforced concrete containment buildings. The similarities of this reactor with the much larger MAGNOX reactors are sufficient to be able to provide valuable data and experience for the eventual decommissioning of these reactors. This paper gives an account of the progress to date in decommissioning WAGR together with information on the decommissioning development work that is being undertaken. It is possible that from the estimates produced for the overall project cost of dismantling WAGR from Stage 1 to Stage 3 to establish an indicative decommissioning costs for the other reactors in use in the UK. (author)

  16. Decommissioning of nuclear facilities: 'it can and has been done'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Considerable international experience gained over the last 20 years demonstrates that nuclear facilities can be safely dismantled and decommissioned once a decision is made to cease operations and permanently shut them down. The term decommissioning is used to describe all the management and technical actions associated with ceasing operation of a nuclear installation and its subsequent dismantling to facilitate its removal from regulatory control (de-licensing). These actions involve decontamination of structures and components, dismantling of components and demolition of buildings, remediation of any contaminated ground and removal of the resulting waste. Worldwide, of the more than 560 commercial nuclear power plants that are or have been in operation, about 120 plants have been permanently shut down and are at some stage of decommissioning. About 10% of all shutdown plants have been fully decommissioned, including eight reactors of more than 100 MWe. A larger number of various types of fuel cycle and research facilities have also been shut down and decommissioned, including: facilities for the extraction and enrichment of uranium, facilities for fuel fabrication and reprocessing, laboratories, isotope production facilities and particle accelerators. This brochure looks at decommissioning across a spectrum of nuclear facilities and shows worldwide examples of successful projects. Further information can be found in NEA publications and on a number of web-sites

  17. Comparative radiological assessment of decommissioning options for fusion energy plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butterworth, G.J. (AEA Technology, Fusion, Culham, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)); Hill, M.D. (Electrowatt Engineering Services, Horsham, West Sussex RH12 1RF (United Kingdom))

    1994-09-01

    Four options for fusion plant decommissioning - ''Early Stage 3'', ''Safestore'', ''In-situ Decommissioning'' and ''Safestore with Recycle'' - are compared on the basis of overall radiological impact. This impact is calculated as a weighted sum of six components representing the collective doses to workers and the public, and the risk to individual members of the public. Calculations are performed for two variants of a reference design, one employing standard structural materials and the other partially utilizing low activation materials. For the standard plant, Early Stage 3 has the lowest overall impact, while the impact of the Safestore option is also low. Both the Safestore with Recycle and In-situ Decommissioning options have a high relative impact for the standard plant, while the In-situ Decommissioning option would be precluded by the risk to individual members of the public. For the low activation variant, the In-situ Decommissioning option is again precluded but the other options give low impacts. This scoping study indicates that the use of low activation materials could be beneficial with respect to the freedom of choice of decommissioning options. ((orig.))

  18. BN-350 Reactor facility decommissioning activities: strategy, management, performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BN-350 reactor is a fast breeder reactor using liquid sodium as a coolant. In 1999 the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan adopted the Decree on the decommissioning of this reactor facility. According to this Decree, Kazakhstan Government intends to place the BN-350 facility into a safe storage (SAFSTOR) condition for a period up to 50 years. 'The Plan of priority measures for BN-350 reactor decommissioning' was developed to realize the Government Decree and to determine the scope of activities aimed at reactor safety within the period before 'Decommissioning Project' will be prepared. This plan includes the following measures: transportation of spent fuel assemblies; handling primary/secondary sodium and radioactive wastes; preparation of reactor building and premises for SAFSTOR period and completion of BN- 350 reactor decommissioning project. Since 1999 the works have been intensively conducted according to this Plan. There have been certain management problems which have been encountered by the general responsible organizations. By now a considerable amount of works concerning the transitional period from an operating to a decommissioning status have been performed in the framework of the chosen decommissioning strategy and licensing requirements, e.g.: primary sodium has been cleaned of caesium radionuclides, drained from BN-350 reactor vessel/primary loops in to the primary sodium storage tanks and solidified there; creation of sodium processing facility is under way; design of the casks for spent fuel transportation and storage has been completed; systems for processing liquid/solid radioactive wastes are being designed. (author)

  19. Final generic environmental impact statement on decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This final generic environmental impact statement was prepared as part of the requirement for considering changes in regulations on decommissioning of commercial nuclear facilities. Consideration is given to the decommissioning of pressurized water reactors, boiling water reactors, research and test reactors, fuel reprocessing plants (FRPs) (currently, use of FRPs in the commercial sector is not being considered), small mixed oxide fuel fabrication plants, uranium hexafluoride conversion plants, uranium fuel fabrication plants, independent spent fuel storage installations, and non-fuel-cycle facilities for handling byproduct, source and special nuclear materials. Decommissioning has many positive environmental impacts such as the return of possibly valuable land to the public domain and the elimination of potential problems associated with increased numbers of radioactively contaminated facilities with a minimal use of resources. Major adverse impacts are shown to be routine occupational radiation doses and the commitment of nominally small amounts of land to radioactive waste disposal. Other impacts, including public radiation doses, are minor. Mitigation of potential health, safety, and environmental impacts requires more specific and detailed regulatory guidance than is currently available. Recommendations are made as to regulatory decommissioning particulars including such aspects as decommissioning alternatives, appropriate preliminary planning requirements at the time of commissioning, final planning requirements prior to termination of facility operations, assurance of funding for decommissioning, environmental review requirements. 26 refs., 7 figs., 68 tabs

  20. 2010 Status of Uranium Conversion Plant Decommissioning Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Uranium Conversion Plant (UCP) was used to manufacture 100 tons of UO2. This paper introduced briefly decommissioning activities in the first half year of 2010. powder for the Wolsong-1 CANDU reactor. The conversion plant has been shut down and minimally maintained for the prevention of a contamination by a deterioration of the equipment. The conversion plant has building area of 2916 m2 and two main conversion processes. ADU (Ammonium Di-Uranate) and AUC (Ammonium Uranyl Carbonate) process are installed in the backside and the front side of the building, respectively. Conversion plant has two lagoons, which is to store all wastes generated from the plant operation. Sludge wastes stored 150m3 and 100m3 in Lagoon 1 and 2, respectively. Main compounds of sludge are ammonium nitrate, sodium nitrate, calcium nitrate, and calcium carbonate. In 2000, the decommissioning of the plant was finally decided upon and a decommissioning program was launched to complete by 2010. In the middle of 2004, decommissioning program obtained the approval of regulatory body and decommissioning activities started. The scope of the project includes the removal of all equipment and the release of the building for re-use. The project is scheduled to be completed at the end of 2010 with a total budget of 10.9 billion This paper introduced briefly decommissioning activities in the first half year of 2010

  1. 2010 Status of Uranium Conversion Plant Decommissioning Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, D. S.; Lee, K. I.; Choi, Y. D.; Chung, U. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    The Uranium Conversion Plant (UCP) was used to manufacture 100 tons of UO{sub 2}. This paper introduced briefly decommissioning activities in the first half year of 2010. powder for the Wolsong-1 CANDU reactor. The conversion plant has been shut down and minimally maintained for the prevention of a contamination by a deterioration of the equipment. The conversion plant has building area of 2916 m2 and two main conversion processes. ADU (Ammonium Di-Uranate) and AUC (Ammonium Uranyl Carbonate) process are installed in the backside and the front side of the building, respectively. Conversion plant has two lagoons, which is to store all wastes generated from the plant operation. Sludge wastes stored 150m3 and 100m3 in Lagoon 1 and 2, respectively. Main compounds of sludge are ammonium nitrate, sodium nitrate, calcium nitrate, and calcium carbonate. In 2000, the decommissioning of the plant was finally decided upon and a decommissioning program was launched to complete by 2010. In the middle of 2004, decommissioning program obtained the approval of regulatory body and decommissioning activities started. The scope of the project includes the removal of all equipment and the release of the building for re-use. The project is scheduled to be completed at the end of 2010 with a total budget of 10.9 billion This paper introduced briefly decommissioning activities in the first half year of 2010

  2. The unit cost factors and calculation methods for decommissioning - Cost estimation of nuclear research facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The uncertainties of decommissioning costs increase high due to several conditions. Decommissioning cost estimation depends on the complexity of nuclear installations, its site-specific physical and radiological inventories. Therefore, the decommissioning costs of nuclear research facilities must be estimated in accordance with the detailed sub-tasks and resources by the tasks of decommissioning activities. By selecting the classified activities and resources, costs are calculated by the items and then the total costs of all decommissioning activities are reshuffled to match with its usage and objectives. And the decommissioning cost of nuclear research facilities is calculated by applying a unit cost factor method on which classification of decommissioning works fitted with the features and specifications of decommissioning objects and establishment of composition factors are based. Decommissioning costs of nuclear research facilities are composed of labor cost, equipment and materials cost. Of these three categorical costs, the calculation of labor costs are very important because decommissioning activities mainly depend on labor force. Labor costs in decommissioning activities are calculated on the basis of working time consumed in decommissioning objects and works. The working times are figured out of unit cost factors and work difficulty factors. Finally, labor costs are figured out by using these factors as parameters of calculation. The accuracy of decommissioning cost estimation results is much higher compared to the real decommissioning works. (authors)

  3. Evaluation of nuclear facility decommissioning projects. Project summary report, Elk River Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes information concerning the decommissioning of the Elk River Reactor. Decommissioning data from available documents were input into a computerized data-handling system in a manner that permits specific information to be readily retrieved. The information is in a form that assists the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in its assessment of decommissioning alternatives and ALARA methods for future decommissionings projects. Samples of computer reports are included in the report. Decommissioning of other reactors, including NRC reference decommissioning studies, will be described in similar reports

  4. An overview of U.S. decommissioning experience -- A basic introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boing, L.E.

