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1

Geophysics: Building E5375 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Building E5375 was one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek area of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar (GPR), were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. Several anomalies wear, noted: (1) An underground storage tank located 25 ft east of Building E5375 was identified with magnetic, resistivity, and GPR profiling. (2) A three-point resistivity anomaly, 12 ft east of the northeast comer of Building E5374 (which borders Building E5375) and 5 ft south of the area surveyed with the magnetometer, may be caused by another underground storage tank. (3) A 2,500-gamma magnetic anomaly near the northeast corner of the site has no equivalent resistivity anomaly, although disruption in GPR reflectors was observed. (4) A one-point magnetic anomaly was located at the northeast comer, but its source cannot be resolved. A chaotic reflective zone to the east represents the radar signature of Building E5375 construction fill.

McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.

1992-08-01

2

Geophysics: Building E5440 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Building E5440 was one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek and Westwood areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar (GPR), were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. The results show several complex geophysical signatures. Isolated, one-point, magnetic anomalies surrounding the building may be associated with construction fill. A 10-ft-wide band of strongly magnetic positive anomalies bordering the north side of the building obliterates small magnetic sources that might otherwise be seen. A prominent magnetic nose'' extending northward from this band toward a standpipe at 100N,63E may be connected to an underground tank. The southeast corner of the site is underlain by a rectangular, magnetized source associated with strong radar images. A magnetic lineament extending south from the anomaly may be caused by a buried pipe; the anomaly itself may be caused by subsurface equipment associated with a manhole or utility access pit. A 2,500-gamma, positive magnetic anomaly centered at 0N,20E, which is also the location of a 12 [Omega]-m resistivity minimum, may be caused by a buried vault. It appears on radar imaging as a strong reflector.

McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.

1992-11-01

3

Geophysics: Building E5282 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report discusses Building E5282 which was one of 10 potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek area of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar (GPR), were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. Magnetic surveys identified small, complicated, multiple anomalies west, north, and northeast of the building that may be caused by construction fill. Two underground storage tanks, at the northeast and southeast corners, were identified. A large magnetic anomaly complex east of the building was caused by aboveground pipes and unexploded ordnance fragments scattered at the surface. Electrical resistivity profiling showed a broad, conductive terrain superimposed over magnetic anomalies on the north and west. A broad, high-resistivity, nonmagnetic area centered 25 ft east of the building has an unknown origin, but it may be due to nonconductive organic liquids, construction fill, or a buried concrete slab; GPR imaging showed this area as a highly reflective zone at a depth of about 5 ft. The GPR data also showed a small-diameter pipe oriented north-south located east of the building.

Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.

1992-08-01

4

Geophysics: Building E5190 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Building E5190 is one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek area of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May 1992. A noninvasive geophysical survey, including the complementary technologies of magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar, was conducted around the perimeter as a guide to developing a sampling and monitoring program prior to decommissioning and dismantling the building. The magnetics surveys indicated that multistation, positive magnetic sources are randomly distributed north and west of the building. Two linear trends were noted: one that may outline buried utility lines and another that is produced by a steel-covered trench. The resistivity profiling indicated three conductive zones: one due to increased moisture in a ditch, one associated with buried utility lines, and a third zone associated with the steel-covered trench. Ground-penetrating radar imaging detected two significant anomalies, which were correlated with small-amplitude magnetic anomalies. The objectives of the study -- to detect and locate objects and to characterize a located object were achieved.

Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.

1992-07-01

5

Geophysics: Building E5481 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Building E5481 is one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek and Westwood areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar, were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. The building is located on the northern margin of a landfill that was sited in a wetland. The large number of magnetic sources surrounding the building are believed to be contained in construction fill that had been used to raise the grade. The smaller anomalies, for the most part, are not imaged with ground radar or by electrical profiling. A conductive zone trending northwest to southeast across the site is spatially related to an old roadbed. Higher resistivity areas in the northeast and east are probably representive of background values. Three high-amplitude, positive, rectangular magnetic anomalies have unknown sources. The features do not have equivalent electrical signatures, nor are they seen with radar imaging.

Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.

1992-11-01

6

Evaluation of decommissioning alternatives for the Pilot Plant Complex, Aberdeen Proving Ground  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents an evaluation of four decommissioning alternatives for the Pilot Plant Complex (PPC), an inactive chemical weapons research, development, and production facility consisting of nine buildings located in the Edgewood Area of the Aberdeen Proving Ground in Maryland. Decommissioning the PPC involves six steps: (1) assessing existing conditions; (2) dismantling the aboveground portions of the buildings (including the floor slabs, paved roads, and sidewalks within the PPC); (3) reducing the size of the demolition debris and sealing the debris in containers for later testing and evaluation; (4) testing and evaluating the debris; (5) conducting site operation and maintenance activities; and (6) recycling or disposing of the debris with or without prior treatment, as appropriate.

Rueda, J.; Zimmerman, R.E.

1995-09-01

7

Geophysics: Building E5375 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground. Interim progress report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Building E5375 was one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek area of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar (GPR), were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. Several anomalies wear, noted: (1) An underground storage tank located 25 ft east of Building E5375 was identified with magnetic, resistivity, and GPR profiling. (2) A three-point resistivity anomaly, 12 ft east of the northeast comer of Building E5374 (which borders Building E5375) and 5 ft south of the area surveyed with the magnetometer, may be caused by another underground storage tank. (3) A 2,500-gamma magnetic anomaly near the northeast corner of the site has no equivalent resistivity anomaly, although disruption in GPR reflectors was observed. (4) A one-point magnetic anomaly was located at the northeast comer, but its source cannot be resolved. A chaotic reflective zone to the east represents the radar signature of Building E5375 construction fill.

McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.

1992-08-01

8

Interim progress report -- geophysics: Decommissioning of Buildings E5974 and E5978, Aberdeen Proving Ground  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Buildings E5974 and E5978, located near the mouth of Canal Creek, were among 10 potentially contaminated sites in the Westwood and Canal Creek areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including the complementary technologies of magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar, were conducted around the perimeters of the buildings to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. The magnetic anomalies and the electrically conductive areas around these buildings have a spatial relationship similar to that observed in low-lying sites in the Canal Creek area; they are probably associated with construction fill. Electrically conductive terrain is dominant on the eastern side of the site, and resistive terrain predominates on the west. The smaller magnetic anomalies are not imaged with ground radar or by electrical profiling. The high resistivities in the northwest quadrant are believed to be caused by a natural sand lens. The causes of three magnetic anomalies in the high-resistivity area are unidentified, but they are probably anthropogenic.

McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.

1992-11-01

9

Geophysics: Building E5481 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground. Interim progress report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Building E5481 is one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek and Westwood areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar, were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. The building is located on the northern margin of a landfill that was sited in a wetland. The large number of magnetic sources surrounding the building are believed to be contained in construction fill that had been used to raise the grade. The smaller anomalies, for the most part, are not imaged with ground radar or by electrical profiling. A conductive zone trending northwest to southeast across the site is spatially related to an old roadbed. Higher resistivity areas in the northeast and east are probably representive of background values. Three high-amplitude, positive, rectangular magnetic anomalies have unknown sources. The features do not have equivalent electrical signatures, nor are they seen with radar imaging.

Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.

1992-11-01

10

Geophysics: Building E5440 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground. Interim progress report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Building E5440 was one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek and Westwood areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar (GPR), were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. The results show several complex geophysical signatures. Isolated, one-point, magnetic anomalies surrounding the building may be associated with construction fill. A 10-ft-wide band of strongly magnetic positive anomalies bordering the north side of the building obliterates small magnetic sources that might otherwise be seen. A prominent magnetic ``nose`` extending northward from this band toward a standpipe at 100N,63E may be connected to an underground tank. The southeast corner of the site is underlain by a rectangular, magnetized source associated with strong radar images. A magnetic lineament extending south from the anomaly may be caused by a buried pipe; the anomaly itself may be caused by subsurface equipment associated with a manhole or utility access pit. A 2,500-gamma, positive magnetic anomaly centered at 0N,20E, which is also the location of a 12 {Omega}-m resistivity minimum, may be caused by a buried vault. It appears on radar imaging as a strong reflector.

McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.

1992-11-01

11

Geophysics: Building E5190 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground. Interim progress report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Building E5190 is one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek area of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May 1992. A noninvasive geophysical survey, including the complementary technologies of magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar, was conducted around the perimeter as a guide to developing a sampling and monitoring program prior to decommissioning and dismantling the building. The magnetics surveys indicated that multistation, positive magnetic sources are randomly distributed north and west of the building. Two linear trends were noted: one that may outline buried utility lines and another that is produced by a steel-covered trench. The resistivity profiling indicated three conductive zones: one due to increased moisture in a ditch, one associated with buried utility lines, and a third zone associated with the steel-covered trench. Ground-penetrating radar imaging detected two significant anomalies, which were correlated with small-amplitude magnetic anomalies. The objectives of the study -- to detect and locate objects and to characterize a located object were achieved.

Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.

1992-07-01

12

Geophysics: Building E5282 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground. Interim progress report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report discusses Building E5282 which was one of 10 potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek area of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar (GPR), were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. Magnetic surveys identified small, complicated, multiple anomalies west, north, and northeast of the building that may be caused by construction fill. Two underground storage tanks, at the northeast and southeast corners, were identified. A large magnetic anomaly complex east of the building was caused by aboveground pipes and unexploded ordnance fragments scattered at the surface. Electrical resistivity profiling showed a broad, conductive terrain superimposed over magnetic anomalies on the north and west. A broad, high-resistivity, nonmagnetic area centered 25 ft east of the building has an unknown origin, but it may be due to nonconductive organic liquids, construction fill, or a buried concrete slab; GPR imaging showed this area as a highly reflective zone at a depth of about 5 ft. The GPR data also showed a small-diameter pipe oriented north-south located east of the building.

Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.

1992-08-01

13

Environmental geophysics: Buildings E5485, E5487, and E5489 decommissioning - the open-quotes Ghost Townclose quotes complex, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Buildings E5485, E5487, and E5489, referred to informally as the open-quotes Ghost Townclose quotes complex, are potentially contaminated sites in the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, EM-31, EM-61, and ground-penetrating radar, were conducted to assist a sampling and monitoring program prior to decommissioning and dismantling of the buildings. The buildings are located on a marginal wetland bordering the west branch of Canal Creek. The dominant geophysical signature in the open-quotes Ghost Town close quotes complex is a pattern of northeast-southwest and northwest-southeast anomalies that appear to be associated with a trench/pipe/sewer system, documented by the presence of a manhole. Combinations of anomalies suggest that line sources include nonmetallic and ferromagnetic materials in trenches. On the basis of anomaly associations, the sewer lines probably rest in a trench, back-filled with conductive, amphibolitic, crushed rock. Where the sewer lines connect manholes or junctions with other lines, ferromagnetic materials are present. Isolated, unidentified magnetic anomalies litter the area around Building E5487, particularly to the north. Three small magnetic sources are located east of Building E5487

14

Preliminary assessment of risk from toxic materials that might be mobilized in the decommissioning of Aberdeen Proving Ground Building E5032  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aberdeen Proving Ground Building E5032 is scheduled for decommissioning, that is, for demolition. Because the building was formerly used for small-scale operations with incendiary and toxic chemical agents, it presents unusual concerns for occupational and public health safety during the demolition. For this reason, an anticipatory risk assessment was conducted, taking into consideration the building's history, properties of potential residual contaminants (particularly chemical and incendiary agents), and assumptions relating to meteorological conditions and envisioned modes of demolition. Safe maximum levels in concrete floors for the worst case were estimated to be: white phosphorus, 3200 mg/kg; mustard, 94 mg/kg; nerve agent GA (tabun), 6 mg/kg; cyanide, 500 mg/kg; and sulfide, 1400 mg/kg. These values will serve as planning guidance for the activities to follow. It is emphasized that the estimates must be reviewed, and perhaps revised, after sampling and analysis are completed, the demolition methodology is chosen, and dust emissions are measured under operating conditions.

Rosenblatt, D.H.; Brubaker, K.L.

1991-12-01

15

Preliminary assessment of risk from toxic materials that might be mobilized in the decommissioning of Aberdeen Proving Ground Building E5032  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aberdeen Proving Ground Building E5032 is scheduled for decommissioning, that is, for demolition. Because the building was formerly used for small-scale operations with incendiary and toxic chemical agents, it presents unusual concerns for occupational and public health safety during the demolition. For this reason, an anticipatory risk assessment was conducted, taking into consideration the building`s history, properties of potential residual contaminants (particularly chemical and incendiary agents), and assumptions relating to meteorological conditions and envisioned modes of demolition. Safe maximum levels in concrete floors for the worst case were estimated to be: white phosphorus, 3200 mg/kg; mustard, 94 mg/kg; nerve agent GA (tabun), 6 mg/kg; cyanide, 500 mg/kg; and sulfide, 1400 mg/kg. These values will serve as planning guidance for the activities to follow. It is emphasized that the estimates must be reviewed, and perhaps revised, after sampling and analysis are completed, the demolition methodology is chosen, and dust emissions are measured under operating conditions.

Rosenblatt, D.H.; Brubaker, K.L.

1991-12-01

16

NPP decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Consideration is given to general problems of NPP decommissioning, peculiarities of three main versions, calculated data on amount of formed radioactive wastes and on expenses for decommissioning of power units with standard PWR and BWR type reactors. Pilot designs of decommissioning for the WAGR (Great Britain) and JPDR(Japan) reactors, the Shippingport (USA) and Neideraichbach (Germany) NPPs are characterized in brief

17

Decommissioning Handbook  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Decommissioning Handbook is a technical guide for the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The decommissioning of a nuclear facility involves the removal of the radioactive and, for practical reasons, hazardous materials to enable the facility to be released and not represent a further risk to human health and the environment. This handbook identifies and technologies and techniques that will accomplish these objectives. The emphasis in this handbook is on characterization; waste treatment; decontamination; dismantling, segmenting, demolition; and remote technologies. Other aspects that are discussed in some detail include the regulations governing decommissioning, worker and environmental protection, and packaging and transportation of the waste materials. The handbook describes in general terms the overall decommissioning project, including planning, cost estimating, and operating practices that would ease preparation of the Decommissioning Plan and the decommissioning itself. The reader is referred to other documents for more detailed information. This Decommissioning Handbook has been prepared by Enserch Environmental Corporation for the US Department of Energy and is a complete restructuring of the original handbook developed in 1980 by Nuclear Energy Services. The significant changes between the two documents are the addition of current and the deletion of obsolete technologies and the addition of chapters on project planning and the Decommissioning Plan, regulatory requirements, characterization, remote technology, and packaging and transportation of the waste materials.

1994-03-01

18

Decommissioning handbook  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this paper is to provide information on the Handbook and its application as a resource in decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) work. The nature of the unique hazards contained in nuclear facilities demand a comprehensive step-by-step program to cover their design, licensing, and commissioning or start-up. Similarly, because of residual radioactivity, a termination of operations (decommissioning) also presents hazards that must be addressed from a technological and programmatic standpoint. To meet the needs raised by these issues, the original Decommissioning Handbook was prepared in 1980 by Nuclear Energy Services under contract to the United States Department of Energy (DOE). Its mission was to provide technical guidance on the D and D of both commercial and government-owned nuclear facilities, including characterization, decontamination, dismantling, and disposition (disposal or salvage) of a facility's equipment and structure. In addition, depending on the regulatory requirements for material disposal and/or the wastes generated by decontamination, the management of waste can also be considered as a decommissioning activity. Chapters are Operational and predecommissioning activities; Decommissioning project; Decommissioning plan; Regulations; Final project configuration; Characterization; Waste treatment; Decontamination; Dismantling, segmenting, and demolition; Remote handling equipment; Environmental protection; Packaging and transportation; and Decommissioning cost estimates. Appendices contain a prediction method for estimation of radiactive inventory and a glossary

19

University of Aberdeen Electronics Research Group  

Science.gov (United States)

University of Aberdeen, Electronics Research Group. Topics include artificial neural networks, neural web, hybrid systems and applications, satellite communications - VSATs, site diversity networks, networking - ATM, TCP/IP & X.25 implementation, protocol benchmarking, spread spectrum, and fault tolerant communications. Services provided include online digest archives including Neuron Digest, TidBITS and Alife digest.

20

Geophysics: Building E5476 decommissiong, Aberdeen Proving Ground  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Building E5476 was one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek and Westwood areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar, were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. The large number of magnetic sources surrounding the building are believed to be contained in construction fill. The smaller anomalies, for the most part, were not imaged with ground radar or by electrical profiling. Large magnetic anomalies near the southwest comer of the building are due to aboveground standpipes and steel-reinforced concrete. Two high-resistivity areas, one projecting northeast from the building and another south of the original structure, may indicate the presence of organic pore fluids in the subsurface. A conductive lineament protruding from the south wall that is enclosed by the southem, high-resistivity feature is not associated with an equivalent magnetic anomaly. Magnetic and electrical anomalies south of the old landfill boundary are probably not associated with the building. The boundary is marked by a band of magnetic anomalies and a conductive zone trending northwest to southeast. The cause of high resistivities in a semicircular area in the southwest comer, within the landfill area, is unexplained.

Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.

1992-11-01

 
 
 
 
21

Decommissioning handbook  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document is a compilation of information pertinent to the decommissioning of surplus nuclear facilities. This handbook is intended to describe all stages of the decommissioning process including selection of the end product, estimation of the radioactive inventory, estimation of occupational exposures, description of the state-of-the-art in re decontamination, remote csposition of wastes, and estimation of program costs. Presentation of state-of-the-art technology and data related to decommissioning will aid in consistent and efficient program planning and performance. Particular attention is focused on available technology applicable to those decommissioning activities that have not been accomplished before, such as remote segmenting and handling of highly activated 1100 MW(e) light water reactor vessel internals and thick-walled reactor vessels. A summary of available information associated with the planning and estimating of a decommissioning program is also presented. Summarized in particular are the methodologies associated with the calculation and measurement of activated material inventory, distribution, and surface dose level, system contamination inventory and distribution, and work area dose levels. Cost estimating techniques are also presented and the manner in which to account for variations in labor costs as impacting labor-intensive work activities is explained

22

Decommissioning standards  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

EPA has agreed to establish a series of environmental standards for the safe disposal of radioactive waste through participation in the Interagency Review Group on Nuclear Waste Management (IRG). One of the standards required under the IRG is the standard for decommissioning of radioactive contaminated sites, facilities, and materials. This standard is to be proposed by December 1980 and promulgated by December 1981. Several considerations are important in establishing these standards. This study includes discussions of some of these considerations and attempts to evaluate their relative importance. Items covered include: the form of the standards, timing for decommissioning, occupational radiation protection, costs and financial provisions. 4 refs

23

University of Aberdeen: Dryland Rivers Research  

Science.gov (United States)

This University of Aberdeen website "is intended to stimulate research by providing an information focus and provoking networking between those working on dryland rivers and the sediments they leave behind." Following an introduction to the subjects covered at the site and the latest news, users can discover what drylands are and why they occur. Researchers can explore the work of numerous researchers related to geomorphology, sedimentology, processes, techniques, and environment and engineering. Visitors can read posts on the bulletin board, and after registering, can reply to an item. Teachers can find educational materials and pictures in the Images link.

North, Colin P.

24

1982 international decommissioning symposium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sixty-four papers were presented at the following sessions: policy, regulations, and standards; management of decommissioning wastes; decommissioning experience; decommissioning tooling and techniques; radiological concerns; and planning and engineering

25

Gaining confidence in decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A report is given of the International Symposium on Decommissioning, held in Seattle, 11-14 October 1982. Research and development work on decommissioning, waste management and past decommissioning experience were topics discussed. (U.K.)

26

Decommissioning of Brennilis NPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This EDF press communique give information related to the decommissioning of the Brennilis NPP. The following five items are developed in this report: 1. the level-2 decommissioning operations at the Brennilis NPP; 2. the Brennilis NPP, a pilot operation from the commissioning up to the decommissioning; 3. history of the Brennilis NPP decommissioning; 4. the types of radioactive wastes generated by the Brennilis NPP decommissioning; 5. the Brennilis NPP - a yard management as a function of the wastes. The document contains also seven appendices addressing the following subjects: 1. the share of decommissioning assigned to EDF and the decommissioning steps; 2. the EDF installations in course of decommissioning; 3. the CEA decommissioned installations or in course of decommissioning; 4. regulations; 5. costs; 6. waste management - principles; 7. data on the decommissioning yard

27

Workshop on decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Nordic workshop on decommissioning of nuclear facilities was held at Risoe in Denmark September 13-15, 2005. The workshop was arranged by NKS in cooperation with the company Danish Decommissioning, DD, responsible for decommissioning of nuclear facilities at Risoe. Oral presentations were made within the following areas: International and national recommendations and requirements concerning decommissioning of nuclear facilities Authority experiences of decommissioning cases Decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Denmark Decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Sweden Plans for decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Norway Plans for decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Finland Decommissioning of nuclear facilities in German and the UK Decommissioning of nuclear facilities in the former Soviet Union Results from research and development A list with proposals for future work within NKS has been prepared based on results from group-work and discussions. The list contains strategic, economical and political issues, technical issues and issues regarding competence and communication. (au)

28

Unexploded ordnance issues at Aberdeen Proving Ground: Background information  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document summarizes currently available information about the presence and significance of unexploded ordnance (UXO) in the two main areas of Aberdeen Proving Ground: Aberdeen Area and Edgewood Area. Known UXO in the land ranges of the Aberdeen Area consists entirely of conventional munitions. The Edgewood Area contains, in addition to conventional munitions, a significant quantity of chemical-munition UXO, which is reflected in the presence of chemical agent decomposition products in Edgewood Area ground-water samples. It may be concluded from current information that the UXO at Aberdeen Proving Ground has not adversely affected the environment through release of toxic substances to the public domain, especially not by water pathways, and is not likely to do so in the near future. Nevertheless, modest but periodic monitoring of groundwater and nearby surface waters would be a prudent policy.

Rosenblatt, D.H.

1996-11-01

29

Utility planning for decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Though the biggest impact on a utility of nuclear power plant decommissioning may occur many years from now, procrastination of efforts to be prepared for that time is unwarranted. Foresight put into action through planning can significantly affect that impact. Financial planning can assure the recovery of decommissioning costs in a manner equitable to customers. Decision-making planning can minimize adverse affects of current decisions on later decommissioning impacts and prepare a utility to be equipped to make later decommissioning decisions. Technological knowledge base planning can support all other planning aspects for decommissioning and prepare a utility for decommissioning decisions. Informed project planning can ward off potentially significant pitfalls during decommissioning and optimize the effectiveness of the actual decommissioning efforts

30

Regulation in decommissioning strategy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Paper deals with the choice of strategy for power plant decommissioning with regard to the factors important to make the mentioned choice and presents some examples of the strategy choice. One considers the strategies for decommissioning of a power plant upon a nuclear accident. Procedures used to decontaminate and to dismount power plants to be decommissioned are described briefly

31

Recommended IAEA decommissioning levels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The areas covered by each of the two terms 'decommissioning' and 'dismantling' of a nuclear installation are defined in order to distinguish them with greater accuracy. Decommissioning is first an administrative decision and afterwards all the material operations involved by this decision. Dismantling is only one of the material operations of the decommissioning but it can be the most important. For the IAEA the possible outcomes for a decommissioned installation fall under three main headings (stages) which we call 'decommissioning levels'. - level 1: shut-down with surveillance, - level 2: conditional release for another use, - level 3: unconditional release of the site

32

Geophysics: Building E5476 decommissiong, Aberdeen Proving Ground. Interim progress report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Building E5476 was one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek and Westwood areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar, were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. The large number of magnetic sources surrounding the building are believed to be contained in construction fill. The smaller anomalies, for the most part, were not imaged with ground radar or by electrical profiling. Large magnetic anomalies near the southwest comer of the building are due to aboveground standpipes and steel-reinforced concrete. Two high-resistivity areas, one projecting northeast from the building and another south of the original structure, may indicate the presence of organic pore fluids in the subsurface. A conductive lineament protruding from the south wall that is enclosed by the southem, high-resistivity feature is not associated with an equivalent magnetic anomaly. Magnetic and electrical anomalies south of the old landfill boundary are probably not associated with the building. The boundary is marked by a band of magnetic anomalies and a conductive zone trending northwest to southeast. The cause of high resistivities in a semicircular area in the southwest comer, within the landfill area, is unexplained.

Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.

1992-11-01

33

On decommissioning nuclear facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As the number of nuclear power plants commissioned is increasing worldwide, both the responsible goverment agencies and the public are more and more concerned about decommissioning nuclear facilities after they have been shut down for good. IAEA organized a symposium on November 13-17, 1978 which dealt with problems of decommissioning, covering national objectives, technical processes, radiological questions, experience in plant decommissioning, decontamination techniques and remote handling procedures. It turned out that sufficient practical experience and highly developed decommissioning concepts and techniques are now available. Experts feel that also in the future no insoluble technical problems or problems must be expected which could only be solved at inordinately high technical expenditure. The article contains a survey of the present staus of problem solutions. Current work is being dedicated to the dose rates accumulated by decommissioning personnel and to the costs of decommissioning. (orig.)

34

Decommissioning nuclear facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the currently accepted alternatives for decommissioning retired light water reactor fuel cycle facilities and the current state of decommissioning technology. Three alternatives are recognized: Protective Storage; Entombment; and Dismantling. Application of these alternatives to the following types of facilities is briefly described: light water reactors; fuel reprocessing plants, and mixed oxide fuel fabrication plants. Brief descriptions are given of decommissioning operations and results at a number of sites, and recent studies of the future decommissioning of prototype fuel cycle facilities are reviewed. An overview is provided of the types of operations performed and tools used in common decontamination and decommissioning techniques and needs for improved technology are suggested. Planning for decommissioning a nuclear facility is dependent upon the maximum permitted levels of residual radioactive contamination. Proposed guides and recently developed methodology for development of site release criteria are reviewed. 21 fig, 32 references

35

Safety Assessment for Decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

y assessment for decommissioning, including the application of a graded approach; -To investigate the practical applicability of the methodology and performance of safety assessments for the decommissioning of various types of facility through a selected number of test cases; -To investigate approaches for the review of safety assessments for decommissioning activities and the development of a regulatory approach for reviewing safety assessments for decommissioning activities and as a basis for regulatory decision making; -To provide a forum for exchange of experience in evaluation and demonstration of safety during decommissioning of various types of facility using radioactive material. This book presents the outcomes of the work carried out in fulfilling the action plan through the DeSa project (November 2004-November 2007); it contains a summary of the whole project and a methodology for the safety assessment of the decommissioning of facilities using radioactive material. It is supported by technical reports provided in the annexes.

36

Decommissioning planning for HIFAR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

HIFAR, a 10MW research reactor, has been in operation for the last 44 years. It is to be shut down in early 2006 after a replacement reactor is commissioned. The preferred option for decommissioning HIFAR is to remove the fuel immediately, followed by an extended period of care and maintenance. A decommissioning team will be formed to develop strategies and prepare a decommissioning plan for regulatory approval. The plan will comply with the regulatory licence conditions, be in accordance with the IAEA safety guides and will take advantage of the lessons learned from the decommissioning of other reactors. (author)

37

Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) is of the view that every organisation should focus attention on the decommissioning of nuclear facilities after completion of their useful life. AERB is aware that, internationally there is a growing interest in plant life extension due to economic considerations. Regulatory bodies stipulate upgradation of safety features based on international experience and current safety standards. However, decommissioning becomes a necessity at some time after the extended life of the plant. Nuclear industry has demonstrated that, with modern technological developments, decommissioning of nuclear facilities can be carried out without undue risk to the occupational workers, members of the public and protection of the environment. In view of limited experience in the field of decommissioning, this document is being issued as a safety manual instead of a safety guide. This manual elaborates the various technical and safety considerations in the decommissioning of nuclear facilities including ultimate disposal of radioactive materials/ wastes generated during decommissioning. Details that are required to be furnished to the regulatory body while applying for authorisation for decommissioning and till its completion are enumerated. This manual is issued to assist Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) units in formulating a decommissioning programme. Since the subject of decommissioning of nuclear facilities is a continuously evolving process, AERB is a continuously evolving process, AERB is of the view, that provisions of this manual will apply for a period of five years from the date of issue and will be subsequently revised, if necessary

38

NPP Krsko decommissioning concept  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the end of the operational lifetime of a nuclear power plant (NPP) it is necessary to take measures for the decommissioning as stated in different international regulations and also in the national Slovenian law. Based on these requirements Slovenian authorities requested the development of a site specific decommissioning plan for the NPP Krsko. In September 1995, the Nuklearna Elektrarna Krsko (NEK) developed a site specific scope and content for a decommissioning plan including the assumptions for determination of the decommissioning costs. The NEK Decommissioning Plan contains sufficient information to fulfill the decommissioning requirements identified by NRC, IAEA and OECD - NEA regulations. In this paper the activities and results of development of NEK Decommissioning Plan consisting of the development of three decommissioning strategies for the NPP Krsko and selection of the most suitable strategy based on site specific, social, technical, radiological and economic aspects, cost estimates for the strategies including the costs for construction of final disposal facilities for fuel/high level waste (fuel/HLW) and low/intermediate level waste (LLW/ILW) and scheduling of all activities necessary for the decommissioning of the NPP Krsko are presented. (author)

39

NPP Krsko decommissioning concept  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the end of the operational lifetime of a nuclear power plant (NPP) it is necessary to take measures for the decommissioning as stated in different international regulations and also in the national Slovenian law. Based on these requirements Slovenian authorities requested the development of a site specific decommissioning plan for the NPP KRSKO. In September 1995, the Nuklearna Elektrarna Krsko (NEK) developed a site specific scope and content for decommissioning plan including the assumptions for determination of the decommissioning costs. The NEK Decommissioning Plan contains sufficient information to fulfill decommissioning requirements identified by NRC, IAEA and OECD - NEA regulations. In this paper the activities and the results of development of NEK Decommissioning Plan consisting of the development of three decommissioning strategies for the NPP Krsko and selection of the most suitable strategy based on site specific, social, technical, radiological and economical aspects, cost estimates for the strategies including the costs for construction of final disposal facilities for fuel/high level waste (fuel/HLW) and low/intermediate level waste (LLW/ILW) and scheduling all activities necessary for the decommissioning of the NPP KRSKO are presented. (author)

40

Tokai-1 decommissioning project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tokai-1 (GCR, Gas Cooled Reactor) nuclear power plant of JAPC (the Japan Atomic Power Company) started commercial operation in 1966 as the first commercial nuclear power plant in Japan and ceased its operation in 1998. Spent fuel elements were removed out of the reactor core and shipped to the reprocessing plant by June 2001. JAPC launched Tokai-1 decommissioning in December 2001 after the submission of the notification of decommissioning plan to the competent authority. This is the first instance of the decommissioning for a commercial nuclear power plant in Japan. During first five years, the conventional facilities were removed, such as turbine system. Cartridge Cooling Pond (CCP) water was also drained and CCP was cleaned up for future works. In 2006 JAPC started SRU (Steam Raising Unit) and auxiliary equipments removal. After the safe store of the reactor, Reactor Dismantling would be started. JAPC and Japanese Utilities make efforts on rulemaking for decommissioning and disposal in cooperation with METI. Nuclear Regulations were amended in December 2005. JAPC got approval of a Decommissioning Plan pursuant to the amended Regulations in June 2006. Under the new regulation, it is possible to be applied reasonable and phased measures to keep the unit safe in accordance with dismantling phases. Tokai-1 decommissioning project has an important role for demonstrating that the decommissioning of commercial nuclear power plant can be executed safely and economically, and for establishing the key technologies for future LWR decommissioning in Japan. (author)

 
 
 
 
41

International Decommissioning Strategies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The IAEA has been developing guidance and technical information relating to the decommissioning and decommissioning strategies of nuclear facilities for over 20 years. During this time, the international concept of decommissioning strategies, and its importance, has changed. Three basic decommissioning strategies are envisaged as possibilities for nuclear installations: immediate dismantling, deferred dismantling and entombment. All have advantages and disadvantages, but the International Conference on Safe Decommissioning for Nuclear Activities demonstrated that immediate dismantling is the generally preferred option. However, there are a number of factors that might lead operators to choose one of the other strategies, and each situation has to be examined individually to identify the optimal strategy for that situation. The basic approach of these three strategies is discussed in the paper. (author)

42

Decommissioning project management: The Japan power demonstration reactor decommissioning program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Japan power demonstration reactor (JPDR) decommissioning program is in progress of developing new technology for reactor decommissioning and collecting various data on project management and performance of developed dismantling devices. The experience and the data obtained from the JPDR decommissioning program are expected to contribute to future decommissioning of commercial nuclear power plants. (author). 8 refs, 9 figs, 3 tabs

43

Decommissioning at AWE  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

AWE (A) has been at the heart of the UK Nuclear deterrent since it was established in the early 1950's. It is a nuclear licensed site and is governed by the United Kingdoms Nuclear Installation Inspectorate (NII). AWE plc on behalf of the Ministry of Defence (MOD) manages the AWE (A) site and all undertakings including decommissioning. Therefore under NII license condition 35 'Decommissioning', AWE plc is accountable to make and implement adequate arrangements for the decommissioning of any plant or process, which may affect safety. The majority of decommissioning projects currently being undertaken are to do with Hazard category 3, 4 or 5 facilities, systems or plant that have reached the end of their operational span and have undergone Post-Operational Clean-Out (POCO). They were either built for the production of fissile components, for supporting the early reactor fuels programmes or for processing facility waste arisings. They either contain redundant contaminated gloveboxes associated process areas, process plant or systems or a combination of all. In parallel with decommissioning project AWE (A) are undertaking investigation into new technologies to aid decommissioning projects; to remove the operative from hands on operations; to develop and implement modifications to existing process and techniques used. AWE (A) is currently going thorough a sustained phase of upgrading its facilities to enhance its scientific capability, with older facilities, systems and plity, with older facilities, systems and plant being replaced, making decommissioning a growth area. It is therefore important to the company to reduce these hazards progressively and safety over the coming years, making decommissioning an important feature of the overall legacy management aspects of AWE PLC's business. This paper outlines the current undertakings and progress of Nuclear decommissioning on the AWE (A) site. (authors)

44

Decommissioning and site remediation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Decommissioning/site remediation is the inevitable legacy of operation of nuclear installations, and needs timely and effective management. A high number of nuclear reactors and other nuclear facilities are reaching the end of their useful lifetimes and becoming candidates for decommissioning. Large-scale decontamination and dismantling technologies have not been used in many IAEA's Member States yet, and it is expected that optimization of such technologies to projects being launched will last for many years. In addition, early planning including inter alia timely allocation of funds is not a current practice in many Member States yet. Similarly, there are a number of sites contaminated by past nuclear activities, which require remediation. The International Atomic Energy Agency provides assistance to Member States to build the infrastructure to properly manage decommissioning/site remediation projects. This concerns basic guidance on planning and implementation aspects of those activities, and specialist aspects such as infrastructure to adequately manage materials/ waste arisings (including technologically-enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials- TENORMs) and establish mechanisms to allocate decommissioning/site remediation funds. The IAEA assists Member States in drafting/reviewing of their decommissioning/site remediation plans for individual operational or shutdown facilities and national programmes in this field including assessment of status, progress and trends of these activities. It further provides Member States with information and practical guidance to deal with operation-to decommissioning transition issues including organizational and societal changes. It provide information and guidance to support Member States' development on strategic, methodological and technological approaches to achieving best practice in decommissioning/site remediation. This concerns managerial, organizational and societal issues, decontamination/dismantling of critical systems/components, and cleanup of contaminated territories. The assistance aims at training of national experts to tackle specific decommissioning/site remediation tasks. This approach also helps with proper planning and decision making for long term management of nuclear liabilities

45

Decommissioning Russian Research Facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gosatomnadzor of Russia is conducting the safety regulation and inspection activity related to nuclear and radiation safety of nuclear research facilities (RR), including research reactors, critical assemblies and sub-critical assemblies. Most of the Russian RR were built and put in operation more than 30 years ago. The problems of ageing equipment and strengthening of safety requirements in time, the lack of further experimental programmes and financial resources, have created a condition when some of the RR were forced to take decisions on their decommissioning. The result of these problems was reflected in reducing the number of RR from 113 in 1998 to 81 in the current year. At present, seven RR are already under decommissioning or pending it. Last year, the Ministry of Atomic Energy took the decision to finally shut down two remaining actual research reactors in the Physics and Power Engineering Institute in Obninsk: AM-1, the first reactor in the world built for peaceful purposes, graphite-type reactor, and the fast liquid metal reactor BR-10, and to start their preparation for decommissioning. It is not enough just to declare the decommissioning of a RR: it is also vital to find financial resources for that purpose. For this reason, due to lack of financing, the MR reactor at the Kurchatov Institute has been pending decommissioning since 1992 and still is. The other example of long-lasting decommissioning is TVR, a heavy water reactor at the Institute of Theoretical Physics in Moscow (ITEF). The reason is also poor financing. Another example discussed in the paper concerns on-site disposal of a RR located above the Arctic Pole Circle, owned by the Norilsk Mining Company. Furthermore, the experience of the plutonium reactor decommissioning at the Joint Institute of Nuclear Research is also discussed. As shown, the Russian Federation has had good experiences in the decommissioning of nuclear research facilities. (author)

46

Decommissioning and Decontamination  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objectives of SCK-CEN's decommissioning and decontamination programme are (1) to develop, test and optimise the technologies and procedures for decommissioning and decontamination of nuclear installations in order to minimise the waste arising and the distributed dose; (2) to optimise the environmental impact; (3) to reduce the cost of the end-of-life of the installation; (4) to make these new techniques available to the industry; (5) to share skills and competences. The programme and achievements in 1999 are summarised

47

Decommissioning - A regulatory view  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Decommissioning is the final stage in the life of a facility and is regulated in a similar manner to the operational phase. The nuclear regulatory regime is described including the new regulations on Environmental Impact Assessment for reactors. The Health and Safety Executive has recently issued guidance to its inspectors on the regulation of facilities being decommissioned. A number of aspects of this guidance are discussed including strategies, timetables, safety cases, management and organisation and finally de-licensing. (authors)

48

Decommissioning of research reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research reactors of WWR-S type were built in countries under Soviet influence in '60, last century and consequently reached their service life. Decommissioning implies removal of all radioactive components, processing, conditioning and final disposal in full safety of all sources on site of radiological pollution. The WWR-S reactor at Bucuresti-Magurele was put into function in 1957 and operated until 1997 when it was stopped and put into conservation in view of decommissioning. Presented are three decommissioning variants: 1. Reactor shut-down for a long period (30-50 years) what would entail a substantial decrease of contamination with lower costs in dismantling, mechanical, chemical and physical processing followed by final disposal of the radioactive wastes. The drawback of this solution is the life prolongation of a non-productive nuclear unit requiring funds for personnel, control, maintenance, etc; 2. Decommissioning in a single stage what implies large funds for a immediate investment; 3. Extending the operation on a series of stages rather phased in time to allow a more convenient flow of funds and also to gather technical solutions, better than the present ones. This latter option seems to be optimal for the case of the WWR-S Research at Bucharest-Magurele Reactor. Equipment and technologies should be developed in order to ensure the technical background of the first operations of decommissioning: equipment for scarification, dismantling, dismemberment in a highly radioactive environment; cutting-to-pieces and disassembling technologies; decontamination modern technologies. Concomitantly, nuclear safety and quality assurance regulations and programmes, specific to decommissioning projects should be implemented, as well as a modern, coherent and reliable system of data acquisition, recording and storing. Also the impact of decommissioning must be thoroughly evaluated. The national team of specialists will be assisted by IAEA experts to ensure the observance of all the international regulations an practices in the field

49

Decommissioning plan - decommissioning project for KRR 1 and 2 (revised)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is the revised Decommissioning Plan for the license of TRIGA research reactor decommissioning project according to Atomic Energy Act No. 31 and No. 36. The decommissioning plan includes the TRIGA reactor facilities, project management, decommissioning method, decontamination and dismantling activity, treatment, packaging, transportation and disposal of radioactive wastes. the report also explained the radiation protection plan and radiation safety management during the decommissioning period, and expressed the quality assurance system during the period and the site restoration after decommissioning. The first decommissioning plan was made by Hyundai Engineering Co, who is the design service company, was submitted to the Ministry of Science and Technology, and then was reviewed by the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety. The first decommissioning plan was revised including answers for the questions arising from review process.

Jung, K. J.; Paik, S. T.; Chung, U. S.; Jung, K. H.; Park, S. K.; Lee, D. G.; Kim, H. R.; Kim, J. K.; Yang, S. H.; Lee, B. J

2000-10-01

50

Ascertainment of familial ovarian cancer in the Aberdeen Genetic Clinic.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ovarian cancer is the fifth most common malignancy in women in the UK. Patients with a family history including ovarian cancer make up nearly 15% of family cancer referrals to the Genetic Clinic in Aberdeen. To date, only one pedigree has been suitable for linkage studies, which has enabled us to target screening more accurately at those people at highest risk. Following discovery of a strong candidate for the BRCA1 gene, direct mutation testing may soon be possible. People who seek testing w...

Gregory, H.; Schofield, A.; Silva, D.; Semper, J.; Milner, B.; Allan, L.; Haites, N.

1996-01-01

51

Financial aspects of decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

European Commission adopted recently two proposals of Directives designed to pave the way for a Community approach to the safety of nuclear power plants and the processing of radioactive waste. Nuclear safety cannot be guaranteed without making available adequate financial resources. With regard, in particular, to the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, the Directive defines the Community rules for the establishment, management and use of decommissioning funds allocated to a body with legal personality separate from that of the nuclear operator. In order to comply with the acquis communautaire, Romanian Government issued the Emergency Ordinance no. 11/2003 which set up the National Agency for Radioactive Waste (ANDRAD) and soon will be established the financial mechanism for raising the necessary funds. Societatea Nationala 'Nuclearelectrica' S.A. operates, through one of its branches, Cernavoda NPP Unit 1 and has to prepare its decommissioning strategy and to analyze the options to assure the financing for covering the future costs. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the financial systems' mechanisms to the satisfaction of the nuclear operator obligations, according to the disbursement schedule foreseen by decommissioning projects . The availability of cash to pay for all the decommissioning expenditure must be foreseen by setting up assets and establishing a suitable financing plan. The different practices of assets management shall be presented in this paper on the basis of the international experience. Some calculation samples shall be given as an illustration. (author)

52

Tradução e adaptação cultural do Questionário Aberdeen para Veias Varicosas Translation and cultural adaptation of Aberdeen Varicose Veins Questionnaire  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Atualmente há um crescente interesse por instrumentos de avaliação em saúde produzidos e validados em todo o mundo. Apesar disso, ainda não temos no Brasil instrumentos que avaliem o impacto da doença venosa crônica na vida de seu portador. Para utilização dessas medidas torna-se necessária a realização da tradução e da adaptação cultural ao idioma em questão. OBJETIVO: Traduzir e adaptar culturalmente para a população brasileira o Aberdeen Varicose Veins Questionnaire (AVVQ- Brasil. MÉTODOS: O processo consistiu de duas traduções e duas retrotraduções realizadas por tradutores independentes, da avaliação das versões seguida da elaboração de versão consensual e de pré-teste comentado. RESULTADOS: Os pacientes do pré-teste eram do sexo feminino, com média de idade de 49,9 anos, média de tempo de resposta 7,73 minutos, que variou entre 4,55 minutos (tempo mínimo a 10,13 minutos (tempo máximo. Escolaridade: 20% analfabetismo funcional, 1º grau completo e 2º grau completo; 30% 1º grau incompleto; e 10% 3º grau completo. Gravidade clínica 40% C3 e C6S, 10% C2 e C5, havendo cinco termos incompreendidos na aplicação. CONCLUSÕES: A versão na língua portuguesa do Aberdeen Varicose Veins Questionnaire está traduzida e adaptada para uso na população brasileira, podendo ser utilizada após posterior análise de suas propriedades clinimétricas.BACKGROUND: Currently there is a growing interest in health assessment tools produced and validated throughout the world. Nevertheless, it is still inadequate the number of instruments that assess the impact of chronic venous disease in the life of its bearer. To use these measures it is necessary to accomplish the translation and cultural adaptation to the language in question. OBJECTIVE: Translate to Portuguese and culturally adapted for the Brazilian population the Aberdeen Varicose Veins Questionnaire (AVVQ-Brazil. METHODS: The process consisted of two translations and two back-translations performed by freelance translators, then the evaluation versions of the development of consensual version and commented pretest. RESULTS: The patients in the pre-test were female, mean age 49.9 years, average response time of 7.73 minutes, which ranged from 4.55 minutes (minimum to 10.13 minutes (maximum time. Education: 20% functional illiteracy and first and second complete degrees; 30% first incomplete degree, and 10% third complete degree. Clinical severity: 40% C3 and C6s, 10% C2 and C5, with five misunderstood terms in the application. CONCLUSION: The Portuguese version of the Aberdeen Varicose Veins Questionnaire has been translated and adapted for use in the Brazilian population, and can be used after further analysis of their clinimetric properties, which is underway.