    1998-03-09

    This paper presents an overview of the US experiences in the decommissioning technical area. Sections included are: (1) an overview of the magnitude of the problem, (2) a review of the US decommissioning process, (3) regulation of decommissioning, (4) regulatory and funding requirements for decommissioning, and (5) a general overview of all on-going and completed decommissioning projects to date in the US. The final section presents a review of some issues in the decommissioning area currently being debated in the technical specialists community.

  5. An overview of U.S. decommissioning experience -- A basic introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an overview of the US experiences in the decommissioning technical area. Sections included are: (1) an overview of the magnitude of the problem, (2) a review of the US decommissioning process, (3) regulation of decommissioning, (4) regulatory and funding requirements for decommissioning, and (5) a general overview of all on-going and completed decommissioning projects to date in the US. The final section presents a review of some issues in the decommissioning area currently being debated in the technical specialists community

  6. The decommissioning of nuclear facilities; Le demantelement des installations nucleaires de base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niel, J.Ch.; Rieu, J.; Lareynie, O.; Delrive, L.; Vallet, J.; Girard, A.; Duthe, M.; Lecomte, C.; Rozain, J.P.; Nokhamzon, J.G.; Davoust, M.; Eyraud, J.L.; Bernet, Ph.; Velon, M.; Gay, A.; Charles, Th.; Leschaeva, M.; Dutzer, M.; Maocec, Ch.; Gillet, G.; Brut, F.; Dieulot, M.; Thuillier, D.; Tournebize, F.; Fontaine, V.; Goursaud, V.; Birot, M.; Le Bourdonnec, Th.; Batandjieva, B.; Theis, St.; Walker, St.; Rosett, M.; Cameron, C.; Boyd, A.; Aguilar, M.; Brownell, H.; Manson, P.; Walthery, R.; Wan Laer, W.; Lewandowski, P.; Dorms, B.; Reusen, N.; Bardelay, J.; Damette, G.; Francois, P.; Eimer, M.; Tadjeddine, A.; Sene, M.; Sene, R

    2008-11-15

    This file includes five parts: the first part is devoted to the strategies of the different operators and includes the following files: the decommissioning of nuclear facilities Asn point of view, decommissioning of secret nuclear facilities, decommissioning at the civil Cea strategy and programs, EDF de-construction strategy, Areva strategy for decommissioning of nuclear facilities; the second one concerns the stakes of dismantling and includes the articles as follow: complete cleanup of buildings structures in nuclear facilities, decommissioning of nuclear facilities and safety assessment, decommissioning wastes management issues, securing the financing of long-term decommissioning and waste management costs, organizational and human factors in decommissioning projects, training for the decommissioning professions: the example of the Grenoble University master degree; the third part is devoted to the management of dismantling work sites and includes the different articles as follow: decommissioning progress at S.I.C.N. plant, example of decommissioning work site in Cea Grenoble: Siloette reactor decommissioning, matters related to decommissioning sites, decommissioning of french nuclear installations: the viewpoint of a specialist company, specificities of inspections during decommissioning: the Asn inspector point of view; the fourth part is in relation with the international approach and includes as follow: IAEA role in establishing a global safety regime on decommissioning, towards harmonization of nuclear safety practices in Europe: W.E.N.R.A. and the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, EPA superfund program policy for decontamination and decommissioning, progress with remediation at Sellafield, progress and experiences from the decommissioning of the Eurochemic reprocessing plant in Belgium, activities of I.R.S.N. and its daughter company Risk-audit I.r.s.n./G.r.s. international in the field of decommissioning of nuclear facilities in eastern countries,; the fifth part presents the external points of view on dismantling with: the decommissioning of Saint-Laurent A, as seen by the local information committee, decommissioning: the urge for a public consultation, an evaluation of the work of the 'conseil superieur de la surete et de linformation nucleaire' (C.S.S.I.N.) - a consultative body dealing with information in the field of nuclear safety) on the issue of decommissioning basic nuclear installations, monitoring the decommissioning of nuclear facilities and examining applications. (N.C.)

  7. Decommissioning strategy of the operating WWER type units in the Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present in Ukraine, 13 WWER type units are in operation and two other ones are in the final stage of construction. Decommissioning of these units is expected after the year 2010. General planning of their decommissioning is developed in the framework of the decommissioning strategy of operating WWER type units. The strategy contains the objectives, principles and main tasks of the decommissioning as well as the activities at each phase of decommissioning. It is considered a broad range of factors important for the planning and implementation of decommissioning. (author)

  8. The Reuse of Decommissioned Facilities and Sites as an Emerging Means to Alleviate the Decommissioning Burden and its Potential Applications within IAEA's International Decommissioning Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Around the world, but particularly in developing Member States, there are disused nuclear facilities or those approaching the end of their useful lives, for which appropriate decommissioning steps have not been taken, primarily due to limited technical and financial resources or competing priorities. One way of alleviating the financial and social burden associated with the final shutdown and decommissioning of nuclear facilities is the redevelopment of decommissioned facilities and sites for new, productive uses, either nuclear or non-nuclear. Sustainable development implies economic development with maintenance of social and community integrity. This objective can best be served by the sensitive redevelopment of sites to provide continuity of employment and new productive activity. Finally, experience to date with redevelopment both inside and outside the nuclear field suggests that successful engagement of the stakeholders can be a key success factor in promoting outcomes which are both profitable for the operator and recognised as responsible and worthwhile by the wider community. Following a generic discussion on factors and issues inherent to the re-development of decommissioned sites, this paper expands on several examples. It is noted that experience from the non-nuclear industrial sector is much more extensive than from the nuclear sector, and lessons from this sector should not be neglected. Many of world's nuclear facilities are small and widely distributed geographically, e.g. ?300 aging or shut-down research reactors. Requests for assistance to address this issue from Member States exceed the capability of IAEA (and others) to deliver. However, integrating individual initiative into a designed-for-purpose network may compensate for these limitations. A new IAEA initiative amongst organizations from both potential 'donor' and 'recipient' Member States has taken the form of an 'International Decommissioning Network (IDN)'. The objectives of the IDN are to improve the flow of knowledge and experience amongst those engaged in decommissioning, and specifically to enhance the 'user-oriented' focus for all IAEA decommissioning activities. The IDN provides a 'bridge' between those Member States with specialized knowledge and those that need to apply it, and encourages an exchange of practical knowledge and skills. In this paper it is shown that integrating site reuse into the decommissioning strategy at its outset has a number of advantages and this experience should be shared. (authors)

  9. Development of decommissioning, decontamination and reuse technology for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this project, the foundation of decommissioning technology through the development of core technologies applied to maintenance and decommissioning of nuclear facility was established. First of all, we developed the key technology such as safety assessment technology for decommissioning work needed at the preparatory stage of decommissioning of the highly contaminated facilities and simultaneous measurement technology of the high-level alpha/beta contamination applicable to the operation and decommissioning of the nuclear facilities. Second, we developed a remotely controlled laser ablation decontamination system which is useful for a removal of fixed contaminants and developed a chemical gel decontamination technology for a removal of non-fixed contaminants during the maintenance and decommissioning works of high radiation hot cells which have been used for a recycling or treatment of spent fuels. Third, we developed a volume reduction and self-disposal technology for dismantled concrete wastes. Also, the technology for volume reduction and stabilization of the peculiar wastes(HEPA filter and organic mixed wastes), which have been known to be very difficult to treat and manage, generated from the high radioactive facilities in operation, improvement and repair and under decommissioning was developed. Finally, this research project was developed a system for the reduction of radiotoxicity of several uranium mixtures generated in the front- and back-end nuclear fuel cycles with characteristics of highly enhanced proliferation-resistance and more environmental friendliness, which can make the uranium to be recovered or separated from the mixtures with a high purity level enough for the uranium to be reused and to be classified as C-class level for burial near the surface, and then which result in the much reduction in volume of the uranium mixture wastes

  10. Decontamination and decommissioning technology development of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present project consists of three parts. In part I, dilute chemical decontamination processes developed up to date in foreign countries were reviewed and a recent trend was analysed. Decontamination for an entire primary coolant system of PHWR is in the stage of coomercialization and that of BWR is expected to be commercialized within next 2 years. On the other hand, recent applications of decontamination technology to PWR have been limited to steam generator channel head. But considering vital R and D activities, it is expected that decontamination for an entire primary coolant system of PWR will be commercialized in the near future. In part II, The effects of application sequence of KAERI decontamination process on oxide dissolution and on material integrity were examined on a laboratory scale. A procedure for the demonstration of KAERI decontamination process in steam generator channel head on a pilot scale was documented. KAERI decontamination process was effective in dissolving oxide and assured material integrity. And a performance of KAERI decontamination equipments was qualified. In 1988, it is scheduled to complete the demonstration of a whole KAERI decontamination processes with both simulated and in situ hot specimens. In part III, the status of decommissioning technology of nuclear facilities developed in foreign countries was reviewed. Decommissioning technology is in a beginning state of commercial application, And decommissioning projects are usually under the control of government. To decommission a domestic nuclear facilities with effectiveness, the followings are necessary: establishment of decommissioning regulation and technical criteria, development of decommissioning computer code, early introduction of decommissioning concept to the stage of design and construction, and development of remote handling technology. (Author)

  11. VAK Kahl - decommissioning and demolition continued under new auspices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kahl experimental nuclear power station (VAK), the first German nuclear power plant, was decommissioned after 25 years of operation (1961 to 1985). The BWR plant generated approx. 2 million kWh of electricity in 150,000 hours of operation at a gross power of MWe. After the operator, VAK GmbH, had filed an application for decommissioning, the first of four decommissioning permits was issued in 1988. The plant is to be demolished completely so that the site will no longer be within the scope of the Atomic Energy Act. By 2001, demolition work covered by the first decommissioning permit had been finished, also the 2nd and 3rd decommissioning permits had largely been completed, and work under the 4th decommissioning permit had been begun. To acquire technical and organization experience and know-how, the decommissioning and demolition phases are accompanied by research and development work carried out by the operators and by VAK shareholders RWE and E.ON. After the bulk of the work had been completed, the radioactive inventory had been removed from the plant, and the end of the project was in sight, RWE NUKEM GmbH was commissioned to carry on. The main objectives now are speedy completion of the jobs still to be finished, further development for other projects of the know-how acquired, and job protection. The main work still to be carried out includes dismantling of systems no longer needed and of the biological shield as well as decontamination of building structures accompanied by the clearance of buildings and open areas for subsequent conventional demolition. The waste arising will be packaged in accordance with its classification, and will be removed into interim storage or managed in the conventional way. The project is to be completed in the 3rd quarter of 2006. (orig.)

  12. Decontamination and Decommissioning Project for the Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. H.; Paik, S. T.; Park, S. W. and others

    2006-02-15

    The final goal of this project is to complete safely and successfully the decommissioning of the Korean Research Reactor no.1 (KRR-1) and the Korean Research Reactor no.2 (KRR-2), and uranium conversion plant (UCP). The dismantling of the reactor hall of the KRR-2 was planned to complete till the end of 2004, but it was delayed because of a few unexpected factors such as the development of a remotely operated equipment for dismantling of the highly radioactive parts of the beam port tubes. In 2005, the dismantling of the bio-shielding concrete structure of the KRR-2 was finished and the hall can be used as a temporary storage space for the radioactive waste generated during the decommissioning of the KRR-1 and KRR-2. The cutting experience of the shielding concrete by diamond wire saw and the drilling experience by a core boring machine will be applied to another nuclear facility dismantling. An effective management tool of the decommissioning projects, named DECOMIS, was developed and the data from the decommissioning projects were gathered. This system provided many information on the daily D and D works, waste generation, radiation dose, etc., so an effective management of the decommissioning projects is expected from next year. The operation experience of the uranium conversion plant as a nuclear fuel cycle facility was much contributed to the localization of nuclear fuels for both HWR and PWR. It was shut down in 1993 and a program for its decontamination and dismantling was launched in 2001 to remove all the contaminated equipment and to achieve the environment restoration. The decommissioning project is expected to contribute to the development of the D and D technologies for the other domestic fuel cycle facilities and the settlement of the new criteria for decommissioning of the fuel cycle related facilities.

  13. Decontamination and Decommissioning Project for the Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The final goal of this project is to complete safely and successfully the decommissioning of the Korean Research Reactor no.1 (KRR-1) and the Korean Research Reactor no.2 (KRR-2), and uranium conversion plant (UCP). The dismantling of the reactor hall of the KRR-2 was planned to complete till the end of 2004, but it was delayed because of a few unexpected factors such as the development of a remotely operated equipment for dismantling of the highly radioactive parts of the beam port tubes. In 2005, the dismantling of the bio-shielding concrete structure of the KRR-2 was finished and the hall can be used as a temporary storage space for the radioactive waste generated during the decommissioning of the KRR-1 and KRR-2. The cutting experience of the shielding concrete by diamond wire saw and the drilling experience by a core boring machine will be applied to another nuclear facility dismantling. An effective management tool of the decommissioning projects, named DECOMIS, was developed and the data from the decommissioning projects were gathered. This system provided many information on the daily D and D works, waste generation, radiation dose, etc., so an effective management of the decommissioning projects is expected from next year. The operation experience of the uranium conversion plant as a nuclear fuel cycle facility was much contributed to the localization of nuclear fuels for both HWR and PWR. It was shut down in 1993 and a program for its decontamination and dismantling was launched in 2001 to remove all the contaminated equipment and to achieve the environment restoration. The decommissioning project is expected to contribute to the development of the D and D technologies for the other domestic fuel cycle facilities and the settlement of the new criteria for decommissioning of the fuel cycle related facilities

  14. The Practice of Cost Estimation for Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decommissioning of both commercial and R and D nuclear facilities is expected to increase significantly in the coming years, and the largest of such industrial decommissioning projects could command considerable budgets. Several approaches are currently being used for decommissioning cost estimations, with an international culture developing in the field. The present cost estimation practice guide was prepared in order to offer international actors specific guidance in preparing quality cost and schedule estimates to support detailed budgeting for the preparation of decommissioning plans, for the securing of funds and for decommissioning implementation. This guide is based on current practices and standards in a number of NEA member countries and aims to help consolidate the practice and process of decommissioning cost estimation so as to make it more widely understood. It offers a useful reference for the practitioner and for training programmes. The remainder of report is divided into the following chapters: - Chapter 2 covers the purpose and nature of decommissioning cost estimates, approaches to cost estimation and the major elements of a cost estimate. - Chapter 3 examines the development of the integrated schedule of the activity-dependent work scope and the determination of the project critical path. - Chapter 4 describes the attributes of a quality assurance programme applicable to cost estimation and the use and cautions of benchmarking the estimate from other estimates or actual costs. - Chapter 5 describes the pyramidal structure of the report, and the scope and content that should be included in the cost study report to ensure consistency and transparency in the estimate underpinnings. - Chapter 6 provides some observations, conclusions and recommendations on the use of this guide

  15. Managing the socioeconomic impact of the decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the IAEA programme on decommissioning is to provide Member States with comprehensive support in the planning and execution of the safe and effective decommissioning of their nuclear facilities. A considerable body of literature has been produced on the technological aspects of planning and implementation. In recent years, this has been supplemented with information on the organization and management of decommissioning. The present report is a further extension of this programme. When nuclear facilities undergo large scale or total shutdown of their operations, there can be significant effects on staff made redundant and on the local community, especially for more remote locations where the site was a major source of local employment and revenue. Social and economic factors can have a significant influence on the success of late life operations and decommissioning. Facility owners or those implementing decommissioning programmes need to take account of these factors in their plans. The way in which these issues are managed will also be visible to and influence staff at other facilities owned by the same organization. In addition, the consequences for a community can be substantial, and appropriate government organizations also need to consider these effects. This report focuses on the identification and management of the socioeconomic consequences of the final shutdown and decommissioning of a nuclear facility. The socioeconomic effects and potential consequences arising from decommissioning are identified, as well as the factors that affect the severity of the impact. The management of the potential consequences is discussed, together with illustrative international experience. This experience emphasizes the importance of planning, communications, consultation and investment. The value of good socioeconomic management can be seen in the performance of operating staff, in the vitality of the local community and in those at or near other operating facilities that have yet to declare a shutdown date. Although overall guidance is provided, it will be a matter for Member States to decide how best to manage the process in their own context