Flávia de Jesus Leal

2012-03-01

53

Site decommissioning management plan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has identified 48 sites contaminated with radioactive material that require special attention to ensure timely decommissioning. While none of these sites represent an immediate threat to public health and safety they have contamination that exceeds existing NRC criteria for unrestricted use. All of these sites require some degree of remediation, and several involve regulatory issues that must be addressed by the Commission before they can be released for unrestricted use and the applicable licenses terminated. This report contains the NRC staff's strategy for addressing the technical, legal, and policy issues affecting the timely decommissioning of the 48 sites and describes the status of decommissioning activities at the sites

54

Vinca nuclear decommissioning program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper a preliminary program for the nuclear decommissioning in The Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences is presented. Proposed Projects and Activities, planned to be done in the next 10 years within the frames of the Program, should improve nuclear and radiation safety and should solve the main problems that have arisen in the previous period. Project of removal of irradiated spent nuclear fuel from the RA reactor, as a first step in all possible decommissioning strategies and the main activity in the first two-three years of the Program realization, is considered in more details. (author)

55

Decommissioning Work Modeling System for Nuclear Facility Decommissioning Design  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the decommissioning activities of the KRR-1 and 2 (Korea Research Reactor 1 and 2) and UCP (Uranium Conversion Plant), all information and data, which generated from the decommissioning project, were record, input and managed at the DECOMMIS (DECOMMissioning Information management System). This system was developed for the inputting and management of the data and information of the man-power consumption, operation time of the dismantling equipment, the activities of the radiation control, dismantled waste management and Q/A activities. When a decommissioning is planed for a nuclear facility, an investigation into the characterization of the nuclear facility is first required. The results of such an investigation are used for calculating the quantities of dismantled waste volume and estimating the cost of the decommissioning project. That is why, the DEFACS (DEcommissioning FAcility Characterization DB System) was established for the management of the facility characterization data. The DEWOCS (DEcommissioning WOrk-unit productivity Calculation System) was developed for the calculation of the workability on the decommissioning activities. The work-unit productivities are calculated through this system using the data from the two systems, DECOMMIS and DEFACS. This result, the factors of the decommissioning work-unit productivities, will be useful for the other nuclear facility decommissioning planning and engineering. For this, to set up the items and plan for the decommissioning of the new objective facility, the DEMOS (DEcommissioning work Modeling System) was developed. This system is for the evaluation the cost, man-power consumption of workers and project staffs and technology application time. The factor of the work-unit productivities from the DEWOCS and governmental labor cost DB and equipment rental fee DB were used for the calculation the result of the DEMOS. And also, for the total system, DES (Decommissioning Engineering System), which is now developing for the decommissioning design and plan

56

Decommissioning Work Modeling System for Nuclear Facility Decommissioning Design  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the decommissioning activities of the KRR-1 and 2 (Korea Research Reactor 1 and 2) and UCP (Uranium Conversion Plant), all information and data, which generated from the decommissioning project, were record, input and managed at the DECOMMIS (DECOMMissioning Information management System). This system was developed for the inputting and management of the data and information of the man-power consumption, operation time of the dismantling equipment, the activities of the radiation control, dismantled waste management and Q/A activities. When a decommissioning is planed for a nuclear facility, an investigation into the characterization of the nuclear facility is first required. The results of such an investigation are used for calculating the quantities of dismantled waste volume and estimating the cost of the decommissioning project. That is why, the DEFACS (DEcommissioning FAcility Characterization DB System) was established for the management of the facility characterization data. The DEWOCS (DEcommissioning WOrk-unit productivity Calculation System) was developed for the calculation of the workability on the decommissioning activities. The work-unit productivities are calculated through this system using the data from the two systems, DECOMMIS and DEFACS. This result, the factors of the decommissioning work-unit productivities, will be useful for the other nuclear facility decommissioning planning and engineering. For this, to set up the items and plan for the decommissioning of the new objective facility, the DEMOS (DEcommissioning work Modeling System) was developed. This system is for the evaluation the cost, man-power consumption of workers and project staffs and technology application time. The factor of the work-unit productivities from the DEWOCS and governmental labor cost DB and equipment rental fee DB were used for the calculation the result of the DEMOS. And also, for the total system, DES (Decommissioning Engineering System), which is now developing for the decommissioning design and plan

Park, S. K.; Cho, W. H.; Choi, Y. D.; Moon, J. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2012-05-15

57

Particle-accelerator decommissioning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Generic considerations involved in decommissioning particle accelerators are examined. There are presently several hundred accelerators operating in the United States that can produce material containing nonnegligible residual radioactivity. Residual radioactivity after final shutdown is generally short-lived induced activity and is localized in hot spots around the beam line. The decommissioning options addressed are mothballing, entombment, dismantlement with interim storage, and dismantlement with disposal. The recycle of components or entire accelerators following dismantlement is a definite possibility and has occurred in the past. Accelerator components can be recycled either immediately at accelerator shutdown or following a period of storage, depending on the nature of induced activation. Considerations of cost, radioactive waste, and radiological health are presented for four prototypic accelerators. Prototypes considered range from small accelerators having minimal amounts of radioactive mmaterial to a very large accelerator having massive components containing nonnegligible amounts of induced activation. Archival information on past decommissionings is presented, and recommendations concerning regulations and accelerator design that will aid in the decommissioning of an accelerator are given.

Opelka, J.H.; Mundis, R.L.; Marmer, G.J.; Peterson, J.M.; Siskind, B.; Kikta, M.J.

1979-12-01

58

Particle-accelerator decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Generic considerations involved in decommissioning particle accelerators are examined. There are presently several hundred accelerators operating in the United States that can produce material containing nonnegligible residual radioactivity. Residual radioactivity after final shutdown is generally short-lived induced activity and is localized in hot spots around the beam line. The decommissioning options addressed are mothballing, entombment, dismantlement with interim storage, and dismantlement with disposal. The recycle of components or entire accelerators following dismantlement is a definite possibility and has occurred in the past. Accelerator components can be recycled either immediately at accelerator shutdown or following a period of storage, depending on the nature of induced activation. Considerations of cost, radioactive waste, and radiological health are presented for four prototypic accelerators. Prototypes considered range from small accelerators having minimal amounts of radioactive mmaterial to a very large accelerator having massive components containing nonnegligible amounts of induced activation. Archival information on past decommissionings is presented, and recommendations concerning regulations and accelerator design that will aid in the decommissioning of an accelerator are given

59

Decontamination and decommissioning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The project scope of work included the complete decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of the Westinghouse ARD Fuel Laboratories at the Cheswick Site in the shortest possible time. This has been accomplished in the following four phases: (1) preparation of documents and necessary paperwork; packaging and shipping of all special nuclear materials in an acceptable form to a reprocessing agency; (2) decontamination of all facilities, glove boxes and equipment; loading of generated waste into bins, barrels and strong wooden boxes; (3) shipping of all bins, barrels and boxes containing waste to the designated burial site; removal of all utility services from the laboratories; and (4) final survey of remaining facilities and certification for nonrestricted use; preparation of final report. These four phases of work were conducted in accordance with applicable regulations for D and D of research facilities and applicable regulations for packaging, transportation, and burial and storage of radioactive materials. The final result is that the Advanced Fuel Laboratories now meet requirements of ANSI 13.12 and can be released for unrestricted use. The four principal documents utilized in the D and D of the Cheswick Site were: (1) Plan for Fully Decontaminating and Decommissioning, Revision 3; (2) Environmental Assessment for Decontaminating and Decommissioning the Westinghouse Advanced Reactors Division Plutonium Fuel Laboratories, Cheswick, Pa.; (3) WARD-386, Quality Assurance Program Description for Decontaminating and Decommissioning Activities; and (4) Health Physics, Fire Control, and Site Emergency Manual. These documents are provided as Attachments 1, 2, 3 and 4.

Adams, G.A.; Bowen, W.C.; Cromer, P.M.; Cwynar, J.C.; Jacoby, W.R.; Woodsum, H.G.

1982-02-01

60

WAGR decommissioning manipulator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper summarises the design of a manipulator which is to be used to remotely decommission Windscale's Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor. Its design follows principles established in previous manipulators produced for the CEGB. The manipulator carried various cutting tools and their design and development are also described. (author)

 
 
 
 
61

Decontamination and decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The project scope of work included the complete decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of the Westinghouse ARD Fuel Laboratories at the Cheswick Site in the shortest possible time. This has been accomplished in the following four phases: (1) preparation of documents and necessary paperwork; packaging and shipping of all special nuclear materials in an acceptable form to a reprocessing agency; (2) decontamination of all facilities, glove boxes and equipment; loading of generated waste into bins, barrels and strong wooden boxes; (3) shipping of all bins, barrels and boxes containing waste to the designated burial site; removal of all utility services from the laboratories; and (4) final survey of remaining facilities and certification for nonrestricted use; preparation of final report. These four phases of work were conducted in accordance with applicable regulations for D and D of research facilities and applicable regulations for packaging, transportation, and burial and storage of radioactive materials. The final result is that the Advanced Fuel Laboratories now meet requirements of ANSI 13.12 and can be released for unrestricted use. The four principal documents utilized in the D and D of the Cheswick Site were: (1) Plan for Fully Decontaminating and Decommissioning, Revision 3; (2) Environmental Assessment for Decontaminating and Decommissioning the Westinghouse Advanced Reactors Division Plutonium Fuel Laboratories, Cheswick, Pa.; (3) WARD-386, Quality Assurance Program Description for Decontaminating and Decommissioning Activities; and (4) Health Physics, Fire Control, and Site Emergency Manual. These documents are provided as Attachments 1, 2, 3 and 4

62

CNEA decommissioning program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: According to chapter I, Art. 2.e of the National Law Nr. 24804 ruling nuclear activities in Argentina, CNEA is responsible for determining the procedure for decommissioning Nuclear Power Plants and any other relevant radioactive facilities'. The implementation the Nuclear Law, states that CNEA is responsible for deactivation and decommissioning of all relevant radioactive facilities in the country, at end of life. Consequently CNEA have created the D and D Branch in order to perform this activity. It is important point out that none of the 28 nuclear installations in Argentina is undergoing decommissioning. Nevertheless planning stages prior decommissioning have been started with the criterion of prioritising those that will probably generate the greatest volume of radioactive waste. Decommissioning plan for research reactors and Atucha I Nuclear Power Plant, radiological characterization, decontamination and treatment of miscellaneous equipment and components of the Atucha I Nuclear Power Plant and old installations are being carry out. The main task is to get the technical capability of the steps which must be followed. In order to accomplish this objective the main activities are: a) Coordinates the training of personnel and organizes the experience and technical knowledge already existing in CNEA and members of the Argentinean nuclear sector; b) Coordinates a R and D program on D and D technologies; c) Establishes close links with the operators of nuclear facilities, whose participation both in planning and in actual D and D work is considered extremely important; d)Preliminary planning and radiological characterization of significant nuclear installations. This paper summarizes general aspects of the activities which are currently in progress. (author)

63

Decommissioning in western Europe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report gives an overview of the situation in Western Europe. The original aim was to focus on organisational and human issues with regard to nuclear reactor decommissioning, but very few articles were found. This is in sharp contrast to the substantial literature on technical issues. While most of the reports on decommissioning have a technical focus, several provide information on regulatory issues, strategies and 'state of the art'. The importance of the human and organizational perspective is however discovered, when reading between the lines of the technical publications, and especially when project managers summarize lessons learned. The results are to a large extent based on studies of articles and reports, mainly collected from the INIS database. Decommissioning of nuclear facilities started already in the sixties, but then mainly research and experimental facilities were concerned. Until now about 70 reactors have been shutdown world-wide. Over the years there have been plenty of conferences for exchanging experiences mostly about technical matters. Waste Management is a big issue. In the 2000s there will be a wave of decommissioning when an increasing amount of reactors will reach the end of their calculated lifetime (40 years, a figure now being challenged by both life-extension and pre-shutdown projects). Several reactors have been shut-down for economical reasons. Shutdown and decommissioning is however not identical. A long period of time can sometimes pass before an owner decides to decommission and dismantle a facility. The conditions will also differ depending on the strategy, 'immediate dismantling' or 'safe enclosure'. If immediate dismantling is chosen the site can reach 'green-field status' in less than ten years. 'Safe enclosure', however, seems to be the most common strategy. There are several pathways, but in general a safe store is constructed, enabling the active parts to remain in safe and waterproof conditions for a longer period of time (sometimes hundred years or more), prior to final demolition. Among the reasons for deferring the dismantling are lack of waste repositories and decreasing dose-rates for the workers. Of Europe's 218 commercial reactors in operation, the majority, 151, are located i the Western part. The biggest producers are France, United Kingdom and Germany, with 58, 35 and 20 reactors respectively. Until now mostly research- and pilot reactors have been shut-down. There are yet few experiences from decommissioning of large-scale commercial reactors. The following commercial reactors are undergoing decommissioning. (There are also a great amount of nuclear facilities of other types being decommissioned.) The three gas-cooled twin reactor plants of Berkeley, Trawsfynydd and Hunterston in UK. In Germany Gundremmingen, Lingen, Kahl and Wuergassen are being decommissioned. All of them are located in the Western part of the country. The biggest project is however the dismantling of the gigantic Greifswald facility situated on the coast of the Baltic see in former Eastern Germany. The plant has eight Russian built reactors of VVER-type. Like the rest of the former GDR-plants Greifswald was shutdown after the reunification in 1990. The strategy chosen is immediate dismantling. France is decommissioning seven reactors (Chooz A1, Chinon A1, A2, A3, St Laurent A1, A2 and Bugey 1.) The oldest, Chinon A1, closed down in 1973 and the youngest, Bugey 1, in 1994. Italy closed down all NPPs (altogether four) in 1987 after a referendum. The first reactor of the Netherlands was shutdown in 1997 mainly for economical reasons. The development of a free European electricity market will make it less profitable to run certain facilities. Vandelos 1 in Spain is undergoing decommissioning after a fire in the turbines in 1989. IAEA, OECD/NEA and EU are co-operating in the field of decommissioning. Much work is spent on harmonizing rules and preparing international guidelines. The international agencies now consider decommissioning of nuclear facilities to be technically unproblematic. Decommissi

64

Geophysical study of the Building 103 Dump, Aberdeen Proving Ground  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Building 103 Dump is one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek and Westwood areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, resistivity, ground-penetrating radar, and seismic refraction, were conducted. These surveys indicate that much of the area is free of debris. However, prominent magnetic and resistivity anomalies occur along well-defined lineaments, suggestive of a dendritic stream pattern. Prior to the onset of dumping, the site was described as a ``sand pit,`` which suggests that headward erosion of Canal Creek tributaries cut into the surficial aquifer. Contaminants dumped into the landfill would have direct access to the surficial aquifer and thus to Canal Creek. Seismic refraction profiling indicates 6--12 ft of fill material now rests on the former land surface. Only the northern third of the former landfill was geophysically surveyed.

McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.

1992-12-01

65

Decommissioning project management unit started its activities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Decommissioning Project Management Unit team comprises western experts as well as experts from INPP Decommissioning Service who all work as a single team. The DPMU will develop the Final Decommissioning Plan and a more detailed Decommissioning Project, which will describe how the plant will be removed from service and safely decommissioned

66

Ethics of nuclear decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

What to do with the numerous reactors that reach the end of their operating lives over the next 30 years involves ethical issues of an intergenerational kind. This essay examines various nuclear decommissioning options in the light of the ethical issues. Prompt dismantlement seems preferable to other options involving postponed dismantlement, entombment of some kind or doing nothing. It would avoid bequeathing future generations with the disamenity of entombed reactors or responsibility for dismantling other disused reactors. The choice of option also depends on the health risks through time and whether a sufficient decommissioning fund exists to avoid handing down debt and constrained choice. There is a strong case for supporting research and development from public funds to develop the technology and reduce both the health risks and the costs, especially if dismantlement is left to a future generation. (author)

67

INTERNATIONAL DECOMMISSIONING SYMPOSIUM 2000  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of IDS 2000 was to deliver a world-class conference on applicable global environmental issues. The objective of this conference was to publicize environmental progress of individual countries, to provide a forum for technology developer and problem-holder interaction, to facilitate environmental and technology discussions between the commercial and financial communities, and to accommodate information and education exchange between governments, industries, universities, and scientists. The scope of this project included the planning and execution of an international conference on the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, and the providing of a business forum for vendors and participants sufficient to attract service providers, technology developers, and the business and financial communities. These groups, when working together with attendees from regulatory organizations and government decision-maker groups, provide an opportunity to more effectively and efficiently expedite the decommissioning projects.

M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

2001-01-01

68

Tradução e adaptação cultural do Questionário Aberdeen para Veias Varicosas / Translation and cultural adaptation of Aberdeen Varicose Veins Questionnaire  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese CONTEXTO: Atualmente há um crescente interesse por instrumentos de avaliação em saúde produzidos e validados em todo o mundo. Apesar disso, ainda não temos no Brasil instrumentos que avaliem o impacto da doença venosa crônica na vida de seu portador. Para utilização dessas medidas torna-se necessári [...] a a realização da tradução e da adaptação cultural ao idioma em questão. OBJETIVO: Traduzir e adaptar culturalmente para a população brasileira o Aberdeen Varicose Veins Questionnaire (AVVQ- Brasil). MÉTODOS: O processo consistiu de duas traduções e duas retrotraduções realizadas por tradutores independentes, da avaliação das versões seguida da elaboração de versão consensual e de pré-teste comentado. RESULTADOS: Os pacientes do pré-teste eram do sexo feminino, com média de idade de 49,9 anos, média de tempo de resposta 7,73 minutos, que variou entre 4,55 minutos (tempo mínimo) a 10,13 minutos (tempo máximo). Escolaridade: 20% analfabetismo funcional, 1º grau completo e 2º grau completo; 30% 1º grau incompleto; e 10% 3º grau completo. Gravidade clínica 40% C3 e C6S, 10% C2 e C5, havendo cinco termos incompreendidos na aplicação. CONCLUSÕES: A versão na língua portuguesa do Aberdeen Varicose Veins Questionnaire está traduzida e adaptada para uso na população brasileira, podendo ser utilizada após posterior análise de suas propriedades clinimétricas. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Currently there is a growing interest in health assessment tools produced and validated throughout the world. Nevertheless, it is still inadequate the number of instruments that assess the impact of chronic venous disease in the life of its bearer. To use these measures it is necessary t [...] o accomplish the translation and cultural adaptation to the language in question. OBJECTIVE: Translate to Portuguese and culturally adapted for the Brazilian population the Aberdeen Varicose Veins Questionnaire (AVVQ-Brazil). METHODS: The process consisted of two translations and two back-translations performed by freelance translators, then the evaluation versions of the development of consensual version and commented pretest. RESULTS: The patients in the pre-test were female, mean age 49.9 years, average response time of 7.73 minutes, which ranged from 4.55 minutes (minimum) to 10.13 minutes (maximum time). Education: 20% functional illiteracy and first and second complete degrees; 30% first incomplete degree, and 10% third complete degree. Clinical severity: 40% C3 and C6s, 10% C2 and C5, with five misunderstood terms in the application. CONCLUSION: The Portuguese version of the Aberdeen Varicose Veins Questionnaire has been translated and adapted for use in the Brazilian population, and can be used after further analysis of their clinimetric properties, which is underway.

Flávia de Jesus, Leal; Renata Cardoso, Couto; Guilherme Benjamin Brandão, Pitta; Priscilla Tosatti Ferreira, Leite; Larissa Maranhão, Costa; Wesley J. F., Higino; Marina Sandrelle Correia de, Sousa.

69

Fort St. Vrain decommissioning project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCo), owner of the Fort St. Vrain nuclear generating station, achieved its final decommissioning goal on August 5, 1997 when the Nuclear Regulatory Commission terminated the Part 50 reactor license. PSCo pioneered and completed the world's first successful decommissioning of a commercial nuclear power plant after many years of operation. In August 1989, PSCo decided to permanently shutdown the reactor and proceed with its decommissioning. The decision to proceed with early dismantlement as the appropriate decommissioning method proved wise for all stake holders - present and future - by mitigating potential environmental impacts and reducing financial risks to company shareholders, customers, employees, neighboring communities and regulators. We believe that PSCo's decommissioning process set an exemplary standard for the world's nuclear industry and provided leadership, innovation, advancement and distinguished contributions to other decommissioning efforts throughout the world. (author)

70

Decommissioning of nuclear power facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is the first manual in Ukraine giving the complete review of the decommissioning process of the nuclear power facilities including the issues of the planning, design documentation development, advanced technology description. On the base of the international and domestic experience, the issues on the radwaste management, the decontamination methods, the equipment dismantling, the remote technology application, and also the costs estimate at decommissioning are considered. The special attention to the personnel safety provision, population and environment at decommissioning process is paid

71

The decommissioning of nuclear facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

tablishing a global safety regime on decommissioning, towards harmonization of nuclear safety practices in Europe: W.E.N.R.A. and the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, EPA superfund program policy for decontamination and decommissioning, progress with remediation at Sellafield, progress and experiences from the decommissioning of the Eurochemic reprocessing plant in Belgium, activities of I.R.S.N. and its daughter company Risk-audit I.r.s.n./G.r.s. international in the field of decommissioning of nuclear facilities in eastern countries,; the fifth part presents the external points of view on dismantling with: the decommissioning of Saint-Laurent A, as seen by the local information committee, decommissioning: the urge for a public consultation, an evaluation of the work of the 'conseil superieur de la surete et de linformation nucleaire' (C.S.S.I.N.) - a consultative body dealing with information in the field of nuclear safety) on the issue of decommissioning basic nuclear installations, monitoring the decommissioning of nuclear facilities and examining applications. (N.C.)

72

Recordkeeping in the decommissioning process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the US, there are two sets of key decommissioning records clearly identified -- those that are essential for planning the D and D of a facility and then those that are the result of the decommissioning process itself. In some cases, the regulatory authorities require and in others advise the licensees of the records that may be useful or which are required to be kept from the decommissioning. In the remainder of the paper, the author attempts to highlight some important aspects of decommissioning recordkeeping

73

Decommissioning of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities. Safety Guide (Spanish Version)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Safety Guide sets out recommendations relating to the decommissioning of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Key issues specific to decommissioning; 3. Selection of a decommissioning option; 4. Facilitating decommissioning; 5. Planning and safety assessment for decommissioning; 6. Critical decommissioning tasks; 7. Management during decommissioning; 8. Completion of decommissioning; Annex: Example of the contents of the final radiological survey report.

74

RMI decommissioning project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The RMI Titanium Company (RMI) Extrusion Plant, owned and operated by RMI is contaminated with both radiological and hazardous materials resulting from previous operations for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The primary function of RMI, since 1962, has been the extrusion and closed-die forging of metallic depleted, natural, and slightly enriched uranium (U) used in the production of nuclear fuel elements for defense production reactors, extrusion operations for other government agencies, and the private sector. Extrusion of uranium ended in September 1988 and other extrusion operations ceased n October 1990. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has identified the RMI Plant as one of 46 existing inactive nuclear material processing facilities required to implement accelerated site clean-up pursuant to its Site Decommissioning Management Plan (SDMP). The US Environmental Protect Agency (USEPA) has issued RMI a Resource Conservation existing Corrective Action Management Unit (CAMU). DOE's Office of Environmental Restoration and removing all radiological and hazardous contaminants to levels which permit the facility and adjacent areas to be released for unrestricted use. This action will allow termination of RMI licenses and closure of the CAMU located on and adjacent to RMI's property. This paper will provide an overview of the project and preparations for conducting the physical decommissioning activities including: (1) Radiological and hazardous material charactediological and hazardous material characterization of the site; (2) Waste minimization and volume reduction alternatives considered; (3) Waste disposal alternatives considered; (4) NEPA compliance requirements; (5) EPA compliance requirements [Correctives Measures Study]; (6) NRC compliance requirements [Decommissioning Plan]. The paper will also discuss the project organization and the regulatory interfaces required for the project

75

Remote Decommissioning Experiences at Sellafield  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

British Nuclear Group has demonstrated through delivery of significant decommissioning projects the ability to effectively deploy innovative remote decommissioning technologies and deliver cost effective solutions. This has been achieved through deployment and development of off-the-shelf technologies and design of bespoke equipment. For example, the worlds first fully remotely operated Brokk was successfully deployed to enable fully remote dismantling, packaging and export of waste during the decommissioning of a pilot reprocessing facility. British Nuclear Group has also successfully implemented remote decommissioning systems to enable the decommissioning of significant challenges, including dismantling of a Caesium Extraction Facility, Windscale Pile Chimney and retrieval of Plutonium Contaminated Material (PCM) from storage cells. The challenge for the future is to continue to innovate through utilization of the supply chain and deploy off-the-shelf technologies which have been demonstrated in other industry sectors, thus reducing implementation schedules, cost and maintenance. (authors)

76

Designing Reactors to Facilitate Decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Critics of nuclear power often cite issues with tail-end-of-the-fuel-cycle activities as reasons to oppose the building of new reactors. In fact, waste disposal and the decommissioning of large nuclear reactors have proven more challenging than anticipated. In the early days of the nuclear power industry the design and operation of various reactor systems was given a great deal of attention. Little effort, however, was expended on end-of-the-cycle activities, such as decommissioning and disposal of wastes. As early power and test reactors have been decommissioned difficulties with end-of-the-fuel-cycle activities have become evident. Even the small test reactors common at the INEEL were not designed to facilitate their eventual decontamination, decommissioning, and dismantlement. The results are that decommissioning of these facilities is expensive, time consuming, relatively hazardous, and generates large volumes of waste. This situation clearly supports critics concerns about building a new generation of power reactors

77

Financing nuclear power plant decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Much is at stake in developing a financial strategy for decommissioning nuclear power plants. Since decommissioning experience is limited to relatively small reactors, will the costs associated with larger reactors be significantly higher. Certainly the decommissioning issue intersects with other critical issues that will help to determine the future of commercial nuclear power in the US. The author examines briefly the basic concepts and terms related to decommissioning expenses, namely: (1) segregated fund; (2) non-segregated fund; (3) external method; and (4) internal method. He concludes that state regulatory commissions have turned increasingly to the external funding method because of increasing costs and related problems associated with nuclear power, changing conditions and uncertainties concerned with utility restructuring, and recent changes in federal tax laws related to decommissioning. Further, this trend is likely to continue if financial assurance remains a primary concern of regulators to protect this public interest

78

Design improvements to facilitate decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Inclusion of decommissioning requirements in nuclear plant design is of increasing interest throughout the industry. Numerous reports and studies have highlighted the cost and difficulties involved in decommissioning of present nuclear plants. It is generally agreed that decommissioning requirements and considerations should be made part of the design process. However, it is difficult to make plans for decommissioning because of both the long time period for economic amortization of a plant and the probable development of improved decommissioning techniques during that period. It is recognized that it is important to prepare proper designs for decommissioning, including additional provisions for decontamination, dismantling and disposal of equipment and structures. However, when considering decommissioning in the design process it is also necessary to investigate what can be done to improve designs for decommissioning without adding front-end costs. Responsible operation of nuclear power plants implies the obligation to provide for the orderly decommissioning and dismantling of these installations at the end of their service life. Viable solutions of the problems involved have to be developed, especially since the number of nuclear installations worldwide is growing and many of these are reaching the end of their service life. Such measures have to satisfy a wide range of requirements while demanding a specific technical approach. Plants have to be decommissioned and dismantled safely, so the solutions adopted have to take into account radiological considerations, physical factors and material features. The protection of human life and of the environment, and compliance with the statutory requirements are of paramount importance. A number of design features provided to facilitate plant operation and maintenance are also beneficial to the ultimate dismantling of nuclear power plants. These issues are discussed in the paper. (author). 4 figs, 2 tabs

79

Decommissioning of VHTRC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

JAERI modified the Semi-Homogeneous Experimental Critical Assembly (SHE) which had been used for reactor physical experiments of graphite moderated reactor since January 1961 to the Very High Temperature Reactor Critical Assembly (VHTRC) in 1985 in order to carry out nuclear safety evaluation etc. for the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). Since HTTR, which was constructed in the Oarai Research Establishment, achieved criticality in November 1998, JAERI decided to decommissioning VHTRC in 1999. The decommissioning project is planned to perform in two stages. At the first stage sampling and analysis were carried out for comparison of calculated results. Following these activities, reactor instruments, reactor control system and reactor itself were dismantled. The first stage was completed in FY2000. At the second stage, radiation shielding blocks and reactor building will be dismantled completely to green field conditions. These activities will be carried out after the clearance level is legislated in Japan. The first stage activities, which are the site characterization, radioactive inventory evaluation, surface contamination measurements for releasing the control room and the machine room from radiation controlled area to unrestricted area, neutron activation estimation on the basis of theoretical calculations, sampling and analyses of reactor components, and dismantling of reactor etc., are described in this report. (author)

80

Bioeconomic model and selection indices in Aberdeen Angus cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

A bioeconomic model was developed to calculate economic values for biological traits in full-cycle production systems and propose selection indices based on selection criteria used in the Brazilian Aberdeen Angus genetic breeding programme (PROMEBO). To assess the impact of changes in the performance of the traits on the profit of the production system, the initial values ??of the traits were increased by 1%. The economic values for number of calves weaned (NCW) and slaughter weight (SW) were, respectively, R$ 6.65 and R$ 1.43/cow/year. The selection index at weaning showed a 44.77% emphasis on body weight, 14.24% for conformation, 30.36% for early maturing and 10.63% for muscle development. The eighteen-month index showed emphasis of 77.61% for body weight, 4.99% for conformation, 11.09% for early maturing, 6.10% for muscle development and 0.22% for scrotal circumference. NCW showed highest economic impact, and SW had important positive effect on the economics of the production system. The selection index proposed can be used by breeders and should contribute to greater profitability. PMID:24438200

Campos, G S; Braccini Neto, J; Oaigen, R P; Cardoso, F F; Cobuci, J A; Kern, E L; Campos, L T; Bertoli, C D; McManus, C M

2014-08-01

 
 
 
 
81

Environmental geophysics at Beach Point, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Geophysical studies at Beach Point Peninsula, in the Edgewood area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, provide diagnostic signatures of the hydrogeologic framework and possible contaminant pathways. These studies permit construction of the most reasonable scenario linking dense, nonaqueous-phase liquid contaminants introduced at the surface with their pathway through the surficial aquifer. Subsurface geology and contaminant presence were identified by drilling, outcrop mapping, and groundwater sampling and analyses. Suspected sources of near-surface contaminants were defined by magnetic and conductivity measurements. Negative conductivity anomalies may be associated with unlined trenches. Positive magnetic and conductivity anomalies outline suspected tanks and pipes. The anomalies of greatest concern are those spatially associated with a concrete slab that formerly supported a mobile clothing impregnating plant. Resistivity and conductivity profiling and depth soundings were used to identify an electrical anomaly extending through the surficial aquifer to the basal pleistocene unconformity, which was mapped by using seismic reflection methods. The anomaly may be representative of a contaminant plume connected to surficial sources. Major activities in the area included liquid rocket fuel tests, rocket fuel fire suppression tests, pyrotechnic material and smoke generator tests, and the use of solvents at a mobile clothing impregnating plant.

McGinnis, L.D.; Daudt, C.R.; Thompson, M.D.; Miller, S.F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Reclamation Engineering and Geosciences Section; Mandell, W.A. [Jacobs Engineering Group, Inc., Washington, DC (United States); Wrobel, J. [Dept. of Defense, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)

1994-07-01

82

An air quality survey and emissions inventory at Aberdeen Harbour  

Science.gov (United States)

A network of 10 stations, with passive sampling for VOCs (including benzene), NO 2, and SO 2, over 2-week periods, grab sampling for CO, and 48-h pumped sampling for PM 10, was set up to make an air quality survey for 12 months around Aberdeen Harbour. Benzene, CO, SO 2 and PM 10 were always well below the AQS target values. However, NO 2 frequently showed a pronounced gradient across the harbour reaching its highest concentrations at the city end, indicating that the road traffic was the principal source of the pollution. This was backed up by the predominance of aromatics in the VOCs in the city centre, derived from petrol engined vehicles, compared to the predominance of alkanes and alkenes around the docks, derived from diesel engined heavy trucks and possibly ships. Black carbon on the PM 10 filters also showed a gradient with highest levels in the city centre. It is proposed that for such surveys in future, NO 2 and black carbon would be the two most informative parameters. This emissions inventory has shown first, that trucks contribute very little to the total, and second, that the ro-ro ferries are the major contributors as they burn light fuel oil while the oil platform supply vessels burn low-sulphur marine gas oil with around 0.1% S. When the whole picture of the emissions from the city is considered, the emissions from the harbour constitute only a small part.

Marr, I. L.; Rosser, D. P.; Meneses, C. A.

83

Depleted uranium risk assessment at Aberdeen Proving Ground  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Environmental Science Group at Los Alamos and the Test and Evaluation Command (TECOM) are assessing the risk of depleted uranium (DU) testing at Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG). Conceptual and mathematical models of DU transfer through the APG ecosystem have been developed in order to show the mechanisms by which DU migrates or remains unavailable to different flora and fauna and to humans. The models incorporate actual rates of DU transfer between different ecosystem components as much as possible. Availability of data on DU transport through different pathways is scarce and constrains some of the transfer rates that can be used. Estimates of transfer rates were derived from literature sources and used in the mass-transfer models when actual transfer rates were unavailable. Objectives for this risk assessment are (1) to assess if DU transports away from impact areas; (2) to estimate how much, if any, DU migrates into Chesapeake Bay; (3) to determine if there are appreciable risks to the ecosystems due to DU testing; (4) to estimate the risk to human health as a result of DU testing

84

Funding Decommissioning - UK Experience  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

'Funding' started with CEGB and SSEB (state-owned electric utilities) in 1976 using the internal un-segregated fund route (i.e unfunded). This continued until privatisation of electricity industry (excluding nuclear) in 1990. Assets bought with the internal un-segregated fund were mostly transferred into non-nuclear private utilities. New state-owned Nuclear Electric (England and Wales) was given a 'Fossil Fuel Levy', a consumer charge of 10% on retail bills, amounting to c. BP 1 bn. annually. This allowed Nuclear Electric to trade legally (A reserve of BP 2.5 bn. was available from Government if company ran out of money). By 1996 the newer nuclear stations (AGRS plus PWR) were privatised as British Energy. British Energy started an external segregated fund, the Nuclear Decommissioning Fund, with a starting endowment of c. BP 225 m. - and BE made annual contributions of British Pound 16 m. into the Fund. Assumptions were that BE had 70 to accumulate cash and could get a 3.5% average annual real return. Older stations (Magnox) were left in private sector and went to BNFL in 1997. Magnox inherited the surplus cash in BE - mostly unspent Fossil Fuel Levy receipts - of c. BP 2.6 bn. Government gave an 'Undertaking' to pay BP 3.8 bn. (escalating at 4.5% real annually) for Magnox liabilities, should Magnox Electric run out of cash. BNFL inherited the BP 2.6 bn. and by 2000 had a 'Nuclear Liabilities Investment Portfolio' of c. BP 4 bn. This was a quasi-segregated internal fund for liabilities in general. [Note: overall UK nuclear liabilities in civilian sector were running at c. BP 48 bn. by now]. BE started profitable and paid BP 100 m. annually in dividends to private investors for several years. BE ran into severe financial problems after 2001 and Government organised restructuring aid, now approved by European Commission. Terms include: - BE now to contribute BP 20 m. a year into an expanded Nuclear Liabilities Fund; - A bond issue of BP 275 m. to go to Fund; - 65% of all BE free cash flow to go to the Fund; - Government would pay for all Stage 1/2/3 decommissioning expenses that BE could not meet. BE is still a private company in a formal sense but the UK Office of National Statistics classifies it as a public sector company, because it regards control (not ownership) as in State hands. Government is now setting up the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) to manage all public sector liabilities. Intention was to have a 'segregated account' to help give assurance that funding would be long-term and reliable. First draft Annual Plan does not mention segregation or any funding commitment beyond the first year (2005/6). The BNFL NLIP will presumably go to the Treasury. NLIP will presumably go to the Treasury. In conclusion, it is clean that the decommissioning funding system has been short term and has relied mainly on Government. Some consumer contributions have been made, but now that nuclear power competes in a private market place and is relatively expensive, there is no guarantee that consumers/polluters will pay for a significant proportion of decommissioning costs

85

Shippingport station decommissioning project start of physical decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Shippingport Atomic Power Station (SAPS) consists of the nuclear steam supply system and associated radioactive waste processing systems, which are owned by the United States Department of Energy (DOE), and the turbine-generator and balance of plant, which is owned by the Duquesne Light Company. The station is located at Shippingport, Pennsylvania on seven acres of land leased by DOE from Duquesne Light Company. The Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project (SSDP) is being performed under contract to the DOE by the General Electric Company and its integrated subcontractor, Morrison-Knudsen Company, as the Decommissioning Operations Contractor (DOC). This paper describes the current status of the physical decommissioning work, which started September 1985. The preparations required to start a major decommissioning work effort in a safe and cost effective manner are discussed including the development of integrated detailed schedules, manpower and cost estimates, and implementation of a cost/schedule control system. The detailed plan required to ensure that people, property, and procedures are ready in sufficient time to support the start of physical decommissioning is also discussed. The total estimated cost of the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project should be $98.3 M, with the Project scheduled for completion in April 1990. As the decommissioning of the first commercial-scale nuclear power plant, the Shippingport Project is expected to set the standard for safe, cost-effective demolition of nuclear plants

86

Planning for decommissioning of Hifar  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) has operated the 10MW HIFAR research reactor since 1958. In addition to its role in research, the reactor provides radioisotopes for medical and industrial use and is a major supplier of NTD silicon for the semi-conductor industry. It is anticipated that HIFAR will finally shut down operations in December 2006. Although ANSTO has successfully decommissioned MOATA and undertaken other smaller decommissioning projects the proposed HIFAR decommissioning project will be the largest ever undertaken by ANSTO. ANSTO faces a number of challenges in HIFAR's final year of operation. These include: the establishment of a modern decommissioning strategy in the absence of a long-term nuclear waste repository management facility or waste acceptance criteria for the material generated by the decommissioning; the impact of the impeding closure of the facility on staff morale and retention of key staff; and to meet the our customer's needs up to the final closure. These challenges are compounded by competition for skilled resources required to commission the new research reactor (OPAL) and the need to continue to supply radioisotopes. Important 'lessons in progress' that will be discussed in this paper include staffing the decommissioning team, maintenance of a strong safety culture during final stages of operation, working towards regulatory approval for decommissioning and strategies for knowledge retention. (author)rategies for knowledge retention. (author)

87

International Radiation Safety Recommendations on Decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The IAEA Safety Standards for decommissioning state that the regulatory body shall establish requirements for the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, including conditions on the end points of decommissioning. One of the main important issues is that the operator shall be responsible for all aspects of safety of the facility during its lifetime, including the decommissioning activities. The paper mainly addresses the activities associated with the decommissioning of research reactors, primarily with decommissioning after planned final shutdown. It is intended to provide guidance to national authorities and operating organizations for the planning and safe management of the decommissioning of such installations. (author)

88

Investigations on the decommissioning of nuclear facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study discusses and evaluates safety and licensing related aspects associated with the decommissioning of nuclear power plants. Important decommissioning projects and experiences with relevance to decommissioning are analyzed. Recent developments in the field of decommissioning techniques with the potential of reducing the occupational dose to decommissioning workers are described and their range of application is discussed. The radiological consequences of the recycling of scrap metal arising during decommissioning are assessed. The results may be used to evaluate present licensing practices and may be useful for future licensing procedures. Finally the environmental impact of radionuclide release via air and water pathways associated with decommissioning activities is estimated. (orig.)

89

Approaches to estimating decommissioning costs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The chronological development of methodology for estimating the cost of nuclear reactor power station decommissioning is traced from the mid-1970s through 1990. Three techniques for developing decommissioning cost estimates are described. The two viable techniques are compared by examining estimates developed for the same nuclear power station using both methods. The comparison shows that the differences between the estimates are due largely to differing assumptions regarding the size of the utility and operating contractor overhead staffs. It is concluded that the two methods provide bounding estimates on a range of manageable costs, and provide reasonable bases for the utility rate adjustments necessary to pay for future decommissioning costs. 6 refs

90

Decommissioning of TRIGA research reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of the TRIGA Mark-II and III will be a new era for the safe development of nuclear industries in Korea. The design phase of the D and D project will be carried out by a domestic engineering company associated with foreign experienced one. This strategy will give us an opportunity for the solid development of the decommissioning technologies. These experiences and the compilation of the documents will be applied for the decontamination and decommissioning of the commercial nuclear power plants in Korea. (author). 4 refs., 13 tabs., 6 figs

91

Decommissioning Cost Assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The future costs for dismantling, decommissioning and handling of associated radioactive waste of nuclear installations represents substantial liabilities. It is the generations that benefits from the use of nuclear installations that shall carry the financial burden. Nuclear waste programmes have occasionally encountered set-backs related to the trust from society. This has resulted in delayed, redirected or halted activities, which has the common denominator of costs increases. In modern democratic countries, information sharing, knowledge transfer and open communication about costs for the management of radioactive waste are prerequisites for the task to develop modern methods for public participation and thus to develop well-founded and justified confidence for further development of nuclear energy. Nuclear and radiation safety Authorities have a clear role to provide unbiased information on any health, safety, financial and environmental related issues. This task requires a good understanding of the values and opinion of the public, and especially those of the younger generation

92

Decommissioning of Radiotherapy Facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ion such a unit without expert help It is essential to have specialist tools and shielded containers to recover the source out of the unit. It is strongly recommended to invite the source removal specialist for a site visit to review the situation before starting any decommissioning process. A further problem can occur, if the source must be transported to a national storage centre or even an international storage facility, as the source must be packaged to meet international transport requirements. The end state of such a project should be an empty room where the source is brought out safely within the type-tested container, typically type B. Decontamination of the room will be necessary if a sealed source has leaked, but this is very rare. If a source is leaking, the contamination can be very high and present a high risk to employees and workers due to high dose rates. Some therapy units are additionally shielded with depleted uranium or the source holder is fitted with collimators which are made of depleted uranium. The uranium shielding can cause some minor contamination of the shielded source housing or on the floor. A check should be made for any minor contamination using a surface contamination monitor or wipe tests. The risks of contamination from these sources are small, but can result in the prevention of the free release of the room. A decommissioning plan should be drafted following consultation with the regulator or the decommissioning specialist may undertake this task on behalf of the facility. Normally the specialist contractor will provide a health and safety plan for approval by the regulator and the customer. The decommissioning task of source removal and transport will in general take about 2 to 3 days, but the planning and preparatory work can take several weeks. The amount of preparatory work involved depends mainly of the transport regulations for the source in the type-tested containers and the preparatory work for infrastructures that will be required for decommissioning. Identification of infrastructure and resources. Before dismantling a teletherapy unit, a check should be made that the electrical supply remains connected and that the lighting is both functional and adequate. This will help to accelerate the working process on the unit. Before attempting to move the teletherapy source of unit outside of the building, ensure that the route to be used through the facility is passable (dimensions of doors, floors, etc.) and that the engineering structure of the pathway is sufficient to support the weight of the source or unit (e.g. maximum load limit of floors or lifts). The units and shielding containers can be very heavy because of the shielding material. A typical weight is more than one tonne and closer to three tonnes is more usual. If the infrastructure is not sufficient to support these weights, a specialist constructional engineer should be contacted for advice. It may be necessary to find an alternate method to bring the source or unit out of the building; e.g. bring the unit or container out via the ground floor using mobile cranes or hoists or fork-lifts. The dismantling of the unit is done by specialists who will be familiar with the unit type and will have available the correct specialist tools, mostly manufactured and sold by the manufacturers of the teletherapy machines. There are essentially three steps to dismantling: -Dismantling of the unit in order to gain access to the source; -Transfer of the source in its shielded housing into the transport container; -Demolition of the rest of the unit. Sometimes step (b) is modified and the whole therapy head is transported inside a special over-pack (type BU). In this case, the source remains in the unit head and does not need to be taken out. Normally no radioactive waste will be produced from decommissioning of teletherapy facilities. If contamination is found, there will be secondary waste produced in the form of absorbent paper sheets or textiles from wet cleaning, disposal protective clothing or concrete from the surface of the irrad

93

Economic aspects of the US NPP decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Economic aspects of NPP decommissioning is briefly described. High labour cost during NPP decommissioning is marked. In USA emergency funds foreseen by the state legislation are organized for these purposes. Reactors of different types are enumerated, which are decommissioned in USA to 1983. Economical factors of reactor decommissioning, preparation for reactor lay-up, annual lay-up and decommissioning expenses after 30-year lay-up are given

94

Decommissioning of the Loviisa NPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fortum Power and Heat Oy has revised the decommissioning plan for the Loviisa Nuclear Power Plant (Loviisa 1 and Loviisa 2) by the end of 2003. The lifetime of the power plant has been planned to be extended to 50 years in the decommissioning plan. The decommissioning of the power plant is designed to begin in 2027 and it will be finished in 2053. The plan is based on immediate dismantlement after the shutdown of the power plant. Experienced plant personnel will still be available to lead the decommissioning work. Only the radioactive plant systems, components and structures will be dismantled and disposed of. Decommissioning wastes will be disposed of in the underground disposal tunnels located at the site at a depth of about 110 m. Some of these tunnels have already been completed for the power plant's operating waste. The big and heavy reactor components, e.g. pressure vessels and steam generators, will be disposed of as such, without cutting them into smaller pieces. This will save time and reduce radiation doses. The total volume of decommissioning waste will be 15 500 m3, when packed. Manpower needed for the decommissioning will be about 2 800 man years. The collective radiation dose received by the personnel will be about 9.5 manSv. The cost estimate of the decommissioning is about 216 million euros. The spent fuel will be stored at the plant for 20 years after the shutdown of the power plant. After that it will be transported from the site to the encapsulation plant for final disposal. (orig.)