  16. Plan for Moata reactor decommissioning, ANSTO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Moata' is an Argonaut type 100 kW reactor that was operated by Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation for 34 years from 1961 to 1995. It was initially used as a reactor-physics research tool and a training reactor but the scope of operations was extended to include activation analysis and neutron radiography from the mid 1970s. In 1995, the Moata reactor was shutdown on the grounds that its continued operation could no longer be economically justified. All the fuel (HEU) was unloaded to temporary storage and secured in 1995, followed by drainage of the demineralised water (primary coolant) from the reactor in 1996 and complete removal of electrical cables in 1998. The Reactor Control Room has been renovated into a modern laboratory. The reactor structure is still intact and kept under safe storage. Various options for decommissioning strategies have been considered and evaluated. So far, 'Immediate Dismantling' is considered to be the most desirable option, however, the timescale for actual dismantling needs to take account of the establishment of the national radioactive repository. This paper describes the dismantling options and techniques considered along with examples of other dismantling projects overseas. (author)

  17. Evaluation of a decommissioned radwaste pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An eight hectare radwaste pond (216-S-17) which received cooling water effluent from a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at Hanford from 1951 to 1954 was contaminated due to unplanned releases. Subsequently, it was decommissioned by covering the area with 45 to 60 cm of backfill. Soil erosion and nuisance contamination, in the form of tumbleweeds (Salsola kali), occurred between 1954 and 1972 due to the lack of a specific revegetation program. Siberian Wheatgrass (Agropyron sibericum) and Cereal Rye (Secale cereale) were planted in 1972 and allowed to grow under conditions. A routine evaluation of the site disclosed the presence of contaminated Siberian Wheatgrass plants. This report describes the results of a radioecological study of the site in 1978. Nondestructive methods developed for in-situ evaluation to determine radionuclide inventories and transport parameters for biotic and abiotic compartments are presented concomitant with standard procedures. Results indicate that Siberian Wheatgrass is a suitable perennial for revegetation of low-level waste disposal sites in an arid environment

  18. Mobile workstation for decontamination and decommissioning operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittaker, W.L.; Osborn, J.F.; Thompson, B.R. [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Robotics Inst.

    1993-10-01

    This project is an interdisciplinary effort to develop effective mobile worksystems for decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of facilities within the DOE Nuclear Weapons Complex. These mobile worksystems will be configured to operate within the environmental and logistical constraints of such facilities and to perform a number of work tasks. Our program is designed to produce a mobile worksystem with capabilities and features that are matched to the particular needs of D&D work by evolving the design through a series of technological developments, performance tests and evaluations. The project has three phases. In this the first phase, an existing teleoperated worksystem, the Remote Work Vehicle (developed for use in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor Building basement), was enhanced for telerobotic performance of several D&D operations. Its ability to perform these operations was then assessed through a series of tests in a mockup facility that contained generic structures and equipment similar to those that D&D work machines will encounter in DOE facilities. Building upon the knowledge gained through those tests and evaluations, a next generation mobile worksystem, the RWV II, and a more advanced controller will be designed, integrated and tested in the second phase, which is scheduled for completion in January 1995. The third phase of the project will involve testing of the RWV II in the real DOE facility.

  19. Remote methods for decontamination and decommissioning operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three methods for the decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities are described along with operational experience associated with each method. Each method described in some way reduces radiation exposure to the operating personnel involved. Electrochemical decontamination of process tanks is described using an in-situ method. Descriptions of two processes, electropolishing and cerium redox decontamination, are listed. A method of essentially smokeless cutting of process piping using a plasma-arc cutting torch is described. In one technique, piping is cut remotely from a distance using a specially modified torch holder. In another technique, cutting is done with master-slave manipulators inside a hot cell. Finally, a method for remote cutting and scarification of contaminated concrete is described. This system, which utilizes high-pressure water jets, is coupled to a cutting head or rotating scarification head. The system is suited for cutting contaminated concrete for removal or removing a thin layer in a controlled manner for decontamination. 4 refs., 6 figs

  20. Large transport packages for decommissioning waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reports progress on a study of large transport packages for decommissioning waste and is the semi-annual report for the period 1 January - 30 June 1988. The main tasks performed during the period related to the assembly of package design criteria ie those aspects of manufacture, handling, storage, transport and disposal which impose constraints on design. This work was synthesised into a design specification for packages which formed the conclusion of that task and was the entry into the final task - the development of package design concepts. The design specifications, which concentrated on the Industrial Package category of the IAEA Transport Regulations, has been interpreted for the two main concepts (a) a self-shielded package disposed of in its entirety and (b) a package with returnable shielding. Preliminary information has been prepared on the cost of providing the package as well as transport to a repository and disposal. There is considerable uncertainty about the cost of disposal and variations of over a factor of 10 are possible. Under these circumstances there is merit in choosing a design concept which is relatively insensitive to disposal cost variations. The initial results indicate that on these grounds the package with returnable shielding is preferred. (author)

  1. Advantages and deficiencies of RA Reactor decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Additional to the analysis of the existing state of all the reactor components and systems and the reactor as a whole, this Annex reviews the attitude of the relevant laboratories if the Institute and their needs as reactor users. It was concluded that apart from the needs in the field of solid state and condensed matter research, not more than 10 scientists, there is no interest for reactor application in the Institute. The actions concerning renewal, reconstruction and construction of equipment that would needed for reactor restart are estimated to be very expensive and in case of success would extend the reactor service life for not more than 10-15 years. The working group which was responsible for this analysis concluded that the restart of the RA reactor would not be feasible mostly due to aging and outdated design of this system. It is mentioned that, parallel to the decision making about RA reactor decommissioning, possible commissioning of a more adequate reactor facility should be analyzed, taking into account the value of the existing highly enriched fuel elements and heavy water

  2. Mobile workstation for decontamination and decommissioning operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project is an interdisciplinary effort to develop effective mobile worksystems for decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) of facilities within the DOE Nuclear Weapons Complex. These mobile worksystems will be configured to operate within the environmental and logistical constraints of such facilities and to perform a number of work tasks. Our program is designed to produce a mobile worksystem with capabilities and features that are matched to the particular needs of D ampersand D work by evolving the design through a series of technological developments, performance tests and evaluations. The project has three phases. In this the first phase, an existing teleoperated worksystem, the Remote Work Vehicle (developed for use in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor Building basement), was enhanced for telerobotic performance of several D ampersand D operations. Its ability to perform these operations was then assessed through a series of tests in a mockup facility that contained generic structures and equipment similar to those that D ampersand D work machines will encounter in DOE facilities. Building upon the knowledge gained through those tests and evaluations, a next generation mobile worksystem, the RWV II, and a more advanced controller will be designed, integrated and tested in the second phase, which is scheduled for completion in January 1995. The third phase of the project will involve testing of the RWV II in the real DOE facility

  3. Environmental geophysics at the Southern Bush River Peninsula, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, B.E.; Miller, S.F.; McGinnis, L.D. [and others

    1995-05-01

    Geophysical studies have been conducted at five sites in the southern Bush River Peninsula in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The goals of the studies were to identify areas containing buried metallic objects and to provide diagnostic signatures of the hydrogeologic framework of the site. These studies indicate that, during the Pleistocene Epoch, alternating stands of high and low sea level resulted in a complex pattern of channel-fill deposits. Paleochannels of various sizes and orientations have been mapped throughout the study area by means of ground-penetrating radar and EM-31 techniques. The EM-31 paleochannel signatures are represented onshore either by conductivity highs or lows, depending on the depths and facies of the fill sequences. A companion study shows the features as conductivity highs where they extend offshore. This erosional and depositional system is environmentally significant because of the role it plays in the shallow groundwater flow regime beneath the site. Magnetic and electromagnetic anomalies outline surficial and buried debris throughout the areas surveyed. On the basis of geophysical measurements, large-scale (i.e., tens of feet) landfilling has not been found in the southern Bush River Peninsula, though smaller-scale dumping of metallic debris and/or munitions cannot be ruled out.

  4. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of Aberdeen Angus steers finished on different pastures

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Thais, Devincenzi; Carlos, Nabinger; Fernando Flores, Cardoso; Élen Silveira, Nalério; Igor Justin, Carassai; Jean Kássio, Fedrigo; Jaime Urdapilleta, Tarouco; Leandro Lunardini, Cardoso.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to assess carcass features, physicochemical and sensory parameters of meat from steers finished on three types of pastures: natural pasture; natural pasture improved, fertilized and oversown with winter species; and annual summer grassland. The experiment was conducte [...] d from December 14, 2009 to November 30, 2010, with treatments distributed in a completely randomized design with a different number of replicates. Animals were used as experimental units. Experimental animals were Aberdeen Angus steers with twenty months of initial age and 354±27.4 kg of live weight, on average. The highest average daily gains were obtained for the annual summer grassland. There was no effect of treatments on carcass conformation. The highest carcass yield was obtained on the improved natural pasture. Forequarter yield, side cut yield and longissimus muscle area were similar between the pastures. Moisture and total lipids were not affected by the pasture. Thawing and cooking losses were higher in improved natural pasture and lower in sorghum pasture. Regardless of the treatment, the meat had luminosity ranging from intermediate to dark, high in red, high in yellow, and considered within the normal range for beef. Meat of higher shear force was found in natural pasture, and lower shear force was observed in meat from annual summer grassland. Average live weight daily gain explained 18% of the shear force. Sensory evaluation by duo-trio test showed differences between samples from distinct pastures in flavor. All the studied systems allow for desirable characteristics in carcass and meat.

  5. Environmental geophysics at Kings Creek Disposal Site and 30th Street Landfill, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, B.E.; Miller, S.F.; McGinnis, L.D.; Daudt, C.R.; Thompson, M.D.; Stefanov, J.E.; Benson, M.A.; Padar, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    Geophysical studies on the Bush River Peninsula in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, delineate landfill areas and provide diagnostic signatures of the hydrogeologic framework and possible contaminant pathways. These studies indicate that, during the Pleistocene Epoch, alternating stands of high and low seal levels resulted in a complex pattern of shallow channel-fill deposits in the Kings Creek area. Ground-penetrating radar studies reveal a paleochannel greater than 50 ft deep, with a thalweg trending offshore in a southwest direction into Kings Creek. Onshore, the ground-penetrating radar data indicate a 35-ft-deep branch to the main channel, trending to the north-northwest directly beneath the 30th Street Landfill. Other branches are suspected to meet the offshore paleochannel in the wetlands south and east of the 30th Street Landfill. This paleochannel depositional system is environmentally significant because it may control the shallow groundwater flow regime beneath the site. Electromagnetic surveys have delineated the pre-fill lowland area currently occupied by the 30th Street Landfill. Magnetic and conductive anomalies outline surficial and buried debris throughout the study area. On the basis of geophysical data, large-scale dumping has not occurred north of the Kings Creek Disposal Site or east of the 30th Street Landfill.

  6. Remedial investigation report for J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Volume 1: Remedial investigation results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuen, C. R.; Martino, L. E.; Biang, R. P.; Chang, Y. S.; Dolak, D.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R. A.; Patton, T. L.; Prasad, S.; Quinn, J.; Rosenblatt, D. H.; Vercellone, J.; Wang, Y. Y.

    2000-03-14

    This report presents the results of the remedial investigation (RI) conducted at J-Field in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), a U.S. Army installation located in Harford County, Maryland. Since 1917, activities in the Edgewood Area have included the development, manufacture, and testing of chemical agents and munitions and the subsequent destruction of these materials at J-Field by open burning and open detonation. These activities have raised concerns about environmental contamination at J-Field. This RI was conducted by the Environmental Conservation and Restoration Division, Directorate of Safety, Health and Environmental Division of APG, pursuant to requirements outlined under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (CERCLA). The RI was accomplished according to the procedures developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1988). The RI provides a comprehensive evaluation of the site conditions, nature of contaminants present, extent of contamination, potential release mechanisms and migration pathways, affected populations, and risks to human health and the environment. This information will be used as the basis for the design and implementation of remedial actions to be performed during the remedial action phase, which will follow the feasibility study (FS) for J-Field.

  7. Remedial investigation report for J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Volume 1: Remedial investigation results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of the remedial investigation (RI) conducted at J-Field in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), a U.S. Army installation located in Harford County, Maryland. Since 1917, activities in the Edgewood Area have included the development, manufacture, and testing of chemical agents and munitions and the subsequent destruction of these materials at J-Field by open burning and open detonation. These activities have raised concerns about environmental contamination at J-Field. This RI was conducted by the Environmental Conservation and Restoration Division, Directorate of Safety, Health and Environmental Division of APG, pursuant to requirements outlined under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (CERCLA). The RI was accomplished according to the procedures developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1988). The RI provides a comprehensive evaluation of the site conditions, nature of contaminants present, extent of contamination, potential release mechanisms and migration pathways, affected populations, and risks to human health and the environment. This information will be used as the basis for the design and implementation of remedial actions to be performed during the remedial action phase, which will follow the feasibility study (FS) for J-Field

  8. Natural attenuation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds in a freshwater tidal wetland, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Olsen, Lisa D.; Smith, Barrett L.; Johnson, Mark A.; Fleck, William B.

    1997-01-01

    Ground-water contaminant plumes that are flowing toward or currently discharging to wetland areas present unique remediation problems because of the hydrologic connections between ground water and surface water and the sensitive habitats in wetlands. Because wetlands typically have a large diversity of microorganisms and redox conditions that could enhance biodegradation, they are ideal environments for natural attenuation of organic contaminants, which is a treatment method that would leave the ecosystem largely undisturbed and be cost effective. During 1992-97, the U.S. Geological Survey investigated the natural attenuation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOC's) in a contaminant plume that discharges from a sand aquifer to a freshwater tidal wetland along the West Branch Canal Creek at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Characterization of the hydrogeology and geochemistry along flowpaths in the wetland area and determination of the occurrence and rates of biodegradation and sorption show that natural attenuation could be a feasible remediation method for the contaminant plume that extends along the West Branch Canal Creek.

  9. Hydrogeologic and chemical data for the O-Field area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O-Field, located at the Edgewood area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, was periodically used for disposal of munitions, waste chemicals, and chemical-warfare agents from World War II through the 1950's. This report includes various physical, geologic, chemical, and hydrologic data obtained from well-core, groundwater, surface water, and bottom-sediment sampling sites at and near the O-Field disposal area. The data are presented in tables and hydrographs. Three site-location maps are also included. Well-core data include lithologic logs for 11 well-cluster sites, grain-size distributions, various chemical characteristics, and confining unit characteristics. Groundwater data include groundwater chemistry, method blanks for volatile organic carbon, available data on volatile and base/neutral organics, and compilation of corresponding method blanks, chemical-warfare agents, explosive-related products, radionuclides, herbicides, and groundwater levels. Surface-water data include field-measured characteristics; concentrations of various inorganic constituents including arsenic; selected organic constituents with method blanks; detection limits of organics; and a compilation of information on corresponding acids, volatiles, and semivolatiles; and method blanks corresponding to acids, volatiles, and semivolatiles. A set of 15 water-level hydrographs for the period March 1986 through September 1987 also is included in the report. 3 refs., 18 figs., 24 tabs

  10. Ecological risk assessment of depleted uranium in the environment at Aberdeen Proving Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary ecological risk assessment was conducted to evaluate the effects of depleted uranium (DU) in the Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) ecosystem and its potential for human health effects. An ecological risk assessment of DU should include the processes of hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment, and risk characterization. Ecological risk assessments also should explicitly examine risks incurred by nonhuman as well as human populations, because risk assessments based only on human health do not always protect other species. To begin to assess the potential ecological risk of DU release to the environment we modeled DU transport through the principal components of the aquatic ecosystem at APG. We focused on the APG aquatic system because of the close proximity of the Chesapeake Bay and concerns about potential impacts on this ecosystem. Our objective in using a model to estimate environmental fate of DU is to ultimately reduce the uncertainty about predicted ecological risks due to DU from APG. The model functions to summarize information on the structure and functional properties of the APG aquatic system, to provide an exposure assessment by estimating the fate of DU in the environment, and to evaluate the sources of uncertainty about DU transport