95

Decommissioning of the Loviisa NPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Imatran Voima Oy has revised the decommissioning plan for the Loviisa Nuclear Power Plant (Loviisa 1 and Loviisa 2) by the end of the year 1998. The thermal power of the power plant has been increased to 2x1500 MWth, and the life time has been designed to be extended to 45 years in the decommissioning plan. The decommissioning of the power plant is designed to begin in 2022 and it will be finished in 2048. The plan is based on immediate dismantlement (i.e. DECON) after the shut down of the power plant. Experienced plant personnel will still be available to lead the decommissioning work. Only the radioactive plant systems, components and structures will be dismantled and disposed of. Decommissioning wastes will be disposed into the underground disposal tunnels situating at the site in the depth of about 110 m. These tunnels are already partly ready for power plant wastes. The big and heavy reactor components, e.g. pressure vessels and steam generators, will be disposed of as such, without cutting them into smaller parts. This saves time and radiation doses. The total volume of decommissioning wastes is 14 800 m3, when packed in boxes. The manpower needed for decommissioning is about 2 800 manyears. The collective radiation dose for personnel is estimated to be about 9.2 manSv. The cost estimate of the decommissioning is about 1 117 million FIM. The spent fuel will be stored at the plant for 20 years after the shut down of the power plant. After that it will be transported from the site to the encapsulation plant for final disposal. (orig.)

96

An outsider's view of decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The decommissioning of nuclear facilities is not just a technical or even a financial issue. Presenting decommissioning as a technically difficult task overcome by superhuman effort on the part of the industry will not gain much credit amongst sophisticated consumers who now require that any complex technology will work and work safely. Any engineering problems are surmountable given the money to find the solution. Some of the financial aspects of decommissioning are worrying, however, given their open-ended nature. The cost of waste disposal is one of these. Despite a lapse of fifty years since the start-up of its first reactor, the United Kingdom is unlikely to have available a repository for the disposal of intermediate level waste until about 2020. Waste disposal is a large consideration in decommissioning and the industry's forecasts of cost in this area lack credibility in the light of a poor track record in financial prediction. Financial engineering in the form of the segregated fund set up in March 1996 to cover the decommissioning of nuclear power stations in the United Kingdom is likely to provide only short term reassurance in the light of doubts about a credible future for nuclear power. This lack of confidence over the wider problems of nuclear power creates particular problems for decommissioning which go beyond technical difficulties and complicate financial considerations. (UK)

97

Money Related Decommissioning and Funding Decision Making  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

'Money makes the world go round', as the song says. It definitely influences decommissioning decision-making and financial assurance for future decommissioning. This paper will address two money-related decommissioning topics. The first is the evaluation of whether to continue or to halt decommissioning activities at Fermi 1. The second is maintaining adequacy of financial assurance for future decommissioning of operating plants. Decommissioning costs considerable money and costs are often higher than originally estimated. If costs increase significantly and decommissioning is not well funded, decommissioning activities may be deferred. Several decommissioning projects have been deferred when decision-makers determined future spending is preferable than current spending, or when costs have risen significantly. Decommissioning activity timing is being reevaluated for the Fermi 1 project. Assumptions for waste cost-escalation significantly impact the decision being made this year on the Fermi 1 decommissioning project. They also have a major impact on the estimated costs for decommissioning currently operating plants. Adequately funding full decommissioning during plant operation will ensure that the users who receive the benefit pay the full price of the nuclear-generated electricity. Funding throughout operation also will better ensure that money is available following shutdown to allow decommissioning to be conducted without need for additional fundsneed for additional funds

98

Current international issues in decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1999, the Italian Environmental Protection authorities (ANPA at that time) hosted in Rome a Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) meeting on the Regulatory Aspects of Decommissioning. This 'stock-taking' conference heard views from regulatory authorities, the decommissioning industry, waste management organisations and other relevant industrial sectors (e.g. the scrap metal industry) regarding the issues and aspects of decommissioning that should be further addressed, particularly at an international level. From this conference, six issues of relevance were identified which, since that time, have been addressed within the framework of the NEA. These issues are: - Decommissioning policies and strategies; - Waste management and materials reuse considerations; - Authorised release of sites and facilities; - Securing long-term funding and responsibility; - Framework for safety regulation of decommissioning; - Research and development in decommissioning. The NEA has focused on the international aspects of these issues, and on the roles of national governments in addressing the national and international aspects of these issues. This paper will present an overview of the NEA's findings in these areas. Realizing that these issues are important to the work of other international organisations, the NEA has tried to assess and use as appropriate the work of others in discussing these issues. As such, a brief review of relevant work at other international organisations will be presented. Based on its work, and in order to further advance these issues, the NEA is planning a second workshop on the Regulatory Aspects of Decommissioning, which will again be hosted by the Italian authorities in Rome, and will be held during the second half of 2004. (author)

99

National provisions for decommissioning and managing radioactive waste from decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Large quantities of radioactive waste resulting from decommissioning activities of nuclear research reactors and nuclear power plant units will be generated in Romania in the near and distant future. The actual policy and strategy in the field of the management of radioactive waste in Romania are based on the stipulations of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management, ratified in Romania by the Law No. 105/1999. The paper gives an introduction of the current policy and strategy applied in Romania for nuclear decommissioning process and management of radioactive waste. The paper points out some key aspects of the national provisions concerning the nuclear decommissioning activities and management of the resulting radioactive waste: the legal framework, the responsibilities of the national authorities and of the licence holders, the main radioactive waste generators, the financing and budgeting mechanisms, etc. (author)

100

The Tokai NPP decommissioning technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tokai power station was closed down in March 1998 and started decommissioning from December 2001 as a pioneer of NPP decommissioning. This article presented current state of Tokai NPP decommissioning technique. As the second stage of decommissioning works, removal works of steam raising unit (four units of heat exchangers) were started from 2006 by jacking down method with decommissioning data accumulated. Each heat exchanger was divided into top head, seven 'tears' of shell and bottom head. Each 'tear' was out and separated into a cylinder, and then divided into two by remote-operated cutting equipment with manipulators for gas cutting and motor disk cutting under monitoring works by fixed and mobile cameras. Divided 'tear' was further cut into center baffle plate, heat transfer tubes and fine pieces of shell. Cutting works would produce radioactive fine particles, which were filtered by temporary ventilation equipment with exhaust fan and filters. Appropriate works using existing technique combined and their rationalization were important at this stage. (T. Tanaka)

 
 
 
 
101

The Italian decommissioning industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Italy's step out from nuclear activities in 1987 deeply affected an industry that, in the previous years, had managed to grow up in quality and technology levels to meet the nuclear standards. Only a few companies were able to partially retain their skills through activities abroad. The decommissioning program represents a new challenge for the Italian industry at large and will require a consistent effort to properly qualify the potential suppliers. On the other side, a program with such implications in terms of investments and so depending from social aspects cannot be effectively implemented without a significant involvement of the local industry. Essential conditions for the success are a reliable program, as well as a careful supply management scheme, which must facilitate aggregation of skills spread among different subjects. 'Human Resources: Maintaining a Nuclear Culture in Italy' Bruno Panella Politecnico di Torino, Giuseppe Forasassi, Universita di Pisa, Inter-University Consortium for the Nuclear Technological Research (CIRTEN). After a brief history of the nuclear engineering education in Italy within the international and national nuclear energy scenario, the present situation, with reference to the Italian universities, is shown. In order to maintain a nuclear culture in Italy the solution, exploited with different peculiarities in each University, is to carry out high quality research activities in reciprocal collaboration (mostly within the CIRTEN inter university Consortium) as well as with the Industry and research Organisations and to collaborate actively in establishing a stable network and a synergy of teaching activities in Europe in the field of Nuclear Engineering Education. The aim is to maintain at a high level and as updated as possible the Italian educational offer in nuclear engineering and also to attract the best students for the enrolment. (author)

102

Decommissioning in Lithuania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lithuania has no primary energy sources of its own. From the late 1980s, the Ignalina NPP (INPP) produced a large percentage of Lithuania's electricity. The Lithuanian electricity and gas networks are closely interrelated to the north-west power sectors of the Russian Federation. The plant, when originally constructed, was intended to supply the northwest region of the former Soviet Union rather than Lithuania alone. The first unit of INPP was commissioned in 1983 and the second unit in 1987. Since Lithuania became independent in 1990, INPP has typically contributed around 80% of national power supply. The plant is located in the north-eastern corner of Lithuania, close to the borders with Belarus and Latvia - 130 km from Vilnius, on the shore of lake Druksiai. Lithuania gained its independence from the former Soviet Union in 1990, and from then on took full responsibility for the safe operation of INPP. The plant, with two Soviet designed RBMK-1500 reactor units, is the only NPP of its type in the EU. The G7 high level meeting in Munich in 1992 was crucial to Lithuania and operation at INPP. The political decision was made that these RBMK reactors should be closed, as the reactors were judged incapable of being upgraded to Western safety levels. The first step in the preparations to close INPP was the International Donors Conference in the year 2000 in Vilnius. Shortly afterwards, the Ignalina International Decommissioning Support Fund (IIDSF) operated by the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) has been established. The initial contributions to the fund were made by a number of European countries and by the EU. Since that time, only the EU has continued to contribute to the IIDSF, its contributions now totalling 389.5 million euros, equivalent to 93% of the fund

103

Decommissioning planning of Swedish nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The technologies required for the decommissioning work are for the most part readily proven. Taken into account that there will be many more years before the studied reactor units will undergo decommissioning, the techniques could even be called conventional at that time. This will help bring the decommissioning projects to a successful closure. A national waste fund is already established in Sweden to finance amongst others all dismantling and decommissioning work. This will assure that funding for the decommissioning projects is at hand when needed. All necessary plant data are readily available and this will, combined with a reliable management system, expedite the decommissioning projects considerably. Final repositories for both long- and short-lived LILW respectively is planned and will be constructed and dimensioned to receive the decommissioning waste from the Swedish NPP:s. Since the strategy is set and well thought-through, this will help facilitate a smooth disposal of the radioactive decommissioning waste. (orig.)

104

State of decommissioning process in Romania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Romania, there are several installations that arrived at the decommissioning stage. These installations are: VVR-S research reactor, Sub critical Assembly HELEN, and Zero Power Reactor (RP-0). In this paper, the methods the Romanian Regulatory Body is developing the legal framework for decommissioning process of nuclear installations are described. There is a draft of decommissioning norms for research reactors. This regulation provides each stage of decommissioning and requirements for decommissioning plan. Also, CNCAN has evaluated and made requirements for completion of a VVR-S research reactor decommissioning plan submitted by IFIN-HH. Further, the reasons for which the decommissioning plan was rejected and requirements that the owner of VVR-S research reactor must fulfil in order to receive decommissioning licence are presented. (author)

105

Decommissioning planning of Swedish nuclear power plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The technologies required for the decommissioning work are for the most part readily proven. Taken into account that there will be many more years before the studied reactor units will undergo decommissioning, the techniques could even be called conventional at that time. This will help bring the decommissioning projects to a successful closure. A national waste fund is already established in Sweden to finance amongst others all dismantling and decommissioning work. This will assure that funding for the decommissioning projects is at hand when needed. All necessary plant data are readily available and this will, combined with a reliable management system, expedite the decommissioning projects considerably. Final repositories for both long- and short-lived LILW respectively is planned and will be constructed and dimensioned to receive the decommissioning waste from the Swedish NPP:s. Since the strategy is set and well thought-through, this will help facilitate a smooth disposal of the radioactive decommissioning waste. (orig.)

Hedin, Gunnar; Bergh, Niklas [Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB, Vaesteraes (Sweden)

2013-07-01

106

Decommissioning experience at UKAEA Winfrith  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Winfrith Site was used for development of nuclear reactors, particularly the 100 MW(e) Steam Generating Heavy Water Reactor (SGHWR) and the 30 MW gas-cooled DRAGON reactor. Following the closure of the SGHWR reactor in 1990 the site has run down nuclear operations by removing from site most of the high level hazards from both reactors and then commencing the decommissioning of major items of plant and other site facilities. After the SGHWR was shut down, UKAEA prepared a decommissioning programme for this plant comprising a multistage process, each to be subjected to a competitive tendering operation. The recently completed Stage 1 decommissioning contract, awarded to Nuvia in 2005, involved decommissioning and removal of all the ancillary plant and equipment in the secondary containment and non-containment areas of the plant. The decommissioning processes involved with these large and heavy plant items will be described with some emphasis of the establishment of multiple work-fronts for the production, recovery, treatment and disposal of mainly tritium contaminated waste arising from its contact with the direct cycle reactor coolant. The means of size reduction of a variety of large, heavy and complex items of plant made from a range of materials will also be described with some emphasis on the control of fumes during hot cutting operations. Over the past 18 years Nuvia has gained vast experience with decommissioning operations on redundant nuclear plant and faciations on redundant nuclear plant and facilities on the Winfrith Site and has been extremely successful in meeting its contractual obligations in a safe and efficient manner. The final section of the paper will dwell upon the key issues that have made a difference in achieving these objectives for the benefit of others involved in similar operations. (author)

107

Decommissioning experience at UKAEA Winfrith  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Winfrith Site was used for development of nuclear reactors, particularly the 100 MW(e) Steam Generating Heavy Water Reactor (SGHWR) and the 30 MW gas-cooled DRAGON reactor. Following the closure of the SGHWR reactor in 1990 the site has run down nuclear operations by removing from site most of the high level hazards from both reactors and then commencing the decommissioning of major items of plant and other site facilities. After the SGHWR was shut down, UKAEA prepared a decommissioning programme for this plant comprising a multistage process, each to be subjected to a competitive tendering operation. The recently completed Stage 1 decommissioning contract, awarded to Nuvia in 2005, involved decommissioning and removal of all the ancillary plant and equipment in the secondary containment and non-containment areas of the plant. The decommissioning processes involved with these large and heavy plant items will be described with some emphasis of the establishment of multiple work-fronts for the production, recovery, treatment and disposal of mainly tritium contaminated waste arising from its contact with the direct cycle reactor coolant. The means of size reduction of a variety of large, heavy and complex items of plant made from a range of materials will also be described with some emphasis on the control of fumes during hot cutting operations. Over the past 18 years Nuvia has gained vast experience with decommissioning operations on redundant nuclear plant and facilities on the Winfrith Site and has been extremely successful in meeting its contractual obligations in a safe and efficient manner. The final section of the paper will dwell upon the key issues that have made a difference in achieving these objectives for the benefit of others involved in similar operations. (author)

Miller, K. [Nuvia Limited, UKAEA Winfrith Site, Winfrith Newburgh (United Kingdom)

2008-07-01

108

Fort St. Vrain decommissioning experience  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear plant decommissioning represents a significant expenditure of time and resources for nuclear utilities. Public Service Company of Colorado (PSC) is in the process of completing the decommissioning of the Fort St. Vrain (FSV) Nuclear Station, the first large-scale commercial nuclear plant to be decommissioned under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) 1988 decommissioning rule. PSC's experience has included dispositioning spent fuel, choosing a decommissioning alternative, and actively decommissioning the plant from dismantlement and decontamination through final survey. When the plant was prematurely shut down in August 1989, PSC's initial task was to find a storage location for FSV's spent fuel. PSC had a contract with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to ship FSV spent fuel to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), and all previously removed spent fuel had been shipped there. However, Idaho legally blocked further FSV spent-fuel shipments to INEL, and PSC decided to license and build an on-site, passively cooled independent spent-fuel storage installation (ISFSI). By June 1992, all FSV spent fuel was transferred from the reactor building to the ISFSI. PSC has been able to use low-level radioactive waste (LLWR) disposal facilities in the Northwest Compact, and disposal costs are within estimates. Industrial and radiological safety have been emphasized throughout the project, and performance in these areas has been outstanding. PSC has these areas has been outstanding. PSC has obtained NRC Aprilproval of a final survey plan that allows for many of the plant's components and systems to remain in place, and final survey activities are nearing completion. PSC is in the process of repowering the facility with natural gas-fired combustion turbines and heat recovery boilers. The first combustion turbine was placed in service Ap 30, 1996

109

Platform decommissioning. Environmental challenges and practical solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The publication gives a short introduction of platform decommissioning, followed by an overview of what to be decommissioned and removed. This will be followed by some of the vital technologies and methods within decommissioning, abandonment of wells, removal and handling of remains that is reuse and scrapping. A final presentation with a view of current research and developments is given. 3 figs

110

Seminar on decommissioning at Visby 1983  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Swedish National Institute of Radiation Protection arranged a nordic seminar on decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Current experience from decommissioning of a reprocessing pilot plant, and from research reactors were presented. Strategies for decommissioning and for deposition after early and after late shut-down of reactors was discussed. Research priorities were assessed. (P.Aa.)

111

Cost lessons learnt from decommissioning Shippingport  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The US Department of Energy has completed decommissioning of its 72 MWe Pressurized Water Reactor at Shippingport. The project, finished on time and under budget, should be encouraging for utilities preparing to decommission commercial plants. But the real lesson of the Shippingport project is that commercial decommissioning of the much larger reactors now in operation will be more difficult and more expensive. (author)

112

Main issues of Russian research reactor decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper presents the current status of the decommissioning of research reactors in the Russian Federation. Several examples highlight the basic problems for their decommissioning in the Russian Federation, such as: the management of spent nuclear fuel; the management of special coolants; funding issues; ageing of the personnel; social aspects; and the loss of knowledge. The lessons learned from the decommissioning of Russian research reactors are presented in the paper. The regulatory aspects of the decommissioning process, such as the need for good interaction between the operating organization and the regulatory body and the preparation of adequate technical and regulatory rules for all decommissioning stages are discussed. (author)

113

Decommissioning Study of Oskarshamn NPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By Swedish law it is the obligation of the nuclear power utilities to satisfactorily demonstrate how a nuclear power plant can be safely decommissioned and dismantled when it is no longer in service as well as calculate the estimated cost of decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (SKB) has been commissioned by the Swedish nuclear power utilities to meet the requirements of current legislation by studying and reporting on suitable technologies and by estimating the costs of decommissioning and dismantling of the Swedish nuclear power plants. The present report is an overview, containing the necessary information to meet the above needs, for Oskarshamn NPP. Information is given for the plant about the inventory of materials and radioactivity at the time for final shutdown. A feasible technique for dismantling is presented and the waste management is described and the resulting waste quantities are estimated. Finally a schedule for the decommissioning phase is given and the costs associated are estimated as a basis for funding

114

Decommissioning Study of Oskarshamn NPP  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

By Swedish law it is the obligation of the nuclear power utilities to satisfactorily demonstrate how a nuclear power plant can be safely decommissioned and dismantled when it is no longer in service as well as calculate the estimated cost of decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (SKB) has been commissioned by the Swedish nuclear power utilities to meet the requirements of current legislation by studying and reporting on suitable technologies and by estimating the costs of decommissioning and dismantling of the Swedish nuclear power plants. The present report is an overview, containing the necessary information to meet the above needs, for Oskarshamn NPP. Information is given for the plant about the inventory of materials and radioactivity at the time for final shutdown. A feasible technique for dismantling is presented and the waste management is described and the resulting waste quantities are estimated. Finally a schedule for the decommissioning phase is given and the costs associated are estimated as a basis for funding.

Larsson, Helena; Anunti, Aake; Edelborg, Mathias [Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB, Vaesteraas (Sweden)

2013-06-15

115

Decommissioning study of Forsmark NPP  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

By Swedish law it is the obligation of the nuclear power utilities to satisfactorily demonstrate how a nuclear power plant can be safely decommissioned and dismantled when it is no longer in service as well as calculate the estimated cost of decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (SKB) has been commissioned by the Swedish nuclear power utilities to meet the requirements of current legislation by studying and reporting on suitable technologies and by estimating the costs of decommissioning and dismantling of the Swedish nuclear power plants. The present report is an overview, containing the necessary information to meet the above needs, for the Forsmark NPP. Information is given for the plant about the inventory of materials and radioactivity at the time for final shutdown. A feasible technique for dismantling is presented and the waste management is described and the resulting waste quantities are estimated. Finally a schedule for the decommissioning phase is given and the costs associated are estimated as a basis for funding.

Anunti, Aake; Larsson, Helena; Edelborg, Mathias [Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB, Vaesteraas (Sweden)

2013-06-15

116

Information Support for Storage Decommission  

International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

Decision - Making Information Support of Territory Remediation in the Course of Decommissioning Temporary Radioactive Waste Storage Sites in the Northwestern Region of Russia. Elaboration of an Environmental Monitoring System for Enterprises Involved in Treating and Storing Low- and Intermediate- Radioactive Wastes in the Region

117

A Decommissioning Information Management System  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 1996, it was determined that research reactors, the KRR-1 and the KRR-2, would be shut down and dismantled. A project for the decommissioning of these reactors was launched in January 1997 with the goal of a completion by 2008. The total budget of the project was 19.4 million US dollars, including the cost for the waste disposal and for the technology development. The work scopes during the decommissioning project were the dismantling of all the facilities and the removal of all the radioactive materials from the reactor site. After the removal of the entire radioactivity, the site and buildings will be released for an unconditional use. A separate project for the decommissioning of the uranium conversion plant was initiated in 2001. The plant was constructed for the development of the fuel manufacturing technologies and the localization of nuclear fuels in Korea. It was shut downed in 1993 and finally it was concluded in 2000 that the plant would be decommissioned. The project will be completed by 2008 and the total budget was 9.2 million US dollars. During this project, all vessels and equipment will be dismantled and the building surface will be decontaminated to be utilized as general laboratories.

Park, S. K.; Hong, S. B.; Chung, U. S.; Park, J. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2007-07-01

118

Shippingport station decommissioning project overview  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station (SAPS), the first commercial-sized nuclear power plant in the United States to undergo complete dismantlement. SAPS is located near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, on approximately seven acres of land owned by Duquesne Light Company (DLC), and leased to the US Department of Energy. The Station consists of a 275' by 60' Fuel Handling Building containing the Reactor Containment Chamber, the Service Building, the Turbine Building, the Radioactive Waste Processing Building, the Administration Building, and other smaller support buildings. The Station has four coolant loops; most of the containment structures are located below grade. Shippingport Station was shutdown in October, 1982. Defueling operations began in 1983 and were completed by September 1984. At that time, responsibility for the plant was transferred from DOE Office of Assistant Secretary for Naval Reactors (NE-60) to DOE Office of Terminal Waste Disposal and Remedial Action (NE-20) and then to DOE Richland Operations Office (RL). Also at that time, responsibility for the operation/decommissioning of the station systems passed from DLC to General Electric Company (GE). A caretaker and site preparation period lasted from September, 1984 to September, 1985, at which time decommissioning activities started. The decommissioning period is scheduled as September, 1985 through April, 1990. Project total estimated cost is $98.3 million

119

Decommissioning study of Forsmark NPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By Swedish law it is the obligation of the nuclear power utilities to satisfactorily demonstrate how a nuclear power plant can be safely decommissioned and dismantled when it is no longer in service as well as calculate the estimated cost of decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (SKB) has been commissioned by the Swedish nuclear power utilities to meet the requirements of current legislation by studying and reporting on suitable technologies and by estimating the costs of decommissioning and dismantling of the Swedish nuclear power plants. The present report is an overview, containing the necessary information to meet the above needs, for the Forsmark NPP. Information is given for the plant about the inventory of materials and radioactivity at the time for final shutdown. A feasible technique for dismantling is presented and the waste management is described and the resulting waste quantities are estimated. Finally a schedule for the decommissioning phase is given and the costs associated are estimated as a basis for funding

120

A Decommissioning Information Management System  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1996, it was determined that research reactors, the KRR-1 and the KRR-2, would be shut down and dismantled. A project for the decommissioning of these reactors was launched in January 1997 with the goal of a completion by 2008. The total budget of the project was 19.4 million US dollars, including the cost for the waste disposal and for the technology development. The work scopes during the decommissioning project were the dismantling of all the facilities and the removal of all the radioactive materials from the reactor site. After the removal of the entire radioactivity, the site and buildings will be released for an unconditional use. A separate project for the decommissioning of the uranium conversion plant was initiated in 2001. The plant was constructed for the development of the fuel manufacturing technologies and the localization of nuclear fuels in Korea. It was shut downed in 1993 and finally it was concluded in 2000 that the plant would be decommissioned. The project will be completed by 2008 and the total budget was 9.2 million US dollars. During this project, all vessels and equipment will be dismantled and the building surface will be decontaminated to be utilized as general laboratories

 
 
 
 
121

Remedial investigation report for J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Volume 3: Ecological risk assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Environmental Management Division of the U.S. Army Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation (RI) and feasibility study (FS) of the J-Field area at APG, pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. As part of that activity, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted an ecological risk assessment (ERA) of the J-Field site. This report presents the results of that assessment

122

Analysis of cosmic-ray-muon induced spallation neutrons in Aberdeen Tunnel experiment in Hong Kong  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The muon-induced radioactive isotopes, especially neutrons, are dangerous background component for rare-event detection in underground experiments, like neutrino-less double-beta decay and dark matter search. Understanding these cosmogenic backgrounds is crucial for these experiments. An underground experiment aiming at measuring the cosmic-ray muons' flux and their neutron production yield in liquid scintillator through spallation process is being carried out in the Aberdeen Tunnel laborator...

Cui, Kexi; ???

2014-01-01

123

Remedial investigation report for J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Volume 3: Ecological risk assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Environmental Management Division of the U.S. Army Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation (RI) and feasibility study (FS) of the J-Field area at APG, pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. As part of that activity, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted an ecological risk assessment (ERA) of the J-Field site. This report presents the results of that assessment.

Hlohowskyj, I.; Hayse, J.; Kuperman, R.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R.

2000-02-25

124

Nuclear decommissioning in Italy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Italy is in a unique position. Italy has been in the past among the leading countries in the pacific use of nuclear energy, but, as a consequence of the 1987 referendum decided to shutdown all operating power plants, to leave uncompleted the plants under construction and to stop all related research and industrial activities declaring a 5 years moratorium on any future initiative. The moratorium ended unnoticed in 1992, since there was no political move to restart nuclear power in Italy and, in practice, it is still acting. Therefore, now the major efforts in the nuclear field are focused on the closure of past liabilities assuring safety and security highest levels. This is a duty to be carried out by the generation that used this form of energy, but, at least for somebody, also a precondition for the acceptance of any future renaissance of nuclear energy in Italy. SOGIN is a Company carrying out a service for the country and fully committed to solve the liabilities left by the interrupted nuclear industry in Italy. To this aim SOGIN is managed as a private company to assure the highest possible efficiency, but, at the same time, is driven by moral and ethical objectives and the vision of protecting the environment and health and safety of the public. SOGIN blends in a synergic way the various ENEL experiences (design and operation of NPP's) and ENEA experiences (engineering and operation of R and D and industrial facilities supporting NPP's). Such a comprehensive combination of technical competences should not be dispersed in the medium and long term and the management is committed to facilitate the technical growth of the impressing number of motivated young people joining the Company, whose enthusiasm is contaminating every day also the 'veterans', to assure for the country an asset and a presidium of very specialized multi-disciplinary nuclear competences. Speaking of possible scenarios for the future, we should mention that the current international situation in the oil market, both in terms of barrel cost and in terms of security of supplies, and the severe black-outs that have plagued also Italy (the major one in September 2003 lasting in some areas for about 24 hours), have started a widespread discussion about energy alternatives and strategic energy plans. In this frame an increasing number of politicians and scientists are calling for a reconsideration of nuclear energy as a viable option also for Italy in a new energy mix. It is clear that public acceptance of nuclear energy is strictly connected not only to the demonstration of high safety standards of future plants, but also to the solution of radioactive waste disposal and of plant decommissioning. This is the link that could make the SOGIN mission even more strategic for the country

125

Decommissioning of Facilities. General Safety Requirements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Decommissioning is the last step in the lifetime management of a facility. It must also be considered during the design, construction, commissioning and operation of facilities. This publication establishes requirements for the safe decommissioning of a broad range of facilities: nuclear power plants, research reactors, nuclear fuel cycle facilities, facilities for processing naturally occurring radioactive material, former military sites, and relevant medical, industrial and research facilities. It addresses all the aspects of decommissioning that are required to ensure safety, aspects such as roles and responsibilities, strategy and planning for decommissioning, conduct of decommissioning actions and termination of the authorization for decommissioning. It is intended for use by those involved in policy development, regulatory control and implementation of decommissioning

126

Energia líquida no leite e desempenho de bezerros de vacas primíparas Aberdeen Angus / Milk net energy and performance of calves from Aberdeen Angus primiparous cows  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a disponibilidade de energia líquida no leite de vacas primíparas Aberdeen Angus e sua relação com o desempenho ponderal dos bezerros. Foram utilizadas 47 vacas, criadas em condições extensivas, no município de Aceguá, RS, no período de setembro de 2005 a março de [...] 2006. A produção de leite foi avaliada pelo método pesagem do bezerro anterior e posterior à mamada, do nascimento à desmama (189 dias), em intervalos de 21 dias. Para análise dos resultados foram incluídos no modelo estatístico como efeitos fixos, o resultado do diagnóstico de gestação (G) e nível de produção de leite (NPL): NPLa Abstract in english The availability of net energy in the milk of Aberdeen Angus primiparous cows and his relationship with the calves performance was studied. Fourty seven cows, raised under a range condition, in Aceguá. RS county, were evaluated between September 2005 to April 2006. Milk production (PL) was estimated [...] by before and after suckle method, from birth to weaning (189days), every 21 days. Effects studied were pregnancy (G), and milk production level (NPL): NPLa

J.S., Lemes; M.A., Pimentel; C.C., Brauner; J.C.F., Moraes.

2011-12-01

127

Energia líquida no leite e desempenho de bezerros de vacas primíparas Aberdeen Angus / Milk net energy and performance of calves from Aberdeen Angus primiparous cows  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a disponibilidade de energia líquida no leite de vacas primíparas Aberdeen Angus e sua relação com o desempenho ponderal dos bezerros. Foram utilizadas 47 vacas, criadas em condições extensivas, no município de Aceguá, RS, no período de setembro de 2005 a março de [...] 2006. A produção de leite foi avaliada pelo método pesagem do bezerro anterior e posterior à mamada, do nascimento à desmama (189 dias), em intervalos de 21 dias. Para análise dos resultados foram incluídos no modelo estatístico como efeitos fixos, o resultado do diagnóstico de gestação (G) e nível de produção de leite (NPL): NPLa Abstract in english The availability of net energy in the milk of Aberdeen Angus primiparous cows and his relationship with the calves performance was studied. Fourty seven cows, raised under a range condition, in Aceguá. RS county, were evaluated between September 2005 to April 2006. Milk production (PL) was estimated [...] by before and after suckle method, from birth to weaning (189days), every 21 days. Effects studied were pregnancy (G), and milk production level (NPL): NPLa

J.S., Lemes; M.A., Pimentel; C.C., Brauner; J.C.F., Moraes.

128

Decommissioning of a University Cyclotron  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the decommissioning of a university cyclotron, the cost estimate provided by a decommissioning company to carry out the entire project was in excess of Pounds 1million. This level of funding was not available, and a more modest budget of Pounds 125 thousand was provided (about US$ 250 000 or Euro 180 000). This made it essential that as much of the work as possible was carried out by existing staff. Whereas existing staff could be trained to draft all the required documentation, complete the characterization survey and deliver some aspects of the decontamination programme, their greatest contribution to the project was in sorting, segregation, measurement, packaging and consignment for disposal of all of the decommissioning wastes. This necessitated provision of additional training to existing operators. At an early stage it was identified that an experienced decommissioning consultant was needed to oversee the project. The Decommissioning Consultant appointed external contractors to carry out all the heavy dismantling and demolition work associated with the project. This work involved: -Assembly of a caged storage area adjacent to the cyclotron to hold the wastes from dismantling and demolition, pending characterization for segregation and disposal by existing staff at the facility; -Removal of the D's and cutting them up in situ ready for characterization for shipment to the low level waste repository; -Removal of all rotating machinery in the adjacent generator house, then dismantling the concrete block and brick wall between the inner vault and the generator house; -Removal of extra shielding supported by girder matrix to assist removal of the concrete block wall. Collect core samples of bricks and blocks for activity estimation by operators working at the facility; -Moving of the resonator into the generator house for dismantling, monitoring and characterization; -Dismantling of ancillary equipment such as beam lines, remote target handling system, vacuum tank and inner copper blankets; -Removal of water tanks above, after first removing the upper level shielding. The cost of this heavy dismantling work carried out by the external experienced contractors was Pounds 60 000 (approximately US$120 000 or Euro 87 000) and the work was completed over an eight month period. It was essential to have the services of an experienced Decommissioning Consultant to manage the project to secure value for money and optimized delivery of this aspect of the project. Whereas the magnitude of the heavy dismantling work required makes it unrealistic for the operators to undertake this work themselves, the situation may be different when considering decommissioning of a much smaller scale facility such as a radioimmunoassay laboratory. In such circumstances, removal of surface contamination may be all that is required, such that further removal of cupboards and benches, plumbing and electrical fittings can be carried out by routine tradesmen rather than specialist heavy demolition contractors. Where access to a new disposal option is required as a 'one off'; e.g. disposal of a single consignment of waste to a low level solid waste repository, the quality assurance documentation requirements may prove unduly onerous to a small facility. This was the experience of a university when it came to decommission a particle accelerator that had been used for isotope production and research. They wished to dispose of a single consignment of 15 t of solid low level waste in a 20 cubic metre 2/3 ISO container (the approved containers used at the repository). The waste had arisen from two streams - from the cyclotron and the target waste stream and had an overall activity of 1 GBq per t for beta/gammas and 73MBq per t for alphas. The decommissioning facility manager had to institute a whole series of new management and waste control procedures on-site, to include documented audits and training records, before his quality plan to make the 'one off' disposal to the low level waste repository was accepted. In total, it took just over a year to get an

129

Decommissioning strategies and programme developments of Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As of August 2003, there are 52 nuclear power plants in operation producing approximately 35% electricity of total supply in Japan. The Japan Atomic Power Company decided to shutdown the Tokai-1 Power Station (Gas cooled reactor, 166 MWe) at the end of March in 1998 due to the economical reasons such as increase in operation and repair costs. The Fugen reactor, which is a prototype of an advanced thermal reactor, also was shutdown at the end of March in 2003 because of the completion of its initial objectives. In order to ensure stable supply of nuclear energy in the future, decommissioning of retired nuclear facilities is indispensable in Japan for securing sites for the next facilities. Therefore, early dismantling of nuclear power plant facilities after shutdown is required as Japanese basic policy on decommissioning. Based on this basic policy, research and development programs have actively been conducted in both government organizations and private sectors in recent years. Regulatory systems for decommissioning nuclear facilities including waste managements have progressed in the regulatory side taking these situations into account. Decommissioning of nuclear facilities is now getting one of the important issues of nuclear power in Japan. This paper describes the strategies and programs of the decommissioning in Japan. The paper has the following sections: 1. Introduction; 2. National policy on decommissioning; 3. Regulation; 4. Funding; 5. Decommissioning programs; 5.1. JPDR Decommissioning Project; 5.2. Tokai-1 Power Station Decommissioning Project; 5.3. Fugen Decommissioning Project; 6. Technology Development; 7. Radioactive waste management

130

Decommissioning Swedish nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

'The problems of decommissioning nuclear power plants in Sweden and studying what to do with the wastes have been handed over to SKB, a subsidiary of the companies that produce electricity with atomic energy. Several general studies were conducted from 1979 to 1994. Between 2000-2005, studies are to be made of each plant. A methodology for dismantling these stations has been defined that uses proven techniques and entails assessing costs. It is based on the hypothesis that decommissioning should start once nuclear fuel has been removed. This approach is still theoretical since no timetable has been set for demolishing reactors; but Sweden already has the technical know-how and financial means necessary for these operations. (author)

131

Planning activities for ANPP decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Armenian NPP consists of two WWER-440, model 270 pressurized water reactors. After an earthquake in northern Armenia in December 1988 both units were shut down for safety reasons: Unit 1 in February 1988, Unit 2 in March 1989, respectively. Unit 2 was restarted in November 1995 after a number of safety upgrades. Unit 1 remains in a long-term shutdown mode. The design lifetime of Unit 2 expires in 2015. Opportunity to shutdown earlier has been discussed in the last years. In particular a statement has been issued by EC asking for an early shutdown of Unit 2 in exchange for the TACIS support in implementing the safety upgrades in a short term. Currently the safety improvement program is being successfully implemented in the framework of US DOE and TACIS assistance. At the moment the date of the permanent plant shutdown is not specified. As with many older reactors throughout the world, a decommissioning plan has not been developed for Armenian NPP at the design stage. After shutdown of ANPP in 1988-1989 the radiological characterization campaign at Unit 1 had been carried out. Recently two studies in the decommissioning area have been performed for ANPP. The first one has been carried out under the US DOE Assistance Program. The purpose of this study was to identify and evaluate feasible decommissioning options for ANPP. Some critical issues related to the waste management had been specified and the near-term activities within this project will be focused on issues of waste characterization and information data base creation as an important prerequisite to manage waste safely. The model used to calculate many of the decommissioning costs was NRC CECP reprogrammed for WWER NPPs. The second study had been carried out in the framework of TACIS project 'Assistance to Energy Strategic Center'. The purpose of the study was to select the best strategy to phase-out and decommission the ANPP and evaluate conditions, implications and consequence of this decision. A suggested solution was a choice of SAFSTOR as a viable decommissioning option. Spent fuel management is not considered part of decommissioning; however it can strongly affect the decommissioning strategy. Currently the spent nuclear fuel is being stored on site in pools and in a newly constructed NUHOMS storage facility built by FRAMATOME under license of USA Transnuclear West Company. The facility includes 11 horizontal storage modules (HSM). Each HSM has a capacity of 56 non-failed fuel assemblies. A capacity of the existing dry storage facility is not sufficient to accommodate all spent fuel generated during plant operation. However, the NUHOMS concept is modular and it is possible to increase the storage capacity. The facility is designed for 50 years storage of spent nuclear fuel. In any case, these studies should be considered as an informative basis only. Much more additional information should be collected and the detailed characterization survey, i.e. the comprehensive engineering and radiological survey, conducted to have sufficient data for all further planning activities. (author)

132

Decommissioning of Salaspils Research Reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Salaspils Research Reactor (SRR) is out of operation since July 1998 and the decommissioning of SRR was started in 1999 according to the decision of the Government of Latvia. The main decommissioning activities up to 2006 were connected with collecting and conditioning of historical radioactive wastes from different storages outside and inside of reactor hall. The total amount of dismantled materials was about 700 tons, more than 77 tons were conditioned in concrete containers for disposal in repository. The radioactive wastes management technology is discussed in the paper. It was found, that additional efforts must be spent for immobilization of radionuclides in cemented matrix to be comply with the wastes acceptance criteria. The investigations of mechanical stability of water-cement matrix are described and discussed in the paper

133

Licensing and decommissioning in Italy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Italy the licensing procedure starts when the National Electricity Board officially plans the erection of a nuclear facility in a certain region and this plan is approved by the Committee of Ministers for Economic Planning. Direct participation of the local population is to a certain extent permitted during the licensing procedure. In the field of decommissioning there does not exist a unitary legal regime so far. (CW)

134

Experience of TTR-1 decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Toshiba Training Reactor-1 (TTR-1) was planned for improvement of technical level from the standpoint of nuclear reactor manufacturer, training of a nuclear engineer, and research of nuclear physics, radiochemistry, radiation shielding and others. TTR-1 was permitted for construction in May 1960, attained at the first criticality in March 1962 and has continued to operate over 40 years. TTR-1 was permanently shut down in March 2001, accomplishing the planned target. From the initial criticality to the shut down, total operating time amounts to 15,300 hours and 31 MWds. Decommissioning plan was submitted to the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology on August 8, 2001 and dismantling work was started. The spent fuel was transported outside the laboratory, and the first phase and the second phase dismantling work were completed at the end of February 2004. Some of the reactor equipments continue maintaining their performance, and waste materials generated from dismantling work are under the state of managed storage, until disposal of the dismantling radioactive waste becomes clear, when the third phase of dismantling work will be started. At the end of the third phase work, all the TTR-1 equipments are dismantled and all waste materials are removed from TTR-1, then decommissioning of TTR-1 is completed. The outline of the decommissioning plan, the actually performed dismantling work, and spent fuel transportation work is briefly described. (author)

135

Decommissioning plans and activities in Slovenia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the ageing of nuclear facilities, or the reduced interest in their further operation, a new set of problems, related to the decommissioning of these facilities, has come into forefront. In many cases it turns out that the preparations for decommissioning have come too late, and that financial resources for covering decommissioning activities have not been provided. In this paper a presentation is given of current decommissioning experience in Slovenia. The main problems and difficulties in decommissioning of the Zirovski vrh Uranium Mine are exposed, and the lesson learned from this case is presented. The preparation of the decommissioning programme for the nuclear power plant Krsko is also described, and the situation at the TRIGA research reactor is briefly discussed. (author)

136

Nuclear decommissioning planning, execution and international experience  

CERN Document Server

A title that critically reviews the decommissioning and decontamination processes and technologies available for rehabilitating sites used for nuclear power generation and civilian nuclear facilities, from fundamental issues and best practices, to procedures and technology, and onto decommissioning and decontamination case studies.$bOnce a nuclear installation has reached the end of its safe and economical operational lifetime, the need for its decommissioning arises. Different strategies can be employed for nuclear decommissioning, based on the evaluation of particular hazards and their attendant risks, as well as on the analysis of costs of clean-up and waste management. This allows for decommissioning either soon after permanent shutdown, or perhaps a long time later, the latter course allowing for radioactivity levels to drop in any activated or contaminated components. It is crucial for clear processes and best practices to be applied in decommissioning such installations and sites, particular where any ...

2012-01-01

137

Nuclear power plant decommissioning cost estimate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With a number of the nuclear installations in North America and around the world approaching retirement age, the task of safely decommissioning a plant to the appropriate stage for that plant and disposing of its radioactive waste is currently being studied with a great interest. This paper presents an approach which addresses the questions of decommissioning alternatives, man-rem exposure, escalation, discounting and outlines a simple, clear and practical methodology for estimating decommissioning costs

138

Experiences in teaching decommissioning - 16179  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper describes the experience gained by the author in teaching decommissioning in the Highlands of Scotland. Initially when asked to teach the subject of decommissioning to students sitting for a BSc degree in 'Electrical or Mechanical Engineering with Decommissioning Studies', the author was taken aback, not having previously taught degree students and there was no precedent since there was no previous material or examples to build on. It was just as difficult for the students since whilst some had progressed from completing HND studies, the majority were employed at the Dounreay site and were mature students with families who were availing themselves of the opportunity for career advancement (CPD). Some of the students were from the UKAEA and its contractors whilst others were from Rolls-Royce working at Vulcan, the Royal Navy's establishment for testing nuclear reactors for submarines. A number of the students had not been in a formal learning environment for many years. The College which had originally been funded by the UKAEA and the nuclear industry in the 1950's was anxious to break into the new field of Decommissioning and were keen to promote these courses in order to support the work progressing on site. Many families in Thurso, and in Caithness, have a long tradition of working in the nuclear industry and it was thought at the time that expertise in nuclear decommissioning could be developed and indeed exported elsewhere. In addition the courses being elsewhere. In addition the courses being promoted by the College would attract students from other parts so that a centre of excellence could be established. In parallel with formal teaching, online courses were also developed to extend the reach of the College. The material was developed as a mixture of power point presentations and formal notes and was obtained from existing literature, web searches and interactive discussions with people in the industry as well as case studies obtained from actual situations. Assignments were set and examination papers prepared which were validated by internal and external assessors. The first course was started in 2004 (believed to be unique at that time) and attracted eight students. Subsequent courses have been promoted as well as a BEng (Hons) course which also included a course on Safety and Reliability. (authors)

139

Decommissioning Technology Development for Nuclear Research Facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is predicted that the decommissioning of a nuclear power plant would happen in Korea since 2020 but the need of partial decommissioning and decontamination for periodic inspection and life extension still has been on an increasing trend and its domestic market has gradually been extended. Therefore, in this project we developed following several essential technologies as a decommissioning R and D. The measurement technology for in-pipe radioactive contamination was developed for measuring alpha/beta/gamma emitting nuclides simultaneously inside a in-pipe and it was tested into the liquid waste transfer pipe in KRR-2. And the digital mock-up system for KRR-1 and 2 was developed for choosing the best scenarios among several scenarios on the basis of various decommissioning information(schedule, waste volume, cost, etc.) that are from the DMU and the methodology of decommissioning cost estimation was also developed for estimating a research reactor's decommissioning cost and the DMU and the decommissioning cost estimation system were incorporated into the decommissioning information integrated management system. Finally the treatment and management technology of the irradiated graphites that happened after decommissioning KRR-2 was developed in order to treat and manage the irradiated graphites safely

140

Planning and management for reactor decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes decommissioning strategy, planning process, regulation, management and organization, radiological characterization and safety. Planning is used to identify, define and organize the requirements for decommissioning including decommissioning options, items to be accomplished (objective, scope), to solve problems of how it is to be accomplished (methods, means and procedures), questions of who will execute it (resources, organization and responsibilities, interfacing), and time when it will be executed (schedule for meeting the objectives). A plan is highly dependent on the quality of the management team assembled to carry it out. Radiological characterization involves a survey of existing data, calculation, in situ measurements and/or sampling and analyses. Using this databases decommissioning planner may assess options, considering: decontamination processes, dismantling procedures, tools required, radiological protection of workers and public/environment, waste classification, and resulting costs. Comparison and optimization of these factors will lead to selection of a decommissioning strategy, i.e. typically, immediate or deferred dismantling. The planning and implementation of decommissioning for nuclear reactors should be referred both recent dismantling techniques and many decommissioning experiences. The technical lessons learned from many projects will help in the planning for future decommissioning projects. And systematic planning and man projects. And systematic planning and management are essential to successful completion of a decommissioning project. (author)

 
 
 
 
141

Decontamination, decommissioning, and vendor advertorial issue, 2005  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The focus of the July-August issue is on Decontamination, decommissioning, and vendor advertorials. Major interviews, articles and reports in this issue include: Increasing momentum, by Gary Taylor, Entergy Nuclear, Inc.; An acceptable investment, by Tom Chrisopher, Areva, Inc.; Fuel recycling for the U.S. and abroad, by Philippe Knoche, Areva, France; We're bullish on nuclear power, by Dan R. Keuter, Entergy Nuclear, Inc.; Ten key actions for decommissioning, by Lawrence E. Boing, Argonne National Laboratory; Safe, efficient and cost-effective decommissioning, by Dr. Claudio Pescatore and Torsten Eng, OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), France; and, Plant profile: SONGS decommissioning.

Agnihotri, Newal (ed.)

2005-07-15

142

Decommissioning Technology Development for Nuclear Research Facilities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is predicted that the decommissioning of a nuclear power plant would happen in Korea since 2020 but the need of partial decommissioning and decontamination for periodic inspection and life extension still has been on an increasing trend and its domestic market has gradually been extended. Therefore, in this project we developed following several essential technologies as a decommissioning R and D. The measurement technology for in-pipe radioactive contamination was developed for measuring alpha/beta/gamma emitting nuclides simultaneously inside a in-pipe and it was tested into the liquid waste transfer pipe in KRR-2. And the digital mock-up system for KRR-1 and 2 was developed for choosing the best scenarios among several scenarios on the basis of various decommissioning information(schedule, waste volume, cost, etc.) that are from the DMU and the methodology of decommissioning cost estimation was also developed for estimating a research reactor's decommissioning cost and the DMU and the decommissioning cost estimation system were incorporated into the decommissioning information integrated management system. Finally the treatment and management technology of the irradiated graphites that happened after decommissioning KRR-2 was developed in order to treat and manage the irradiated graphites safely.

Lee, K. W.; Kang, Y. A.; Kim, G. H. (and others)

2007-06-15

143

Carcass characteristics of small and medium-frame Aberdeen Angus young steers / Características da carcaça de novilhos super jovens Aberdeen Angus de biótipos pequeno e médio  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Avaliaram-se as características da carcaça de novilhos Aberdeen Angus super jovens de biótipos pequeno e médio, terminados em confinamento e abatidos com semelhante espessura de gordura subcutânea. A idade e o peso vivo médio de ingresso no confinamento foram de 298 dias e 202 kg. Os animais foram c [...] onfinados durante 158 dias, abatidos com espessura de gordura subcutânea média de 6,4 mm. A alimentação foi composta por silagem de sorgo e concentrado, na razão volumoso:concentrado de 60:40 na matéria seca, nos primeiros 63 dias e após, 50:50 até o abate. O biótipo foi calculado utilizando a fórmula B=-11,548 + (0,4878xh) - (0,0289xID) + (0,0000146xID²) + (0,0000759xhxID), em que h representou a altura e o ID idade em dias. Novilhos com biótipo médio apresentaram superioridade nos aspectos importantes de comercialização, como o peso de carcaça quente (p Abstract in english Carcass characteristics of small and medium-frame Aberdeen Angus young steers, finished in feedlot and slaughtered with similar subcutaneous fat thickness are evaluated. The average age and live weight at the start of feedlot were respectively 298 days and 202 kg. The steers were confined during 158 [...] days, and slaughtered with average subcutaneous fat thickness of 6.4 mm. The feed consisted of sorghum silage and concentrate at 60:40 ratio of dry matter during the first 63 days and 50:50 afterward. The frame was calculated by formula F =-11.548 + (0.4878xh) - (0.0289xID) + (0.0000146xID²)+(0.0000759xIDxh), where h is the height and ID the age, in days. Steers with medium frame showed superiority in important marketing aspects such as warm (p

Miguelangelo Ziegler, Arboitte; Ivan Luis, Brondani; João, Restle; Leandro da Silva, Freitas; Lucas Braido, Pereira; Gilmar dos Santos, Cardoso.

2012-03-01

144

Carcass characteristics of small and medium-frame Aberdeen Angus young steers / Características da carcaça de novilhos super jovens Aberdeen Angus de biótipos pequeno e médio  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Avaliaram-se as características da carcaça de novilhos Aberdeen Angus super jovens de biótipos pequeno e médio, terminados em confinamento e abatidos com semelhante espessura de gordura subcutânea. A idade e o peso vivo médio de ingresso no confinamento foram de 298 dias e 202 kg. Os animais foram c [...] onfinados durante 158 dias, abatidos com espessura de gordura subcutânea média de 6,4 mm. A alimentação foi composta por silagem de sorgo e concentrado, na razão volumoso:concentrado de 60:40 na matéria seca, nos primeiros 63 dias e após, 50:50 até o abate. O biótipo foi calculado utilizando a fórmula B=-11,548 + (0,4878xh) - (0,0289xID) + (0,0000146xID²) + (0,0000759xhxID), em que h representou a altura e o ID idade em dias. Novilhos com biótipo médio apresentaram superioridade nos aspectos importantes de comercialização, como o peso de carcaça quente (p Abstract in english Carcass characteristics of small and medium-frame Aberdeen Angus young steers, finished in feedlot and slaughtered with similar subcutaneous fat thickness are evaluated. The average age and live weight at the start of feedlot were respectively 298 days and 202 kg. The steers were confined during 158 [...] days, and slaughtered with average subcutaneous fat thickness of 6.4 mm. The feed consisted of sorghum silage and concentrate at 60:40 ratio of dry matter during the first 63 days and 50:50 afterward. The frame was calculated by formula F =-11.548 + (0.4878xh) - (0.0289xID) + (0.0000146xID²)+(0.0000759xIDxh), where h is the height and ID the age, in days. Steers with medium frame showed superiority in important marketing aspects such as warm (p

Miguelangelo Ziegler, Arboitte; Ivan Luis, Brondani; João, Restle; Leandro da Silva, Freitas; Lucas Braido, Pereira; Gilmar dos Santos, Cardoso.

145

Principles of record keeping for decommissioning purposes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the siting and conceptual design stage of a nuclear facility the first records pertaining to that facility are produced and stored. Subsequent phases in the facility's life cycle (detailed design, construction, commissioning, operation and shutdown) will include the production and retention of a large variety of records. Design, as-built drawings and operational records are essential for safe and efficient operation of any nuclear facility. This set of records is constantly updated and augmented during operation. Records from all phases of a nuclear facility are important for planning its decommissioning. Although not all of these records need to be included explicitly in the decommissioning plan itself, the process of initial, ongoing and final planning utilizes pertinent records for, and ultimately achieves, safe and cost effective decommissioning. When a nuclear facility is shutdown for decommissioning, current operating experience may be lost. Therefore, one important element of planning is to identify, secure and store appropriate operational records to support decommissioning. This process is preferably initiated during the design and construction phase and continues throughout operation including shutdown. Part of the records inventory from operation will become records for decommissioning and it is cost effective to identify these records before final facility shutdown. Experience shows that lack of attention to record keeping may result in an undue waste of time, other resources and additional costs. The newly established Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management recognizes the importance of keeping decommissioning-related records. In addition, the systematic management of records is an essential part of quality assurance and is often a licence condition. A good comprehensive decommissioning records management system (RMS) is one specific application of the broader concepts of 'Protection of future generations' and 'Burden on future generations' as highlighted in the top-level IAEA document on Principles of Radioactive Waste Management. It should be noted that other programmes of the IAEA have addressed record keeping for radioactive waste management and disposal facilities. A newly-published IAEA report provides guidance in records relevant to decommissioning and its key statements are summarised in this paper. The contents is as follows: 1. Introduction; 2. Design and Operational Data Required for Decommissioning; 2.1. Decommissioning Strategy; 2.2 Primary Data Sources for Decommissioning; 2.2.1 Design, construction and modification data; 2.2.2. Operating, shutdown and post-shutdown data; 3. The Process of Selecting Decommissioning Records; 3.1 Establishing the Records Management System; 3.2 Selection of Decommissioning Records; 3.3. Documentation Prepared for Decommissioning; 4. Record Medium and Location

146

Research in decommissioning techniques for nuclear fuel cycle facilities in JNC. 7. JWTF decommissioning techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Decommissioning techniques such as radiation measuring and monitoring, decontamination, dismantling and remote handling in the world were surveyed to upgrading technical know-how database for decommissioning of Joyo Waste Treatment Facility (JWTF). As the result, five literatures for measuring and monitoring techniques, 14 for decontamination and 22 for dismantling feasible for JWTF decommissioning were obtained and were summarized in tables. On the basis of the research, practical applicability of those techniques to decommissioning of JWTF was evaluated. This report contains brief surveyed summaries related to JWTF decommissioning. (H. Itami)

Ogawa, Ryuichiro; Ishijima, Noboru [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

1999-02-01

147

An apparatus for studying spallation neutrons in the Aberdeen Tunnel laboratory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, we describe the design, construction and performance of an apparatus installed in the Aberdeen Tunnel laboratory in Hong Kong for studying spallation neutrons induced by cosmic-ray muons under a vertical rock overburden of 611 m water equivalent (m.w.e.). The apparatus comprises six horizontal layers of plastic-scintillator hodoscopes for determining the direction and position of the incident cosmic-ray muons. Sandwiched between the hodoscope planes is a neutron detector filled with 650 kg of liquid scintillator doped with about 0.06% of Gadolinium by weight for improving the efficiency of detecting the spallation neutrons. Performance of the apparatus is also presented

148

Pre-decommissioning, during decommissioning, and post-decommissioning radiological characterization of shutdown research reactors and their sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this lecture is to provide guidance to national governments, regulatory bodies, and operators for the timely and safe decommissioning of research reactors and small nuclear facilities. The emphasis of this lecture will be on characterization in support of decommissioning the facility. It is understood that each facility brings with it a unique set of problems itself. This lecture presents a general overview of the process and some important aspects of the radiological characterization process before, during, and after decommissioning is completed. A graded approach to the effort and resources needed to address this aspect of a decommissioning project is recommended, taking into account the associated risks and hazards. A realistic decommissioning plan must be built upon taking adequate account of the facility radiological conditions

149

AREVA decommissioning strategy and programme  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As with any industrial installation, a nuclear facility has an operating life that requires accounting for its shutdown. In compliance with its sustainable development commitments, AREVA accounts this via its own decommissioning resources to value and make sites fit for further use. These capabilities guarantee the reversibility of the nuclear industry. Thus, the nuclear site value development constitutes an important activity for AREVA, which contributes to the acceptance of nuclear in line with the AREVA continuous policy of sustainable development which is to be fully responsible from the creation, during the operation, to the dismantling of its facilities in all respects with safety, local acceptance and environment. AREVA has already performed a large variety of operation during the life-time of its installations such as heavy maintenance, equipment replacement, upgrading operation. Nowadays, a completely different dimension is emerging with industrial decommissioning operations of nuclear fuel cycle installations: enrichment gaseous diffusion plant, fuel assembly plants, recycling and reprocessing facilities. These activities constitute a major know-how for AREVA. For this reason, the group decided, beginning of 2008, to gather 4 projects in one business unit called Nuclear Site Value Development - a reprocessing plant UP2 400 on AREVA La Hague site, a reprocessing plant UP1 on AREVA Marcoule site, a MOX fuel plant on Cadarache and 2 sites (SICN Veurey and Annecdarache and 2 sites (SICN Veurey and Annecy) that handled GCR fuel fabrication). The main objectives are to enhance the feed back, to contribute to performance improvements, to value professionals and to put innovation forward. The following article will describe in a first part the main decommissioning programmes managed by AREVA NC Nuclear Site Value Development Business Unit. The second part will deal with strategic approaches. A more efficient organization with integration of the supply chain and innovation will be part of the main drivers. (authors)

150

Rancho Seco--Decommissioning Update  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Rancho Seco Nuclear Generating Station ceased operation in June of 1989 and entered an extended period of SAFSTOR to allow funds to accumulate for dismantlement. Incremental dismantlement was begun in 1997 of steam systems and based on the successful completion of work, the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) board of directors approved full decommissioning in July 1999. A schedule has been developed for completion of decommissioning by 2008, allowing decommissioning funds to accumulate until they are needed. Systems removal began in the Auxiliary Building in October of 1999 and in the Reactor Building in January of 2000. Systems dismantlement continues in the Reactor Building and should be completed by the end of 2003. System removal is near completion in the Auxiliary Building with removal of the final liquid waste tanks in progress. The spent fuel has been moved to dry storage in an onsite ISFSI, with completion on August 21, 2002. The spent fuel racks are currently being removed from the pool, packaged and shipped, and then the pool will be cleaned. Also in the last year the reactor coolant pumps and primary piping were removed and shipped. Characterization and planning work for the reactor vessel and internals is also in progress with various cut-up and/or disposal options being evaluated. In the year ahead the remaining systems in the Reactor Building will be removed, packaged and sent for disposal, including the pressurizer. Work will be started on embedded and underground piping and the large outdoor tanks. Building survey and decontamination will begin. RFP's for removal of the vessel and internals and the steam generators are planned to fix the cost of those components. If the costs are consistent with current estimates the work will go forward. If they are not, hardened SAFSTOR/entombment may be considered.

Newey, J. M.; Ronningen, E. T.; Snyder, M. W.

2003-02-26

151

SIR reactor safety and decommissioning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Paper describes in broad terms the safety principles of the SIR integral PWR. It discusses the safety provisions of the design and emphasizes particularly those inherent and passive features which allow 72 hours of safe response to any design basis accident without operator action and without safety grade AC electrical supplies. The Paper goes on to show how the SIR reactor plant can be decommissioned. Four options have been investigated and the dose burdens and cost estimates are very attractive to owners compared with other PWR systems. (author).

Andrews, P.J.; Gibson, I.H. (AEA Technology, Winfrith (UK)); Hall, S.F. (AEA Safety and Reliability, Culcheth (United Kingdom). Safety Management); Ludlam, S. (Rolls-Royce Ltd., Derby (UK))

1991-04-01

152

Decommission of nuclear ship 'MUTSU'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nuclear-powered ship 'MUTSU' was decommissioned by removing the reactor room in June 1995, which was hoisted and transported by a floating crane to a shore storage room at Sekinehama, Aomori Prefecture. This work was carried out in three stages: extraction of the spent fuel assemblies and neutron sources, dismantling of the machinery in the reactor auxiliary room, and separation and transportation of the reactor together with the secondary shielding structure and surrounding hull. IHI mainly conducted the third stage work. The separation work of the reactor room structure using a semisubmersible barge is outlined. Stress analysis and design of the reactor room for lifting work is also described. (author)

153

EPRI nuclear power plant decommissioning technology program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is a non-profit research organization that supports the energy industry. The Nuclear Power Plant Decommissioning Technology Program conducts research and develops technology for the safe and efficient decommissioning of nuclear power plants. (author)

154

Project gnome decontamination and decommissioning plan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The document presents the operational plan for conducting the final decontamination and decommissioning work at the site of the first U.S. nuclear detonation designed specifically for peaceful purposes and the first underground event on the Plowshare Program to take place outside the Nevada Test Site. The plan includes decontamination and decommissioning procedures, radiological guidelines, and the NV concept of operations

155

Survey of decontamination and decommissioning techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reports and articles on decommissioning have been reviewed to determine the current technology status and also attempt to identify potential decommissioning problem areas. It is concluded that technological road blocks, which limited decommissioning facilities in the past have been removed. In general, techniques developed by maintenance in maintaining the facility have been used to decommission facilities. Some of the more promising development underway which will further simplify decommissioning activities are: electrolytic decontamination which simplifies some decontaminating operations; arc saw and vacuum furnace which reduce the volume of metallic contaminated material by a factor of 10; remotely operated plasma torch which reduces personnel exposure; and shaped charges, water cannon and rock splitters which simplify concrete removal. Areas in which published data are limited are detailed costs identifying various components included in the total cost and also the quantity of waste generated during the decommissioning activities. With the increased awareness of decommissioning requirements as specified by licensing requirements, design criteria for new facilities are taking into consideration final decommissioning of buildings. Specific building design features will evolve as designs are evaluated and implemented

156

Government Assigns New Supervisory Task. Safe Decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ntified ten key areas, dealing with the safety culture of the organization, in connection with the decommissioning of Barsebaeck 1. 1. Obtaining and retaining staff competence during decommissioning; 2. Sustaining organizational memory; 3. Identifying key organizational functions and management skills that are critical during the transition from operations to decommissioning. 4. Sustaining organizational viability and accountability for decommissioning; 5. Sustaining motivation and trust in management of dismantlement; 6. Overseeing contractors; 7. Decommissioning multi-unit sites when one unit continues to operate; 8. Delaying dismantling of decommissioning nuclear power plants; 9. Establishing organizational processes and control systems to identify and address emerging as well as known safety issues; 10. Determining and communicating the level of risk during decommissioning. The list of safety issues that can be linked to safety culture, and questions of organisation, illustrates the scope of supervision that must be performed during decommissioning of a nuclear power plant. Given the myriad of complex activities taking place, this focus is a useful way to assist the regulator to articulate concerns to the power plant management in terms of links to potential safety problems

157

Interim Storage Facility decommissioning. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Decontamination and decommissioning of the Interim Storage Facility were completed. Activities included performing a detailed radiation survey of the facility, removing surface and imbedded contamination, excavating and removing the fuel storage cells, restoring the site to natural conditions, and shipping waste to Hanford, Washington, for burial. The project was accomplished on schedule and 30% under budget with no measurable exposure to decommissioning personnel

158

Standard guide for nuclear facility decommissioning plans  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This guide applies to decommissioning plans for any nuclear facility whose operation was (is) governed by Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or agreement state license, or under Department of Energy (DOE) orders. The guide applies to the preparation and content of the decommissioning plan document itself. This standard may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment

159

Brief Assessment of Krsko NPP Decommissioning Costs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first part of the paper gives a brief description of decommissioning scenarios and models of financing the decommissioning of NPPs. The second part contains a review of decommissioning costs for certain PWR plants with a brief description of methods used for that purpose. The third part of the paper the authors dedicated to the assessment of decommissioning costs for Krsko NPP. It does not deal with ownership relations and obligations ensuing from them. It starts from the simple point that decommissioning is an structure of the decommissioning fund is composed of three basic cost items of which the first refers to radioactive waste management, the second to storage and disposal of the spent nuclear fuel and the third to decommissioning itself. The assessment belongs to the category of preliminary activities and as such has a limited scope and meaning. Nevertheless, the authors believe that it offers a useful insight into the basic costs that will burden the decommissioning fund of Krsko NPP. (author)

160

The IAEA Safety Regime for Decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text of publication follows: The International Atomic Energy Agency is developing an international framework for decommissioning of nuclear facilities that consists of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management, and a hierarchy of Safety Standards applicable to decommissioning. The Joint Convention entered into force on 18 June 2001 and as of December 2001 had been ratified by 27 IAEA Member States. The Joint Convention contains a number of articles dealing with planning for, financing, staffing and record keeping for decommissioning. The Joint Convention requires Contracting Parties to apply the same operational radiation protection criteria, discharge limits and criteria for controlling unplanned releases during decommissioning that are applied during operations. The IAEA has issued Safety Requirements document and three Safety Guides applicable to decommissioning of facilities. The Safety Requirements document, WS-R-2, Pre-disposal Management of Radioactive Waste, including Decommissioning, contains requirements applicable to regulatory control, planning and funding, management of radioactive waste, quality assurance, and environmental and safety assessment of the decommissioning process. The three Safety Guides are WS-G-2.1, Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Plants and Research Reactors, WS-G-2.2, Decommissioning of Medical, Industrial and Research Facilities, an WS-G-2.4, Decommissioning of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities. They contain guidance on how to meet the requirements of WS-R-2 applicable to decommissioning of specific types of facilities. These Standards contain only general requirements and guidance relative to safety assessment and do not contain details regarding the content of the safety case. More detailed guidance will be published in future Safety Reports currently in preparation within the Waste Safety Section of the IAEA. Because much material arising during the decommissioning of nuclear facilities may be only slightly contaminated with radioactivity, an important matter for decommissioning of facilities is the level of contamination, which may be released from regulatory control. This issue is being addressed in a Safety Guide being prepared by the IAEA dealing with the Scope of Regulatory Control. This Safety Guide will attempt to rationalise levels of radioactivity subject to exclusion, exemption, discharge, recycle, contained in commodities, and released from regulatory control, taking into consideration levels of radioactivity in naturally occurring radioactive materials. This Safety Guide is scheduled to be completed late in 2002 or in 2003. The IAEA is organizing, in cooperation with the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, an International Conference on Safe Decommissioning for Nuclear Activities. The Conference will take place 14 to 18 October 2002 in Berlin, Germany

 
 
 
 
161

Asbestos removal in Shippingport Decommissioning Project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project (SSDP) is being performed under contract to the DOE by the General Electric Company and its integrated subcontractor, MK-Ferguson Company, as the Decommissioning Operations Contractor (DOC). During the planning of this project, it was found that asbestos was the primary insulating material which was used on the nuclear steam supply system and the plant heating system. The original decommissioning plan required that each subcontractor remove the asbestos from the particular component(s) they had to remove. However, since removal of the radioactivity-contaminated asbestos would require special procedures and worker training, the original decommissioning plan was modified so that a single subcontractor removed all of the asbestos prior to other decommissioning tasks. IT Corporation was selected as the asbestos removal subcontractor. Their approach to the project is described

162

Decommissioning the Trojan nuclear power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The decommissioning of the Trojan Nuclear Plant (TNP) began in 1993 with the decision to cease operation of the plant. In the six years since the shutdown, a Decommissioning Plan has been developed, site radiological characterizations have been performed, the decommissioning option, DECON, was selected and plant dismantlement has begun. TNP has accomplished the dismantlement tasks using a number of innovative projects and developed a number of new decommissioning techniques. The innovative projects include removal of the large components from the reactor building, the disposal of the reactor vessel with the internal highly radioactive components, and embedded in-place pipe decontamination and survey. The new methods include shipping and disposing of components as a package and dismantling tanks from the bottom up using less dose and time than more traditional methods. This paper describes how these methods save time, radiation dose and result in an overall safe approach to decommissioning. (author)

163

Decommissioning Project for the Research Reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 2008, tried to complete the whole decommissioning project of KRR-1 and KRR-2 and preparing work for memorial museum of KRR-1 reactor. Now the project is delayed for 3 months because of finding unexpected soil contamination around facility and treatment of. To do final residual radioactivity assessment applied by MARSSIM procedure. Accumulated decommissioning experiences and technologies will be very usefully to do decommissioning other nuclear related facility. At the decommissioning site of the uranium conversion plant, the decontamination of the dismantled carbon steel waste are being performed and the lagoon 1 sludge waste is being treated this year. The technologies and experiences obtained from the UCP dismantling works are expected to apply to other fuel cycle facilities decommissioning. The lagoon sludge treatment technology is the first applied technology in the actual field and it is expected that this technology could be applied to other country

164

Decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objectives of this coordinated research programme (CRP) were to promote the exchange of information on the practical experience by Member States in decontamination and decommissioning. The scope of the programme included several areas of decontamination and decommissioning rather than focusing on a single aspect of it, in line with recommendation of the experts who participated in Phase 1 of the CRP. Experts felt that this format would generate better awareness of decontamination and decommissioning and would be more effective vehicle for the exchange of information by stimulating broader discussion on all aspects of decontamination and decommissioning. Special emphasis was given to the development of principles and methodologies to facilitate decommissioning and to the new methods and techniques for optimization of decontamination and disassembly of equipment. Refs, figs, tabs

165

Site decommissioning of AECL Whiteshell Laboratories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

AECL Whiteshell Laboratories (WL), near Winnipeg, Canada has been in operation since the early 1960s. In the late-1990s, AECL began to consolidate research and development activities at its Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) and began preparations for decommissioning WL. As a prerequisite to AECL's application for a decommissioning licence, an environmental assessment (EA) was carried out according to Canadian environmental assessment legislation. The EA concluded in 2002 April when the Federal Environment Minister published his decision that WL decommissioning was not likely to cause significant adverse environmental effects and that no further assessment by a review panel or mediation would be required. In 2002 December, the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission issued a decommissioning licence for WL, valid until December 31, 2008. The licence authorized the first planned phase of site decommissioning as well as the continuation of selected research programs. The six- year licence for Whiteshell Laboratories was the first overall decommissioning license issued for a Canadian Nuclear Research and Test Establishment. The first phase of decommissioning is now underway and focuses on decontamination and modifications to nuclear facilities, such as the shielded facilities, the main R and D laboratories and the associated service systems, to achieve a safe state of storage-with-surveillance. Later phases have planned waste management improvements for selected wastes already in provements for selected wastes already in storage, eventually followed by final decommissioning of facilities and infrastructure and removal of most wastes from the site. This paper provides an overview of the planning, environmental assessment, licensing, and organizational processes for decommissioning and selected descriptions of decommissioning activities currently underway at AECL Whiteshell Laboratories. (author)

166

Decommissioning of Salaspils nuclear reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In May 1995, the Latvian Government decided to shut down the Research Reactor Salaspils (SRR) and to dispense with nuclear energy in future. The reactor has been out of operation since July 1998. A conceptual study for the decommissioning of SRR has been carried out by Noell-KRC-Energie- und Umwelttechnik GmbH from 1998-1999. he Latvian Government decided on 26 October 1999 to start the direct dismantling to 'green field' in 2001. The results of decommissioning and dismantling performed in 1999-2001 are presented and discussed. The main efforts were devoted to collecting and conditioning 'historical' radioactive waste from different storages outside and inside the reactor hall. All radioactive material more than 20 tons were conditioned in concrete containers for disposal in the radioactive waste depository 'Radons' in the Baldone site. Personal protective and radiation measurement equipment was upgraded significantly. All non-radioactive equipment and material outside the reactor buildings were free-released and dismantled for reuse or conventional disposal. Weakly contaminated material from the reactor hall was collected and removed for free-release measurements. The technology of dismantling of the reactor's systems, i.e. second cooling circuit, zero power reactors and equipment, is discussed in the paper. (author)

167

Uranium hexafluoride production plant decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Institute of Energetic and Nuclear Research - IPEN is a research and development institution, located in a densely populated area, in the city of Sao Paulo. The nuclear fuel cycle was developed from the Yellow Cake to the enrichment and reconversion at IPEN. After this phase, all the technology was transferred to private enterprises and to the Brazilian Navy (CTM/SP). Some plants of the fuel cycle were at semi-industrial level, with a production over 20 kg/h. As a research institute, IPEN accomplished its function of the fuel cycle, developing and transferring technology. With the necessity of space for the implementation of new projects, the uranium hexafluoride (UF6) production plant was chosen, since it had been idle for many years and presented potential leaking risks, which could cause environmental aggression and serious accidents. This plant decommission required accurate planning, as this work had not been carried out in Brazil before, for this type of facility, and there were major risks involving gaseous hydrogen fluoride aqueous solution of hydrofluoric acid (HF) both highly corrosive. Evaluations were performed and special equipment was developed, aiming to prevent leaking and avoid accidents. During the decommissioning work, the CNEN safety standards were obeyed for the whole operation. The environmental impact was calculated, showing to be not relevant.The radiation doses, after the work, were within the limits for the public and the area was released for new projects. (author)

168

Shippingport Station decommissioning project overview  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The U.S. Department of Energy is in the process of decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station located on the Ohio River, 30 miles northwest of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The Shippingport Station is the first commercial size nuclear power plant to undergo decommissioning in the United Staes. The plant is located on approximately 7 acres of land owned by the Duquesne Light Company (DLC) and leased to the U.S. Government. DLC operates two nuclear power plants, Beaver Valley 1 and 2, located immediately adjacent to the site and the Bruce Mansfield coal-fired power plant is also within the immediate area. The Station was shutdown in October, 1982. Defueling operations began in 1983 and were completed by September, 1984. The Shippingport Station consists of a 275' x 60' fuel handling building containing the reactor containment chamber, the service building, the turbine building, the radioactive waste processing building, the administration building and other smaller support buildings. The Station has four coolant loops and most of the containment structures are located below grade. Structures owned by the U.S. Government including the fuel handling building, service building, contaminated equipment room, the boiler chambers, the radioactive waste processing building and the decontamination and laydown buildings will be dismantled and removed to 3 feet below grade. The area will then be filled with clean soil and graded. The turbine building, testing and training be turbine building, testing and training building and the administration building are owned by DLC and will remain

169

Ecological survey of M-Field, Edgewood Area Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An ecological survey was conducted on M-Field, at the Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. M-Field is used routinely to test army smokes and obscurants, including brass flakes, carbon fibers, and fog oils. The field has been used for testing purposes for the past 40 years, but little documented history is available. Under current environmental regulations, the test field must be assessed periodically to document the presence or potential use of the area by threatened and endangered species. The M-Field area is approximately 370 acres and is part of the US Army`s Edgewood Area at Aberdeen Proving Ground in Harford County, Maryland. The grass-covered field is primarily lowlands with elevations from about 1.0 to 8 m above sea level, and several buildings and structures are present on the field. The ecological assessment of M-Field was conducted in three stages, beginning with a preliminary site visit in May to assess sampling requirements. Two field site visits were made June 3--7, and August 12--15, 1991, to identify the biota existing on the site. Data were gathered on vegetation, small mammals, invertebrates, birds, large mammals, amphibians, and reptiles.

Downs, J.L.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Fitzner, R.E.; Rogers, L.E.

1991-12-01

170

Ecological survey of M-Field, Edgewood Area Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An ecological survey was conducted on M-Field, at the Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. M-Field is used routinely to test army smokes and obscurants, including brass flakes, carbon fibers, and fog oils. The field has been used for testing purposes for the past 40 years, but little documented history is available. Under current environmental regulations, the test field must be assessed periodically to document the presence or potential use of the area by threatened and endangered species. The M-Field area is approximately 370 acres and is part of the US Army's Edgewood Area at Aberdeen Proving Ground in Harford County, Maryland. The grass-covered field is primarily lowlands with elevations from about 1.0 to 8 m above sea level, and several buildings and structures are present on the field. The ecological assessment of M-Field was conducted in three stages, beginning with a preliminary site visit in May to assess sampling requirements. Two field site visits were made June 3--7, and August 12--15, 1991, to identify the biota existing on the site. Data were gathered on vegetation, small mammals, invertebrates, birds, large mammals, amphibians, and reptiles.

Downs, J.L.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Fitzner, R.E.; Rogers, L.E.

1991-12-01

171

"…to merit the countenance of the magistrates' : Gender and Civic Identity in eighteenth-century Aberdeen  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the context of shifting ideas fostered by the Enlightenment and by a drive for civility, this chapter focuses on the construction of male and female civic identities and the tensions between reconstructed masculinity and femininity. Changing views of sexual difference and ideals of masculinity and femininity informed the gendered nature of work, public life and political activity, while several different pressures came together to shape an emphasis on propriety and the desirability of establishing a civic identity that was not only personal, but also represented the town as a whole. It meant that personal civic identity was linked to the perception and outward projections of the town. Thus the chapter articulates the role and strategies of Aberdeen’s town council in regulating not only the economy but also civic spaces. It will look at how the council ‘managed’ the town with reference to the gendered character of decision-making in the face of shifting ideas of sociability, civility and town image and demonstrates how public behaviour, usually female activity, which was potentially damaging to the town’s civic identity was condemned, chastened and policed. A key issue is that men of standing and status, bourgeois men of position and wealth, largely policed women of the working classes according to the concept of civic nicety and politeness at ‘the council’s pleasure’.

Simonton, Deborah Leigh

2014-01-01

172

Air monitoring for volatile organic compounds at the Pilot Plant Complex, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Army`s Aberdeen Proving Ground has been a test site for a variety of munitions, including chemical warfare agents (CWA). The Pilot Plant Complex (PPC) at Aberdeen was the site of development, manufacture, storage, and disposal of CWA. Deterioration of the buildings and violations of environmental laws led to closure of the complex in 1986. Since that time, all equipment, piping, and conduit in the buildings have been removed. The buildings have been declared free of surface CWA contamination as a result of air sampling using the military system. However, no air sampling has been done to determine if other hazardous volatile organic compounds are present in the PPC, although a wide range of toxic and/or hazardous materials other than CWA was used in the PPC. The assumption has been that the air in the PPC is not hazardous. The purpose of this air-monitoring study was to screen the indoor air in the PPC to confirm the assumption that the air does not contain volatile organic contaminants at levels that would endanger persons in the buildings. A secondary purpose was to identify any potential sources of volatile organic contaminants that need to be monitored in subsequent sampling efforts.

Schneider, J.F.; O`Neill, H.J.; Raphaelian, L.A.; Tomczyk, N.A.; Sytsma, L.F.; Cohut, V.J.; Cobo, H.A.; O`Reilly, D.P.; Zimmerman, R.E.

1995-03-01

173

Government Assigns New Supervisory Task. Safe Decommissioning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

When the Government decided to shutdown one of the two Barsebaeck reactors in February of 1998, it presented SKI with a task that came much earlier than expected; the supervision of the decommissioning of a reactor. As a result of proposals presented in Parliament, SKI began the formulation of a long-term strategy in 1997 for the inspection of a nuclear plant during the decommissioning process. As a preliminary task, SKI started a research programme dealing with the potential risks associated with the transition from normal operations through shutdown to final deconstruction of the power plant. Emphasis was laid on safety culture issues and on questions of organization, as opposed to an earlier stress on the purely technical aspects of decommissioning. After a long period of uncertainty, following much discussion, in July 1998 a Government decision was finally reached to shutdown the first reactor at Barsebaeck. This was carried out in November 1999. It is still uncertain as to when the other reactor will be decommissioned; a decision is expected at the earliest in 2004. This uncertainty, resulting from the prolonged decision making process, could be detrimental to the safety culture on the site; motivation could diminish, and key personnel could be lost. Decommissioning is a new phase in the life cycle of a plant, giving rise to new inspection issues of supervision. During the period of uncertainty, while awaiting SKI has identified ten key areas, dealing with the safety culture of the organization, in connection with the decommissioning of Barsebaeck 1. 1. Obtaining and retaining staff competence during decommissioning; 2. Sustaining organizational memory; 3. Identifying key organizational functions and management skills that are critical during the transition from operations to decommissioning. 4. Sustaining organizational viability and accountability for decommissioning; 5. Sustaining motivation and trust in management of dismantlement; 6. Overseeing contractors; 7. Decommissioning multi-unit sites when one unit continues to operate; 8. Delaying dismantling of decommissioning nuclear power plants; 9. Establishing organizational processes and control systems to identify and address emerging as well as known safety issues; 10. Determining and communicating the level of risk during decommissioning. The list of safety issues that can be linked to safety culture, and questions of organisation, illustrates the scope of supervision that must be performed during decommissioning of a nuclear power plant. Given the myriad of complex activities taking place, this focus is a useful way to assist the regulator to articulate concerns to the power plant management in terms of links to potential safety problems.

Lekberg, Anna [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)

2003-06-01

174

Project No. 9 - Unit 1 Decommissioning project (Decommissioning project for the shutdown phase of unit 1)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to the Law on Nuclear Energy before starting Ignalina NPP unit 1 decommissioning process, Ignalina NPP shall have an decommissioning license granted by the Lithuanian Nuclear Power Safety Inspectorate (VATESI). Together with an application to VATESI to obtain the licence, a number of documents specified in the Regulations on licensing of activities in nuclear energy field and General requirements for Ignalina NPP decommissioning, including the Safety Analysis Report and Decommissioning Project, should be submitted. The safety Analysis Report should contain the analysis of the following: envisaged conditions upon which Ignalina NPP decommissioning process could be safely performed and risky actions that may impact Ignalina NPP; limits for safe decommissioning such as ionising radiation levels at Ignalina NPP and beyond its boundaries, effluents; decommissioning process, preliminary work arrangements. The Decommissioning Project should include: Description of decommissioning activities (abandonment of technological pits and rooms, dismantling and handling of main and auxiliary equipment, systems, elements and activated parts of the reactor, decontamination, dismantling of protective barriers, laying-up of constructions, systems or elements); design basis decisions on Ignalina NPP decommissioning and or radiation consequences of the emergencies or incidents that occurred on the power unit. Estimated cost of the project - 3.75 M EURO

175

Planning the Decommissioning of Research Reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the Czech Republic, three research nuclear reactors are in operation. According to the valid legislation, preliminary decommissioning plans have been prepared for all research reactors in the Czech Republic. The decommissioning plans shall be updated at least every 5 years. Decommissioning funds have been established and financial resources are regularly deposited. Current situation in planning of decommissioning of research reactors in the Czech Republic, especially planning of decommissioning of the LVR-15 research reactor is described in this paper. There appeared new circumstances having wide impact on the decommissioning planning of the LVR-15 research reactor: (1) Shipment of spent fuel to the Russian Federation for reprocessing and (2) preparation of processing of radioactive waste from reconstruction of the VVR-S research reactor (now LVR-15 research reactor). The experience from spent fuel shipment to the Russian Federation and from the process of radiological characterization and processing of radioactive waste from reconstruction of the VVR-S research reactor (now the LVR-15 research reactor) and the impact on the decommissioning planning is described in this paper. (author)

176

BN-350 NPP regulatory aspects of decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fast breeder reactor BN-350 was commissioned in 1973. In 1999 the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan adopted Decree on the Decommissioning of Reactor. Since the decision on the decommissioning was accepted before end of scheduled service life (2003), to this moment 'The Decommissioning Plan' was not worked out. As the shut downed reactor continues to remain a source of nuclear and radiation hazard, one have to take measures on putting the reactor to safe status, and thus 'Plan of priority measures on BN-350 reactor decommissioning' was developed. It includes following activities: - Measures on BN-350 decommissioning Project development; - Measures on provision the reactor safety during transition period; - Measures on spent fuel disposal for a long-term storage; - Measures on sodium drainage and utilization. This paper describes the current situation in Kazakhstan with regard to the decommissioning of the BN-350 reactor and some aspects, which the Kazakhstan Atomic Energy Committee (as a regulatory body) encountered for the regulation of decommissioning activities. (author)

177

Decommissioning of French nuclear submarines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the beginning of the sixties, France has developed a fleet of nuclear powered vessels. Insofar as the ships of the 2. generation are being built, the older ones are decommissioned and enter the dismantling process. The average rate is presently one submarine decommissioned every two or three years. The overall strategy for the decommissioning of French nuclear submarines can be brought down to 3 phases: 1. Level 1 dismantling which essentially consists in: - unloading the spent fuel and storing it in a pool ; - possibly emptying the circuits which contain radioactive liquids. The level 1 is easily achieved, as it is not very different from the plant situation during ship overhaul or major refits. 2. Level 2 dismantling which consists in isolating the nuclear reactor compartment from the rest of the submarine and conditioning it for interim storage on a ground facility located inside Cherbourg Naval Dockyard. The rest of the ship is decontaminated, controlled and set for scrap like any conventional submarine. Up to now, the policy has been to keep the reactor compartment in this intermediate storage facility for at least 20 years, a duration calculated to allow enough time for short life corrosion products to disappear and hence, reduce the radioactive dose to workers during the level 3 dismantling operations. 3. Level 3 dismantling of the nuclear reactor compartment after a storage period. These operations consist in cutting into pieces all remaining structures ting into pieces all remaining structures and equipment, conditioning and sending them to ANDRA for disposal. The SSBN Le Redoutable, first French nuclear submarine which was removed from active service en 1991, underwent the first two phases but, forward and stern parts after cutting of the reactor compartment have been sealed and turned into a museum which is now part of 'La Cite de la Mer' in Cherbourg. Among the three other SSBNs removed from active service, two are at the end of phase 1 just before the separation of the reactor compartment and one is waiting for phase 2. What kind of waste is produced and in what quantities? What means are used to condition and treat this waste? We propose giving some answers to these questions, by discussing firstly the spent fuels (the only high-level activity waste), and secondly the solid and liquid waste of low and medium activity

178

Decommissioning activities for Salaspils research reactor - 59055  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In May 1995, the Latvian government decided to shut down the Salaspils Research Reactor (SRR). The reactor is out of operation since July 1998. A conceptual study for the decommissioning of SRR has been carried out by Noell-KRC-Energie- und Umwelttechnik GmbH at 1998-1999. The Latvian government decided to start the direct dismantling to 'green field' in October 26, 1999. The upgrade of decommissioning and dismantling plan was performed in 2003-2004 years, which change the main goal of decommissioning to the 'brown field'. The paper deals with the SRR decommissioning experience during 1999-2010. The main decommissioning stages are discussed including spent fuel and radioactive wastes management. The legal aspects and procedures for decommissioning of SRR are described in the paper. It was found, that the involvement of stakeholders at the early stages significantly promotes the decommissioning of nuclear facility. Radioactive waste management's main efforts were devoted to collecting and conditioning of 'historical' radioactive wastes from different storages outside and inside of reactor hall. All radioactive materials (more than 96 tons) were conditioned in concrete containers for disposal in the radioactive wastes repository 'Radons' at Baldone site. The dismantling of contaminated and activated components of SRR systems is discussed in paper. The cementation of dismantled radioactive wastes in concrete containers is discussed. Infrastructure of SRR, including personal protective and radiation measurement equipment, for decommissioning purposes was upgraded significantly. Additional attention was devoted to the free release measurement's technique. The certified laboratory was installed for supporting of all decommissioning activities. All non-radioactive equipments and materials outside of reactor buildings were released for clearance and dismantled for reusing or conventional disposing. Weakly contaminated materials from reactor hall were collected, decontaminated and removed for clearance measurements. (authors)

179

Social effects of decommissioning Trawsfynydd Power Station  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The decision to close Trawsfynydd in 1993 had significant implications for the staff and local community. The site is situated within a National Park and local employment opportunities are limited. The staff and local communities were consulted regarding the issues arising from closure and decommissioning. This consultation influenced the decommissioning strategy for the site, with emphasis placed on the mitigation of the effects of closure. Subsequent studies have shown that the adopted strategies have served to limit the social and economic effects. The experience at Trawsfynydd has proved to be generally applicable at other decommissioning sites. (author)

180

Stakeholder involvement in decommissioning nuclear facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Significant numbers of nuclear facilities will need to be decommissioned in the coming decades. In this context, NEA member countries are placing increasing emphasis on the involvement of stakeholders in the associated decision procedures. This study reviews decommissioning experience with a view to identifying stakeholder concerns and best practice in addressing them. The lessons learnt about the end of the facility life cycle can also contribute to better foresight in siting and building new facilities. This report will be of interest to all major players in the field of decommissioning, in particular policy makers, implementers, regulators and representatives of local host communities

 
 
 
 
181

Radionuclide source term measurements for decommission assessments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this project is to provide an up-to-date regulatory assessment of the radiological factors, criteria and problem areas associated with the technology, safety, and costs pertaining to reactor decommissioning and related waste disposal. This is being accomplished through a measurements and appraisal program focused in the following key areas: radiological characterization during Shippingport Station decommissioning; radiological characterization of intermediate-level wastes (highly activated reactor internal materials greater than Class C); evaluation of the accuracy of predictive activation codes and methods; and assessment of decommissioning waste disposal options

182

Development of a Decommissioning Certificate Program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Decommissioning Certificate Program has been developed at Washington State University Tri-Cities (WSU TC) in conjunction with Bechtel Hanford, Inc. (BHI), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)to address the increasing need for qualified professionals to direct and manage decommissioning projects. The cooperative effort between academia, industry, and government in the development and delivery of this Program of education and training is described, as well as the Program's design to prepare students to contribute sooner, and at a higher level, to decommissioning projects

183

Pipeline Decommissioning Trial AWE Berkshire UK - 13619  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Paper details the implementation of a 'Decommissioning Trial' to assess the feasibility of decommissioning the redundant pipeline operated by AWE located in Berkshire UK. The paper also presents the tool box of decommissioning techniques that were developed during the decommissioning trial. Constructed in the 1950's and operated until 2005, AWE used a pipeline for the authorised discharge of treated effluent. Now redundant, the pipeline is under a care and surveillance regime awaiting decommissioning. The pipeline is some 18.5 km in length and extends from AWE site to the River Thames. Along its route the pipeline passes along and under several major roads, railway lines and rivers as well as travelling through woodland, agricultural land and residential areas. Currently under care and surveillance AWE is considering a number of options for decommissioning the pipeline. One option is to remove the pipeline. In order to assist option evaluation and assess the feasibility of removing the pipeline a decommissioning trial was undertaken and sections of the pipeline were removed within the AWE site. The objectives of the decommissioning trial were to: - Demonstrate to stakeholders that the pipeline can be removed safely, securely and cleanly - Develop a 'tool box' of methods that could be deployed to remove the pipeline - Replicate the conditions and environments encountered along the route of the pipeline The onsite trial was also designed to replicate the physical prevailing conditions and constraints encountered along the remainder of its route i.e. working along a narrow corridor, working in close proximity to roads, working in proximity to above ground and underground services (e.g. Gas, Water, Electricity). By undertaking the decommissioning trial AWE have successfully demonstrated the pipeline can be decommissioned in a safe, secure and clean manor and have developed a tool box of decommissioning techniques. The tool box of includes; - Hot tapping - a method of breaching the pipe while maintaining containment to remove residual liquids, - Crimp and shear - remote crimping, cutting and handling of pipe using the excavator - Pipe jacking - a way of removing pipes avoiding excavations and causing minimal disturbance and disruption. The details of the decommissioning trial design, the techniques employed, their application and effectiveness are discussed and evaluated here in. (authors)

Agnew, Kieran [AWE, Aldermaston, Reading, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)

2013-07-01

184

Deactivation, Decontamination and Decommissioning Project Summaries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is a compilation of summary descriptions of Deactivation, Decontamination and Decommissioning, and Surveillance and Maintenance projects planned for inactive facilities and sites at the INEEL from FY-2002 through FY-2010. Deactivations of contaminated facilities will produce safe and stable facilities requiring minimal surveillance and maintenance pending further decontamination and decommissioning. Decontamination and decommissioning actions remove contaminated facilities, thus eliminating long-term surveillance and maintenance. The projects are prioritized based on risk to DOE-ID, the public, and the environment, and the reduction of DOE-ID mortgage costs and liability at the INEEL.