  11. Decommissioning policies, strategies and costs: An international overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty six countries, including seventeen OECD countries, participated in the study on decommissioning policies, strategies and costs carried out by the NEA in 2001-2002. Participating countries provided data and information, responding to a questionnaire prepared by a group of experts from utilities, governmental agencies and regulatory bodies. Some fifty data sets including decommissioning cost estimates for various types of commercial reactors were provided, compiled and analysed by the expert group. The outcomes from the study are presented in an OECD report (NEA, 2003) that was published in 2003. The objectives of the study were: to compile data on decommissioning policies, strategies and costs; to analyse the data in order to understand how national policies and industrial strategies affect decommissioning costs; and eventually to identify decommissioning cost drivers. The scope of the study was limited to commercial nuclear power plants, excluding prototypes, demonstration plants and plants where significant incidents or accidents would have occurred. This approach was adopted to compile, analyse and present in the report data representative of decommissioning activities undertaken by the nuclear power industry. The questionnaire was sent by the NEA Secretariat to OECD member country representatives involved in the field of decommissioning projects. It was sent also to some non-member countries through the IAEA Secretariat. Designed and prepared by the expert group, the questionnaire includes several sections - each devoted to a series of detailed questions on each topic of the study, i.e., policy, strategy and costs. The objective of the questionnaire was to collect a comprehensive description of the overall context, scope and content of the decommissioning activities covered in the cost estimates given by respondents. A summary of decommissioning cost estimates (in USD) for the reactor types is given: PWR, 320; VVER, 330; CANDU, 360; BWR, 420; GCR, >2500. According to the findings of the study, which confirm the conclusions from other previous analyses the quantities and specific characteristics of radioactive waste arising from decommissioning are a major cost driver. A detailed in depth study in this field would be needed to identify and analyse separately the impacts of regulations (clearance levels), technical progress (plant design and operation, waste treatment) and socio-political context (cost and implementation of waste disposal facilities). The information provided for the study shows that in all countries, decommissioning costs are robustly estimated and thoroughly analysed by the operators, the regulators and the governments. Cost estimates based upon engineering models and feedback from experience are carried out, regularly updated and often audited by independent bodies. These estimates are used in particular to assess the amount of decommissioning funds necessary. Various measures and schemes are in place in each country to ensure that the decommissioning funds are accumulated timely to be available when expenses will occur

  12. Decommissioning Trawsfynydd - How public consultation shaped the strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This case study discusses the ned of consulting the public when decommissioning a nuclear power plants. When Trawsfynydd power station in North Wales shutdown in July 1993, Nuclear Electric's strategy for decommissioning its stations was not clearly defined. The company had altered its corporate policy on decommissioning fro he strategy referred to as the 'Reference Case' which had been approved by the Government, to the preferred 'Deferred Safestore' strategy, which was waiting Government approval. Deferred Safestore is preferred as it simplifies the engineering work involved by capitalising an the basic strength and integrity of the reactor building. It minimises thd radiation exposure to workers and radioactivity released to the environment, reduces the amount of radioactive waste produced and significantly cuts the total decommissioning cost. The closure and the decommissioning of Trawsfynydd power station was a sensitive issue as: The station lies within a National Park of outstanding beauty. The economic circumstances in the area are such that employment opportunities are very limited. At a crucial time when the company was approaching a Government review which would decide its future, Nuclear Electric could not afford to lose any credibility. A public consultation programme was launched in the vicinity of the power station To gauge the reactions of the public and elected local government bodies to a series of decommissioning options. Nuclear Electric presented three main options with details on the employment opportunities, the costs, and the lorry loads of material involved with each. The people were identified on whom decommissioning Trawsfynydd power station is likely to have an environmental or socioeconomic impact. As a result of the polls the Nuclear Electric received feedback in two ways. Formal feedback from the local councils Independent analysis of the completed questionnaires. The company was wholly committed to a meaningful consultation. Before consultation, the Nuclear Electric set out with a preferred corporate strategy but presented three feasible decommissioning options for Trawsfynydd After consultation, there was clear evidence that the local community, a recognised the significance of radiation dose to workers, storage of waste and the economics, and supported he Nuclear Electric approach, but with two caveats that resulted in a modified strategy: i. early instead of deferred safestore; ii. reduced instead of full height structures. By practicing its policy of openness, Nuclear Electric gained the acceptance of te public and is now able to proceed with decommissioning Trawsfynydd unhindered, safe in the knowledge that the chosen strategy represents the wishes of the local community

  13. Knowledge management for the decommissioning of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current energy policy of the German government requires the gradual decommissioning of nuclear power plants in Germany. E.ON, a major energy corporation operating eight nuclear power plants in Germany, is in the process of decommissioning and dismantling its first two nuclear power plants in Wuergassen and Stade, Germany. Both ventures are pilots for the future decommissioning of further plants with corresponding reactor types. To harness the technological challenges, organizational complexity and cultural sensitivities of decommissioning projects, the nuclear power division of E.ON has developed and implemented a knowledge management (KM) concept to effectively capture and transfer critical knowledge, best practice and lessons learned within and between decommissioning projects. More specifically, the concept is targeting three objectives: To secure technical quality and safety standards during decommissioning projects; To minimize risks related to the duration and budget of decommissioning projects; To allow expeditious training and optimal use of project staff. On the basis of a quantitative KM business case, the development of the KM concept was initiated in October 2002. The operative concept was launched in March 2004. Key elements of the concept are: Communities of experience for eleven most critical knowledge fields; Up-to-date summaries of experiences and standards in each knowledge field; Briefing and debriefing processes integrated in the decommissioning process; Designated knowledge managers supporting KM on-site at working level; An intranet-based KM portal supporting document search and access, a discussion forum, news pages and other media - A KM scorecard supporting quarterly reports of KM costs, performance and results to plant and division management; Policies and activities rooting KM in the corporate culture. (An example is presented). Insights gathered during KM concept development and during the first months of KM operation in Wuergassen and Stade stress the importance of organizational and cultural dimensions of KM beyond the necessary technological infrastructure: - Visible resource and capacity commitment to KM by plant and division management; - KM understood as an integral part of the decommissioning project leadership; - Frequent reports of KM efforts and results to management to boost KM resilience. Further detailed insights and results from ongoing KM activities in Wuergassen and Stade are anticipated

  14. 78 FR 38739 - Standard Format and Content for Post-Shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ...REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2012-0299] Standard Format and Content for Post-Shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report AGENCY...of Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.185, ``Standard Format and Content for Post-shutdown Decommissioning Activities...

  15. Overview of decommissioning activities supported by the IAEA: update April 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work author gives the overview of decommissioning activities supported by the IAEA. Some examples of decommissioning of discarded nuclear facilities as well as overview of projects coordinated by the IAEA are given.

  16. 76 FR 8785 - ABB Inc.; License Amendment Request for Decommissioning of the ABB Inc., Combustion Engineering...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ...Docket No. 030-03754; NRC-2011-0033] ABB Inc.; License Amendment Request for Decommissioning of the ABB Inc., Combustion Engineering, Windsor...amendment application for decommissioning from ABB, Inc., requesting approval of a...

  17. Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning a reference nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. [Appendices only

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, K.J.; Jenkins, C.E.; Rhoads, R.E.

    1977-09-01

    Volume 2 comprises six appendices on: facility description; residual radioactivity inventory estimates; description and contamination levels of reference site; derivation of residual contamination levels; decommissioning mode detail; and decommissioning safety assessment details.

  18. Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning a reference nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume 2 comprises six appendices on: facility description; residual radioactivity inventory estimates; description and contamination levels of reference site; derivation of residual contamination levels; decommissioning mode detail; and decommissioning safety assessment details

  19. 78 FR 49553 - Three Mile Island, Unit 2; Post Shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ...COMMISSION [Docket No. 50-320; NRC-2013-0183] Three Mile Island, Unit 2; Post Shutdown Decommissioning Activities...Shutdown Decommissioning Activity Report (PSDAR) for Three Mile Island, Unit 2 (TMI-2). The PSDAR provides an...

  20. On-site disposal as a decommissioning strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On-site disposal is not a novel decommissioning strategy in the history of the nuclear industry. Several projects based on this strategy have been implemented. Moreover, a number of studies and proposals have explored variations within the strategy, ranging from in situ disposal of entire facilities or portions thereof to disposal within the site boundary of major components such as the reactor pressure vessel or steam generators. Regardless of these initiatives, and despite a significant potential for dose, radioactive waste and cost reduction, on-site disposal has often been disregarded as a viable decommissioning strategy, generally as the result of environmental and other public concerns. Little attention has been given to on-site disposal in previous IAEA publications in the field of decommissioning. The objective of this report is to establish an awareness of technical factors that may or may not favour the adoption of on-site disposal as a decommissioning strategy. In addition, this report presents an overview of relevant national experiences, studies and proposals. The expected end result is to show that, subject to safety and environmental protection assessment, on-site disposal can be a viable decommissioning option and should be taken into consideration in decision making

  1. Volume Reduction of Decommissioning Radioactive Burnable and Metal Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, B. Y.; Lee, Y. J.; Yun, G. S.; Lee, K. W.; Moon, J. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Y. K.; Cho, J. H. [SunKwang Atomic Energy Safety Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    A large quantity of radioactive waste was generated during the decommissioning projects. For the purpose of the volume reduction and clearance for decommissioning wastes from decommissioning projects, the incineration and high melting technology has been selected for the decommissioning wastes treatment. The volume reduction of the combustible wastes through the incineration technologies has merits from the view point of a decrease in the amount of waste to be disposed of resulting in a reduction of the disposal cost. Incineration is generally accepted as a method of reducing the volume of radioactive waste. The incineration technology is an effective treatment method that contains hazardous chemicals as well as radioactive contamination. Incinerator burns waste at high temperature. Incineration of a mixture of chemically hazardous and radioactive materials, known as 'mixed waste,' has two principal goals: to reduce the volume and total chemical toxicity of the waste. Incineration itself does not destroy the metals or reduce the radioactivity of the waste. A proven melting technology is currently used for low-level waste (LLW) at several facilities worldwide. These facilities use melting as a means of processing LLW for unrestricted release of the metal or for recycling within the nuclear sector. About 16.4 tons of decommissioning combustible waste has been treated using Oxygen Enriched incineration. The incineration facility operated quite smoothly through the analysis major critical parameters of off-gas.