Peterson, David Shane; Webber, Frank Laverne

2001-07-01

185

Quality management in nuclear facilities decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Internationally, the decommissioning organizations of nuclear facilities carry out the decommissioning according to the safety requirements established for the regulatory bodies. Some of them perform their activities in compliance with a quality assurance system. This work establishes standardization through a Specifications Requirement Document, for the management system of the nuclear facilities decommissioning organizations. It integrates with aspects of the quality, environmental, occupational safety and health management systems, and also makes these aspects compatible with all the requirements of the nuclear industry recommended for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (author)

186

Decommissioning of the Cintichem reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Cintichem nuclear reactor facility is located within the town of Tuxedo, New York, in the industrial park known as Sterling Forest. The reactor is a pool type research reactor and licensed to operate at thermal power levels of up to 5 MW. The reactor is a light water moderated, cooled, shielded, and reflected solid fuel reactor. It has graphite thermal column and numerous beam tubes arranged radially around the core centerline for experiments. The fuel core is supported and moved on rails by a core support bridge. The primary cooling system consists of a demineralized water system, heat exchangers, and pumps. Primary coolant piping is aluminum except for portions that penetrate concrete. Based on the on-site radiological characterization, Cintichem decided to shut down the facility permanently and begin decommissioning immediately

187

Decommissioning cost estimates based on the international structure for decommissioning costing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Decommissioning cost estimates is essential part of decommissioning planning in all stages of nuclear installation lifetime. It has been recognized that there is a variety of formats, content and practice in decommissioning costing, due to the specific national requirement or to different assumptions. These differences make the process of decommissioning costing less transparent and more complicated to review. To solve these issues the document: 'A Proposed Standardised List of Items for Costing Purposes in the Decommissioning of Nuclear Installation' (known as 'Yellow Book') was jointly published by IAEA, OECD/NEA and EC in 1999. After a decade, the document was revised and issued by same organizations under the title: 'International Structure for Decommissioning Costing (ISDC) of Nuclear Installation. ISDC as the list of typical decommissioning activities (could be used also a check-list) provides s general cost structure suitable for use for all types of nuclear installations i.e. power plants, research reactors, fuel cycle facilities or laboratories. The purpose of the ISDC, is to facilitate the communication and to promote uniformity and to provide a common platform in presenting the decommissioning costs. Clear definition of ISDC items supports the common understanding of cost items, i.e. what is behind the cost. ISDC decommissioning activities are organised in a hierarchical structure, with the 1st and 2nd levels being aggregations of basic activities identified at the 3rd level. At (author)

188

30 CFR 285.907 - How will MMS process my decommissioning application?  

Science.gov (United States)

...compare your decommissioning application with the decommissioning general concept...technical and environmental reviews are...technical and environmental reviews, we...disapprove your decommissioning...

2010-07-01

189

Decommissioning of DR 1, Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report describes the decommissioning activities carried out at the 2kW homogeneous reactor DR 1 at Risoe National Laboratory. The decommissioning work took place from summer 2004 until late autumn 2005. The components with the highest activity, the core vessel the recombiner and the piping and valves connected to these, were dismantled first by Danish Decommissioning's own technicians. Demolition of the control rod house and the biological shield as well as the removal of the floor in the reactor hall was carried out by an external demolition contractor. The building was emptied and left for other use. Clearance measurements of the building showed that radionuclide concentrations were everywhere below the clearance limit set by the Danish nuclear regulatory authorities. Furthermore, measurements on the surrounding area showed that there was no contamination that could be attributed to the operation and decommissioning of DR 1. (au)

Lauridsen, Kurt

2006-01-15

190

Environmental impact assessment of NPP decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this presentation the following potential impacts of decommissioning of NPP are discussed: - Impacts on population; Impacts on natural environment; Land impacts; Impacts on urban complex and land utilisation; Possible impacts on area as a result of failure.

191

Sellafield Decommissioning Programme - Update and Lessons Learned  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Sellafield site in North West England has over 240 active facilities covering the full nuclear cycle from fuel manufacture through generation, reprocessing and waste treatment. The Sellafield decommissioning programme was formally initiated in the mid 1980s though several plants had been decommissioned prior to this primarily to create space for other plants. Since the initiation of the programme 7 plants have been completely decommissioned, significant progress has been made in a further 16 and a total of 56 major project phases have been completed. This programme update will explain the decommissioning arrangements and strategies and illustrate the progress made on a number of the plants including the Windscale Pile Chimneys, the first reprocessing plan and plutonium plants. These present a range of different challenges and requiring approaches from fully hands on to fully remote. Some of the key lessons learned will be highlighted.

Lutwyche, P. R.; Challinor, S. F.

2003-02-24

192

Decommissioning and disposal costs in Switzerland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Introduction Goal: Secure sufficient financial resources. Question: How much money is needed? Mean: Concrete plans for decommissioning and waste disposal. - It is the task of the operators to elaborate these plans and to evaluate the corresponding costs - Plans and costs are to be reviewed by the authorities Decommissioning Plans and Costs - Comprise decommissioning, dismantling and management (including disposal) of the waste. - New studies 2001 for each Swiss nuclear power plant (KKB 2 x 380 MWe, KKM 370 MWe, KKG 1020 MWe, KKL 1180 MWe). - Studies performed by NIS (D). - Last developments taken into account (Niederaichbach, Gundremmingen, Kahl). Decommissioning: Results and Review Results: Total cost estimates decreasing (billion CHF) 1994 1998 2001 13.7 13.1 11.8 Lower costs for spent fuel conditioning and BE/HAA/LMA repository (Opalinus Clay) Split in 2025: 5.6 bil. CHF paid by NPP 6.2 billion CHF in Fund Review: Concentrates on disposal, ongoing

193

Health physics considerations in decontamination and decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

These proceedings contain papers on legal considerations, environmental aspects, decommissioning equipment and methods, instrumentation, applied health physics, waste classification and disposal, and project experience. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers

194

NPP A-1 decommissioning - Phase I  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear power plant A-1 with output 150 MWe, with metallic natural uranium fuelled, CO2 cooled and heavy water moderated reactor had been prematurely finally shut down in 1977. It is necessary to mention that neither operator nor regulatory and other authorities have been prepared for the solution of such situation. During next two consecutive years after shutdown main effort of operator focused on technical and administrative activities which are described in the previous paper together with approach, condition and constraints for NPP A-1 decommissioning as well as the work and research carried out up to the development and approval of the Project for NPP A-1 decommissioning - I. phase. Subject of this paper is description of: (1) An approach to NPP A -1 decommissioning; (2) An approach to development of the project for NPP A-1 decommissioning; (3) Project - tasks, scope, objectives; (4) Mode of the Project realisation; (5) Progress achieved up to the 1999 year. (authors)

195

Safety issues in decommissioning, strategies and regulation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many plants throughout the world are undergoing decommissioning. There are some differences in the safety issues associated with decommissioning as compared with operations. These pose challenges to operators, regulators and those responsible for developing policies and strategies.The paper aims to set the scene for future discussion by identifying these issues. This includes regulatory systems, regulating the changing situation and factors that need to be taken into account in developing decommissioning strategies. In particular, the situation in the absence of a disposal route for waste and issues associated with care and maintenance periods are discussed.A key point that is identified is that well considered and justified strategies need to be developed to act as the basis for detailed decommissioning plans. (author)

196

NRC finally proposes a decommissioning regulation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A proposed Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) rule deals with the issues of decommissioning methods, timing, planning, financial assurance, environmental review requirements, and acceptable levels of residual radioactivity. The Atomic Industrial Forum (AIF) urged NRC to reduce the paperwork and to allow more flexibilty on the method of decommissioning. The new rule introduces an environmental assessment supplement on decommissioning to be submitted at the operating license stage. Plans on funding methods for decommissioning are required as part of the regulations, but not as a license condition. The author reviews AIF arguments and NRC responses as the rule evolved. There will be a 90-day comment period following publication in the Federal Register. The approaching retirement of several facilities will put pressure on the NRC to act on a final rule

197

ECED 2013: Eastern and Central Europe Decommissioning. International Conference on Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities. Conference Guide and Book of Abstracts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Conference included the following sessions: (I) Opening session (2 contributions); (II) Managerial and Funding Aspects of Decommissioning (5 contributions); (III) Technical Aspects of Decommissioning I (6 contributions); (IV) Experience with Present Decommissioning Projects (4 contributions); (V) Poster Session (14 contributions); (VI) Eastern and Central Europe Decommissioning - Panel Discussion; (VII) Release of Materials, Waste Management and Spent Fuel Management (6 contributions); (VIII) Technical Aspects of Decommissioning II (5 contributions).

198

Russian nuclear-powered submarine decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Russia is facing technical, economic and organizational difficulties in dismantling its oversized and unsafe fleet of nuclear powered submarines. The inability of Russia to deal effectively with the submarine decommissioning crisis increases the risk of environmental disaster and may hamper the implementation of the START I and START II treaties. This paper discusses the nuclear fleet support infrastructure, the problems of submarine decommissioning, and recommends international cooperation in addressing these problems

199

The Ignalina NPP Decommissioning Project Management Unit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Overall goal of DPMU is to prepare Ignalina NPP for its decommissioning by providing the necessary supporting engineering and procurement activities. Ignalina NPP signed contract for the Decommissioning Project Management Unit (DPMU) Phase 1 with consortium formed by National Nuclear Corporation Ltd. (England), Swedpower (Sweden) and Belgatom (Belgium) on December 2001. The scope of works of DPMU is listed and described. An organisation structure of DPMU is presented

200

Use of robotics during research reactors decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the decommissioning of research reactors, robotic tools for the performance of activities in areas with high radiation levels were used. The paper presents the methods used for aiming robotics at strong sources of ?-radiation, dismantling activities in rooms densely populated with equipment, as well as operations on segregation of high-level waste by level of total activity. Key results of the research reactors decommissioning work performed in 2011-2012 are given

 
 
 
 
201

Decommissioning of nuclear activities. Indian perspective  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The process of decommissioning begins after the final shutdown of the facility or after an abnormal event when the facility is no longer considered viable for operation and ends with the release of the site for use by a responsible organization as authorised by AERB or for unrestricted use by the public. Decommissioning of a nuclear facility involves decontamination, dismantling, cutting, packaging and transportation of plant equipment and materials and handling, treatment, conditioning, storage/disposal of radioactive and inactive wastes generated. In India, AERB has issued a Safety manual AERB/SM/DECOM-1 on Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities which discusses various aspects of decommissioning including: criteria for occupational exposures, discharge of radionuclides to the environment, criteria for long term waste disposal and clearance levels. It also prescribes the requirements with regard to advance planning for decommissioning of nuclear facilities and quality assurance during decommissioning. The criteria for categorisation of wastes and their mode of disposal is also prescribed. In India, the complete decommissioning of a major nuclear activities has not been carried out. However, as a part of life extension programme, en-masse coolant channel replacement of RAPS-2 at Kota, Rajasthan has been performed. The irradiated reactor components coming out from the core of the reactor were safely disposed in tile holes at a near surface disposal facility at the solid waste management plant. This experience has provided confidence that, with modern technological developments, decommissioning of NPPs and other facilities can be carried out without undue risk to the occupational workers, members of the public and the environment. (author)

202

Decommissioning of the Lucens experimental NPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Decommissioning of the underground Lucens experimental nuclear facility was undertaken in 1991 after a dismantling operation achieved in 1973 following a reactor accident in 1969. Geological surveys and a lixiviation test were performed; radioactivity data are given. The decommissioning uses the radioactivity slow lixiviation concept and its evacuation in the river for dilution. The cavern is filled with concrete and an important drain system is realized. Various potential incidents are assessed

203

An outbreak of Vicia villosa (hairy vetch) poisoning in grazing Aberdeen Angus bulls in Argentina.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vicia villosa (hairy vetch) is used as a forage source in some cattle-producing areas in Argentina. The plant had no previous reports of toxicity in this country. A herd of 33 Aberdeen Angus bulls grazed during 20 days in October on a pasture composed mainly of hairy vetch. Eight animals developed conjunctivitis, rinitis, dermatitis, loss of hair and fever. All of them died within 15 d after the development of signs with a marked loss of body condition. No more animals became sick 5 d after the removal of the herd from the pasture. Serum parameters tested (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, GOT, alfa-GT and bilirubin) enlarged liver and spleen, generalized hemorrhage in the abomasum, dilated kidneys and multiple pale areas on the heart. Severe necrotizing granulomatous myocarditis, interstitial nephritis, and necrotizing cholangitis were the most striking microscopic changes. Close observation of animals feeding on pastures in which V villosa is dominant is the only prevention. PMID:1858312

Odriozola, E; Paloma, E; Lopez, T; Campero, C

1991-06-01

204

Decommissioning cost estimating and contingency application  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The funding of nuclear power plant decommissioning has matured into an integral part of utility planning. State public utility commission regulators and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission have recognized the need to assure the availability of funds to safely decommission these facilities at the end of their useful lives. The cost estimates for decommissioning need to reflect the changes in labor and material costs due to inflation, changes in waste disposal costs for packaging, transporting and burying radioactive materials, and the site-specific factors for each unit that account for differences in plant design and construction. Decommissioning activities involve remote tooling to segment the reactor vessel and internals, decontamination of contaminated systems to reduce occupational exposure, controlled blasting to demolish concrete structures, and removal and disposal of radioactive wastes by controlled burial. The unforeseeable problems encountered in performing these activities result in additional costs that are accounted for through contingency. The recent progress in nuclear power plant decommissioning cost estimation and contingency application are discussed. The important factor to be included in planning for the establishment of a decommissioning fund are identified, and typical results of recent estimates are provided. The nuclear industry is probably one of the first industries to plan for the eventual retirement of its facilities, and the public needs to be aware of these efforts

205

Lessons learned from preparation for decommissioning of Ignalina NPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The decision for decommissioning of Unit 1 of Ignalina NPP (INPP) was made in October 1999. At that time only a Preliminary Decommissioning Plan had been developed. INPP was then faced with number of issues, namely: To define the strategy for decommissioning; To define the steps necessary to implement preparation for decommissioning; To seek funding for decommissioning; To establish and develop the organizational structure for dealing with decommissioning; To develop Project Management, Commercial and Engineering skills to manage decommissioning; To develop the relationships between operating and decommissioning parts of INPP; To develop a plan for the conversion of an Operating Nuclear Power plant to a Decommissioning Organization. Each of the above issues represents significant and challenging demands on INPP Management and staff. Lessons have and continue to be learned. INPP are proceeding with the immediate dismantling strategy of this RBMK design reactor. (author)

206

Decontamination and decommissioning costing efforts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management (EM) is responsible for decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of a wide variety of facilities ranging from reactors to fuel cycle processing buildings throughout the country. The D and D effort represents a large financial investment and a considerable challenge for the DOE and contractor program and project managers. Specifically, the collection and sharing of useful cost data and development of cost estimates are difficult in an environment in which the availability of these data is limited and the technologies and project methods are evolving. Sound cost data are essential for developing project cost estimates; baselines; and project management, benchmarking, and continuous improvement purposes. This paper will focus on some initiatives that in coordination with other federal agencies and international organizations, the DOE Environmental Management Applied Cost Engineering (ACE) Team is taking to standardize cost definitions; to collect, analyze, and report D and D cost data; and to develop fast, accurate, and easy-to-use cost-estimating models for D and D work

207

30 CFR 250.1750 - When may I decommission a pipeline in place?  

Science.gov (United States)

... When may I decommission a pipeline in place? 250.1750 Section...INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN...Decommissioning Activities Pipeline Decommissioning § 250.1750 When may I decommission a pipeline in place? You may...

2010-07-01

208

30 CFR 250.1754 - When must I remove a pipeline decommissioned in place?  

Science.gov (United States)

... When must I remove a pipeline decommissioned in place...INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS...Decommissioning Activities Pipeline Decommissioning § 250.1754 When must I remove a pipeline decommissioned in...

2010-07-01

209

30 CFR 250.1753 - After I decommission a pipeline, what information must I submit?  

Science.gov (United States)

...false After I decommission a pipeline, what information must I submit...INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE...Decommissioning Activities Pipeline Decommissioning § 250.1753 After I decommission a pipeline, what information must I...

2010-07-01

210

Securing decommissioning funds. Why organization matters?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Securing decommissioning funds requires that the financial resources set aside for the purpose of decommissioning be managed prudently. Decommissioning of nuclear power plant is prescribed by National Atomic Laws or by other nuclear legislation. It is a mandatory operation. The operators of nuclear power plants set money aside for that purpose. This is known as 'Decommissioning reserve fund'. Decommissioning implies costs very distant in time. Thus, it is obvious, from an economic point of view, that the funds set aside should be managed. As decommissioning is mandatory, the funds accumulated should be secured. In others words, they should be available when needed. Availability of funds is influenced by endogenous and exogenous factors. Endogenous factors are a matter of design of the reserve funds. They include the management of the funds, its monitoring and control... Availability of funds is influenced by these factors, depending on the rules to which the behaviour of the manager of the funds is subjected. In contrast, exogenous factors deal with the energy context. These factors are mainly the electricity sector organisation and/or the overall economic situation. They are decisive factors of the economic performance of the reserve fund for a given design. Therefore, the requirement of availability of funds, when needed, is a matter of compatibility between the design of the decommissioning funds and the electricity context. Put differently, reserve fund's design need to be consistent with the electricity context's features in respect of the availability of funds. Current reserve funds were designed in a context of monopoly regime. In this context, availability of decommissioning funds was not questionable. At least, as far as the design of the reserve funds is concerned. This is because nuclear generator didn't confront any competition pressure. Electricity prices were set trough rate base mechanism, and all the business risks were borne by the customers. Because of electricity sector restructuring, businesses are no longer protected from market sanctions and stock market volatility. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the compatibility of the design of reserve fund models with the liberalised electricity context. The paper first considers the design of reserve funds and concludes that there is no single design. Based on the variety of design, section two assess their respective compatibility with the new electricity context. It appears that the monitoring and control of the management of the funds are the main determinant of compatibility. The paper concludes that, as secure funding is a dimension of safe decommissioning, there is a necessity for an optimal design of decommissioning funds model. The paper also suggests that external management solution improve the credibility of decommissioning commitment. This paper has completed two objectives. Firstly, it has highlighted the diversity of designs of the decommissioning reserve funds. We have seen that the reserve funds are organised differently, regarding the key features of their design, namely the collection of funds, the management of the funds collected, and the monitoring and control of that management. Secondly, and in respect of the objective to ensure the availability of the funds when needed, the paper has shown that current designs of decommissioning reserve funds are not equally compatible with the constraints of the electricity sector liberalisation. In fact, the new electricity context is characterised by electricity price volatility with, at some conditions, harmful effects on the financial viability of electric companies. The paper has shown that external fund designs offer a satisfactory compatibility with these constraints. This is because the design of external funds imposes clear limitations on the behaviour of the manager of the funds. Therefore, the paper suggests that in a context of liberalised electricity market, external funds model improves the credibility of the commitment to handle the financial burden of decommissioni

211

Decommissioning database of V1 NPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since 2001, the preparation of V1 NPP practical decommissioning has been supported and partly financed by the Bohunice International Decommissioning Support Fund (BIDSF), under the administration of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. AMEC Nuclear Slovakia, together with partners STM Power and EWN GmbH, have been carrying out BIDSF B6.4 project - Decommissioning database development (June 2008 until July 2010). The main purpose of the B6.4 project is to develop a comprehensive physical and radiological inventory database to support RAW management development of the decommissioning studies and decommissioning project of Bohunice V1 NPP. AMEC Nuclear Slovakia was responsible mainly for DDB design, planning documents and physical and radiological characterization including sampling and analyses of the plant controlled area. After finalization of all activities DDB includes over 75.000 records related to individual equipment and civil structures described by almost 3.000.000 parameters. On the basis of successful completion of the original contract the amendment was signed between JAVYS and Consultant's Consortium related to experimental characterization of NPP activated components. The works within this amendment have been still running. (authors)

212

Management of Sellafield site decommissioning - recent experiences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

History of the British Nuclear Site Sellafield - located in Western Cambria goes back to 1940, when it served for military and energy independence tasks in the Great Britain. Since then Sellafield served as the major British nuclear site providing wide range of services to the British nuclear industry, including fuel and waste storage/management, nuclear fuel reprocessing, electricity production and decommissioning. Currently the Sellafield site is one of the largest site under decommissioning facing serious challenges associated with the process and cost management. In November 2008 the Nuclear Management Partners, the consortium consisting URS Washington Group, AMEC and AREVA NC, were awarded the contract as the new Parent Body Organization of Sellafield Ltd. that provides management expertise and governance to the client (Nuclear Decommissioning Authority). Since 2008 AMEC has gained extensive experiences from management of complex decommissioning projects that are applicable across different geographies and projects of similar nature. Presentation describes the development of the process system of the project management from the side of PBO as well as complex scheme of the Sellafield site decommissioning project. (author)

213

Closing responsibilities: decommissioning and the law  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Laws change over time, with the times. Interpretations of old laws shift and the need for new laws emerges. There are endless reasons for these necessary changes, but the basic impetus is the changing nature of societal circumstance. Fifty years ago there were no laws directly governing nuclear power in any way. Today we know that nuclear power touches people from their wallets to their descendants. Currently, many laws related to nuclear power are in place, laws which protect all sectors of society from electricity generating bodies to a newborn child, and the Chernobyl accident has broadened the legal ramifications of nuclear power even more. This expanding body of nuclear law reflects our expanding understanding of nuclear power from its technical beginnings to its societal consequences and implications. The law is now beginning to reflect the growing significance of decommissioning. What are the relationships between decommissioning and the existing laws, government agencies, and policies? Ironically, although the UK will lead the world in addressing decommissioning responsibilities, there are no explicit laws in place to govern the process. In the absence of specific legislation governing decommissioning, the primary responsibilities fall to the operators of the power plants, a circumstance not lost on those involved in privatization. In this chapter, the wide and varied legal ramifications of decommissioning are examined. (author)

214

Panel Discussion - Eastern and Central Europe decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In conjunction with technical session 'Experience with Present Decommissioning Projects' the Panel Discussion is organized in the frame of ECED 2013 Conference. The main purposes of the panel was to analyse more in details the information given in the previous session and mainly to answer the questions from the audience. The panel was focused on the on-going decommissioning projects and on the projects in the final phase of preparation in the region of Eastern and Central Europe as follows: - Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant in Lithuania - RBMK-1500 reactors; - Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in Ukraine - RBMK-1000 reactors; - Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant in Bulgaria - VVER-440 reactors; - Metsamor Armenian Nuclear Power Plant - VVER-440 reactors; - Greifswald Nuclear Power Plant in Germany (former East Germany) - VVER-440 reactors; - V1 Nuclear Power Plant in Slovakia - VVER-440 reactors; - A1 Nuclear Power Plant in Slovakia - Heavy Water Gas Cooled Reactor; shutdown after accident. The panel speakers listed the skilled and experienced representatives from all above mentioned countries and from Russian Federation where many decommissioning projects are ongoing or under preparation. The region of Eastern and Central Europe has actually become very important in the field of decommissioning and the lessons learned from the performed projects could make a significant base for decommissioning projects worldwide.

215

Economical aspect of the decommissioning for NPP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The estimated, analysed and founding of the economical aspect at decommissioning of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) have been studied. The data that have been obtained from literature, then the calculation and analysing have been done base to the future condition. The cost for NPP decommissioning depend on the internal factor such as type, capacity and safe storage time, and the external factor such as policy, manpower and the technology preparation. The successfulness of funding, depend on the rate of inflation, discount rate of interest and the currency fluctuation. For the internal factor, the influence of the type of the reactor (BWR or PWR) to the decommissioning cost is negligible, the big reactor capacity (±1100 MW), and the safe storage between 30 to 100 years are recommended, and for the external factor, specially Indonesia, to meet the future need the ratio of decommissioning cost and capital cost will be lower than in develop countries at the present (10%). The ratio between decommissioning fund and electricity generation cost relatively very low, are more less than 1.79 % for 30 years safe storage, and discount rate of interest 3%, or more less than 0.30 % for safe storage 30 years, and discount rate of interest 6%. (author)

216

Technical and cost aspects of radioactive wastes from decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's Co-operative Programme on Decommissioning was established in 1985 to share the experience and information emerging from on-going decommissioning projects within member countries. The main aim of the programme is to gather and collate such data, which can then provide the basis for planning the future industrial phase of decommissioning of commercial nuclear plants. Starting with 10 decommissioning projects in 1985, today the programme has 35 participating projects from 12 countries. Apart from exchanging valuable information, task groups have been set up for in-depth analysis and studies of areas of common interest, among which are the recycling of material from decommissioning projects and decommissioning costs. This paper will describe the structure and mode of operation of the programme. Some of the results of the work in the task groups will be presented, with particular emphasis on the management of materials from decommissioning and on decommissioning costs. (author)

217

Treatment of mine-water from decommissioning uranium mines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Treatment methods for mine-water from decommissioning uranium mines are introduced and classified. The suggestions on optimal treatment methods are presented as a matter of experience with decommissioned Chenzhou Uranium Mine

218

Decommissioning of research nuclear reactor WWR-S Bucharest. Analysis, justification and selection of decommissioning strategy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The decommissioning of Research Nuclear Reactor WWR-S Bucharest involves the removal of the radioactive and hazardous materials to enable the facility to be released and not represent a further risk to human health and the environment. The National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering has overall responsibilities in decommissioning including actions of contractors, submit a decommissioning plan to the regulatory body for approval and no decommissioning activities shall begin without the appropriate approval of the regulatory body. A very important aspect of decommissioning is analysis, justification and selection of decommissioning strategy. There are three strategies: Immediate Dismantling, Safe Enclosure, and Entombment. These strategies have been analyzed taking into account: - Future use of site and facilities; - Infrastructure of the specific site and facilities; - Waste storage and disposal options; - Financial aspects; - Geographical Location; - National, Local and International Legislation; - Facility characterization; Identification of decommissioning objectives; - Description of alternatives: scope, features, specific end points, release criteria, risks and safety issues, effectiveness, feasibility, nature and amount of waste of generated and disposal plans, material recycling/reusing opportunities, cost, schedule, comparative analysis; - Rationale for selecting the preferred alternative. (authors)

219

Site Decommissioning Management Plan. Supplement 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has identified 51 sites contaminated with radioactive material that require special attention to ensure timely decommissioning. While none of these sites represent an immediate threat to public health and safety, they have contamination that exceeds existing NRC criteria for unrestricted use. All of these sites require some degree of remediation, and several involve regulatory issues that must be addressed by the Commission before they can be released for unrestricted use and the applicable licenses terminated. This report contains the NRC stairs strategy for addressing the technical, legal, and policy issues affecting the timely decommissioning of the 51 sites and describes the status of decommissioning activities at the sites. This is supplement number one to NUREG-1444, which was published in October 1993

220

International comparisons of decommissioning cost estimates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An international review of nuclear facility decommissioning costs has been recently published by the NEA. The report was prepared by an expert Working Group with the objective of finding out why the published estimates for decommissioning of nuclear power plants vary so widely and if there were political, institutional, technical or economic factors that could explain these variations. The Working Group identified, indeed, a great number of factors that could potentially cause differences in estimates and concluded that a considerable part of the variation among the estimates studied could, in fact, be explained by differences in a few simple factors such as the technical scope and coverage of the decommissioning plans, the characteristics of the facilities themselves and the prevailing cost conditions. The Working Group also warns about the pitfalls that lurk in the practice of using fluctuating exchange rates for international cost comparisons. (author) 5 refs.; 6 tabs

 
 
 
 
221

The decommissioning of the UKAEA's SGHWR ponds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Five ponds were associated with the UKAEA's Steam Generating Heavy Water Reactor which closed down in October 1990. Each approximately 10 metres deep and forming part of the main primary containment concrete structure, the ponds had three main functions: fuel storage, heat sinks in the event of reactor trips, and pressure relief and suppression in the event of a loss of coolant accident. Prior to decommissioning investigations were carried out to establish the conditions of the ponds. Four major areas of removal work were identified: pond furniture; sludge and debris which had accumulated on the pond floors; installed fuel handling plant and systems; the concrete structures. The methods employed in carrying out these discrete tasks are described. The pond decommissioning has been completed successfully as part of an integrated overall strategy for the decommissioning of the reactor. (UK)

222

Platform decommissioning: Socio-economic impacts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The object of this presentation is to evaluate the socio-economic effects of the decommissioning of steel jacket platforms in the North Sea and in the North East Atlantic in the period up to 2020 in their entirety. It is focused on two different decommissioning options, namely total and partial removal of installations. Partial removal applies only to installations in water deeper than 75 meters. All other installations, i.e those in waters shallower than 75 meters, have to be totally removed and brought onshore for disposal. Areas being analyzed cover costs of different decommissioning options, effects of the different options on employment, fiscal aspects of the different options, and aspects of recycling onshore. 6 figs., 13 tabs

223

Decommissioning projects at the Juelich Research Center  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When the Juelich Research Center was being developed, the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Versuchsreaktor GmbH, whose shareholders were municipal electricity utilities, built the AVR reactor on the same site. Contractual agreement with the Center covered fuel supply and disposal, electricity generation, numerous reactor experiments within the framework of the Center's research activities about the HTR, and decommissioning of the plant. Since 1994, all decommissioning efforts have been financed completely out of funds from the share-holders, i.e. the Federal Government (BMBF) and the State of North Rhine-Westphalia (MWF). The solid and liquid radioactive waste arising from disassembly and demolition is processed at the Decontamination. Department of the Research Center, conditioned for repository storage, and held in interim storage. As the decommissioning project will extend over a period of more than a decade, the Center has taken the costly steps of upgrading the processing plants and installations. (orig.)

224

Decommissioning of DR 2. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the work of dismantling and demolishing reactor DR 2, the waste volumes generated, the health physical conditions and the clearance procedures used for removed elements and waste. Since the ultimate goal for the decommissioning project was not clearance of the building, but downgrading the radiological classification of the building with a view to converting it to further nuclear use, this report documents how the lower classification was achieved and the known occurrence of remaining activity. The report emphasises some of the deliberations made and describes the lessons learned through this decommissioning project. The report also intends to contribute towards the technical basis and experience basis for further decommissioning of the nuclear facilities in Denmark. (au)

225

Nuclear data requirements for fission reactor decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The meeting was attended by 13 participants from 8 Member States and 2 International Organizations who reviewed the status of the nuclear data libraries and computer codes used to calculate the radioactive inventory in the reactor unit components for the decommissioning purposes. Nuclides and nuclear reactions important for determination of the radiation fields during decommissioning and for the final disposal of radioactive waste from the decommissioned units were identified. Accuracy requirements for the relevant nuclear data were considered. The present publication contains the text of the reports by the participants and their recommendations to the Nuclear Data Section of the IAEA. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these reports. Refs, figs and tabs

226

Decommissioning of DR 2. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes the work of dismantling and demolishing reactor DR 2, the waste volumes generated, the health physical conditions and the clearance procedures used for removed elements and waste. Since the ultimate goal for the decommissioning project was not clearance of the building, but downgrading the radiological classification of the building with a view to converting it to further nuclear use, this report documents how the lower classification was achieved and the known occurrence of remaining activity. The report emphasises some of the deliberations made and describes the lessons learned through this decommissioning project. The report also intends to contribute towards the technical basis and experience basis for further decommissioning of the nuclear facilities in Denmark. (au)

Strufe, N.

2009-02-15

227

Decommissioning of the Neuherberg Research Reactor (FRN)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Neuherberg Research Reactor is of type TRIGA MARK III with 1 MW steady state power and pulsable up to 2000 MW. During more than ten years of operation 12000 MWh and 6000 reactor pulses had been performed. In spite of its good technical condition and of permanent safe operation without any failures, the decommissioning of the Neuherberg research reactor was decided by the GSF board of directors to save costs for maintaining and personnel. As the mode of decommissioning the safe enclosure was chosen which means that the fuel elements will be transferred back to the USA. All other radioactive reactor components will be enclosed in the reactor block. Procedures for licensing of the decommissioning, dismantling procedures and time tables are presented

228

Decommissioning strategy for reactor AM, Russian Federation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the results of studies into the various aspects of decommissioning the oldest Russian research reactor, the AM reactor. Experimental and calculation results of a study to determine the inventory of long lived radioactive materials at the AM reactor are presented, along with a comparison to comparable data for other similar reactors. An analysis, by calculation, of the decay time needed to allow manual dismantling of the reactor vessel and stack, without remote operated equipment, defined it as 90 years. The possibility of burning most of the irradiated graphite to decrease the amount of long lived radioactive wastes was confirmed. The problems associated with the dismantling of the reactor components, contaminated with radioactive corrosion products, were analyzed. A decommissioning strategy for reactor AM was formed which is deferred dismantling, placing most of the radiological areas into long term safe enclosure. An overall decommissioning plan for reactor AM is given. (author)

229

Working plan of the Loviisa NPP decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of the development of decommissioning project for the Loviisa NPP (Finland), units 1 and 2, after termination of its designed service life of 30 years are described. The volume of works, types of radioactive equipment and building materials to be dismantled are estimated. Variants and techniques of dismantling, underground storage facilities are described. Doses received by the personnel are evaluated, measures of radiation safety and general costs of works (for separate components) in 1987 prices are considered. The Loviisa-1 NPP decommissioning will start in 2008, the Loviisa-2 - in 2012. It will take more than 12 years to realize the decommissioning procedure from unit 1 shutdown to containment of the storage facilities license cancelling. Works for the dismantling of the equipment will require approximately 3000 man-years. Collective dose of irradiation of personnel busy with dismantling is assessed as 23 manxSv. Total cost will constitute 800 mln marks (Finland)

230

Decommissioning trust funds ordered by PSC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Wisconsin public service commission ordered four electric utilities to set up external trust funds for decommissioning expenses instead of collecting the money from its ratepayers to offset current borrowing needs. The change is to assure that funds will be available when they are needed for the Point Beach 1 and 2 and the Kewaunee plants, which are due for relicensing and possible decommissioning in 2007 and 2008. The external fund will be available at a time when ratepayers will likely be paying for replacement power plants. Critics claim the order will cost utility customers $800 million over the next 23 years, and note that Wisconsin Electric Power Co. has a reputation for financial health. One area of concern is the treatment of funds already collected for decommissioning

231

The economics and financing of decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Economics and financing have the most immediate interest to the public. Largely this interest stems from the effect of decommissioning on current utility rates, but there are other related issues as well. These include the question of whether adequate funds will be available when needed, how they will be collected and invested, and what constitute reasonable contingency factors and discount rates. Preliminary examination of the economics of decommissioning raises more questions than it answers. Each country or area of a country (as in the USA) will be faced with establishing its own policies. Whichever methods and logic are finally applied to the economics of decommissioning in the United Kingdom, the public will eventually pay. For this reason, a clear working knowledge of the principal elements of this consideration is important. (author)

232

Mound's decommissioning experience, tooling, and techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Monsanto Research Corporation (MRC), which operates Mound for the Department of Energy (DOE), has been decommissioning radioactively contaminated facilities since 1949. We are currently decommissioning three plutonium-238 contaminated facilities (approximately 50,000 ft2) that contained 1100 linear ft of gloveboxes; 900 linear ft of conveyor housing; 2650 linear ft of dual underground liquid waste lines; and associated contaminated piping, services, equipment, structures, and soil. As of June 1982, over 29,000 Ci of plutonium-238 have been removed in waste and scrap residues. As a result of the current and previous decommissioning projects, valuable experience has been gained in tooling and techniques. Special techniques have been developed in planning, exposure control, contamination control, equipment removal, structural decontamination, and waste packaging

233

Reactor decommissioning in a deregulated market  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper seeks to summarise BNFL's experience with regard to recent developments in reactor decommissioning and demonstrate how commercial projects in crucial areas of strategy development, project implementation and site restoration are beginning to reduce the risks and uncertainties associated with this important aspect of the nuclear power generation industry. Although the reactor decommissioning market cannot yet be regarded as mature, the key elements of strategy development, waste treatment, dismantling and delicensing have been separately demonstrated as achievable. Together with the implementation of the right organisation, and the developing technology, the risks are being reduced. As more decommissioning projects are delivered, the risks will be reduced further and the confidence of the regulator in the process will improve. This paper sets out to demonstrate this viewpoint. (author)

234

The total decommissioning of nuclear facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The following nuclear facilities in the Federal Republic of Germany are now ready for total decommissioning: the power plant Niederaichbach (KK00, the nuclear ship 'Otto Hahn' and the research reactor FR2. Planning work on KKN commenced in 1979 and the approval was begun in early 1980 when the approval contract was submitted. At the beginning of 1980 the contract for decommissioning the nuclear facilities on the 'Otto Hahn' was awarded. Approval was received in December 1980 and work was begun on decommissioning the plant. FR2 is still in operation and will be shut down at the end of 1980. The planning and the methods which are intended to be used for the three plants are described. (orig.)

235

The planning of decommissioning activities within nuclear facilities - Generating a Baseline Decommissioning Plan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

BNFL Environmental Services has developed planning tools to meet the emerging need for nuclear liabilities management and decommissioning engineering both in the UK and globally. It can provide a comprehensive baseline planning service primarily aimed at nuclear power stations and nuclear plant. The paper develops the following issues: Decommissioning planning; The baseline decommissioning plan;The process; Work package; Compiling the information; Deliverables summary; Customer Benefits; - Planning tool for nuclear liability life-cycle management; - Robust and reliable plans based upon 'real' experience; - Advanced financial planning; - Ascertaining risk; - Strategy and business planning. The following Deliverables are mentioned:1. Site Work Breakdown Structure; 2. Development of site implementation strategy from the high level decommissioning strategy; 3. An end point definition for the site; 4. Buildings, operational systems and plant surveys; 5. A schedule of condition for the site; 6. Development of technical approach for decommissioning for each work package; 7. Cost estimate to WBS level 5 for each work package; 8. Estimate of decommissioning waste arisings for each work package; 9. Preparation of complete decommissioning programme in planning software to suit client; 10. Risk modelling of work package and overall project levels; 11. Roll up of costs into an overall cost model; 12. Cash flow, waste profiling and resource profiling against the decommissioning pro profiling against the decommissioning programme; 13. Preparation and issue of Final Report. Finally The BDP process is represented by a flowchart listing the following stages: [Power Station project assigned] ? [Review project and conduct Characterisation review of power station] ? [Identify work packages] ? [Set up WBS to level 3] ? [Assign work packages] ? [Update WBS to level 4] ?[Develop cost model] ? [Develop logic network] ? [Develop risk management procedure] ] ? [Develop project strategy document]? [Work package process? [Compile all work packages into overall programme, cost model and risk register (draft BDP)] ? [Carry out project risk assessment] ? [Review and update draft BDP] ? [Peer Review BDP] ? [Power Station project assigned] ?[Issue BDP to customer for comment

236

Assessment of financial expenditure for Rivne NPP power units decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article covers some financial aspects of developing a decommissioning concept for Rivne NPP power units with reactor VVER-440 and VVER-1000. Possible methodological approaches to costs estimate have been analyzed. Preliminary results of cost estimation are presented for two decommissioning options: deferred and immediate dismantling. Principally possible options for accumulating assets have been analyzed to finance measures related to Rivne NPP decommissioning. A mathematical model has been proposed for creating decommissioning financial reserve

237

Some regulatory aspects on the decommissioning on nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The situation in Sweden regarding decommissioning of nuclear facilities is described as well as the different roles of the safety authorities. Complete removal of all radioactive material from a nuclear facility at decommissioning would probably be required. Of the two reactors shut down in Sweden, the research reactor R1 is now ready for final decommissioning. The Agesta nuclear power plant, shut down in 1974, may be subject for an international cooperation on decommissioning

238

Safety problems in decommissioning nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The safety problems at decommissioning are illustrated by the example of a LWR with 1300 MW electric power after 40 years of specified normal operation. For such a facility the radioactivity in the form of activation and contamination one year after being finally taken out of service is in the order of magnitude of 107 Ci, not counting the fuel assemblies. The dose rates occurring during work on the reactor vessel at nozzle level may amount to some 104 rem/h. After a rough estimation the accumulated dose for the decommissioning personnel during total dismantling will be about 1200 rem. During performance of the decommissioning activities the problems are mainly caused by direct radiation of the active components and systems and by the release of radioactive particles, aerosols and liquids if these components are crushed. The extent of later dismantling problems may be reduced by selecting appropriate materials as well as considering the requirements for dismantling in design and arrangement of the components already in the design stage of new facilities. Apart from plant design also the concept for the disposal of the radioactive waste from decommissioning will provide important boundary conditions. E.g. the maximum size of the pieces to be stored in the ultimate storage place will very much influence the dose expenditure for handling these parts. For complete dismantling of nuclear power plants an ultimate store must be available where large amounts of bulky decommissioning waste, containing relatively low activity, can be stored. The problems and also the cost for decommissioning may be considerably reduced by delaying complete disposal of the radioactive material >= 40 years and during this period, keeping the radioactivity enclosed within the plant in the form of a safe containment. (orig./HP)

239

Waste from decommissioning of nuclear power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report is based on the assumption that all twelve nuclear power plants will be shut down no later than A.D. 2010, as was decided by the parliament after the referendum on the future of nuclear power in Sweden. The recent 'Party agreement on the energy policy' of January 15, 1991 does, indeed, leave the door open for an extension of the operational period for the nuclear reactors. This will, however, not change the recommendations and conclusions drawn in this report. The report consists of two parts. Part 1 discusses classification of waste from decommissioning and makes comparisons with the waste arising from reactor operation. Part 2 discusses the documentation required for decommissioning waste. Also this part of the report draws parallels with the documentation required by the authorities for the radioactive waste arising from operation of the nuclear power plants. To some extent these subjects depend on the future use of the nuclear power plant sites after decommissioning of the plants. The options for future site use are briefly discussed in an appendix to the report. There are many similarities between the waste from reactor operations and the waste arising from dismantling and removal of decommissioned nuclear power plants. Hence it seems natural to apply the same criteria and recommendations to decommissioning waste as those presently applicable to reactor waste. This is certainly true also with respect to documentation, and it is strongly recommended that the documentation requirements on decommissioning waste are made identical, or at least similar, to the documentation requirements for reactor waste in force today. (au)

240

Decommissioning of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A conceptual plan is presented for the decommissioning of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant. Deferred dismantlement after a storage period of 30 years is the main alternative. No detailed work plan for the demolition of structures is included. However, the world-wide development of demolition techniques for nuclear facilities has proven that the task can be performed using the existing technology. The decommissioning waste will be packed into concrete containers and wooden boxes. The total package volume is estimated at 8.000 and 30.000 m3 depending on the treatment method. The higher figure stands for packing without any volume reduction. The activated reactor core components (fuel channels, control rods, neutron flux detectors) from the operational time of the Olkiluoto power plant are included in the decommissioning plan. The total activity of the contaminated and activated structures to be dismantled will be about 1x1016 Bq after 30 years from the shut-down. The corresponding figure for the activated core components will be about 2x1016 Bq. The radiation doses to personnel can be kept very low if the surface contamination of the large systems remains at a low level as it has done so far. The decommissioning waste is planned to be disposed of at the Olkiluoto site next to the reactor waste repository in the granitic bedrock at a depth of 50-100 m. The decommissioning waste repository will consist of two silos for the low-level waste and a hall for the activated metal waste. The barriers in the case of the metal waste hall will consist of the waste packages themselves, of 0.75 and 1 m thick concrete walls, of the 1 m thick bentonite/crushed rock backfill, and of the bedrock. The dismantlement will be finished by the year 2050, and the repository can be closed and sealed by 2055. The estimated decommissioning cost is FIM 808 million including the long-term storage and disposal

 
 
 
 
241

Maintaining Quality in a Decommissioning Environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The decommissioning of AECL's Whiteshell Laboratories is Canada's largest nuclear decommissioning project to date. This research laboratory has operated for forty years since it was set up in 1963 in eastern Manitoba as the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment, complete with 60 MW(Th) test reactor, hot cells, particle accelerators, and multiple large-scale research programs. Returning the site to almost complete green state will require several decades of steady work in combination with periods of storage-with-surveillance. In this paper our approach to maintaining quality during the long decommissioning period is explained. In this context, 'quality' includes both regulatory aspects (compliance with required standards) and business aspects (meeting the customers' needs and exceeding their expectations). Both aspects are discussed, including examples and lessons learned. The five years of development and implementation of a quality assurance program for decommissioning the WL site have led to a number of lessons learned. Many of these are also relevant to other decommissioning projects, in Canada and elsewhere: - Early discussions with the regulator can save time and effort later in the process; - An iterative process in developing documentation allows for steady improvements and input throughout the process; - Consistent 2-way communication with staff regarding the benefits of a quality program assists greatly in adoption of the philosophy and procedures; - Top-level management must lead in promoting quality; - Field trials of procedures ('beta testing') ensures they are easy to use as well as useful. Success in decommissioning the Whiteshell Laboratories depends on the successful implementation of a rigorous quality program. This will help to ensure both safety and efficiency of all activities on site, from planning through execution and reporting. The many aspects of maintaining this program will continue to occupy quality practitioners in AECL, reaping steady benefits to AECL and to its customers, the people of Canada

242

Comprehensive Cost Estimation Method for Decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) played a leading role in basic research in the field of atomic energy research and development, while Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) did a major role in FBR cycle development and high level waste disposal. According to Japanese government's decision in December 2001, JAERI and JNC was merged as of October 1, 2005. The new organization, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is an institute for comprehensive R and D for atomic energy, and which is the largest research and development institute among Japanese Governmental organization. Its missions are basic research on atomic, R and D for nuclear fuel cycle, decommissioning and disposal for own facilities and waste, contribution to safety and non-proliferation, etc. The JAEA owns a number of nuclear facilities: research reactors such as JRR-2 and Joyo, prototype reactors such as ATR 'Fugen' and FBR 'Monju', fuel cycle plants such as Uranium Enrichment Demonstration Plant at Ningyo-toge, MOX fuel plants at Tokai, Reprocessing Plant at Tokai, and Hot Laboratories such as JRTF and FMF. As a part of preparation of the mergence, JNC and JAERI have jointly developed a comprehensive cost estimation method for decommissioning, based on decommissioning and upgrading experiences of JAERI and JNC. This method has adopted more estimation formulae for typical decommissioning activities than ever, so as to be more reliable. JAERI and JNC had estimated by using the comprehensive estimation method for decommissioning, and concluded the total cost for decommissioning would be 600 billion yen (approx. 5 billion USD). (authors)

243

Legal aspects of decommissioning in Italy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper analyses the Italian legislation with regard to the decommissioning of nuclear installations. Firstly, is taken into consideration the events that led to the decision to terminate operations in all nuclear power plants. Then, particular attention is devoted to the legislative texts and the procedures required for decommissioning. In the concluding section some reflections and suggestions are proposed. In particular, an overview is presented of the Italien legislation on the issues of nuclear waste and civil liability of the operator for nuclear damage. (orig.)