  2. Decommissioning Combustible Waste Treatment using Oxygen-Enriched Incinerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Byungyoun; Lee, Yoonji; Yun, Gyoungsu; Lee, Kiwon; Moon, Jeikwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The aim of the paper is current status of treatment for the decommissioning combustible waste in KAERI and for the purpose of the volume reduction and clearance for decommissioning combustible wastes generated by the decommissioning projects. The incineration technology has been selected for the treatment of combustible wastes. About 34 tons of decommissioning combustible waste has been treated using Oxygen Enriched incineration. Temperature, pressure of major components, stack gas concentration, i. e., SOx, NOx, CO, CO{sub 2} and HCl, and the residual oxygen were measured. Measured major parameters during normal operation were sustained on a stable status within a criteria operation condition. Oxygen enriched air, 22vol. % (dry basis) was used for stable incineration. The volume reduction ratio has achieved about 1/117. The incineration with decommissioning radioactive combustible waste is possible with moderate oxygen enrichment of 22 vol.% (dry basis) into the supply air. The incineration facility operated quite smoothly through the analysis major critical parameters of off-gas. The pressure, off-gas flow and temperature of major components remained constant within the range specified. The measures gases and particulate materials in stack were considerably below the regulatory limits. The achieved volume reduction ratio through incineration is about 1/117.

  3. Decommissioning Combustible Waste Treatment using Oxygen-Enriched Incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the paper is current status of treatment for the decommissioning combustible waste in KAERI and for the purpose of the volume reduction and clearance for decommissioning combustible wastes generated by the decommissioning projects. The incineration technology has been selected for the treatment of combustible wastes. About 34 tons of decommissioning combustible waste has been treated using Oxygen Enriched incineration. Temperature, pressure of major components, stack gas concentration, i. e., SOx, NOx, CO, CO2 and HCl, and the residual oxygen were measured. Measured major parameters during normal operation were sustained on a stable status within a criteria operation condition. Oxygen enriched air, 22vol. % (dry basis) was used for stable incineration. The volume reduction ratio has achieved about 1/117. The incineration with decommissioning radioactive combustible waste is possible with moderate oxygen enrichment of 22 vol.% (dry basis) into the supply air. The incineration facility operated quite smoothly through the analysis major critical parameters of off-gas. The pressure, off-gas flow and temperature of major components remained constant within the range specified. The measures gases and particulate materials in stack were considerably below the regulatory limits. The achieved volume reduction ratio through incineration is about 1/117

  4. Decommissioning nuclear power plants: a case for external funding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In deciding how to finance the decommissioning of nuclear power plants, there are five basic criteria for choosing between internal and external funding methods: (1) the desire for financial assurance, (2) the cost of the assurance, (3) the degree of equity in the recovery program, (4) the program's ability to respond to changes, and (5) the program's adaptability to different utilities. To fulfill its obligations to protect long-term public interests, the Missouri Public Service Commission decided it had to assure, to the maximum extent possible, that sufficient decommissioning funds were available when needed. For this reason, it chose the external funding method. In an external fund, the money currently collected from ratepayers to cover decommissioning costs is placed in an independent trust fund comprised of low-risk investments. The funds and the interest they accrue are available to the utility only at the time of decommissioning (and only for that purpose), thus assuring a certain amount of money will be on-hand to cover decommissioning costs as they arise. Such a fund may prove critical to the financial well-being of the utility, particularly if one considers that the utility would need additional generating facilities to replace the capacity lost through the retirement of its nuclear plant. 3 references

  5. Guidelines for producing commercial nuclear power plant decommissioning cost estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decommissioning cost estimates have been made for specific commercial nuclear power plants and for reference plants, utilities, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the US Dept. of Energy, consultants, and others. The different technical, site-specific, and economic assumptions used have made it difficult to interpret these cost estimates during the process of developing rates and rate structures for the recovery of decommissioning expenses. The estimates made to date have not anticipated that form the bases for the variations in cost estimates. The perceived incompatibility among the economic and technical assumptions in these estimates has added to the difficulties regulators have in deciding rates and rate structures for the recovery of decommissioning costs by nuclear utilities. To assist the industry, the National Environmental Studies Project (NESP) of the Atomic Industrial Forum sponsored a study to produce guidelines for developing decommissioning cost estimates. This guideline document was developed by TLG Engineering for NESP under the direction of a task force made up of some of the top experts in the decommissioning field from nuclear utilities, manufacturers, architect/engineering firms, accounting firms, the NRC, the US Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, state regulatory bodies, the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners, and the electric industry research community

  6. General Approach and Element for Estimating Decommissioning Cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper will briefly introduce the general approach and element for developing the decommissioning cost. The ultimate objective of the estimate is to assure adequate funding for decommissioning. The decommissioning cost estimating is highly dependent on the strategies and cost methodologies. The method most widely adopted internationally in estimating is the bottom-up technique, based on a building block approach known as the WBS. Therefore, cost estimator should consider various approaches and elements of cost estimation to achieve the ascension of accuracy. Cost estimation for the decommissioning of nuclear facilities has tended to vary considerably in format and content reflecting a variety of approaches both within and between countries. These differences do not facilitate the process of reviewing estimates and make comparisons between different estimates more complicated. The joint study of OECD/NEA, IAEA and EU was undertaken to propose a standard itemization of decommissioning costs either directly for the production of cost estimates or for mapping estimates onto a standard, common structure for purposes of comparison

  7. Status of the RA research reactor decommissioning project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 6.5 MW heavy water RA research reactor at the VINCA Institute of Nuclear Sciences operated from 1959 to 1984. After 18 years of extended shutdown in 2002 it was decided that the reactor shutdown should be final. Preliminary decommissioning activities have been initiated by the end of 2002 under the Technical Co-operation Programme of the International Atomic Energy Agency. The objective of the project is to implement safe, timely and cost-effective decommissioning of the RA reactor up to unrestricted use of the site. Decommissioning project is closely related to two other projects: Safe Removal of the RA Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel and Radioactive Waste Management in VINCA Institute. The main phases of the project include preparation of the detailed decommissioning plan, radiological characterization of the reactor site, dismantling and removal of the reactor components and structures, decontamination, final radiological site survey and the documentation of all the activities in order to obtain the approval for unrestricted use of the facility site. In this paper a review of the activities related to the preparation and realization of the RA reactor decommissioning project is given. Status of the project's organizational and technical aspects as for July 2004 are presented and plans for the forthcoming phases of the project realization are outlined. (author)

  8. The Chernobyl NPP decommissioning: Current status and alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Chernobyl accident of April 26, 1986, many contradictory decisions were taken concerning the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) future. The principal source of contradictions was a deadline for a final shutdown of the Chernobyl NPP units. Alterations in a political and socioeconomic environment resulted in the latest decision of the Ukrainian Authorities about 2000 as a deadline for a beginning of the Chernobyl NPP decommissioning. The date seems a sound compromise among the parties concerned. However, in order to meet the data a lot of work should be done. First of all, a decommissioning strategy has to be established. The problem is complicated due to both site-specific aspects and an absence of proven solutions for the RBMK-type reactor decommissioning. In the paper the problem of decommissioning option selection is considered taking into account an influence of the following factors: relevant legislative and regulatory requirements; resources required to carry out decommissioning (man-power, equipment, technologies, waste management infrastructure, etc.); radiological and physical status of the plant, including structural integrity and predictable age and weather effects; impact of planned activities at the destroyed unit 4 and within the 30-km exclusion zone of the Chernobyl NPP; planed use of the site; socio-economic considerations

  9. Regulatory Impact on the Decommissioning of Big Rock Point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Big Rock Point is unique because of the size [75 MW(electric)] and age (35-yr operation) of the plant. Also, the shutdown of Big Rock Point was announced and planned for many months before final shutdown. This allowed for a more preplanned approach to issues than at other plants, which had to shut down and enter decommissioning under unplanned situations. However, the fundamental concerns for controlling safety and cost of decommissioning are the same for all plants. The state of decommissioning (permanent plant shutdown) results in a significant reduction in possible accident scenarios and significantly reduced off-site consequences. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is developing a risk model for plants in decommissioning to allow for risk-based regulation. The regulatory impact on decommissioning can be substantial in terms of money and time, with no safety benefit. Therefore, it is imperative that the industry work with the NRC to establish appropriate regulatory guidance recognizing that risk is significantly reduced from the operational phase. Risk-based guidance should be time-dependent, providing automatic regulatory relief when conditions warrant

  10. Decommissioning of 'hot cells'. A view from radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of VKTA's tasks is decommissioning of numerous old nuclear plants at Research Site Rossendorf. Huge contaminations were caused by production of radiopharmaceuticals and radiation sources based on irradiated fluid and solid targets. To decommission the plants, antagonists such as avoidance of incorporations, minimization of outer exposition, as well as adherence to schedules and costs were taken into consideration. These factors were necessary to develop a good radiation protection strategy. The decommissioning project started with using remotecontrolled measuring systems and remote operated tools. Dose rate and contamination levels decreased, which allowed more and more workers to be assigned to do the rest of decommissioning. Radiation protection service changed because of the methods as well. External air supply and graduated sluices to reduce incorporation risk were used in the middle of the project. Lower safety methods could be used at the end of the project. Over all it took nearly 6 years to decommission all plants. Today we are realising fine decontamination and preparing release and clearance of buildings structures and surrounding soil. (orig.)