244

European Nuclear Decommissioning Training Facility II  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

e partners intend to organise altogether two two-week EUNDETRAF II training courses over a period of three years. Another goal is to disseminate the existing theory as well as the practical know-how to personnel of the third countries. Finally it is important to bring together the principal decommissioning organisations undertaking various decommissioning activities. The project creates a forum for regular contacts to exchange information and experiences for mutual benefit of these organisations as well as to enhance skill base in Europe to strengthen the European position in the world

245

Regulatory methods and issues in decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

level waste, storage of low level waste, materials requirements versus the reactor decommissioning approach, and ensuring that realistic scenarios and modelling techniques and tools are available and being used.To aid licensees and regulators in the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, the IAEA and some Member States have developed safety standards and guidance documents. Each of these activities will provide support for Member States in meeting the obligations under the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management. (author)

246

Decontamination, decommissioning, and vendor advertorial issue, 2006  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The focus of the July-August issue is on Decontamination, decommissioning, and vendor advertorials. Major articles/reports in this issue include: NPP Krsko revised decommissioning program, by Vladimir Lokner and Ivica Levanat, APO d.o.o., Croatia, and Nadja Zeleznik and Irena Mele, ARAO, Slovenia; Supporting the renaissance, by Marilyn C. Kray, Exelon Nuclear; Outage world an engineer's delight, by Tom Chrisopher, Areva, NP Inc.; Optimizing refueling outages with R and D, by Ross Marcoot, GE Energy; and, A successful project, by Jim Lash, FirstEnergy.

Agnihotri, Newal (ed.)

2006-07-15

247

Decontamination, decommissioning, and vendor advertorial issue, 2006  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The focus of the July-August issue is on Decontamination, decommissioning, and vendor advertorials. Major articles/reports in this issue include: NPP Krsko revised decommissioning program, by Vladimir Lokner and Ivica Levanat, APO d.o.o., Croatia, and Nadja Zeleznik and Irena Mele, ARAO, Slovenia; Supporting the renaissance, by Marilyn C. Kray, Exelon Nuclear; Outage world an engineer's delight, by Tom Chrisopher, Areva, NP Inc.; Optimizing refueling outages with R and D, by Ross Marcoot, GE Energy; and, A successful project, by Jim Lash, FirstEnergy

248

Hanford radiochemical site decommissioning demonstration program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A program is proposed for the innovation, development, and demonstration of technologies necessary to decommission the Hanford radiochemical plant area to the extent that the sites can have unrestricted public access. The five tasks selected for development and demonstration of restoration techniques were restoration of a burial ground, decommissioning of a separations plant, restoration of a separations plant waste interim storage tank farm, restoration of a liquid disposal area, and disposal of large contaminated equipment. Process development requirements are tabulated and discussed. A proposed schedule and estimated costs are given

249

Technology for reactor decommissioning of Fuji Electric  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fuji Electric has participated in the construction of Tokai-1 power station of the Japan Atomic Power Company, has been conducting decommissioning R and D for commercial reactor, especially for gas cooled reactor in the field of system engineering, dismantling of reactor vessel and core internals with remote handling technologies, treatment and disposal of radioactive waste and residual radioactivity evaluation. Those R and D have been performed mainly under the umbrella of governmental organization, the Japan Atomic Power Company. This paper gives a summary of the present status and accumulate technologies for decommissioning of nuclear reactor by Fuji Electric. (author)

250

Decommissioning of the Salaspils Research Reactor  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In May 1995, the Latvian government decided to shut down the Salaspils Research Reactor and to dispense with nuclear energy in the future. The reactor has been out of operation since July 1998. A conceptual study on the decommissioning of the Salaspils Research Reactor was drawn up by Noell-KRC-Energie- und Umwelttechnik GmbH in 1998-1999. On October 26th, 1999, the Latvian government decided to start the direct dismantling to “green-field” in 2001. The upgrading of the decommission...

Abramenkovs Andris

2011-01-01

251

Work on decommissioning of Asse II mine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is a historical contribution, starting with a description of the active time of this former salt mine. This is followed by an outline of the time of storage of radioactive materials, followed by the time of research and development work. Backfilling of the southern part was the first step to decommissioning. After describing these activities, the boundary conditions to be considered in decommissioning are described, as are the steps involved in the closing-down concept. A status report on the current situation is given as well. (orig.)

252

Large shielded packages for decommissioning waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following earlier work a further study of large shielded packages for decommissioning waste was initiated in September 1986, funded in part under the second five year joint action program of the Commission of the European Communities (CEC). A methodology was developed which considered all the factors and constraints affecting the design of a package over its total life-cycle. It involved five interactive tasks, viz: (a) the effect of manufacture on design of large transport packages for decommissioning waste; (b) a survey of transport hazards and constraints; (c) the constraints of disposal on package design; (d) package design/performance criteria; and (e) the assessment of proposed package designs

253

Optimization in the decommissioning of uranium tailings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report examines in detail the problem of choosing the optimal decommissioning approach for uranium and mill tailings sites. Various decision methods are discussed and evaluated, and their application in similar decision problems are summarized. This report includes, by means of a demonstration, a step by step guide of how a number of selected techniques can be applied to a decommissioning problem. The strengths and weaknesses of various methods are highlighted. A decision system approach is recommended for its flexibility and incorporation of many of the strengths found in other decision methods

254

Reactor decommissioning and dismantling at NPPs and nuclear industrial plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Problems related to decommissioning and dismantling of reactors and equipment at NPPs and industrial enterprises are considered. A number of available technologies of decommissioning and dismantling of similar installations is described. Problems associated with utilization of waste produced in the process of reactor decommissioning and dismantling of structures and buildings are addressed

255

Saxton Nuclear Experimental Corp. (SNEC) Facility decontamination/decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the decontamination/decommissioning of the Saxton Nuclear Experimental Corporation Facility. The topics of the paper include the facility history, site layout, station structures, site characterization findings, and decommissioning sequence. Phase one of the sequence has begun with the final phase of the decommissioning scheduled to be completed in 1999

256

Technical and legal aspects of the decommissioning of nuclear installations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many of the plants licensed at the start of nuclear power programmes will require decommissioning in the 1990's and this issue should now be confronted by the nuclear industry, its regulators and governments. This paper deals with the United States programme and experience in the decommissioning of nuclear installations and describes alternative decommissioning methods including safety and financial aspects. (NEA)

257

The experience of research reactors decommissioning in the Russian Federation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report presents the current status of decommissioning of Russian research reactors. Several examples highlight basic problems connected to decommissioning such as the management of spent nuclear fuel (SNF); the management of special coolants; funding problems; aging of the personnel and social aspects; and loss of knowledge. Lessons learned from the decommissioning of Russian research reactors are given. (author)

258

The institutional framework of decommissioning in Italy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Decommissioning of the NPP is generally viewed in a negative framework. On the contrary, it is an activity which aims is said to obtain the final removal of the risk factors from the environment. It is the last step of the production cycle, whose importance is underlined by the Regulation recently issued for the correct management of resources in the territory. Decommissioning NPP involves the final arrangements of the radioactive wastes, produced either during the past operation period or resulting from the dismantling operation. All the radioactive wastes must be conditioned and maintained in safe conditions. Radioactive waste management is no longer a problem for those countries that decided to face it, that is the majority of the industrialised countries. Correct technological solutions exist, due exist, respectful of the environment, of the people, of the ethical principles. The centrality of the problem is also decreed by the fact that sometimes now, the European Commission has been working on the issue of the directive on waste management, an effort which Italy has strongly supported, also during the Presidency period. Decommissioning on NPP is moreover an activity that implies advanced technological solutions, multilateral overlapping programs, working of style situations. Not many countries have completed yet (the) decommissioning of their plants: such activity should therefore be seen as an opportunity for the growth and the assertion of the Italian industry, also in view of the potential new market and the alliance with European industries. Of the 530 nuclear reactors present in world today, approximately 100 are undergoing decommissioning. In the next 2 years another 100 will reach the end of their operative life. Probably after the necessary system improvement many of them will continue to work, but it is clear that the international market of the decommissioning will continue to grow in the next years. Italy can play an important role in this scenario: the decommissioning program produced by Sogin can therefore be a springboard for specific activities. Decommissioning of the Italian NPP will cost a total of approximately 3.5 billions euro. This amount of money will be founded by the electricity market (electricity bill): in order to optimise this huge amount, the efficiency and efficacy of the decommissioning program must be guaranteed. For this reason in 2003 the Italian government gave a significant drive for the centralisation of all the activities and responsibilities to a unique operator, also assigning Sogin with the management of the ENEA fuel cycle plants and related companies. Decommissioning program for Italian nuclear plants have been issued since 1999 and have under-gone the complex licensing procedure foreseen by a specific regulation of the sector, the law 241/2000 and by the regulation regarding the Environmental Impact Assessment. This regulatory frame is a recent one and, for some aspects, is still not completed and has, for the same reasons, sometimes caused some delay in activities. Other factors providing delays involved the excessive sensitivity of some local situation which, even though guaranteed by regulation that envisage the direct participation in decision making, see the decommissioning as a risk factor that they can't control directly. In order to proceed in completing this unpostponable operations in the most correct and effective manner, it is important that the different institutional bodies involved in the licensing procedure co-operate in the success of the program. The issue of the decree envisaged by law 230/95 constitutes a test table to this end. Working along these lines, the government has already began by signed the institutional agreement for the coordination of the licensing procedure related to the mention law 230/95 and the Environmental Impact Assessment. (author)

259

Ecological risk assessment of depleted uranium in the environment at Aberdeen Proving Ground  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A preliminary ecological risk assessment was conducted to evaluate the effects of depleted uranium (DU) in the Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) ecosystem and its potential for human health effects. An ecological risk assessment of DU should include the processes of hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment, and risk characterization. Ecological risk assessments also should explicitly examine risks incurred by nonhuman as well as human populations, because risk assessments based only on human health do not always protect other species. To begin to assess the potential ecological risk of DU release to the environment we modeled DU transport through the principal components of the aquatic ecosystem at APG. We focused on the APG aquatic system because of the close proximity of the Chesapeake Bay and concerns about potential impacts on this ecosystem. Our objective in using a model to estimate environmental fate of DU is to ultimately reduce the uncertainty about predicted ecological risks due to DU from APG. The model functions to summarize information on the structure and functional properties of the APG aquatic system, to provide an exposure assessment by estimating the fate of DU in the environment, and to evaluate the sources of uncertainty about DU transport

260

Spatial relationships among soil biota in a contaminated grassland ecosystem at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Spatial relationships among soil nematodes and soil microorganisms were investigated in a grassland ecosystem contaminated with heavy metals in the US Army`s Aberdeen Proving Ground. The study quantified fungal and bacterial biomass, the abundance of soil protozoa, and nematodes. Geostatistical techniques were used to determine spatial distributions of these parameters and to evaluate various cross-correlations. The cross-correlations among soil biota numbers were analyzed using two methods: a cross general relative semi-variogram and an interactive graphical data representation using geostatistically estimated data distributions. Both the visualization technique and the cross general relative semi-variogram and an interactive graphical data representation using geostatistically estimated data distributions. Both the visualization technique and the cross general relative semi-variogram showed a negative correlation between the abundance of fungivore nematodes and fungal biomass, the abundance of bacterivore nematodes and bacterial biomass, the abundance of omnivore/predator nematodes and numbers of protozoa, and between numbers of protozoa and both fungal and bacterial biomass. The negative cross-correlation between soil biota and metal concentrations showed that soil fungi were particularly sensitive to heavy metal concentrations and can be used for quantitative ecological risk assessment of metal-contaminated soils. This study found that geostatistics are a useful tool for describing and analyzing spatial relationships among components of food webs in the soil community.

Kuperman, R. [Army ERDEC, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States); Williams, G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Parmelee, R. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

1995-12-31

 
 
 
 
261

Contamination source review for Building E7995, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Army Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) commissioned Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to conduct a contamination source review to identify and define areas of toxic or hazardous contaminants and to assess the physical condition and accessibility of APG buildings. The information obtained from the review may be used to assist the US Army in planning for the future use or disposition, of the buildings. The source contamination review consisted of the following tasks: historical records search, physical inspection, photographic documentation, geophysical investigation, investigation of potential hazardous materials facilities (HMFs), and review of available records regarding underground storage tanks. This report provides the results of the contamination source review for Building E7995. any of the APG facilities constructed between 1917 and the 1960s are no longer used because of obsolescence and their poor state of repair. Because many of these buildings were used for research, development, testing, and/or pilot-scale production of chemical warfare agents and other military substances, the potential exists for portions of the buildings to be contaminated with these substances, their degradation products, and other laboratory or industrial chemicals. These buildings, and associated structures or appurtenances, may contribute to environmental concerns at APG.

Booher, M.N.; Miller, G.A.; Draugelis, A.K.; Glennon, M.A.; Rueda, J.; Zimmerman, R.E.

1995-09-01

262

Remedial investigation report for J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Volume 1: Remedial investigation results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents the results of the remedial investigation (RI) conducted at J-Field in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), a U.S. Army installation located in Harford County, Maryland. Since 1917, activities in the Edgewood Area have included the development, manufacture, and testing of chemical agents and munitions and the subsequent destruction of these materials at J-Field by open burning and open detonation. These activities have raised concerns about environmental contamination at J-Field. This RI was conducted by the Environmental Conservation and Restoration Division, Directorate of Safety, Health and Environmental Division of APG, pursuant to requirements outlined under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (CERCLA). The RI was accomplished according to the procedures developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1988). The RI provides a comprehensive evaluation of the site conditions, nature of contaminants present, extent of contamination, potential release mechanisms and migration pathways, affected populations, and risks to human health and the environment. This information will be used as the basis for the design and implementation of remedial actions to be performed during the remedial action phase, which will follow the feasibility study (FS) for J-Field

263

Environmental geophysics at the Southern Bush River Peninsula, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Geophysical studies have been conducted at five sites in the southern Bush River Peninsula in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The goals of the studies were to identify areas containing buried metallic objects and to provide diagnostic signatures of the hydrogeologic framework of the site. These studies indicate that, during the Pleistocene Epoch, alternating stands of high and low sea level resulted in a complex pattern of channel-fill deposits. Paleochannels of various sizes and orientations have been mapped throughout the study area by means of ground-penetrating radar and EM-31 techniques. The EM-31 paleochannel signatures are represented onshore either by conductivity highs or lows, depending on the depths and facies of the fill sequences. A companion study shows the features as conductivity highs where they extend offshore. This erosional and depositional system is environmentally significant because of the role it plays in the shallow groundwater flow regime beneath the site. Magnetic and electromagnetic anomalies outline surficial and buried debris throughout the areas surveyed. On the basis of geophysical measurements, large-scale (i.e., tens of feet) landfilling has not been found in the southern Bush River Peninsula, though smaller-scale dumping of metallic debris and/or munitions cannot be ruled out.

Davies, B.E.; Miller, S.F.; McGinnis, L.D. [and others

1995-05-01

264

Hydrogeologic and chemical data for the O-Field area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

O-Field, located at the Edgewood area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, was periodically used for disposal of munitions, waste chemicals, and chemical-warfare agents from World War II through the 1950's. This report includes various physical, geologic, chemical, and hydrologic data obtained from well-core, groundwater, surface water, and bottom-sediment sampling sites at and near the O-Field disposal area. The data are presented in tables and hydrographs. Three site-location maps are also included. Well-core data include lithologic logs for 11 well-cluster sites, grain-size distributions, various chemical characteristics, and confining unit characteristics. Groundwater data include groundwater chemistry, method blanks for volatile organic carbon, available data on volatile and base/neutral organics, and compilation of corresponding method blanks, chemical-warfare agents, explosive-related products, radionuclides, herbicides, and groundwater levels. Surface-water data include field-measured characteristics; concentrations of various inorganic constituents including arsenic; selected organic constituents with method blanks; detection limits of organics; and a compilation of information on corresponding acids, volatiles, and semivolatiles; and method blanks corresponding to acids, volatiles, and semivolatiles. A set of 15 water-level hydrographs for the period March 1986 through September 1987 also is included in the report. 3 refs., 18 figs., 24 tabs3 refs., 18 figs., 24 tabs

265

Remedial investigation report for J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Volume 1: Remedial investigation results  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents the results of the remedial investigation (RI) conducted at J-Field in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), a U.S. Army installation located in Harford County, Maryland. Since 1917, activities in the Edgewood Area have included the development, manufacture, and testing of chemical agents and munitions and the subsequent destruction of these materials at J-Field by open burning and open detonation. These activities have raised concerns about environmental contamination at J-Field. This RI was conducted by the Environmental Conservation and Restoration Division, Directorate of Safety, Health and Environmental Division of APG, pursuant to requirements outlined under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (CERCLA). The RI was accomplished according to the procedures developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1988). The RI provides a comprehensive evaluation of the site conditions, nature of contaminants present, extent of contamination, potential release mechanisms and migration pathways, affected populations, and risks to human health and the environment. This information will be used as the basis for the design and implementation of remedial actions to be performed during the remedial action phase, which will follow the feasibility study (FS) for J-Field.

Yuen, C. R.; Martino, L. E.; Biang, R. P.; Chang, Y. S.; Dolak, D.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R. A.; Patton, T. L.; Prasad, S.; Quinn, J.; Rosenblatt, D. H.; Vercellone, J.; Wang, Y. Y.

2000-03-14

266

The Preliminary Decommissioning Plan of the Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recently, after 25 years of operation, a preliminary decommissioning plan for the Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor (DNRR) has been produced but as yet it has not been implemented due to the continued operations of the reactor. However, from the early phases of facility design and construction and during operation, the aspects that facilitate decommissioning process have been considered. This paper outlines the DNRR general description, the organization that manages the facility, the decommissioning strategy and associated project management, and the expected decommissioning activities. The paper also considers associated cost and funding, safety and environmental issues and waste management aspects amongst other considerations associated with decommissioning a nuclear research reactor. (author)

267

Status of industry standards for decommissioning of nuclear facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discusses how several professional societies are preparing industry standards on nuclear facility decommissioning: ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials), Nuclear Technology Committee, Decommissioning Subcommittee, E10.03; ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers), Nuclear Quality Assurance (NQA) Committee's Working Group on Decommissioning and the Reactor Services Committee's Subcommittee on Decommissioning; and Health Physics Society Standards Committee (HPSSC) working under the auspices of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). According to the author, the standards of these diverse groups mesh to form a cohesive body of guidance for planning a nuclear facility decommissioning

268

Decommissioning technology development for research reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although it is expected that the decommissioning of a nuclear power plant will happen since 2020, the need of partial decommissioning and decontamination for periodic inspection and life extension has been on an increasing trend and domestic market has gradually been extended. Therefore, in this project the decommissioning DB system on the KRR-1 and 2 was developed as establishing the information classification system of the research reactor dismantling and the structural design and optimization of the decommissioning DB system. Also in order to secure the reliability and safety about the dismantling process, the main dismantling simulation technology that can verify the dismantling process before their real dismantling work was developed. And also the underwater cutting equipment was developed to remove these stainless steel parts highly activated from the RSR. First, the its key technologies were developed and then the design, making, and capability analysis were performed. Finally the actual proof was achieved for applying the dismantling site. an automatic surface contamination measuring equipment was developed in order to get the sample automatically and measure the radiation/radioactivity

269

Decommissioning of the Northrop TRIGA reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An overview of the administrative and operational aspects of decommissioning and dismantling the Northrop Mark F TRIGA Reactor, including: planning and preparation, personnel requirements, government interfacing, costs, contractor negotiations, fuel shipments, demolition, disposal of low level waste, final survey and disposition of the concrete biological shielding. (author)

270

Offshore decommissioning issues: Deductibility and transferability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dealing with the decommissioning of petroleum installations is a relatively new challenge to most producer countries. It is natural to expect that industry's experience in building platforms is much greater than the one of dismantling them. Even if manifold and varied efforts are underway towards establishing international 'best practices' standards in this sector, countries still enjoy rather extensive discretionary power as they practice a particular national style in the regulation of decommissioning activities in their state's jurisdiction. The present paper offers a broad panorama of this discussion, concentrating mainly on two controversial aspects. The first one analyses the ex-ante deductibility of decommissioning costs as they constitute an ex-post expense. The second discussion refers to the assignment of decommissioning responsibility in the case of transfer of exploration and production rights to new lessees during the project's life. Finally the paper applies concepts commonly used in project financing as well as structures generally used in organising pension funds to develop insights into these discussions

271

Sodium Reactor Experiment decommissioning. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Sodium Reactor Experiment (SRE) located at the Rockwell International Field Laboratories northwest of Los Angeles was developed to demonstrate a sodium-cooled, graphite-moderated reactor for civilian use. The reactor reached full power in May 1958 and provided 37 GWh to the Southern California Edison Company grid before it was shut down in 1967. Decommissioning of the SRE began in 1974 with the objective of removing all significant radioactivity from the site and releasing the facility for unrestricted use. Planning documentation was prepared to describe in detail the equipment and techniques development and the decommissioning work scope. A plasma-arc manipulator was developed for remotely dissecting the highly radioactive reactor vessels. Other important developments included techniques for using explosives to cut reactor vessel internal piping, clamps, and brackets; decontaminating porous concrete surfaces; and disposing of massive equipment and structures. The documentation defined the decommissioning in an SRE dismantling plan, in activity requirements for elements of the decommissioning work scope, and in detailed procedures for each major task.

Carroll, J.W.; Conners, C.C.; Harris, J.M.; Marzec, J.M.; Ureda, B.F.

1983-08-15

272

Decontamination and decommissioning focus area. Technology summary  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents details of the facility deactivation, decommissioning, and material disposition research for development of new technologies sponsored by the Department of Energy. Topics discussed include; occupational safety, radiation protection, decontamination, remote operated equipment, mixed waste processing, recycling contaminated metals, and business opportunities

273

Decontamination and decommissioning focus area. Technology summary  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents details of the facility deactivation, decommissioning, and material disposition research for development of new technologies sponsored by the Department of Energy. Topics discussed include; occupational safety, radiation protection, decontamination, remote operated equipment, mixed waste processing, recycling contaminated metals, and business opportunities.

NONE

1995-06-01

274

Financing strategies for nuclear power decommissioning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report analyzes several alternatives for financing the decommissioning of nuclear power plants from the point of view of assurance, cost, equity, and other criteria. Sensitivity analyses are performed on several important variables and possible impacts on representative companies' rates are discussed and illustrated.

None,

1980-07-01

275

The decommissioning of a small nuclear reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The JEEP II reactor at Kjeller, Norway has been used as a model for a study of the decommissioning of a small research reactor. A radiological survey is given and a plan for volume reducing, packaging, certifying, classifying and shipping of the radioactive waste is described. 23 refs., 4 figs

276

Nuclear power plant decommissioning: an unresolved problem  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1984, the Critical Mass Energy Project asserted that at least 11 US reactors had gone through one-third of their operating lives without collecting any decommissioning funds and that nationwide only $600 million had been collected. This lack of financial planning prompted 10 states to require mandatory periodic deposits into external accounts: California, Colorado, Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, Mississippi, New Hampshire, Pennsylvania, Vermont, and Wisconsin. Setting aside decommissioning funds is essential in every country that uses nuclear power. Regardless of a nation's future energy plans, existing plants must eventually be scrapped. Just as today's cities would not be habitable without large fleets of garbage trucks and extensive landfills, the international nuclear industry is not viable without a sound decommissioning strategy. Thirty years after the first nuclear plant started producing electricity, such a strategy has yet to be formulated. More than 500 reactors, including those currently under construction, will have to be decommissioned. Preparing to safely retire these plants requires aggressive, well-funded research and development programs, policy makers willing to tackle unpleasant, long-term problems, and robust retirement accounts funded by today's utility customers

277

Virtual reality technology and nuclear decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During past years, an important activity at the Halden VR Centre (HVRC), Institute for Energy Technology (IFE) in Halden has been the development of virtual reality (VR) software for use in the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. It is hoped that use of VR technology in the planning process may prove beneficial both with regard to minimizing workers' radiation exposure, as well as in helping to achieve the efficient use of human resources. VR can also be a valuable tool in the dismantling phase. In addition to this, VR provides the decommissioning project team with an effective medium in presentations to the public, as well as for communicating with relevant engineers and licensing authorities. The most extensive IFE VR decommissioning project is at present the VRdose project, conducted in co-operation with the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC). VRdose will be used in the decommissioning of one of JNC's reactors, the Fugen Nuclear Power Station.The paper describes the present and planned versions of the VRdose system, but also briefly describes other related activities at HVRC. (author)

278

Estimation of decommissioning costs: History and status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the mid-1970s. the subject of the cost of decommissioning nuclear power stations became a topic of considerable interest to the industry. A number of early demonstration plants in the US had been retired and most had been entombed. Only one plant, the Elk River Reactor (a small boiling water facility) had been totally dismantled and removed from the site (Welsh 1974). Thus, there was a very limited data base from which to develop estimates for decommissioning the much larger stations then under construction and coming into service. The nuclear industry sponsored another study for estimating decommissioning costs using an approach known as the Unit Cost Factor (UCF) method. This methodology is documented in AIF/NESP-0036 (LaGuardia 1986). and forms the basis for many of the estimates prepared by (or for) utilities for usein making submissions to their utility rate commissions to recover future decommissioning costs through current rates. This and other estimating approaches mentioned above are discussed in more detail in this paper

279

Importance of funding in decommissioning cost estimates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Decommissioning cost estimates have been made by several study groups for the decommissioning of pressurized-water and boiling-water nuclear power stations. The results of these studies are comparable when corrected for inflation and the differences in contingency factors applied by the study groups. The estimated dismantling costs differ far less than a factor of 2 in all cases, despite the design differences found in the plants that were studied. An analysis of the different methods available for funding the dismantling of these facilities shows the much stronger effect that the choice of funding methods has on the net cost of decommissioning. The total cost of dismantling may vary more than a factor of 4 from one funding method to another, assuming current or recent historical inflation rates. The funding methods evaluated include sinking funds, deposits, negative-salvage value depreciation, and insurance. These funding methods are taken from the NRC's Notice of Proposed Rulemaking description of acceptable funding methods. The funding analysis for this study was performed using the DECOST-86 computer code. The evaluation of funding options for a nuclear facility, and the appropriate choice of the funding method best for that facility, are found to be more important than detailed engineering studies in determining the net cost of decommissioning during the early portions of the plant's operating lifetime

280

Decontamination and decommissioning of Shippingport commercial reactor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To a certain degree, the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of the Shippingport reactor was a joint venture with Duquesne Light Company. The structures that were to be decommissioned were to be removed to at least three feet below grade. Since the land had been leased from Duquesne Light, there was an agreement with them to return the land to them in a radiologically safe condition. The total enclosure volume for the steam and nuclear containment systems was about 1.3 million cubic feet, more than 80% of which was below ground. Engineering plans for the project were started in July of 1980 and the final environmental impact statement (EIS) was published in May of 1982. The plant itself was shut down in October of 1982 for end-of-life testing and defueling. The engineering services portion of the decommissioning plans was completed in September of 1983. DOE moved onto the site and took over from the Navy in September of 1984. Actual physical decommissioning began after about a year of preparation and was completed about 44 months later in July of 1989. This paper describes the main parts of D and D.

Schreiber, J. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1989-11-01

 
 
 
 
281

Decommissioning of NPP A1 - HWGCR type  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Prototype nuclear power plant A-1 located at Jaslovske Bohunice, was a HWGCR with channel type reactor KS 150 (refuelling during operation) and capacity of 143 MWe. Single unit has been constructed with reactor hall building containing reactor vessel, heavy water system and equipment for spent fuel handling. Another compartment of main building contents coolant system piping, six steam generators and six turbo compressors, the turbine hall was equipped by three turbines. Unit also shares liquid radwaste treatment and storage buildings and ventilation systems including chimney. It started operation in 1972 and was shutdown in 1977 after primary coolant system integrity accident. In 1979 a final decision was made to decommission this plant. The absence of waste treatment technologies and repository and not sufficient storage capacity affected the planning and realization of decommissioning for NPP A-1. The decommissioning policy for the first stage is for lack of regulations based on 'case by case' strategy. For these reasons and for not existence of Decommissioning Found until 1995 the preferred decommissioning option is based on differed decommissioning with safe enclosure of confinement. Transfer of undamaged spent fuel cooled in organic coolant to Russia was finished in 1990. It was necessary to develop new technology for the damaged fuel preparation for transport. The barriers check-up and dismantling of secondary circuit and cooling towers was performed during 1989/90. The complex plan for the first phase of A-1 decommissioning - the status with treated operational radwaste, removed contamination and restored treated waste and spent fuel (in case of interruption of transfer to Russia) was developed in 1993-1994. Under this project bituminization of all liquid operational radwaste (concentrates) was performed during 1995/96, vitrification of inorganic spent fuel coolant started at 1996, decontamination of spent fuel pool coolant occurs (under AEA Technology support) in 1997 as well as preparation for bituminization of organic spent fuel coolant. The new equipment for spent fuel handling including new storage (semi dry) for spent fuel was projected and should be built up in 1997. The decontamination and dismantling of auxiliary equipment (radwaste tanks, evaporation plant and original solid storage) should start after the commissioning of conditioning centre and bituminization plant with new evaporation plant in 1998 and finish at 2000. The decontamination and dismantling of original spent fuel storage should finish at 2007/8. Supporting activities to these works started at 1994/95. (author)

282

Governments' role in decommissioning nuclear power facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many nuclear power plants will reach the end of their operating lives over the next 20 years; some may be life-extended, others may not. This development will precipitate enhanced industrial and regulatory activities in the area of decommissioning. We are also witnessing in many countries a significant shift in the role of government itself: new pressures on governments, such as enhanced attention on environmental impact/mitigation and strategies to implement market-oriented approaches in a variety of sectors, including the energy sector are driving the public policy agenda. The paper will examine the range of policy issues, drawing from recent NEA studies on decommissioning policies and the recent NEA study on Government and Nuclear Energy and, strategies and costs, and other current trends and developments in the nuclear industry and in the nuclear policy fields. The paper will reflect on issues to be addressed during the conference and draw conclusions on the appropriate role of government in this area. Decommissioning policy is very specific and focused: it is not a high level policy/political issue in most instances and rarely gets the same attention as the issue surrounding the future of nuclear energy itself and public concerns regarding safety, waste and economics. One reason why decommissioning does not get the same attention as for example disposal of spent nuclear fuel might be the fact that technology is available for decommissioning, while technology for disposal of spent nuclear fuel is under development. High profile or not, it will remain an important issue for governments and industry alike particularly because of the cost and long lead times involved. In some instances, governments are the owners of the facilities to be decommissioned. In addition, decommissioning factors into issues surrounding the economics of nuclear energy and the sustainability of the nuclear option. Based on results of the Tarragona Seminar (Spain, September 2-4, 2003) and the Rome Workshop, we conclude that, with respect to power production facilities, government policy should aim at securing funding, whatever system is practically chosen, so that the actual beneficiary from the power generated - and not the future taxpayer -pays for all the production costs, including future decommissioning. There are very good ethical reasons behind a system which ensures that the generations that consume this electricity do not leave such an economic burden to their grandchildren. This is also one of the principles that are expressed in the 1999 Joint Convention. The most practical way to ensure that such economic burdens do not crop up at a later stage is probably to create some sort of funding mechanism. Such funding can be organised in different ways according to different conditions in different countries. Generally speaking, to ensure an effective funding mechanism, there has to be national legislation on how such a mechanism should be constructed. Different systems with governmental institutions more or less involved are possible. But any funding system, aiming at providing economic resources for decommissioning in a foreseeable future should meet the following requirements. Stable legal framework: the legislation regarding funding should have high profile among legislators to ensure that political pressures do not lead to decisions to change the legislation in order to allow assets to be used for other urgent purposes. Legal rules must ensure that funds collected for this purpose cannot disappear as a consequence of bankruptcy of an owner of a nuclear facility that needs to be decommissioned. Calculations of future costs have to meet high accuracy standards. This means that appropriate discount factors will have to be applied to ensure that the time frames when costs will be incurred will be factored into the costing formulae. One possible way to achieve high accuracy is to require regular and frequent reviews of all calculations. It is essential that mechanisms are in place to ensure that the real value of assets in the fund guard agai

283

Decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Feasibility, needs and costs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reactor decommissioning activities generally are considered to begin after operations have ceased and the fuel has been removed from the reactor, although in some countries the activities may be started while the fuel is still at the reactor site. The three principal alternatives for decommissioning are described. The factors to be considered in selecting the decommissioning strategy, i.e. a stage or a combination of stages that comprise the total decommissioning programme, are reviewed. One presents a discussion of the feasibility of decommissioning techniques available for use on the larger reactors and fuel cycle facilities. The numbers and types of facilities to be decommissioned and the resultant waste volumes generated for disposal will then be projected. Finally, the costs of decommissioning these facilities, the effect of these costs on electricity generating costs, and alternative methods of financing decommissioning are discussed. The discussion of decommissioning draws on various countries' studies and experience in this area. Specific details about current activities and policies in NEA Member Countries are given in the short country specific Annexes. The nuclear facilities that are addressed in this study include reactors, fuel fabrication facilities, reprocessing facilities, associated radioactive waste storage facilities, enrichment facilities and other directly related fuel cycle support facilities. The present study focuses on the technical feasibility, needs, and costs of decommissioning the larger commercial facilities in the OECD member countries that are coming into service up to the year 2000. It is intended to inform the public and to assist in planning for the decommissioning of these facilities

284

Development of the Decommissioning Project Management System, DECOMMIS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI), two projects for decommissioning of the research reactors and uranium conversion plant are carried out. The management of the projects can be defined as 'the decision of the changes of the decommissioning methodologies for the more efficient achievement of the project at an adequate time and to an improved method'. The correct decision comes from the experiences on the decommissioning project and the systematic experiences can be obtained from the good management of the decommissioning information. For this, a project management tool, DECOMMIS, was developed in the D and D Technology Division, which has the charge of the decommissioning projects at the KAERI, and its purpose was extended to following fields; generation of reports on the dismantling waste for WACID, record keeping for the next decommissioning projects of nuclear facilities, provision of fundamental data for the R and D of the decommissioning technologies.

Chung, U. S.; Park, J. H.; Lee, K. W.; Hwang, D. S.; Park, S. K.; Hwang, S. T.; Paik, S. T.; Choi, Y. D.; Chung, K. H.; Lee, K. I.; Hong, S. B

2007-03-15

285

A database structure for radiological optimization analyses of decommissioning operations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The structure of a database for decommissioning experiences is described. Radiological optimization is a major radiation protection principle in practices and interventions, involving radiological protection factors, economic costs, social factors. An important lack of knowledge with respect to these factors exists in the domain of the decommissioning of nuclear power plants, due to the low number of decommissioning operations already performed. Moreover, decommissioning takes place only once for a installation. Tasks, techniques, and procedures are in most cases rather specific, limiting the use of past experiences in the radiological optimization analyses of new decommissioning operations. Therefore, it is important that relevant data or information be acquired from decommissioning experiences. These data have to be stored in a database in a way they can be used efficiently in ALARA analyses of future decommissioning activities

286

Development of the Decommissioning Project Management System, DECOMMIS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI), two projects for decommissioning of the research reactors and uranium conversion plant are carried out. The management of the projects can be defined as 'the decision of the changes of the decommissioning methodologies for the more efficient achievement of the project at an adequate time and to an improved method'. The correct decision comes from the experiences on the decommissioning project and the systematic experiences can be obtained from the good management of the decommissioning information. For this, a project management tool, DECOMMIS, was developed in the D and D Technology Division, which has the charge of the decommissioning projects at the KAERI, and its purpose was extended to following fields; generation of reports on the dismantling waste for WACID, record keeping for the next decommissioning projects of nuclear facilities, provision of fundamental data for the R and D of the decommissioning technologies

287

Decommissioning in western Europe; Kaernkraftsavveckling i Vaesteuropa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report gives an overview of the situation in Western Europe. The original aim was to focus on organisational and human issues with regard to nuclear reactor decommissioning, but very few articles were found. This is in sharp contrast to the substantial literature on technical issues. While most of the reports on decommissioning have a technical focus, several provide information on regulatory issues, strategies and 'state of the art'. The importance of the human and organizational perspective is however discovered, when reading between the lines of the technical publications, and especially when project managers summarize lessons learned. The results are to a large extent based on studies of articles and reports, mainly collected from the INIS database. Decommissioning of nuclear facilities started already in the sixties, but then mainly research and experimental facilities were concerned. Until now about 70 reactors have been shutdown world-wide. Over the years there have been plenty of conferences for exchanging experiences mostly about technical matters. Waste Management is a big issue. In the 2000s there will be a wave of decommissioning when an increasing amount of reactors will reach the end of their calculated lifetime (40 years, a figure now being challenged by both life-extension and pre-shutdown projects). Several reactors have been shut-down for economical reasons. Shutdown and decommissioning is however not identical. A long period of time can sometimes pass before an owner decides to decommission and dismantle a facility. The conditions will also differ depending on the strategy, 'immediate dismantling' or 'safe enclosure'. If immediate dismantling is chosen the site can reach 'green-field status' in less than ten years. 'Safe enclosure', however, seems to be the most common strategy. There are several pathways, but in general a safe store is constructed, enabling the active parts to remain in safe and waterproof conditions for a longer period of time (sometimes hundred years or more), prior to final demolition. Among the reasons for deferring the dismantling are lack of waste repositories and decreasing dose-rates for the workers. Of Europe's 218 commercial reactors in operation, the majority, 151, are located i the Western part. The biggest producers are France, United Kingdom and Germany, with 58, 35 and 20 reactors respectively. Until now mostly research- and pilot reactors have been shut-down. There are yet few experiences from decommissioning of large-scale commercial reactors. The following commercial reactors are undergoing decommissioning. (There are also a great amount of nuclear facilities of other types being decommissioned.) The three gas-cooled twin reactor plants of Berkeley, Trawsfynydd and Hunterston in UK. In Germany Gundremmingen, Lingen, Kahl and Wuergassen are being decommissioned. All of them are located in the Western part of the country. The biggest project is however the dismantling of the gigantic Greifswaldfacility situated on the coast of the Baltic see in former Eastern Germany. The plant has eight Russian built reactors of VVER-type. Like the rest of the former GDR-plants Greifswald was shutdown after the reunification in 1990. The strategy chosen is immediate dismantling. France is decommissioning seven reactors (Chooz A1, Chinon A1, A2, A3, St Laurent A1, A2 and Bugey 1.) The oldest, Chinon A1, closed down in 1973 and the youngest, Bugey 1, in 1994. Italy closed down all NPPs (altogether four) in 1987 after a referendum. The first reactor of the Netherlands was shutdown in 1997 mainly for economical reasons. The development of a free European electricity market will make it less profitable to run certain facilities. Vandelos 1 in Spain is undergoing decommissioning after a fire in the turbines in 1989. IAEA, OECD/NEA and EU are co-operating in the field of decommissioning. Much work is spent on harmonizing rules and preparing international guidelines. The international agencies now consider decommissioning of nuclear

Lundqvist, K. [Castor arbetslivskonsulter AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

1999-12-01

288

On Decommissioning Costs of the Ranstad Site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main objective of this study has been to extend the review of the future cost to decommission and dismantling the industrial area at the site of the old uranium mine at Ranstad in Sweden. The feedback of experience and actual costs from a decommissioning project in the United Kingdom (A26 in Springfields) has been used to help in the assessment of the reasonableness of the estimated costs for decommissioning of the old uranium mine in Ranstad. A quantitative (albeit subjective) statement about the accuracy of the Ranstad cost estimate has been developed. Also, the factors relevant to the allocation of costs between the Swedish state and the current owners of the old uranium mine site have been evaluated and presented. The study has developed the following main conclusions: - The importance of thorough characterization/radiological mapping to the selection of the optimum decommissioning approach (technique) has been reinforced very strongly. - Thorough characterization has the related consequence of being able to better define the costs of decommissioning, in terms of equipment needed, labour hours required and, importantly, the volumes of different categories of waste requiring different routes (and associated different unit costs) for ultimate disposition. - Uncertainties in the Ranstad decommissioning cost estimate nevertheless remain, in particular relating to the viability of the proposed approach to dismantling and decontaminating the acid proof bricks that line the pools in the Large Leaching Hall; a method that is acknowledged to be not proven. The outcome could have an impact on actual dismantling and decontamination costs, as well as on the costs of ultimate waste disposition. The KB2010 cost estimate report does not offer an alternative in the event that the base plan proves to be unfeasible. - On balance it would appear that the continued presence of RMA at the Ranstad site ultimately will provide a net cost benefit to the program. The extra costs that RMA operations may cause are assessed to be more than offset by the benefits of having a functioning RMA Leach Hall facility, as well as the historical benefits of general site management

289

Nuclear submarine decommissioning. Radiation risk assessments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Decommissioning of the ships and vessels with nuclear power installations is a problem of primary and worldwide importance. It is essential for both the naval fleet and the military industrial complex as a whole. Nuclear submarines decommissioning is accompanied by a number of questions concerning the development and performance of the safe technologies for managing radioactive equipment and nuclear waste from the vessels with the nuclear power facilities. Decommissioning of nuclear submarines including unloading of the spent fuel should take place at the operating ship yards and repairing plants that are usually situated close to the densely populated areas and living blocks. Decommissioning includes a series of the potentially dangerous operations with radioactive materials, e.g. fuel unloading, disposal of coolant, dismantling of the contaminated equipment, cutting out the reactor compartment, etc. As a result a great amount of highly radioactive liquid and solid wastes are formed including the cut-out reactor compartment and spent fuel that produce additional radioactive load on the local environment and population. Estimation of the radiation risk for the environment and population due to decommissioning becomes an actual and necessary question. Apart from this the process of decommissioning may cause accidents followed by complicated radiation situation with high dose rates and contamination of the environment. Analysis of the most probable scenarios of the acciof the most probable scenarios of the accident development and estimation of the expected radiation consequences should help to assess the risk rate for radiation impact on the environment and population as well as to develop an adequate environmental monitoring and to undertake measures for the accident localisation and liquidation of its consequences. A separate problem is management of the reactor compartment containing radioactive equipment of the steam producing installation and biological protection. Since there are no specialised facilities with an adequate equipment for decomposition of reactor compartments incorporating highly active equipment they need to be stored in special containers for a long period until radiation level decreases to the level safe for decomposing operations without special remote and protection equipment. Various storage techniques are discussed, e.g. in floating regime, burial in shallow waters, open ground, etc. (author)

290

NMSS handbook for decommissioning fuel cycle and materials licensees  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission amended its regulations to set forth the technical and financial criteria for decommissioning licensed nuclear facilities. These regulations were further amended to establish additional recordkeeping requirements for decommissioning; to establish timeframes and schedules for the decommissioning; and to clarify that financial assurance requirements must be in place during operations and updated when licensed operations cease. Reviews of the Site Decommissioning Management Plan (SDMP) program found that, while the NRC staff was overseeing the decommissioning program at nuclear facilities in a manner that was protective of public health and safety, progress in decommissioning many sites was slow. As a result NRC determined that formal written procedures should be developed to facilitate the timely decommissioning of licensed nuclear facilities. This handbook was developed to aid NRC staff in achieving this goal. It is intended to be used as a reference document to, and in conjunction with, NRC Inspection Manual Chapter (IMC) 2605, ``Decommissioning Inspection Program for Fuel Cycle and Materials Licensees.`` The policies and procedures discussed in this handbook should be used by NRC staff overseeing the decommissioning program at licensed fuel cycle and materials sites; formerly licensed sites for which the licenses were terminated; sites involving source, special nuclear, or byproduct material subject to NRC regulation for which a license was never issued; and sites in the NRC`s SDMP program. NRC staff overseeing the decommissioning program at nuclear reactor facilities subject to regulation under 10 CFR Part 50 are not required to use the procedures discussed in this handbook.

Orlando, D.A.; Hogg, R.C.; Ramsey, K.M. [and others

1997-03-01

291

NMSS handbook for decommissioning fuel cycle and materials licensees  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission amended its regulations to set forth the technical and financial criteria for decommissioning licensed nuclear facilities. These regulations were further amended to establish additional recordkeeping requirements for decommissioning; to establish timeframes and schedules for the decommissioning; and to clarify that financial assurance requirements must be in place during operations and updated when licensed operations cease. Reviews of the Site Decommissioning Management Plan (SDMP) program found that, while the NRC staff was overseeing the decommissioning program at nuclear facilities in a manner that was protective of public health and safety, progress in decommissioning many sites was slow. As a result NRC determined that formal written procedures should be developed to facilitate the timely decommissioning of licensed nuclear facilities. This handbook was developed to aid NRC staff in achieving this goal. It is intended to be used as a reference document to, and in conjunction with, NRC Inspection Manual Chapter (IMC) 2605, ''Decommissioning Inspection Program for Fuel Cycle and Materials Licensees.'' The policies and procedures discussed in this handbook should be used by NRC staff overseeing the decommissioning program at licensed fuel cycle and materials sites; formerly licensed sites for which the licenses were terminated; sites involving source, special nuclear, or byproduct material subject to NRC regulation for which a license was never issued; and sites in the NRC's SDMP program. NRC staff overseeing the decommissioning program at nuclear reactor facilities subject to regulation under 10 CFR Part 50 are not required to use the procedures discussed in this handbook

292

Carcass characteristics and meat quality of Aberdeen Angus steers finished on different pastures  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The present study was conducted to assess carcass features, physicochemical and sensory parameters of meat from steers finished on three types of pastures: natural pasture; natural pasture improved, fertilized and oversown with winter species; and annual summer grassland. The experiment was conducte [...] d from December 14, 2009 to November 30, 2010, with treatments distributed in a completely randomized design with a different number of replicates. Animals were used as experimental units. Experimental animals were Aberdeen Angus steers with twenty months of initial age and 354±27.4 kg of live weight, on average. The highest average daily gains were obtained for the annual summer grassland. There was no effect of treatments on carcass conformation. The highest carcass yield was obtained on the improved natural pasture. Forequarter yield, side cut yield and longissimus muscle area were similar between the pastures. Moisture and total lipids were not affected by the pasture. Thawing and cooking losses were higher in improved natural pasture and lower in sorghum pasture. Regardless of the treatment, the meat had luminosity ranging from intermediate to dark, high in red, high in yellow, and considered within the normal range for beef. Meat of higher shear force was found in natural pasture, and lower shear force was observed in meat from annual summer grassland. Average live weight daily gain explained 18% of the shear force. Sensory evaluation by duo-trio test showed differences between samples from distinct pastures in flavor. All the studied systems allow for desirable characteristics in carcass and meat.

Thais, Devincenzi; Carlos, Nabinger; Fernando Flores, Cardoso; Élen Silveira, Nalério; Igor Justin, Carassai; Jean Kássio, Fedrigo; Jaime Urdapilleta, Tarouco; Leandro Lunardini, Cardoso.

1051-10-01

293

Carcass characteristics and meat quality of Aberdeen Angus steers finished on different pastures  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The present study was conducted to assess carcass features, physicochemical and sensory parameters of meat from steers finished on three types of pastures: natural pasture; natural pasture improved, fertilized and oversown with winter species; and annual summer grassland. The experiment was conducte [...] d from December 14, 2009 to November 30, 2010, with treatments distributed in a completely randomized design with a different number of replicates. Animals were used as experimental units. Experimental animals were Aberdeen Angus steers with twenty months of initial age and 354±27.4 kg of live weight, on average. The highest average daily gains were obtained for the annual summer grassland. There was no effect of treatments on carcass conformation. The highest carcass yield was obtained on the improved natural pasture. Forequarter yield, side cut yield and longissimus muscle area were similar between the pastures. Moisture and total lipids were not affected by the pasture. Thawing and cooking losses were higher in improved natural pasture and lower in sorghum pasture. Regardless of the treatment, the meat had luminosity ranging from intermediate to dark, high in red, high in yellow, and considered within the normal range for beef. Meat of higher shear force was found in natural pasture, and lower shear force was observed in meat from annual summer grassland. Average live weight daily gain explained 18% of the shear force. Sensory evaluation by duo-trio test showed differences between samples from distinct pastures in flavor. All the studied systems allow for desirable characteristics in carcass and meat.

Thais, Devincenzi; Carlos, Nabinger; Fernando Flores, Cardoso; Élen Silveira, Nalério; Igor Justin, Carassai; Jean Kássio, Fedrigo; Jaime Urdapilleta, Tarouco; Leandro Lunardini, Cardoso.

294

Potential health impacts from range fires at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study uses atmospheric dispersion computer models to evaluate the potential for human health impacts from exposure to contaminants that could be dispersed by fires on the testing ranges at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. It was designed as a screening study and does not estimate actual human health risks. Considered are five contaminants possibly present in the soil and vegetation from past human activities at APG--lead, arsenic, trichloroethylene (TCE), depleted uranium (DU), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT); and two chemical warfare agents that could be released from unexploded ordnance rounds heated in a range fire--mustard and phosgene. For comparison, dispersion of two naturally occurring compounds that could be released by burning of uncontaminated vegetation--vinyl acetate and 2-furaldehyde--is also examined. Data from previous studies on soil contamination at APG are used in conjunction with conservative estimates about plant uptake of contaminants, atmospheric conditions, and size and frequency of range fires at APG to estimate dispersion and possible human exposure. The results are compared with US Environmental Protection Agency action levels. The comparisons indicate that for all of the anthropogenic contaminants except arsenic and mustard, exposure levels would be at least an order of magnitude lower than the corresponding action levels. Because of the compoundingly conservative nature of the assumptions made, they conclude that the potential for significant human health risks from range fires is low. The authors recommend that future efforts be directed at fire management and control, rather than at conducting additional studies to more accurately estimate actual human health risk from range fires.

Willians, G.P.; Hermes, A.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Hartmann, H.M.; Tomasko, D.

1998-03-01

295

Medical imaging by nuclear magnetic resonance. A review of the Aberdeen physical and biological programme  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging as used in the Aberdeen machine involves placing the subject in a static magnetic field and applying a sequence of radiofrequency pulses (1.7 MHz) and magnetic field gradient pulses in three orthogonal directions. Images are formed of any transverse section across the body, which display either the distribution of protons in water (and fat) in tissues, or the spin-lattice relaxation time T1. Thus two new imaging parameters can be used to characterize normal and diseased tissue. The method has the advantage of not using ionizing radiation, and it appears to be a safe, non-invasive procedure. A 128-s scan gives two arrays, one of proton concentration, and one of T1. Each transverse section is 18.5-mm thick with elements 7.5 mm by 7.5 mm (1 cm3). Simultaneously with the machine development, a biological programme has been followed. In vitro measurements have been made of T1 for rabbit tissues at 24 MHz and 2.5 MHz: soft tissues range from 141 ms for liver to 463 ms for testis. Malignant tumours generally have longer T1, and rat thigh muscle immediately surrounding implanted Yoshida sarcoma shows longer T1 due to reactions. Also, it is expected that conditions which affect the water content of a tissue, e.g. oedema, should increase its T1. Tomographic sections from head, thorax and abdomen (including the pelvis) have been examined on healthy volunteers. No adverse effect was experienced. The cerebral cortex, pineal gland, choroid plexes, sagittal sinus, cerebellum, fourth ventricle, brain stem, paranasal sinuses, orbits, eyes and ocular muscles have been seen. Major blood vessels in the trunk, right and left ventricles of the heart, lungs, breasts and chest wall, liver, spleen, kidneys, stomach, colon, vertebral canal, lumbar muscles, rectum and bladder have all been imaged. The clinical role remains to be explored. (author)

296

In Situ Decommissioning (ISD) Concepts and Approaches for Excess Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning End State - 13367  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The United States Department of Energy (DOE) currently has numerous radiologically contaminated excess nuclear facilities waiting decommissioning throughout the Complex. The traditional decommissioning end state is complete removal. This commonly involves demolishing the facility, often segregating various components and building materials and disposing of the highly contaminated, massive structures containing tons of highly contaminated equipment and piping in a (controlled and approved) landfill, at times hundreds of miles from the facility location. Traditional demolition is costly, and results in significant risks to workers, as well as risks and costs associated with transporting the materials to a disposal site. In situ decommissioning (ISD or entombment) is a viable alternative to demolition, offering comparable and potentially more protective protection of human health and the environment, but at a significantly reduced cost and worker risk. The Savannah River Site (SRS) has completed the initial ISD deployment for radiologically contaminated facilities. Two reactor (P and R Reactors) facilities were decommissioned in 2011 using the ISD approach through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. The SRS ISD approach resolved programmatic, regulatory and technical/engineering issues associated with avoiding the potential hazards and cost associated with generating and disposing of an estimated 124,300 metric tons (153,000 m{sup 3}) of contaminated debris per reactor. The DOE Environmental Management Office of Deactivation and Decommissioning and Facility Engineering, through the Savannah River National Laboratory, is currently investigating potential monitoring techniques and strategies to assess ISD effectiveness. As part of SRS's strategic planning, the site is seeking to leverage in situ decommissioning concepts, approaches and facilities to conduct research, design end states, and assist in regulatory interactions in broad national and international government and private industry decommissioning applications. SRS offers critical services based upon the SRS experience in decommissioning and reactor entombment technology (e.g., grout formulations for varying conditions, structural and material sciences). The SRS ISD approach follows a systems engineering framework to achieve a regulatory acceptable end state based on established protocols, attains the final end state with minimal long stewardship requirements, protects industrial workers, and protects groundwater and the environment. The ISD systems engineering framework addresses key areas of the remedial process planning, technology development and deployment, and assessment to attain the ultimate goal of natural resource stewardship and protecting the public. The development and deployment of the SRS ISD approach has established a path for ISD of other large nuclear facilities in the United States and around the globe as an acceptable remedial alternative for decommissioning nuclear facilities. (authors)

Serrato, Michael G. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Musall, John C.; Bergren, Christopher L. [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

2013-07-01

297

Approach to decommissioning at AECL's laboratories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This series of slides presents: the Chalk River Laboratories (overview), the decommissioning organization (planning and operations), the waste management strategy (four steps: Characterization, Processing/Immobilization/Packaging, Storage, disposal), the integration of waste management and decommissioning, the free release criteria (status in Canada, AECL official criteria, AECL interim criteria, comparison to International Criteria, Release of Lands, Groundwater Monitoring, Approaches Under Consideration for Free Release, Actions) and the issues for discussion (What are the release standards? Do the same release standards apply to soil and the ground as apply to the buildings? Are release standards dose-based, or concentration based? Are there different release standards for different types of radionuclides? What are the standards for groundwater? Are surface contamination or volumetric standards used?)

298

Decommissioning analyzis of a university cyclotron  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the widespread use of some medical nuclear facilities, such as cyclotrons for isotope production, Life cycle analyzis, including decommissioning, was not taken into account. The structural materials of an accelerator and the concrete shielding of the bunker are activated by neutrons. This could yield a considerable volume of nuclear waste and needs radiation protection concern for occupational workers and the environment during some decennia. At the university of Brussels (WB) a prospective radiation protection and waste analyzis is being made for the later decommissioning of their cyclotron. Only few similar studies have been published. In Belgium future nuclear dismantling operations will be submitted to a radiation protection authorization procedure. Meanwhile the nuclear waste authorities insist on dismantling planning, including financial provisioning. An optimization exercise was made at the VUB-cyclotron, taking into account international trends to clearance levels for low level nuclear waste. Conceptual prevention opportunities e.g. selective material choice could be identified for future accelerator constructions. (author)

299

Decommissioning of an uranium hexafluoride pilot plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Institute of Nuclear and Energetic Researches has completed fifty years of operation, belongs to the National Commission for Nuclear Energy, it is situated inside the city of Sao Paulo. The IPEN-CNEN/SP is a Brazilian reference in the nuclear fuel cycle, researches in this field began in 1970, having dominance in the cycle steps from Yellow Cake to Uranium Hexafluoride technology. The plant of Uranium Hexafluoride produced 35 metric tonnes of this gas by year, had been closed in 1992, due to domain and total transference of know-how for industrial scale, demand of new facilities for the improvement of recent researches projects. The Institute initiates decommissioning in 2002. Then, the Uranium Hexafluoride pilot plant, no doubt the most important unit of the fuel cycle installed at IPEN-CNEN/SP, beginning decommissioning and dismantlement (D and D) in 2005. Such D and D strategies, planning, assessment and execution are described, presented and evaluated in this paper. (author)

300

Decommissioning? Why not use a robot  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tasks which may be accomplished by robots alone or in conjunction with human workers in decommissioning nuclear facilities include: routine surveillance in contaminated areas; radiation surveys and sampling; preparation of work area; decontamination of walls and floors; disassembly of contaminated equipment and piping; internal decontamination of piping and waste storage/processing tanks; sorting materials; removal of large activated/contaminated structures; asbestos removal and packaging; transport of waste from disassembly areas; tending waste processing equipment; waste packaging for storage. The status of the technology is briefly reviewed and examples of the use of robots in decommissioning work in the USA are described. Although the use of robots in this field is not extensive so far, that use is increasing and information on its costs and benefits are becoming available. (UK)

 
 
 
 
301

Germany: Management of decommissioning waste in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

of a repository are of particular importance for the conditioning of radioactive waste, including decommissioning waste. The waste acceptance requirements, as they resulted from the Konrad licensing procedure, are being applied by the waste generators for the conditioning of decommissioning waste. Compliance with these requirements must be demonstrated through the waste package quality control, even if the waste will be disposed of in the future. In 2002 the Konrad repository was licensed for the disposal of all types of waste with negligible heat generation. Konrad is an abandoned iron-ore mine to be reconstructed for use as disposal facility. It is not yet in operation as the license is actually examined by court. Dismissal of legal action is an important prerequisite for the realization of the Konrad project. Furthermore, the Federal Government needs to take a final decision on the reconstruction and operation of the Konrad repository. (author)

302

Decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since 1973, when the IAEA first introduced the subject of decontamination and decommissioning into its programme, twelve Agency reports reflecting the needs of the Member States on these topics have been published. These reports summarize the work done by various Technical Committees, Advisory Groups, and International Symposia. While the basic technology to accomplish decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) is fairly well developed, the Agency feels that a more rapid exchange of information and co-ordination of work are required to foster technology, reduce duplication of effort, and provide useful results for Member States planning D and D activities. Although the Agency's limited financial resources do not make possible direct support of every research work in this field, the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) creates a forum for outstanding workers from different Member States brought into closer contact with one another to provide for more effective interaction and, perhaps subsequently, closer collaboration. The first IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on decontamination and decommissioning was initiated in 1984. Nineteen experts from 11 Member States and two international organizations (CEC, OECD/NEA) took part in the three Research Co-ordination Meetings (RCM) during 1984-87. The final RCM took place in Pittsburgh, USA, in conjunction with the 1987 International Decommissioning Symposium (sponsored by the US DOE and organized in co-operation with the IAEA and OECD/NEA). The present document summarizes the salient features and achievements of the co-ordinated research work performed during the 1984-87 programme period. The document consists of two parts: Part 1, Summary of the three research co-ordination meetings and Part 2, Final submissions by participants on the research work performed during 1984-1987. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 7 reports presented. Refs, figs and tabs

303

CEA experimental feedback on sodium loop decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this paper is to present experimental feedback on sodium loop dismantling techniques at the CEA (The French Atomic Energy Commission) and to offer recommendations for the decommissioning of Fast Reactor secondary sodium loops. This study is based on acquired CEA decommissioning experience which primarily concerns the following: the decommissioning of RAPSODIE (France's first Fast Reactor), the PHENIX reactor secondary loop replacement, the sodium loop decommissioning carried out by the Laboratory of Sodium Technologies and Treatment, and several technical documents. This paper deals with the main results of this survey. First, a comparison of 8 pipe-cutting techniques is made, taking into account speed in cutting, reliability, dissemination, fire risk due to the presence of sodium, cutting depth, and different types of waste (empty pipes, sodium-filled pipes, tanks...). This comparison has led us to recommend the use of an alternative saw or a chain saw rather than the use of the plasma torch or grinder. Different techniques are recommended depending on if they are on-site, initial cuttings or if they are to be carried out in a specially-designed facility referred to hereafter as 'the cutting building'. After the cutting stage, the sodium waste must be processed with water to become an ultimate stable waste. Four treatment processes are compared with different standards : speed, cost, low activity adaptability and 'large sodium quantity' adaptability. Recomlarge sodium quantity' adaptability. Recommendations are also made for reliable storage, and for the general dismantling system organization. Last, calculations are presented concerning a complete dismantling facility prototype capable of treating large amounts and volume of sodium wastes. (author)

304

Decommissioning of a vitrification facility: rinsing phase  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Marcoule site was the host of the very first electricity-generating nuclear reactors (3 gas-graphite reactors operated between 1956 and 1984) and spent fuel reprocessing plant (UP1 and various ancillaries operated between 1958 and 1997). Reprocessing plant has been shut down ten years ago and since this time decommissioning, dismantling and waste retrieval activities are under way. An important part of this decommissioning program concerns the vitrification facility of Marcoule. This facility includes 20 tanks devoted to interim storage of highly active solutions, awaiting for vitrification. The main objectives of the rinsing phase are to decrease radiological activity in equipment before dismantling and to minimize the amount of highly radioactive waste resulting from rinsing, which are to be vitrified. In 2006, the rinsing program was defined: - during the period 2007 to 2010, rinsing of all tanks and equipment with specific reagents is taking place, - during the period 2009 to 2010, vitrification of concentrated liquid solutions will be performed. Then, decommissioning of the vitrification facility will be started. This strategy aims at producing less than 5% 'B' type waste (Long lived active waste) from the decommissioning operations of the tanks, as well as reducing the dose rate and the risks by simplifying remote dismantling. Clean up operations had begun in 2007 and radiological surveys are followed up so as to monitor the efficiency of the decontamination process. The paper will assess the main options that were selected regarding the decontamination process, and will present the first results and the feed back experience of the rinsing operations. (authors)

305

Decommissioning of the Risoe Hot Cell facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Concise descriptions of actions taken in relation to the decommissioning of the hot cell facility at Risoe National Laboratory are presented. The removal of fissile material, removal and decontamination of large cell internals, and of large equipment such as glove boxes and steel boxes, in addition to dose commitments, are explained. Tables illustrating the analysis of smear tests, constants for contamination level examination, contamination and radiation levels after cleaning and total contamination versus measured radiation are included. (AB)

306

Decommissioning a tritium glove-box facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A large glove-box facility for handling reactive metal tritides was decommissioned. Major sections of the glove box were decontaminated and disassembled for reuse at another tritium facility. To achieve the desired results, decontamnation required repeated washing, first with organic liquids, then with water and detergents. Worker protection was provided by simple ventilation combined with careful monitoring of the work areas and employees. Several innovative techniques are described

307

Decommissioning Challenges, strategy and programme development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

laces have been operating for a long time while for categories 4 and 6, the disposal places are still being studied: low-depth repository and deep geological repository respectively. The last article presents the action of the US Department of energy in decommissioning activities and environmental remediation, the example of the work done at the ancient nuclear site of Rocky Flats gives an idea of the magnitude and complexity of the operations made. (A.C.)

308

Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a reference pressurized water reactor power station: Technical support for decommissioning matters related to preparation of the final decommissioning rule  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Preparation of the final Decommissioning Rule by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has been assisted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff familiar with decommissioning matters. These efforts have included updating previous cost estimates developed during the series of studies on conceptually decommissioning reference licensed nuclear facilities for inclusion in the Final Generic Environmental Impact Statement (FGEIS) on decommissioning; documenting the cost updates; evaluating the cost and dose impacts of post-TMI-2 backfits on decommissioning; developing a revised scaling formula for estimating decommissioning costs for reactor plants different in size from the reference pressurized water reactor (PWR) described in the earlier study; defining a formula for adjusting current cost estimates to reflect future escalation in labor, materials, and waste disposal costs; and completing a study of recent PWR steam generator replacements to determine realistic estimates for time, costs and doses associated with steam generator removal during decommissioning. This report presents the results of recent PNL studies to provide supporting information in four areas concerning decommissioning of the reference PWR: updating the previous cost estimates to January 1986 dollars; assessing the cost and dose impacts of post-TMI-2 backfits; assessing the cost and dose impacts of recent steam generator replacements; and developing a scaling formula for plants different in size than the reference plant and an escalation formula for adjusting current cost estimates for future escalation

309

Remotely controlled systems in decommissioning nuclear facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the past three decades, extensive know-how has been accumulated in decommissioning nuclear plants. More than fifty nuclear generating units and more than 240 research reactors are down and in the process of being dismantled or to be dismantled. In addition, probably forty nuclear generating units and 220 research reactors worldwide will be up for decommissioning and dismantling in 2000. Contaminated and activated components must be handled by means of remotely controlled systems in order to reduce the radiation exposure and contamination of the personnel. A distinction is made in this respect between stationary and mobile systems as well as Master-Slave manipulators. The simplest solution feasible on economic and technical grounds should be found for each problem. For this reason, commercial equipment is used wherever possible; some of its is modified for better decontamination and remote operation. Certain activities cannot be carried out with this equipment, but require special systems to be designed and built. Before being used in the field, all systems are tested in models and qualified to demonstrate their functioning capability and fitness for use, to train the operating personnel, determine the optimum operating parameters, and achieve high reliability in use. By way of example, a survey of remotely controlled systems used in decommissioning nuclear installations is presented. (orig.)

310

Lessons learned on stakeholder issues in decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Issues of public concern during decommissioning and dismantling (D and D) are partly the same and partly different from those of the preceding phases (planning, construction and operation). While in the course of construction and operation the main challenges include meeting expectations of a higher quality of life, accommodating a growing population, mitigating construction nuisances, and assuring the safe operation of the facility, the main concerns in the D and D phase are decreasing employment rate, the eventual reduction of revenues for the municipality, the future use of the affected land and negative social impacts (e.g., out-migration). The decommissioning phase is characterised by heterogeneity of stakeholder interests and values, difficulties of reaching consensus or compromise, and difficulties in connection with the harmonization of energy production, environmental protection and sustainable socio-economic development considerations. Typically, there might also be tensions between local and regional decisions. As in other phases, the building of trust between stakeholder is crucial from the point of view of conflict management, and social lessons learnt from the siting and developments of nuclear facilities are widely applicable in the field of D and D as well. A review is presented of major lessons to be learnt from NEA activities in the field of decommissioning and stakeholder involvement. (author)

311

The use of managing agencies in decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On 1 April 1994 UKAEA Government Division was formed and one of its main responsibilities is the safe and cost effective management of the facilities which have already closed and the fuel reprocessing and radioactive waste management plant required to assist in the current programme of decommissioning. UKAEA Government Division, working on behalf of DTI, is intended to be a lean and efficient programme management and procurement organisation. Rather than build up its own project management capability it intends to use external resources for this function, obtained in future by competitive tendering. For each major facility undergoing decommissioning a Managing Agency has been, or will be, appointed to act on behalf of UKAEA Government Division. The responsibilities of each Managing Agency will be to assist in the definition of tasks, the commissioning of option studies and safety studies, the specification of individual contracts, management of the tendering processes and the subsequent management of the Implementation Contractors carrying out the decommissioning work, including the associated safety and training responsibilities. Teams involved in Managing Agency work require skills in project management, relevant technical issues, contract and safety management. (author)

312

Decommissioning strategies for facilities using radioactive material  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The planning for the decommissioning of facilities that have used radioactive material is similar in many respects to other typical engineering projects. However, decommissioning differs because it involves equipment and materials that are radioactive and therefore have to be handled and controlled appropriately. The project management principles are the same. As with all engineering projects, the desired end state of the project must be known before the work begins and there are a number of strategies that can be used to reach this end state. The selection of the appropriate strategy to be used to decommission a facility can vary depending on a number of factors. No two facilities are exactly the same and their locations and conditions can result in different strategies being considered acceptable. The factors that are considered cover a wide range of topics from purely technical issues to social and economic issues. Each factor alone may not have a substantial impact on which strategy to select, but their combination could lead to the selection of the preferred or best strategy for a particular facility. This Safety Report identifies the factors that are normally considered when deciding on the most appropriate strategy to select for a particular facility. It describes the impact that each factor can have on the strategy selection and also how the factors in combination can be used to select an optimum strategy

313

Investment management for nuclear decommissioning trusts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to Nuclear Regulatory Commission estimates, and assuming a 4 percent annual inflation rate, minimum decommissioning requirements for a single reactor could total almost $350 million after 30 years. Consequently, reducing customer contributions to decommissioning funds is a potentially rewarding activity. In fact, improving the after-tax return earned on an NDT fund by as little as one percentage point can reduce customer contributions to the fund by 15% over its life. Unfortunately, many electric utilities are headed in the wrong direction and are unlikely to achieve satisfactory results. The main problem is the prevalence of the conventional wisdom, most of which has been appropriated from the area of pension fund management. This is an area which is familiar to most utility managements, but which has only superficial similarity to the issue of NDT investing. The differences are pronounced: NDTs, unlike pensions, are fully taxable at corporate income tax rates. In addition, NDT managers should be concerned with protecting the inflation-adjusted or real value of fund investments at a single, future decommissioning date. Pension managers, on the other hand, may be concerned with satisfying nominal contractual obligations spread over an extended future time horizon. In view of the large stakes involved in the management of NDTs, the authors summarize five key tenets of the conventional wisdom in this area and demonstrate where they feel they are in error

314

Decommissioning: Think about the back end first  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ting the processing. Waste needs to be characterized before it is produced for both radiological and hazardous constituents. Good planning that integrates waste management with activity planning is essential for success. To plan where the project is going, first the end state needs to be determined. Then steps to get the facility in the desired condition can be evaluated. The steps need to be communicated, then scheduled.The schedule needs to be communicated for success. Safety is the key to evaluating how the end state will be reached. Safety is more important during decommissioning than plant operation. There are more challenges and people are performing hazardous activities daily. The hazards need to be evaluated for each activity and work planned to minimize hazards. As decommissioning proceeds, what has been learned at the facility and by others needs to be assessed.Then, what should continue to be done and what should be changed to be safer or more efficient can be identified. The biggest lesson from the Fermi 1 decommissioning project is that hazardous materials and conditions need to be considered first before starting work activities to ensure that waste can be disposed of and people will go home safely at the end of every day. (author)

315

Large transport packages for decommissioning waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main tasks performed during the period related to the influence of manufacture, transport and disposal on the design of such packages. It is deduced that decommissioning wastes will be transported under the IAEA Transport Regulations under either the Type B or Low Specific Activity (LSA) categories. If the LSA packages are self-shielded, reinforced concrete is the preferred material of construction. But the high cost of disposal implies that there is a strong reason to investigate the use of returnable shields for LSA packages and in such cases they are likely to be made of ferrous metal. Economic considerations favour the use of spheroidal graphite cast iron for this purpose. Transport operating hazards have been investigated using a mixture of desk studies, routes surveys and operations data from the railway organisations. Reference routes were chosen in the Federal Republic of Germany, France and the United Kingdom. This work has led to a description of ten accident scenarios and an evaluation of the associated accident probabilities. The effect of disposal on design of packages has been assessed in terms of the radiological impact of decommissioning wastes, an in addition corrosion and gas evolution have been examined. The inventory of radionuclides in a decommissioning waste package has low environmental impact. If metal clad reinforced concrete packages are to be used, the amount of gas evolution is such that a vent would need to be included in the design. Similar unclad packages would be sufficiently permeable to gases to prevent a pressure build-up. (author)

316

Study on archive management for nuclear facility decommissioning projects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper introduces the main features and status of the archive management for nuclear facility decommissioning projects, and explores and discusses the countermeasures in its archive management. Taking the practice of the archive management system of a reactor decommissioning project as an example, the paper illustrates the establishment of archive management system for the nuclear facility decommissioning projects. The results show that the development of a systematic archive management principle and system for nuclear decommissioning projects and the construction of project archives for the whole process from the design to the decommissioning by digitalized archive management system are one effective route to improve the complete, accurate and systematic archiving of project documents, to promote the standardization and effectiveness of the archive management and to ensure the traceability of the nuclear facility decommissioning projects. (authors)

317

Some studies related to decommissioning of nuclear reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Decommissioning of large nuclear reactors has not yet taken place in the Nordic countries. Small nuclear installations, however, have been dismantled. This NKA-programme has dealt with some interesting and important factors which have to be analysed before a large scale decommissioning programme starts. Prior to decommissioning, knowledge is required regarding the nuclide inventory in various parts of the reactor. Measurements were performed in regions close to the reactor tank and the biological shield. These experimental data are used to verify theoretical calculations. All radioactive waste generated during decommissioning will have to be tansported to a repository. Studies show that in all the Nordic countries there are adequate transport systems with which decommissioning waste can be transported. Another requirement for orderly decommissioning planning is that sufficient information about the plant and its operation history must be available. It appears that if properly handled and sorted, all such information can be extracted from existing documentation. (authors)

318

Health physics program for the Edgemont Uranium Mill decommissioning project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) is actively involved in decommissioning a uranium mill located near the town of Edgemont, South Dakota. The Edgemont Mill Decommissioning Project, which is unique in many respects, will involve dismantlement of the old inactive mill building and excavation and transportation of several million tons of uranium mill tailings to a permanent disposal site. To ensure that workers are adequately protected from radiation exposure during decommissioning operations, a health physics program appropriate for the decommissioning situation was developed. The Edgemont Mill Decommissioning Project Health Physics Manual (HPM) gives the programmatic requirements for worker radiation protection. The requirements of the HPM are implemented by means of detailed onsite operating procedures. The Edgemont project health physics program was developed using currently available regulations and guidance for an operating uranium mill with appropriate modifications for decommissioning. This paper discusses the development, implementation, and documentation of that program

319

Nuclear power plant decommissioning strategy in the Czech Republic  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The introductory chapters describe the basic legal requirements imposed by current Czech legislation, in particular Act No. 18/1997 and Decree No. 196/1999, which were reflected in the preparation of the Strategy for the Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Plants Operated by the CEZ Utility. The principles adopted within the preparation of the strategy are outlined. Detailed information is provided about the adopted method of decommissioning of both the Dukovany and Temelin NPPs, as well as about the concept of radioactive waste management during the decommissioning process. In addition to the schedules for the decommissioning activities, information is presented about the amounts of radioactive waste planned for disposal in the repository located at the Dukovany site. The financial aspects of nuclear power plant decommissioning are outlined, including cost estimates and cost structures for the decommissioning of the Dukovany and Temelin NPPs. (author)

320

Estimation of nuclear facility decommissioning costs. Current status and prospects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is now common practice to prepare decommissioning plans and associated cost estimates for nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities even before the start of construction. Typically these plans and estimates are updated regularly during plant operation, in the transition period after shut down, and during decommissioning. Specific requirements on contents of the plan are usually set out in regulation, which has its basis in national legislation. Transparent, underpinned cost estimates have a number of important functions. They provide: a rationale for the chosen decommissioning strategy, a basis for assessing the cost-effectiveness of the decommissioning activities, and a basis for ensuring the necessary funds are available when needed to cover the actual cost of decommissioning. Practices for estimating decommissioning costs vary across countries and projects. Efforts are being made to improve cost comparability. (authors)

 
 
 
 
321

Regulations and organisation of decommissioning operations in Belgium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Decommissioning is regulated in Belgium by several laws, royal decrees and conventions. These regulations deal with safety requirements such as protection of workers, the population and the environment, and with strategies, financing and dismantling operations. Thus, the future decommissioning activities of new installations and installations currently in operation will be financed through provisions defined by a convention for nuclear power plants or by the initial decommissioning plan for other facilities. Furthermore, before decommissioning operations can start, the license needs to submit a final decommissioning plan to ONDRAF/NIRAS, and a licence application to the regulatory body. This structure is being set up in the country and should by completely implemented for installations in operation and in decommissioning phase in 1993-1994. (author) 1 fig

322

Research reactor back-end options - decommissioning: a necessary consideration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Decommissioning is a challenge, which all radioactive site licensees eventually need to face and research reactors are no exception. BNFL has completed numerous major decommissioning projects at its own operational sites and has undertaken similar works at customers' sites including the decommissioning of the Universities Research Reactor (URR), Risley and the ICI TRIGA 1-Mk I Reactor at Billingham. Based on the execution of such projects BNFL has gained an understanding of the variety of customer requirements and the effectiveness of specific decommissioning techniques for research reactors. This paper addresses factors to be considered when reviewing the way forward following shut down and how these affect the final decisions for fuel management and the extent of decommissioning. Case studies are described from BNFL's recent experience decommissioning both the URR and ICI TRIGA reactors. (author)

323

Unrestricted re-use of decommissioned nuclear laboratories  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A decommissioning strategy was developed by the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN. In this strategy decommissioning works are limited to the radioactive parts of the nuclear installation. After obtaining an attestation for unrestricted reuse of the building after removal of all radioactivity, the building can be used for new industrial purposes outside the nuclear field. The decommissioning activities according to this strategy have been applied in four buildings. The results are described.

Cornelissen, R.; Noynaert, L.; Harnie, S.; Marien, J.

1996-09-18

324

Research of integrated management model for nuclear installation decommissioning project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the increasing of numbers of nuclear installations entering decommissioning period, it is more and more important to optimize the management of nuclear installation decommissioning project. This paper puts forward the conception of integrated management model. The authors design the construction of integrated management model for nuclear installation decommissioning project from several aspects, such as the construction of target, range, principle and the content. In the end, the authors design and explain from the aspect of organization. (authors)

325

Training practices to support decommissioning of nuclear facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Adequate numbers of competent personnel must be available during any phase of a nuclear facility life cycle, including the decommissioning phase. While a significant amount of attention has been focused on the technical aspects of decommissioning and many publications have been developed to address technical aspects, human resource management issues, particularly the training and qualification of decommissioning personnel, are becoming more paramount with the growing number of nuclear facilities of all types that are reaching or approaching the decommissioning phase. One of the keys to success is the training of the various personnel involved in decommissioning in order to develop the necessary knowledge and skills required for specific decommissioning tasks. The operating organisations of nuclear facilities normally possess limited expertise in decommissioning and consequently rely on a number of specialized organisations and companies that provide the services related to the decommissioning activities. Because of this there is a need to address the issue of assisting the operating organisations in the development and implementation of human resource management policies and training programmes for the facility personnel and contractor personnel involved in various phases of decommissioning activities. The lessons learned in the field of ensuring personnel competence are discussed in the paper (on the basis of information and experiences accumulated from various countries and organizations, particularly, through relevant IAEA activities). Particularly, the following aspects are addressed: transition of training from operational to decommissioning phase; knowledge management; target groups, training needs analysis, and application of a systematic approach to training (SAT); content of training for decommissioning management and professional staff, and for decommissioning workers; selection and training of instructors; training facilities and tools; and training as the integral part of management of human resources. (author)

326

Decommissioning nuclear power plants - the wave of the future  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper discusses the project controls developed in the decommissioning of a nuclear power plant. Considerations are given to the contaminated piping and equipment that have to be removed and the spent and used fuel that has to be disposed of. The storage issue is of primary concern here. The cost control aspects and the dynamics of decommissioning are discussed. The effects of decommissioning laws on the construction and engineering firms are mentioned. 5 refs

327

Administrative requirements of financial securities to cover decommissioning operations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper points out that the lack of experience in decommissioning of nuclear power plants is reflected by the absence of specific legislation regarding the economic, fiscal and accounting aspects of the process. The author suggests that a fund be created for decommissioning costs through contributions deriving from plant operation. The paper analyses the procedures to be followed and draws attention to the need for clear legislation on decommissioning. (NEA)

328

When a plant shuts down: The psychology of decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

time has come to prepare for the widespread decommissioning of plants. The industry would be well served by conducting a selective, industry-wide evaluation of plants to assess its overall readiness for the decommissioning process. A decommissioning is not likely to be trouble free, but with a healthy appreciation for the human side of the process, it will undoubtedly go more smoothly than if approached as a matter of dismantling a machine

329

Decommissioning of nuclear installations - regulations - financing - responsibility - insurance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper highlights three aspects of decommissioning of nuclear installations which relate, more or less directly, to legal options already applied or advocated. It reviews the regulatory conditions for decommissioning a nuclear installation and indicates legal provisions for financing decommissioning expenditures. It also describes the legal provisions to determine liabilities in case of nuclear damage and the assistance which insurers may provide to cover the consequences of such liabilities. (NEA)

330

Operation and dismantling report 2004 for Danish Decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report describes the operations at Danish Decommissioning (DD) that are essential for the nuclear inspection authorities' assessment of safety related issues. The report presents an account of safety and of the work at DD, including the decommissioning projects in 2004 for the nuclear facilities. The radioactive waste treatment facility in operation is described, and inspection and maintenance reports of the nuclear facilities prepared for decommissioning are presented. (ln)

331

Decommissioning conceptual study: In situ decommissioning of eight 105 reactor buildings in the 100 areas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Eight deactivated production reactors on the Hanford Site will be decommissioned. This decommissioning conceptual study report is based on performing the decommissioning with the recommended preferred method (in situ). Final selection of the method of decommissioning is dependent upon the completion of the national Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process. For the purpose of estimating this effort, it is assumed that the work will be done as follows: UNC Nuclear Industries Decommissioning Operations will do the radiological characterization, all Decontamination and Decommissioning nonexplosive destruction, fixing of contaminants, and void filling; an offsite explosives contractor will assist in destruction of some concrete walls; and a large scale earth-moving contractor will construct the burial mound. Before demolition, loose contamination will be stabilized. Building walls and ceilings will be safely and cost effectively demolished using a wrecking ball and/or explosives. Most of the reinforced concrete walls that will reside within the berm envelope will be retained. The rubble will be spread and left as fill. After demolition and void filling is completed, an offsite contractor will mound over the entire building with earth and gravel to extend a minimum of 16 ft above the reactor block. The mound will be seeded to establish plant growth which will minimize run-off erosion, and promote transpiration of precipitation. The depth of the mound will be sufficient so that precipitation penetration will be negligible thereby reducing the potential for radionuclide transport down into the water table. The total estimated cost of this project, including escalation, contingency, and engineering, is $42,760,000, and is estimated to take 5 years to complete. The project funding is scheduled to commence with capital equipment procurement and design in the first quarter of FY 1987.

Griffin, P.W.

1987-03-01

332

Decommissioning conceptual study: In situ decommissioning of eight 105 reactor buildings in the 100 areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Eight deactivated production reactors on the Hanford Site will be decommissioned. This decommissioning conceptual study report is based on performing the decommissioning with the recommended preferred method (in situ). Final selection of the method of decommissioning is dependent upon the completion of the national Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process. For the purpose of estimating this effort, it is assumed that the work will be done as follows: UNC Nuclear Industries Decommissioning Operations will do the radiological characterization, all Decontamination and Decommissioning nonexplosive destruction, fixing of contaminants, and void filling; an offsite explosives contractor will assist in destruction of some concrete walls; and a large scale earth-moving contractor will construct the burial mound. Before demolition, loose contamination will be stabilized. Building walls and ceilings will be safely and cost effectively demolished using a wrecking ball and/or explosives. Most of the reinforced concrete walls that will reside within the berm envelope will be retained. The rubble will be spread and left as fill. After demolition and void filling is completed, an offsite contractor will mound over the entire building with earth and gravel to extend a minimum of 16 ft above the reactor block. The mound will be seeded to establish plant growth which will minimize run-off erosion, and promote transpiration of precipitation. The depth of the mound will be sufficient so that precipitation penetration will be negligible thereby reducing the potential for radionuclide transport down into the water table. The total estimated cost of this project, including escalation, contingency, and engineering, is $42,760,000, and is estimated to take 5 years to complete. The project funding is scheduled to commence with capital equipment procurement and design in the first quarter of FY 1987

333

Radiological characterisation and decommissioning in Denmark  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Danish Decommissioning (DD) is currently decommissioning the last Danish research reactor (DR3) and the Hot Cell facility. The DR3 project will soon finish dismantling of the external parts of the reactor (January 2012). The approval for dismantling of neutron activated and tritium contaminated heavy water pumps and tubing was granted in December 2011. DD will begin the work on the inner parts as the tendering process for equipment will start in 2012. Hereafter the dismantling of the top of the reactor will begin using the obtained remote controlled equipment. The Hot Cell facility consists of 6 contaminated cells. The first cell have been opened and cleaned. Currently the work progresses by removing parts and hot spots from the other cells with the use of robotic equipment. Challenges, lack of conventional and radiological documentation, dose rates and contamination higher than expected and the confined space in the cells have delayed the project. No final repository exists in Denmark. Therefore no official Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) have been formulated. However the Danish authority (SIS) does require a description of the waste in the interim storage facility (Inventory). Furthermore radiological characterisation of key nuclides is needed during decommissioning and dismantling. The information gained from the characterisation helps in the planning phase prior to the dismantling and for inventory calculations for later use. DD performs the radiological characterisation via both non-destructive and destructive analysis on samples. The samples are measured with gamma spectroscopy using mathematical and geometrical analysis. Scaling factors are used for neutron activated waste (DR3) to determine the difficult-to-measure isotopes and pure beta emitters. The primary scaling isotope is Co-60. Waste from the Hot Cell facility is alpha contaminated and scaling procedures for determination of alpha contamination are currently used in the planning process. Scaling of alpha emitters will be incorporated into the inventory calculations. Due to the variable nature of the systems being decommissioned, the sampling procedures are based on ad hoc principles. The number of samples needed is determined by the conventional characterisation of the systems. For systems where conventional knowledge is limited, more samples are generally needed earlier in the decommissioning process. Otherwise sampling can take place prior to the packing of the containers for the interim storage facility. In this case less sampling is needed as few representative samples for each material from each system in the container are sufficient. (author)

334

Decommissioning of six German fuel cycle facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The decommissioning of six fuel cycle facilities from Siemens AG and Nukem Hanau GmbH located at Hanau and Karlstein, Germany, provides a unique platform of experience. Five fuel fabrication plants, which had supplied fuel for research and pilot reactors as well as to commercial nuclear power plants, are in various stages of decommissioning. The fuel processed in the relevant facility, had either been Thorium, low and high enriched Uranium or even Plutonium. A hot cell research complex complemented these fuel facilities, where post-irradiation examinations on all kind of fuel had been performed. Research on plutonium-bearing fuel started as early as in 1965 and since then about 9 000 kg, Plutonium has been processed. In the late sixties fuel fabrication commenced on a commercial basis under license agreement with US-based companies General Electric and Westinghouse. The pilot fuel fabrication plants of Nukem were mainly involved in the fabrication of fuel for research reactors, including of coated particles for spherical HTR fuel. Late Eighties, beginning Nineties, the facilities were shut, partly due to political reasons and cleaned out, and decommissioning started immediately thereafter. No advantage can be gained by mothballing fuel cycle facilities because of the long-lived fissile isotopes. More than 2 000 highly specialized engineers and workers as well as a similar number of employees in the supporting industries lost their job. In total more than EUR 1 billionheir job. In total more than EUR 1 billion will be spent for- obtaining 'green meadow' including disposition of radioactive waste in deep underground disposal. Except for the hot cell complex, where local dose rate could be as high as several hundreds of Sv/h the major challenge in decommissioning of nuclear fuel facilities, is the predominance of a-particle contamination rather than high radiation fields. All effort has to be focused on preventing a-particles leaking outside their foreseen containment and thus, reducing the risk of incorporation. To a lesser extent, special criticality precautions may be required also during the decommissioning phase. Another tricky item is the procedure of free release measurement. Free release applications of buildings, concrete rubble, metals and other material belonging to a nuclear facility has not only to step over high technological thresholds, but also over public acceptance hurdles. (author)

335

Heavy Water Components Test Reactor Decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Heavy Water Components Test Reactor (HWCTR) Decommissioning Project was initiated in 2009 as a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Removal Action with funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). This paper summarizes the history prior to 2009, the major D and D activities, and final end state of the facility at completion of decommissioning in June 2011. The HWCTR facility was built in 1961, operated from 1962 to 1964, and is located in the northwest quadrant of the Savannah River Site (SRS) approximately three miles from the site boundary. The HWCTR was a pressurized heavy water test reactor used to develop candidate fuel designs for heavy water power reactors. In December of 1964, operations were terminated and the facility was placed in a standby condition as a result of the decision by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission to redirect research and development work on heavy water power reactors to reactors cooled with organic materials. For about one year, site personnel maintained the facility in a standby status, and then retired the reactor in place. In the early 1990s, DOE began planning to decommission HWCTR. Yet, in the face of new budget constraints, DOE deferred dismantlement and placed HWCTR in an extended surveillance and maintenance mode. The doors of the reactor facility were welded shut to protect workers and discourage intruders. In 2009 the $1.6 billion allocation from the ARRA to SRS for llion allocation from the ARRA to SRS for site footprint reduction at SRS reopened the doors to HWCTR - this time for final decommissioning. Alternative studies concluded that the most environmentally safe, cost effective option for final decommissioning was to remove the reactor vessel, both steam generators, and all equipment above grade including the dome. The transfer coffin, originally above grade, was to be placed in the cavity vacated by the reactor vessel and the remaining below grade spaces would be grouted. Once all above equipment including the dome was removed, a concrete cover was to be placed over the remaining footprint and the groundwater monitored for an indefinite period to ensure compliance with environmental regulations.