  11. Historical waste - biological shield and documentation during decommissioning - 59056

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Inventory records of isotopes in radioactive waste are important as documentation with respect to governmental control, final disposal and public transparency. We present a simple, practical and cost-effective method for characterization of a part of the radioactive waste from decommissioning of a research reactor: The biological shielding. The method uses documentation from the decommissioning and from the construction drawings and blueprints of the reactor as well as measurements based on samples from the facility. The data presented is from a 5 MW experimental light water nuclear reactor (DR-2) shutdown in 1975 and decommissioned in 2008. The method incorporates an activity distribution in the biological shield. The distribution is based on measurements of samples from across the shielding and coupled with the distance to the center of the reactor core. The exact origin of each waste item is determined from pictures from the decommissioning and from old blueprints and construction drawings of the reactor. The uncertainty and usefulness of the method is related directly to different factors such as: The amount of samples obtained and the position of these with respect to the origin of the waste, the accuracy of the documentation of the decommissioning, the size of the waste items

  12. Decommissioning of nuclear power plants in Russia, a new concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power in the Russian Federation is built using the principle whereby a single NPP site includes several power generation units, which share a common infrastructure. Over 30-40 years of operation, this infrastructure became integrated into the regional economy and started to produce a significant influence upon it. Construction and commissioning were performed unit-by-unit, with time intervals from a year to several years. In connection with that, the design service lives of the individual NPP units expire at different times, and accordingly, go into decommissioning at different times. Therefore, the same nuclear plant site may accommodate power units at different stages of their life cycle - operation and decommissioning - so the object of life cycle management has to be the whole multi-unit site, with the individual units considered to be elements of control. In that case, decommissioning of a single unit acquires a specific goal and end-state characteristics. These will be associated with maintaining set properties of the entire NPP site, whose purpose is generation of a certain amount of electrical energy. In other words, decommissioning of a single power unit will be-come part of life cycle management of the entire multi-unit nuclear station. Infrastructure features as well as recommendations for decommissioning sequence on multi-unit nuclear stations are discussed.

  13. Security Concepts for Nuclear Power Plants during Decommissioning and Dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decommissioning of a nuclear power plant (NPP) needs a license as well as the operation. One of the required documents for a decommissioning license is a security concept. Throughout the decommissioning process, including the preparatory phase, the risk potential with regard to the impacts of malicious acts will decrease. By developing an optimized security concept there is a possibility to reduce the existing security measures step by step, based on the operational state of the plant. In most countries there are no detailed security requirements during the decommissioning process in the existing regulations. Therefore a security concept for the decommissioning has to be designed based on the (more detailed) requirements for operating plants but it can be adapted to the decreasing risk potential. The focus of this paper is to show how innovative security concepts can be designed to adapt the security measures of a NPP to the reduced risks of the no longer operating plant and still fulfil the regulatory requirements. Those concepts will be based on the analysis of safety objectives of the non operating NPP. (author)

  14. Effects of different release regulations on the decommissioning of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Release limits for a project to be decommissioned are fixed by the respective licensing authority and form part of the decommissioning or dismantling license. For this reason, it is quite possible that release limits differ from license to license. A table represents several decommissioning licenses. NIS has performed studies to this effect to find out the influence of different release limits on costs and collective dose during decommissioning and dismantling. (orig./DG)

  15. US DOE Idaho national laboratory reactor decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) primary contractor, CH2M-WG Idaho was awarded the cleanup and deactivation and decommissioning contract in May 2005 for the Idaho National Lab (INL). The scope of this work included dispositioning over 200 Facilities and 3 Reactors Complexes (Engineering Test Reactor (ETR), Materials Test Reactor (MTR) and Power Burst Facility (PBF) Reactor). Two additional reactors were added to the scope of the contract during the period of performance. The Zero Power Physics Reactor (ZPPR) disposition was added under a separate subcontractor with the INL lab contractor and the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) disposition was added through American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) Funding. All of the reactors have been removed and disposed of with the exception of EBR-II which is scheduled for disposition approximately March of 2012. A brief synopsis of the 5 reactors is provided. For the purpose of this paper the ZPPR reactor due to its unique design as compared to the other four reactors, and the fact that is was relatively lightly contaminated and irradiated will not be discussed with the other four reactors. The ZPPR reactor was readily accessible and was a relatively non-complex removal as compared to the other reactors. Additionally the EBR-II reactor is currently undergoing D and D and will have limited mention in this paper. Prior to decommissioning the reactors, a risk based closure model was applied. This model exercised through the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), Non-Time Critical Removal Action (NTCRA) Process which evaluated several options. The options included; No further action - maintain as is, long term stewardship and monitoring (mothball), entombment in place and reactor removal. Prior to commencing full scale D and D, hazardous constituents were removed including cadmium, beryllium, sodium (passivated and elemental), PCB oils and electrical components, lead, asbestos and mercury among others. Each reactor required isolation in order to be removed. Due to activated metal within the reactor vessels, dose rates above the cores ranged from 50 R/hr to 1200 R/hr. Subsequent dose rates outside the vessels varied from 60 mR/hr to greater than 50 R/hr. Due to the elevated dose rates, the project team decided to fill the ETR and MTR reactor vessels with grout to a level above the core region to reduce dose. To remove the ETR reactor, access to the support shoes was required. These shoes were encased in the high density concrete biological shield approximately 8' below grade. The project team used explosives to remove the biological shield. The demolition had to be controlled to prevent damaging the reactor vessel and to limit the seismic impact on a nearby operating reactor. Upon completion of the blast, the concrete was removed exposing the support shoes for the vessel. Two reactor buildings (ETR and PBF) had to be removed to accommodate lifting systems for the reactor vessels. Two reactors (PBF and MTR) were removed via mobile cranes, two reactors were sized and removed in pieces (ZPPR and MTR), and ETR reactor, due to its weight, was removed via a twin gantry lifting system

  16. 77 FR 75198 - Standard Format and Content for Post-Shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ...NRC-2012-0299] Standard Format and Content for Post-Shutdown Decommissioning Activities...DG-1272, ``Standard Format and Content for Post-shutdown Decommissioning Activities...RG) 1.185, ``Standard Format and Content for Post-shutdown Decommissioning...

  17. 77 FR 75198 - Standard Format and Content for Post-Shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... Standard Format and Content for Post-Shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... Content for Post-shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report.'' This guide describes a method that the NRC...) 1.185, ``Standard Format and Content for Post-shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report,''...

  18. Hungarian Experience in Decommissioning Planning for the Paks Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preparations for the decommissioning planning, and the legal background are described in the first part, followed by a review of possible decommissioning strategies and the present reference scenario. Specific issues of financing the future decommissioning and the anticipated radioactive wastes and their activities are described in the latter part of the report. (author)

  19. General review of the decommissioning of liquid metal fast reactors (LMRs) in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper gives a general review of the decommissioning of Liquid Metal Fast Reactors (LMFRs) held since the last decades in France. It summarizes the main steps to process the decommissioning of RAPSODIE and SUPERPHENIX. This experimental feedback can highlight several recommendations and a general approach for the decommissioning of future LMFRs still in operation. (author)

  20. General review of the decommissioning of Liquid Metal Fast Reactors (LMFRs) in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper gives a general review of the decommissioning of Liquid Metal Fast Reactors (LMFRs) held since the last decades in France. It summarizes the main steps to process the decommissioning of RAPSODIE and SUPERPHENIX. This experimental feedback can highlight several recommendations and a general approach for the decommissioning of future LMFRs still in operation. (author)