336

Decommissioning wind energy projects: An economic and political analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wind energy is the fastest-growing segment of new electrical power capacity in the United States, with the potential for significant growth in the future. To facilitate such growth, a number of concerns between developers and landowners must be resolved, including assurance of wind turbine decommissioning at the end of their useful lives. Oklahoma legislators enlisted the authors to develop an economically-sound proposal to ensure developers complete their decommissioning obligations. Economic analysis of turbine decommissioning is complicated by a lack of operational experience, as few U.S. projects have been decommissioned. This leads to a lack of data regarding decommissioning costs. Politically, the negotiation leading to the finally-enacted solution juxtaposed economic theory against political pragmatism, leading to a different but hopefully sound solution. This article will provide background for the decommissioning issue, chronicle the development of the decommissioning component of the Oklahoma Wind Energy Act, and frame issues that remain for policymakers in regulating wind power development. - Highlights: ? Wind energy is the fastest-growing component of U.S. power generation. ? Decommissioning wind projects is policy concern for wind development. ? Little public information on wind turbine decommissioning costs exists. ? Oklahoma’s solution attempts to account for both costs and risks. ? Additional research is needed to create a more precise pold to create a more precise policy solution.

337

Tasks and problems at the decommissioning of WWER-440 reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Decommissioning is the final and very important phase in the life cycle of nuclear reactors and covers all activities from shutdown and removal of the fuel to environmental restoration of the site. The main characteristics and problems of the decommissioning process are outlined in this paper. The paper presents the tasks of scientific and methodical base elaboration for the purposes of performing expert analysis in INRNE-BAS on decommissioning process of WWER reactors /1/ and related problems of nuclear safety and radiation protection. Results of preliminary design calculations for the possible reuse of the fuel discharged from a decommissioned WWER-440 reactor are given in the paper (Authors)

338

Decommissioning nuclear power plants: authority and policy issues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present laws provide authorities with control of all aspects of radiological protection and safety in connection with decommissioning of nuclear power plants. However a law modification is needed if an earlier action than 2010 is claimed. Several reasons speak for decommissioning in close connection to reactor closing. Before any steps are taken it is however necessary to have an ultimate storage in operation for decommissioning wastes. Although there is today technique available that is sufficiently well established for decommissioning nuclear power plants, there are still reasons to adapt it to the specific Swedish circumstances. Also in other fields there are reasons for research and development. (O.S.)

339

Automatized material and radioactivity flow control tool in decommissioning process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this presentation the automatized material and radioactivity flow control tool in decommissioning process is discussed. It is concluded that: computer simulation of the decommissioning process is one of the important attributes of computer code Omega; one of the basic tools of computer optimisation of decommissioning waste processing are the tools of integral material and radioactivity flow; all the calculated parameters of materials are stored in each point of calculation process and they can be viewed; computer code Omega represents opened modular system, which can be improved; improvement of the module of optimisation of decommissioning waste processing will be performed in the frame of improvement of material procedures and scenarios.

340

Development of a decommissioning strategy for the MR research reactor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A description of the selected decommissioning strategy for the research reactor MR at the site of the Kurchatov Institute in Moscow is presented. The MR reactor hall is planned to be used as a temporary fuel store for the other research reactors on the site. On the basis of the site-specific conditions and over-all decommissioning goals, it was identified that phased immediate decommissioning is the preferable option. The current status of the reactor, expected final conditions and the sequence of decommissioning works are shown. (orig.)

Bylkin, Boris; Gorlinsky, Yury; Kolyadin, Vyacheslav; Pavlenko, Vitaly [RRC Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Craig, David; Fecitt, Lorna [NUKEM Limited, Dounreay (United Kingdom); Harman, Neil; Jackson, Roger [Serco Technical and Assurance Services, Warrington (United Kingdom); Lobach, Yury [Inst. for Nuclear Research of NASU, Kiev (Ukraine)

2010-03-15

 
 
 
 
341

Radiation protection in connection with the decommissioning of nuclear plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document presents the SSI preliminary views and position concerning the decommissioning of nuclear plants. To prevent the exposure of the decommissioning personnel and the general public to unacceptable levels of radiation and to protect the environment and future generations, it is SSI's task to formulate and issue the necessary terms and regulations with which the reactor licensees must comply during the decommissioning work. The views and principles presented here are the basis of SSI's continued work on guidelines and regulations for the decommissioning of nuclear plants

342

Computer System Analysis for Decommissioning Management of Nuclear Reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear reactor decommissioning is a complex activity that should be planed and implemented carefully. A system based on computer need to be developed to support nuclear reactor decommissioning. Some computer systems have been studied for management of nuclear power reactor. Software system COSMARD and DEXUS that have been developed in Japan and IDMT in Italy used as models for analysis and discussion. Its can be concluded that a computer system for nuclear reactor decommissioning management is quite complex that involved some computer code for radioactive inventory database calculation, calculation module on the stages of decommissioning phase, and spatial data system development for virtual reality. (author)

343

Radiation protection in connection with the decommissioning of nuclear plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document presents the SSI preliminary views and position concerning the decommissioning of nuclear plants. To prevent the exposure of the decommissioning personnel and the general public to unacceptable levels of radiation and to protect the environment and future generations, it is SSI`s task to formulate and issue the necessary terms and regulations with which the reactor licensees must comply during the decommissioning work. The views and principles presented here are the basis of SSI`s continued work on guidelines and regulations for the decommissioning of nuclear plants.

NONE

1997-04-01

344

10 CFR 50.75 - Reporting and recordkeeping for decommissioning planning.  

Science.gov (United States)

...recordkeeping for decommissioning planning. 50.75 Section 50...recordkeeping for decommissioning planning. (a) This section...licensees (except a holder of a manufacturing license under part...factors that could affect planning for decommissioning....

2010-01-01

345

33 CFR 148.325 - How soon after port decommissioning must the licensee initiate removal?  

Science.gov (United States)

...decommissioning must the licensee initiate removal? 148.325 Section 148...decommissioning must the licensee initiate removal? Within 2 years of port decommissioning, the licensee must initiate removal procedures. The...

2010-07-01

346

Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a refernce boiling water reactor power station: Technical support for decommissioning matters related to preparation of the final decommissioning rule  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Preparation of the final Decommissioning Rule by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has been assisted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff familiar with decommissioning matters. These efforts have included updating previous cost estimates developed during the series of studies of conceptually decommissioning reference licensed nuclear facilities for inclusion in the Final Generic Environmental Impact Statement (FGEIS) on decommissioning; documenting the cost updates; evaluating the cost and dose impacts of post-TMI-2 backfits on decommissioning; developing a revised scaling formula for estimating decommissioning costs for reactor plants different in size from the reference boiling water reactor (BWR) described in the earlier study; and defining a formula for adjusting current cost estimates to reflect future escalation in labor, materials, and waste disposal costs. This report presents the results of recent PNL studies to provide supporting information in three areas concerning decommissioning of the reference BWR: updating the previous cost estimates to January 1986 dollars; assessing the cost and dose impacts of post-TMI-2 backfits; and developing a scaling formula for plants different in size than the reference plant and an escalation formula for adjusting current cost estimates for future escalation

347

IAEA Assistance on Decommissioning of Small Facilities with Limited Resources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The number of facilities reaching their lifetime is increasing and drawing the attention of operators, regulators, public and other interested parties (potential users of the site after decommissioning) on the importance of adequate planning, funding and implementation of decommissioning activities in compliance with regulatory requirements and criteria. Specific attention is required for small facilities that have been used for research purposes and in most cases state owned by and dependent on state funding. With the current tendency for expansion of the nuclear industry such small facilities could become less of importance for the operators which can increase the probability that these facilities become abandoned, hazardous and imposing undue burden to future generations. This concern is more related to countries with limited human and financial resources at the operating organizations and the regulatory body. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been working on the; (i) establishment of internationally recognized safety standards on decommissioning and (ii) providing Member States with assistance on the application of these standards. The recent international conference on Lessons Learned from the Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities and the Safe Termination of Practices (Athens, Greece, 2006) has demonstrated that the set of IAEA standards is almost complete and that the International Action Plan on Decommissioning (2004), that is addressing decommissioning of small facilities, is being successfully implemented. However the need for further assistance on decommissioning of small facilities in countries with limited resources was also recognized and the Agency is planning its future work in this field. The IAEA also addresses the needs of small nuclear countries that have only a limited number of nuclear facilities, e.g. a research reactor, in its Research Reactor Decommissioning Demonstration Project (R2D2P. The Philippine Research Reactor (PRR-1) was selected as a model for the demonstration of decommissioning of a research reactor, including 'hands-on' demonstrations. The regulatory framework and the overall decommissioning approach have already been addressed in this project. The characterization survey and the decommissioning plan will follow. In addition it is planned to complement the project with a demonstration of the transfer from operation to decommissioning on the example of High Flux Australian Reactor. This paper summarizes the outcomes of the Athens conference and the outcomes of the ongoing international projects on Evaluation and Demonstration of Safety during Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities (DeSa) and the Research Reactor Decommissioning Demonstration Project (R2D2P) that are related to the decommissioning of small facilities. It also presents the planned IAEA work in this field

348

Problems and experience of research reactor decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to the IAEA research reactor database there are about 300 research reactors worldwide. At present above 30% of them have lifetime more than 35 years, 60% - more then 25 years. After the Chernobyl accident significant efforts have been made by many countries to modernize old research reactors aiming, first of all, at ensuring of its safe operation. However, a large number of aging research reactor will be facing shutdown in the near future. Before developing the design and planning of the works it is necessary to define the concept of the reactor decommissioning. It is defined by the time of the beginning of dismantling works after the reactor shutdown and the finite state of the reactor site.The concept of the reactor decommissioning provides 3 variants in a general case: reactor conservation, or partial dismantling, or complete dismantling to 'green field' state. Specialists of three International institutions (European Commission, IAEA and the Nuclear Energy Agency/Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) have developed a detailed plan of all actions and operations on nuclear power plants decommissioning in the framework of a joint project for cost assessment. For the reactor decontamination the following main constructions, equipment and devices are necessary: temporary storage facility for the spent fuel; general site-dismantling equipment including manipulators and 'hot' cells; facilities for 'active' equipment, personnel, tooling and washing decontamination; equipment for concentration of liquid and compactness of solid radioactive waste; temporary storage facility for radioactive waste; instrumentation and radiometric devices including , ?,?,?-spectrometers; transportable containers and other means for transportation of fuel and radioactive materials

349

Decommissioning of Villa Aldama uranium extraction plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the particularities in the decommissioning process of the Villa Aldama Uranium and Molybdenum Extraction Plant, located in Chihuahua State, Mexico. This decommissioning was carried out by Fideicomiso de Fomento Minero (FIFOMI) in 1994, when release criteria and radioactive waste disposal regulations were not ready. The plant was operated from 1969 to 1971. Its decommissioning generated approximately 30 tons of contaminated equipment, because it was not possible to reduce the radioactive contamination to levels below the provisional limits established by the authority. There was also a large amount of Uranium ore (1,735 tons) and soil and tailings (65,000 tons) that had to be removed from the facility's site, due to the growing population of Villa Aldama. These wastes were moved to an area called Pena Blanca, located 47 km north from Villa Aldama. Pena Blanca is the site where the uranium mines that fed the Villa Aldama Plant are located, The contaminated equipment was disposed in one of the unexploited mines, the soil and tailings in an impoundment, and the ore in the exclusion area of the impoundment facility. The Villa Aldama facility building was decontaminated below the established limits for unrestricted use, but this was not precisely the case for the site's land where the ore and the tailings were deposited, because some small areas did not comply with the criteria for unrestricted use; therefore some actions were necessary, such as covering the soil with a cap of inert material, and the establishment of conditions for the use of the land. The paper also describes the radiation protection management implemented during activities such as dismantling, decontamination and transport of the waste. (author)

350

Decontamination and decommissioning techniques for research reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Evaluation of soil decontamination process and the liquid decontamination waste treatment technology are investigation of organic acid as a decontamination agent, investigation of the liquid waste purification process and identification of recycling the decontamination agents. Participation on IAEA CRP meeting are preparation of IAEA technical report on 'studies on decommissioning of TRIGA reactors and site restoration technologies' and exchange the research result, technology, experience and safety regulation of the research reactor D and D of USA, Great Britain, Canada, Belgium, Italy, India and so forth

351

Nuclear power plant A-1 decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the presentation, some information concerning the historical background of NPP A-1 in Jaslovske Bohunice, Slovakia is given. The main technical parameters used during production activities concerning the decommissioning of the NPP A-1 to a first stage (i.e. to obtain radiologically safe stage) are solved together with the main contractor, Nuclear Power Plant Research Institute, Trnava, according to an approved project by the Slovak Government and Nuclear Authorities. The technological schemes for the radioactive waste treatment at SE-VYZ o.z. and their main technical parameters are shown as well. (author)

352

Decontamination, decommissioning, and vendor advertorial issue, 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The focus of the July-August issue is on Decontamination, decommissioning, and vendor advertorials. Major articles/reports in this issue include: An interesting year ahead of us, by Tom Christopher, AREVA NP Inc.; U.S.-India Civil Nuclear Cooperation; Decontamination and recycling of retired components, by Sean P. Brushart, Electric Power Research Institute; and, ANO is 33 and going strong, by Tyler Lamberts, Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. The industry innovation article is: Continuous improvement process, by ReNae Kowalewski, Arkansas Nuclear One.

Agnihotri, Newal (ed.)

2007-07-15

353

Decontamination, decommissioning, and vendor advertorial issue, 2007  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The focus of the July-August issue is on Decontamination, decommissioning, and vendor advertorials. Major articles/reports in this issue include: An interesting year ahead of us, by Tom Christopher, AREVA NP Inc.; U.S.-India Civil Nuclear Cooperation; Decontamination and recycling of retired components, by Sean P. Brushart, Electric Power Research Institute; and, ANO is 33 and going strong, by Tyler Lamberts, Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. The industry innovation article is: Continuous improvement process, by ReNae Kowalewski, Arkansas Nuclear One

354

Decommissioning of petroleum installations - major policy issues  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Following the Brent Spar controversy, the OSPAR countries reached a unanimous agreement in 1998 for the future rules for disposal of petroleum installations. The vast majority of existing offshore installations will be re-used or returned to shore for recycling or disposal. For installations where there is no generic solution, one should take a case-by-case approach. We provide a survey of international economic and regulatory issues pertaining to disposal of petroleum installations, and provide specific examples by analysing the Norwegian decommissioning policy. Implications of disposal decisions for the fishing industry, a central stakeholder, are analysed. (author)

Osmundsen, P. [Stavanger University College (Norway). Dept. of Petroleum Economics; Tveteras, R. [Stavanger University College (Norway). Institute for Research in Economics and Business Administration

2003-12-01

355

Allocation of Decommissioning and Waste Liabilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The work demonstrates that there are a number of methods available for cost allocation, the pros and cons of which are examined. The study investigates potential proportional and incremental methods in some depth. A recommendation in principle to use the latter methodology is given. It is concluded that a 'fair assumption' is that the potential allocation of costs for 'the RMA Leaching Hall' probably is small, in relation to the total costs, and estimated to be not more than about 175 kSEK, plus any costs associated with decommissioning/ disposal of a number of small pieces of equipment added by the current operator

356

Barseback NPP in Sweden - transition to decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On 5 February 1998, the government decided, [on the basis of the law on the phasing-out of nuclear power], that Barsebaeck 1 should close in June 1998. An appeal to the Supreme Administrative Court meant that the closure was temporarily postponed. After the Supreme Administrative Court declared that the government's decision should stand, Barsebaeck 1 was closed permanently on 30 November 1999. BKAB organization during service operation, labour turnover, scenario for decommissioning of Barsebaeck-1 and personnel development and staff reduction are presented. (author)

357

Disponibilidade de energia líquida no leite e desempenho ponderal de bezerros Hereford e Aberdeen Angus do nascimento à desmama / Availability of net energy in the milk and weight performance in Hereford and Aberdeen Angus calves from birth to weaning  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Esta pesquisa foi realizada com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho ponderal de bezerros do nascimento aos 189 dias de vida. Foram utilizados 95 bezerros (55 Aberdeen Angus e 40 Hereford) manejados em campo nativo. A produção de leite das vacas foi estimada pelo método pesagem-mamada-pesagem, e o des [...] empenho ponderal dos bezerros foi avaliado em intervalos de 21 dias a partir do nascimento. A parição foi dividida em época 1 (setembro) e época 2 (outubro). Para análise foram incluídos no modelo estatístico como efeitos fixos a raça das vacas, o sexo dos bezerros à época de parição, a ordem de parto e a gestação. Os dados foram submetidos à análise estatística, adotando-se 0,5 como nível crítico de probabilidade. A raça das mães influenciou o peso dos bezerros ao desmame, o ganho médio diário e a eficiência das vacas com 191,90 e 163,02 kg; 0,78 e 0,64 kg; e 45,24 e 39,40% para Aberdeen Angus e Hereford, respectivamente. Vacas multíparas superaram as primíparas nos pesos dos bezerros ao nascimento e ao desmame e no ganho médio diário. A época de nascimento afetou os pesos do bezerro ao nascimento e ao desmame, o ganho médio diário e a produção total de leite, cujos valores para setembro e outubro foram, respectivamente, 31,15 e 37,19 kg; 183,63 e 171,29 kg; 0,76 e 0,67 kg; e, 1605,04 e 1378,78 kg. Setembro foi o melhor período para peso do bezerro ao desmame, ganho médio diário e produção total de leite, enquanto outubro foi melhor apenas para o peso do bezerro ao nascimento. O desempenho dos bezerros não é influenciado pelo sexos nem pela prenhez da vaca. Abstract in english This research aimed at evaluating ponderal performance of the calves from birth to 189 days of age. Ninety-five calves were used (55 Aberdeen Angus and 40 Hereford), grazing natural pasture. Milk production of cows was estimated by the weight-suckled-weight method, and ponderal performance of the ca [...] lves was evaluated in 21-day intervals from birth. Calving season was divided at time 1 (September) and time 2 (October). For analyses, it was included in the statistical model as fixed effects, breed of the cows, calf sex in the calving season, calving order and pregnancy. Data were submitted to statistical analyses, adopting 0.5 as critical levels of probability. Breed of the dams influenced calves weaning weight, average daily weight gain and cow efficiency, with 191.90 and 163.02 kg, 0.78 and 0.64 kg, and, 45.24 and 39.40%, for Aberdeen Angus and Hereford, respectively. Multiparous cows were superior to primiparous on weight of the calves on birth and on weaning on average daily weight gain. Calving season affected weights of the calves on birth and on weaning, average daily weight gain and total milk production with the following values for September and October: 31.15 and 37.19 kg; 183.63 and 171.29 kg; 0.76 and 0.67 kg; and, 1,605.04 and 1,378.78 kg, respectively. September was the best time for calf weight at weaning, average daily weight gain and total milk production, while October was better only for birth weight. Performance of calves is not influenced by their sex neither by pregnancy.

Karine Maciel, Forster; Marcelo Alves, Pimentel; José Carlos Ferrugem, Moraes.

358

Evaluation of activation and decommissioning of the medical compact cyclotron  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We decommission the medical compact cyclotron which produces positron-emitting radionuclide for clinical PET for about nine years in the Hyogo Institute for Aging Brain and Cognitive Disorders. This report describes the plan on decommissioning of the medical compact cyclotron, measurement of induced radioactivity, the prediction and practice for amount of radioactive wastes, the operation procedures for dismantlement, and so on. (author)

359

State of decommissioning of the THTR-300 reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The decommissioning is performed in three stages. By 1995 the safe containment shall be built which then has to be maintained for 30 years before dismantling the THTR-300 plant. At present the THTR-300 plant operation has been stopped until getting the licence for core unloading, the first phase of decommissioning. (orig.)

360

Optimising waste management performance - The key to successful decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: On the 1. of April 2005 the United Kingdom's Nuclear Decommissioning Authority became responsible for the enormous task of decommissioning the UK's civilian nuclear liabilities. The success of the NDA in delivering its key objectives of safer, cheaper and faster decommissioning depends on a wide range factors. It is self-evident, however, that the development of robust waste management practices by those charged with decommissioning liability will be at the heart of the NDA's business. In addition, the implementation of rigorous waste minimisation techniques throughout decommissioning will deliver tangible environmental benefits as well as better value for money and release funds to accelerate the decommissioning program. There are mixed views as to whether waste minimisation can be achieved during decommissioning. There are those that argue that the radioactive inventory already exists, that the amount of radioactivity cannot be minimised and that the focus of activities should be focused on waste management rather than waste minimisation. Others argue that the management and decommissioning of the UK's civilian nuclear liability will generate significant volumes of additional radioactive waste and it is in this area where the opportunities for waste minimisation can be realised. (author)

 
 
 
 
361

Decommissioning and demolition in the European Union. Current status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

mmunity the required competences in the fields of nuclear safety and, consequently, also decommissioning and demolition. The financial provisions necessary for these activities are covered in the Electricity Directive within the framework of the rules for a common single market in 2003. After a first status report, the Commission published recommendations about financing decommissioning and demolition in 2006. (orig.)

362

Project CONRELMAT - conditional release of materials from decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

represented by determined conditional clearance levels (maximum specific mass activity of material allowing its recycling and release) including critical exposure pathway for analyzed radionuclides ensuring that the detrimental impact on human health is kept on a negligible level. Finally the amount and radioactivity of materials from decommissioning, fulfilling the limits for conditional reuse, are calculated in the decommissioning planning code OMEGA. (author)

363

Decontamination and decommissioning project for the nuclear facilities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The final goal of this project is to complete the decommissioning of the Korean Research Reactor no.1 and no. 2(KRR-1 and 2) and uranium conversion plant safely and successfully. The goal of this project in 2006 is to complete the decontamination of the inside reactor hall of the KRR-2 which will be operating as a temporary storage for the radioactive waste until the construction and operation of the national repository site. Also the decommissioning work of the KRR-1 and auxiliary facilities is being progress. As the compaction of decommissioning project is near at hand, a computer information system was developed for a systematically control and preserve a technical experience and decommissioning data for the future reuse. The nuclear facility decommissioning, which is the first challenge in Korea, is being closed to the final stages. We completed the decommissioning of all the bio-shielding concrete for KRR-2 in 2005 and carried out the decontamination and waste material grouping of the roof, wall and bottom of the reactor hall of the KRR-2. The decommissioning for nuclear facility were demanded the high technology, remote control equipment and radioactivity analysis. So developed equipment and experience will be applied at the decommissioning for new nuclear facility in the future.

Park, J. H.; Paik, S. T.; Park, S. W. (and others)

2007-02-15

364

The regulatory process for the decommissioning of nuclear facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this publication is to provide general guidance to Member States for regulating the decommissioning of nuclear facilities within the established nuclear regulatory framework. The Guide should also be useful to those responsible for, or interested in, the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The Guide describes in general terms the process to be used in regulating decommissioning and the considerations to be applied in the development of decommissioning regulations and guides. It also delineates the responsibilities of the regulatory body and the licensee in decommissioning. The provisions of this Guide are intended to apply to all facilities within the nuclear fuel cycle and larger industrial installations using long lived radionuclides. For smaller installations, however, less extensive planning and less complex regulatory control systems should be acceptable. The Guide deals primarily with decommissioning after planned shutdown. Most provisions, however, are also applicable to decommissioning after an abnormal event, once cleanup operations have been terminated. The decommissioning planning in this case must take account of the abnormal event. 28 refs, 1 fig

365

Decontamination and Decommissioned Small Nuclear AIP Hybrid Systems Submarines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Being equipped with small reactor AIP is the trend of conventional submarine power in 21st century as well as a real power revolution in conventional submarine. Thus, the quantity of small reactor AIP Submarines is on the increase, and its decommissioning and decontamination will also become a significant international issue. However, decommissioning the small reactor AIP subm...

Guangya Liu; Daping Qiu

2013-01-01

366

Lessons learned from the decommissioning of NORM facility in Malaysia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Malaysia Decommissioning of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) facility in Malaysia will run into unforeseeable complications and difficulties if there is no proper planning. The Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB) plays important role in guiding and assisting the operator/contractor in this NORM decommissioning project. A local Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) processing plant located in the northern region of peninsular Malaysia had ceased its operations and decided to decommission and remediate its site for the final release of the site. The remediated site is earmarked as an industrial site. During its operations, monazites are processed for rare earth elements such as cerium and lanthanum. It's plant capable of processing monazite to produce rare earth chloride and rare earth carbonate. The main by-product of monazite processing is the radioactive cake containing primarily thorium hydroxide. Operation of the monazite processing plant started in early eighties and terminated in early nineties. The decommissioning of the plant site started in late 2003 and completed its decommissioning and remediation works in early 2006. This paper described the lesson learned by Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) in conducting third party independent audit for the decommissioning of the NORM contaminated facility. By continuously reviewing the lessons learned, mistakes and/or inefficiencies in this plant decommissioning project, hopefully will result in a smoother, less costly and more productive future decommissioning works on NORM facilities in Malaysia. (author)

367

Decommissioning and material recycling. Radiation risk management issues  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Once nuclear fuel cycle facilities have permanently stopped operations they have to be decommissioned. The decommissioning of a nuclear facility involves the surveillance and dismantling of the facility systems and buildings, the management of the materials resulting from the dismantling activities and the release of the site for further use. The management of radiation risks associated with these activities plays an important role in the decommissioning process. Existing legislation covers many aspects of the decommissioning process. However, in most countries with nuclear power programmes legislation with respect to decommissioning is incomplete. In particular this is true in the Netherlands, where government policy with respect to decommissioning is still in development. Therefore a study was performed to obtain an overview of the radiation risk management issues associated with decommissioning and the status of the relevant legislation. This report describes the results of that study. It is concluded that future work at the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation on decommissioning and radiation risk management issues should concentrate on surveillance and dismantling activities and on criteria for site release. (orig.).

Dodd, D.H.

1996-09-01

368

Power reactor decommissioning projects in the Federal Republic of Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During 1987, three power reactor decommissioning projects in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) were visited. The three projects were the Kernkraftwerk Lingen (KWL), the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe Niederaichbach (KKN), and the Kerkraftwerk RWE-Bayernwerk Block A (KRBA). This paper briefly discusses the status of each of these projects and includes some observations on the FRG decommissioning methodology and philosophy

369

Decontamination and decommissioning project for the nuclear facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The final goal of this project is to complete the decommissioning of the Korean Research Reactor no.1 and no. 2(KRR-1 and 2) and uranium conversion plant safely and successfully. The goal of this project in 2006 is to complete the decontamination of the inside reactor hall of the KRR-2 which will be operating as a temporary storage for the radioactive waste until the construction and operation of the national repository site. Also the decommissioning work of the KRR-1 and auxiliary facilities is being progress. As the compaction of decommissioning project is near at hand, a computer information system was developed for a systematically control and preserve a technical experience and decommissioning data for the future reuse. The nuclear facility decommissioning, which is the first challenge in Korea, is being closed to the final stages. We completed the decommissioning of all the bio-shielding concrete for KRR-2 in 2005 and carried out the decontamination and waste material grouping of the roof, wall and bottom of the reactor hall of the KRR-2. The decommissioning for nuclear facility were demanded the high technology, remote control equipment and radioactivity analysis. So developed equipment and experience will be applied at the decommissioning for new nuclear facility in the future

370

Cost estimation method for decommissioning of nuclear facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Japanese Government decided that Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) shall be consolidated to a New Organization as of October 2005, which organization would be an institute for comprehensive research and development for atomic energy. Through the preparation for unification, JAERI and JNC have been developing the decommissioning program for own facilities, estimating decommissioning cost and the amount of waste from the decommissioning, and developing management program. With planning the decommissioning program, it is important to estimate decommissioning cost effectively, because JAERI and JNC retain approximate 230 nuclear facilities which are reactors, fuel cycle and research facilities. Then a decommissioning cost estimation method has been developed based on several dismantling and replacement experiences. This method adopted more estimation formulae for decommissioning various works than ever, so as to be more reliable. And decommissioning cost for the facilities has been estimated under the common condition. This method should be improved, reflecting future nuclear facilities dismantling and replacement events. This paper shows the cost estimation method for nuclear facilities and the cost evaluation result for approximate 230 facilities of both JAERI and JNC. (author)

371

Fatores de correção para perímetro escrotal ao sobreano para tourinhos mestiços Aberdeen Angus x Nelore / Adjustment factors for scrotal circumference at yearling for crossbred Aberdeen Angus x Nelore young bulls  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Obtiveram-se fatores de correção (FC) para o perímetro escrotal ao sobreano (PES) para os efeitos de grupo genético (GG), heterozigose individual (HI), peso ao sobreano (PS) e idade do animal à pesagem de sobreano (IDS), utilizando-se registros de peso corporal e medidas de perímetro escrotal obtido [...] s de 11.662 tourinhos das raças Aberdeen Angus, Nelore e de produtos do cruzamento entre elas, criados nas regiões Sul, Sudeste e Centro-Oeste do Brasil, nascidos entre 1987 e 2001. Os coeficientes de regressão que geraram os FC foram estimados pelo método dos quadrados mínimos, adotando um modelo que incluiu os efeitos de grupo de contemporâneos ao sobreano (GC), GG, heterozigose materna (HM), HI, PS e IDS. Todos os efeitos incluídos no modelo foram significativos (P Abstract in english Adjustment factors (AF) for scrotal circumference at yearling (SCY) were figured out for effects of genetic group (GG), individual heterozygosis (IH), yearling weight (YW), and age of the animal at yearling weight (AYW) using body weight and scrotal circumference records from 11,662 Aberdeen Angus, [...] Nelore, and their crosses. The animals were born from 1987 to 2001 and were raised in the South East and Central West Regions of Brazil. The regression coefficients to obtain AF were estimated by least squares means method. The model included the fixed effects of contemporaneous group at yearling (CG), maternal heterozygosis (MH), IH, and the covariates YW (linear and quadratic effects) and AYW (linear effect). All the factors included in the model showed significant effects (P

J.S., Lopes; P.R.N., Rorato; T., Weber; J.G., Comin; R.O., Araújo.

2009-04-01

372

Fatores de correção para perímetro escrotal ao sobreano para tourinhos mestiços Aberdeen Angus x Nelore / Adjustment factors for scrotal circumference at yearling for crossbred Aberdeen Angus x Nelore young bulls  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Obtiveram-se fatores de correção (FC) para o perímetro escrotal ao sobreano (PES) para os efeitos de grupo genético (GG), heterozigose individual (HI), peso ao sobreano (PS) e idade do animal à pesagem de sobreano (IDS), utilizando-se registros de peso corporal e medidas de perímetro escrotal obtido [...] s de 11.662 tourinhos das raças Aberdeen Angus, Nelore e de produtos do cruzamento entre elas, criados nas regiões Sul, Sudeste e Centro-Oeste do Brasil, nascidos entre 1987 e 2001. Os coeficientes de regressão que geraram os FC foram estimados pelo método dos quadrados mínimos, adotando um modelo que incluiu os efeitos de grupo de contemporâneos ao sobreano (GC), GG, heterozigose materna (HM), HI, PS e IDS. Todos os efeitos incluídos no modelo foram significativos (P Abstract in english Adjustment factors (AF) for scrotal circumference at yearling (SCY) were figured out for effects of genetic group (GG), individual heterozygosis (IH), yearling weight (YW), and age of the animal at yearling weight (AYW) using body weight and scrotal circumference records from 11,662 Aberdeen Angus, [...] Nelore, and their crosses. The animals were born from 1987 to 2001 and were raised in the South East and Central West Regions of Brazil. The regression coefficients to obtain AF were estimated by least squares means method. The model included the fixed effects of contemporaneous group at yearling (CG), maternal heterozygosis (MH), IH, and the covariates YW (linear and quadratic effects) and AYW (linear effect). All the factors included in the model showed significant effects (P

J.S., Lopes; P.R.N., Rorato; T., Weber; J.G., Comin; R.O., Araújo.

373

Decommissioning in the United States - Past, present and future - 16318  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The experience related to decommissioning of nuclear facilities in the United States is very substantial and covers power reactors, research reactors, and many facilities in the Department of Energy complex. The focus of this paper however is on the commercial power plants. With 104 operating reactors, the U.S. fleet of civilian reactors is still the largest in the world. Nuclear power industry in the United States has undergone a dramatic upturn after decades of stalemate. One effect of this nuclear renaissance has been that the plans have changed for several reactors that were initially destined for decommissioning. Instead, the focus now is on re-licensing of the reactors and on power up-rates. In fact, after the peak period between 1987 and 1998, no additional power reactors have been shutdown. On the contrary, power up-rates in the past twenty years have added a cumulative capacity equivalent to five new reactors. Almost all the operating reactors plan to have license extensions, thus postponing the eventual decommissioning. Nevertheless, in addition to the 9 reactors where licenses have been terminated following decommissioning, 12 power and early demonstration reactors and 14 test and research reactors are permanently shutdown and are in decommissioning phase. Substantial experience and lessons learned are available from the U.S. projects that are of value to the international decommissioning projects, especially where such projects are in early stages. These lsuch projects are in early stages. These lessons cover a wide array of areas from decommissioning plans, technology applications, large component removal, regulatory and public interface, decommissioning funding and costs, clean up criteria, surveys of the decommissioned site, and license termination. Additionally, because of the unavailability of a national spent fuel disposition facility, most decommissioning sites are constructing above ground interim storage facilities for the spent nuclear fuel. The U.S. nuclear power projects are also gearing up for the design and licensing of new reactors. Lessons from the past are useful in the development of such designs so that along with the other factors, the designs are optimized for eventual decommissioning as well. This paper provides an overview of the past reactor decommissioning, lessons learned from the past experience, and status of the current decommissioning activities and issues. It also presents some long term projections for the future of decommissioning in the United States. (authors)

374

Windscale advanced gas-cooled reactor (WAGR) decommissioning project overview  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current BNFL reactor decommissioning projects are presented. The projects concern power reactor sites at Berkely, Trawsfynydd, Hunterstone, Bradwell, Hinkley Point; UKAEA Windscale Pile 1; Research reactors within UK Scottish Universities at East Kilbride and ICI (both complete); WAGR. The BNFL environmental role include contract management; effective dismantling strategy development; implementation and operation; sentencing, encapsulation and transportation of waste. In addition for the own sites it includes strategy development; baseline decommissioning planning; site management and regulator interface. The project objectives for the Windscale Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor (WAGR) are 1) Safe and efficient decommissioning; 2) Building of good relationships with customer; 3) Completion of reactor decommissioning in 2005. The completed WAGR decommissioning campaigns are: Operational Waste; Hot Box; Loop Tubes; Neutron Shield; Graphite Core and Restrain System; Thermal Shield. The current campaign is Lower Structures and the remaining are: Pressure vessel and Insulation; Thermal Columns and Outer Vault Membrane. An overview of each campaign is presented

375

Financial aspects of decommissioning. Report by an expert group  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Estimating decommissioning costs and collecting funds for eventual decommissioning of facilities that have used radioactive material is a prerequisite for safe, timely and cost effective decommissioning. A comprehensive overview of decommissioning costs and funding mechanisms was missing in the IAEA literature although the subject had been marginally dealt with in a few IAEA publications. Costing and funding issues were partially addressed by other international organizations, but there is a need to address the subject from the standpoint of the diverse social, economic and cultural environments that constitute IAEA membership. In its role of an international expert committee assisting the IAEA, the Technical Group on Decommissioning (TEGDE) debates and draws conclusions on topics omitted from general guidance. TEGDE members met in Vienna in 2003, 2004 and 2005 to develop the basis for this publication. The views expressed here reflect those of TEGDE and not necessarily those of the IAEA

376

Project and feedback experience on nuclear facility decommissioning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This series of 6 short articles presents the feedback experience that has been drawn from various nuclear facility dismantling and presents 3 decommissioning projects: first, the WAGR project that is the UK demonstration project for power reactor decommissioning (a review of the tools used to dismantle the reactor core); secondly, the dismantling project of the Bugey-1 UNGG reactor for which the dismantling works of the reactor internals is planned to be done underwater; and thirdly, the decommissioning project of the MR reactor in the Kurchatov Institute. The feedback experience described concerns nuclear facilities in Spain (Vandellos-1 and the CIEMAT research center), in Belgium (the Eurochemic reprocessing plant), and in France (the decommissioning of nuclear premises inside the Fontenay-aux-roses Cea center and the decommissioning of the UP1 spent fuel reprocessing plant at the Marcoule site). (A.C.)

Santiago, J.L. [ENRESA (Spain); Benest, T.G. [United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Windscale, Cumbria (United Kingdom); Tardy, F.; Lefevre, Ph. [Electricite de France (EDF/CIDEN), 69 - Villeurbanne (France); Willis, A. [VT Nuclear Services (United Kingdom); Gilis, R.; Lewandowski, P.; Ooms, B.; Reusen, N.; Van Laer, W.; Walthery, R. [Belgoprocess (Belgium); Jeanjacques, M. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Bohar, M.P.; Bremond, M.P.; Poyau, C.; Mandard, L.; Boissonneau, J.F.; Fouquereau, A.; Pichereau, E.; Binet, C. [CEA Fontenay aux Roses, 92 (France); Fontana, Ph.; Fraize, G. [CEA Marcoule 30 (France); Seurat, Ph. [AREVA NC, 75 - Paris (France); Chesnokov, A.V.; Fadin, S.Y.; Ivanov, O.P.; Kolyadin, V.I.; Lemus, A.V.; Pavlenko, V.I.; Semenov, S.G.; Shisha, A.D.; Volkov, V.G.; Zverkov, Y.A. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation)

2008-11-15

377

Guidelines for producing commercial nuclear power plant decommissioning cost estimates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objectives of the study were: 1. To develop guidelines to facilitate estimating the cost of nuclear power plant decommissioning alternatives on a plant-specific basis and to facilitate comparing estimates made by others. The guidelines are expressed in a form that could be readily adapted by technical specialists from individual utilities or by other users; 2. To enhance the industry's credibility with decision-makers at the state and federal levels during rate/regulatory processes involving decommissioning costs. This is accomplished by providing a detailed, systematic breakdown of how decommissioning cost estimates are prepared; 3. To increase the validity, realism and accuracy of site-specific decommissioning cost estimates. This is accomplished by pulling together the experiences and practices of several nuclear utilities and consultants in conducting past decommissioning cost estimates

378

Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities: Training and Human Resource Considerations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the cornerstones of the success of nuclear facility decommissioning is the adequate competence of personnel involved in decommissioning activities. The purpose of this publication is to provide methodological guidance for, and specific examples of good practices in training as an integral part of human resource management for the personnel performing decommissioning activities. The use of the systematic methodology and techniques described in this publication may be tailored and applied to the development of training for all types of nuclear facilities undergoing decommissioning. Examples of good practices in other aspects of human resources, such as knowledge preservation, management of the workforce and improvement of human performance, are also covered. The information contained in this publication, and the examples provided in the appendices and enclosed CD-ROM, are representative of the experience of decommissioning of a wide variety of nuclear facilities.

379

Russia and UK compare notes on decommissioning graphite reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Russian-British seminar on decommissioning uranium-graphite reactors was held at the Russian Beloyarsk plant in February. The seminar participants noted the similarities between the Windscale and Beloyarsk reactors, both in operation and in decommissioning. The Russian specialists concentrated on the following areas: decommissioning Beloyarsk 1; the condition of the AMB-100 and AMB-200 graphite stacks, and experience in dismantling the graphite blocks; ideas for renovation of power generating capacity at Beloyarsk. Five reports were presented on the UK side, covering the following areas: experience in the field of irradiated graphite treatment and disposal; the use of robotic and remotely-controlled equipment for decommissioning; planning and economic evaluation of techniques for decommissioning uranium-graphite reactors; analysis of Russian and British data on reactor graphite; estimation of the radionuclide inventory of the Windscale Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor. (author)

380

Apollo decommissioning project, Apollo, Pennsylvania. Final technical report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In November, 1991 Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) received a grant to partially fund the decommissioning of the former Apollo Nuclear Fuel Facility. The decommissioning was performed in accordance with a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approved decommissioning plan. This report summarizes the decommissioning of the Apollo Nuclear Fuel Facility and the radiological surveying of the site to demonstrate that these decommissioning activities were effective in reducing residual activity well below NRC's criteria for release for unrestricted use. The Apollo Nuclear Fuel Facility was utilized by the Nuclear Materials and Equipment Corporation (NUMEC) and B and W for nuclear research and production under Atomic Energy Commission and Department of Energy (DOE) contracts during 20 plus years of nuclear fuel manufacturing operations

 
 
 
 
381

Investigations on decommissioning of nuclear facilities (phase 2)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Informations on recent developments with the decommissioning of nuclear facilities including planning and actual experiences are collected and evaluated. The progress in the field of decommissioning techniques and their remote application are studied. The application of existing decommissioning concepts for LWR on HTR is discussed together with necessary modifications. As a contribution to the assessment of the radiological consequences of the recycling of ferrous metals arising during decommissioning a statistical model is developed, which takes adequately into account the wide variety of possible recycling pathways. On this basis, the distribution of individual doses of members of the general public is calculated. Finally, a rough estimate of the risk of decommissioned nuclear facilities is provided. (orig./HP)

382

Decommissioning and equipment replacement of nuclear power plants under uncertainty  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study examines the optimal timing for the decommissioning and equipment replacement of nuclear power plants. We consider that the firm has two options of decommissioning and equipment replacement, and determines to exercise these options under electricity price uncertainty. This problem is formulated as two optimal stopping problems. The solution of this model provides the value of the nuclear power plant and the threshold values for decommissioning and replacement. The dependence of decommissioning and replacement strategies on uncertainty and each cost is shown. In order to investigate the probability of events for decommissioning and replacement, Monte Carlo calculations are performed. We also show the probability distribution and the conditional expected time for each event. (author)

383

Program change management during nuclear power plant decommissioning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

able project savings. The decommissioning plants in the U.S. have planned and executed their projects using different strategies based on their unique plant circumstances. However, experience has shown that similar project milestones and actions applied through all of these projects. This allows each plant to learn from the experiences of the preceding projects. As the plant transitions from an operating plant through decommissioning, the reduction and termination of defunct programs and regulations can help optimize all facets of decommissioning. This information, learned through trial in previous plants, can be incorporated into the decommissioning plan of future projects so that the benefits of optimization can be realized from the beginning of the projects. This process of the collection of information and lessons learned from plant experiences is an important function of the EPRI Decommissioning Program. (author)

384

Comparing nuclear decommissioning in the UK and France  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper we will compare the decommissioning policies in the UK and France. Both countries have a long nuclear history and decommissioning has taken place since the 1960. However, the proposed decommissioning of Magnox and AGR sites in the UK and of UNGG sites in France brings decommissioning efforts to a new level. Whilst we explore in detail the approaches and methodologies adopted in each country we remain sensitive to the effects that political and economic history play in shaping the policy response. In this paper we draw upon interviews conducted with a range of key stakeholders including: national regulators, companies involved in decommissioning, local politicians and community representatives. We also analyse key academic and non academic literature. (authors)

385

Comparing nuclear decommissioning in the UK and France  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper we will compare the decommissioning policies in the UK and France. Both countries have a long nuclear history and decommissioning has taken place since the 1960. However, the proposed decommissioning of Magnox and AGR sites in the UK and of UNGG sites in France brings decommissioning efforts to a new level. Whilst we explore in detail the approaches and methodologies adopted in each country we remain sensitive to the effects that political and economic history play in shaping the policy response. In this paper we draw upon interviews conducted with a range of key stakeholders including: national regulators, companies involved in decommissioning, local politicians and community representatives. We also analyse key academic and non academic literature. (authors)

Walls, J. [Durham Univ., Waste of the World Project (United Kingdom); Garcier, R. [Sheffield Univ., Waste of the World Project (United Kingdom)

2008-07-01

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